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Complete the following questions by selecting the corresponding letter which matches the
correct answer.

1. Which one of the following is not an example of rainfall?

a) orographic
b) frontal
c) convectional
d) conductional

2. As water evaporates, its absorbs heat called:

a) latent heat
b) radiant heat
c) evaporative heat
d) transmissive heat

3. The rate at which rising warm air cools is:

a) 1degree Celsius per kilometre

b) 10 degrees Celsius per kilometre
c) 10 degrees Celsius per 10 kilometres
d) 10 degrees Celsius per 100 metres

4. Clouds are formed when 100% relative humidity is reached. This is called:

a) saturation point
b) precipitation point
c) condensation point
d) frost point

5. When temperatures decrease up through the atmosphere at 6 degrees

Celsius per 1000metres, this rate is referred to as the:

a) dry adiabatic lapse rate

b) normal lapse rate
c) wet adiabatic lapse rate
d) cooling adiabatic lapse rate

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6. From year to year, the hydrological cycle operates where there is:

a) the same quantity of water circulated in a cyclical process

b) less water circulated in a cyclical process
c) more water circulated in a cyclical process
d) a similar quantity of water circulated in a cyclical process

7. Which of the following statements regarding precipitation are true?

Precipitation may:

1. run-off the surface into rivers and other water bodies

2. infiltrate the soil
3. be interrupted by vegetation
4. occur in forms of hail, rain and sleet

a) 1,2&3
b) 4
c) 1,2,3&4
d) 1&2

8. Which of the following statements are true?

1. warmer air can contain more vapour

2. warmer air can contain less vapour
3. cooler air can contain more vapour
4. cooler air can contain less vapour

a) b and c
b) a and b
c) c and d
d) a and d

9. Relative humidity is stated as a:

a) fraction
b) percentage
c) ratio
d) index number

10. Evaporation involves a change from:

a) liquid to gas
b) gas to liquid
c) gas to solid
d) liquid to solid

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11. Which of the following lists is correct regarding examples of precipitation?

a) hail, snow, rain, sleet

b) dew, fog, cloud, frost, rain
c) dew, cloud, fog, frost, sleet
d) rain, hail, snow

Questions 12 – 16 refer to the hydrological cycle diagram below:




12. Which number refers to the process of precipitation?

a) H
b) D
c) I
d) C

13. Condensation would best be illustrated by letter:

a) C
b) I
c) A
d) E

14. Name the processes occurring at letter D and F respectively:

a) evaporation and condensation

b) evapo-transpiration and infiltration
c) evapo-transpiration and surface run-off
d) evaporation and insolation

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15. The state of water located at letter H would be:

a) ice
b) water vapour
c) liquid
d) all of the above

16. Letter A refers to:

a) surface run-off
b) prevailing winds
c) transpirationl
d) insolation

17. Which of the following example(s) of condensation and precipitation in list 1

incorrectly matches the description given in list 2?


1. hail balls of ice dropped during thunderstorms

2. fog concentric layers of ice formed around a raindrop
3. dew when air is cooled below its dew point through contact
through contact with the cold ground
4. sleet small pellets of ice formed when raindrops freeze

a) 2
b) 3&4
c) 4
d) 1&4

18. Surface run-off involves the water that flows above ground on the surface of the
earth. It is affected by:

a) slope
b) permeability of the soil
c) vegetation
d) intensity of rain
e) all of the above

19. Porosity:

a) refers to the volume of open space in a rock

b) refers to the ability of water to flow through a rock
c) refers to the ability of a rock to hold water
d) all of the above

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20. Which of the following major water stores contains the greatest volume of water?

a) oceans
b) glaciers
c) lakes
d) atmosphere
e) groundwater

21. The following rainfall distribution diagram illustrates:

180° 180°

0° 0°

180° 180°

a) orographic rain
b) conventional rain
c) frontal rain
d). cyclonic rain
e) convectional

22. The following diagram of the mountain barrier below illustrates which rainfall type?

a) orographical
b) convectional
c) frontal
d) cyclonic

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23. Rain falls to earth on which side of a mountain barrier?

a) windward side
b) ocean side
c) leeward side
d) inland side

24. In comparison to the windward side, the leeward side of a mountain usually tends to

a) windier
b) cooler
c) wetter
d) drier

25. Moist air is forced to rise to pass over a

mountain barrier. As the air:

a) rises it cools below frost point

b) rises it cools below dew point
c) rises it warms to reach dew point
d) rises it cools to reach dew point

26. Frontal rain occurs when:

a) air is forced to rise over a mountain

b) heated air sinks in convection currents
c) air masses of different temperatures meet
d) heated air rises in convection currents

27. The following statements describe the process of convectional

rainfall in the incorrect order.

1. rising air is forced to cool

2. further cooling causes precipitation
3. heated air is forced to rise
4. rising air becomes lighter and less dense
5. condensation occurs when cooled below dew point

The correct order of the above statements that best describes the process of
convectional rainfall is:

a) 3,4,1,5,2
b) 2,3,4,5,1
c) 3,4,5,1,2
d) 4,3,1,5,2

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28. The dotted line in the diagram below of convectional rainfall indicates:

a) the dew point

b) a cold front
c) a warm front
d) the start of convection currents
e) the frost point


*29. When roots disturb surface material by pushing up through the soil surface a
depression storage is produced. By what other name is a depression storage known?

a) puddle
b) dip
c) pan
d) pool

30. A store of groundwater is referred to as:

a) an aquifer
b) an aquiclude
c) an aquiduct
d) a lake

31. Salinity may be defined as:

a) the build up of the presence of salts in the land surface

b) the increase in the presence of salts in groundwater
c) the absence of salt on the land surface
d) rising of groundwater to the land surface

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*32. Which of the following is not an example of salinity?

a) urban salinity
b) dryland salinity
c) irrigation salinity
d) groundwater salinity
e) river salinty

33. Salinity, often called White Death, poses a great environmental concern. Practices
that will contribute to this problem include:

a) reduce overwatering of parks and recreational grounds

b) introduce shallow rooted perennial pastures
c) introduce deep rooted perennial pastures
d) reduce salt levels that drains into wetlands and rivers

*34. Which of the following statements is false regarding salinity?

a) results in salt crystals forming after water has been evaporated

b) presence of salt crystals in the top soil allows wind erosion to occur
c) deep rooted plants can pump up water from the water table below which prevents the
water table from rising
d) deep rooted plants can pump up water from the water table below which allows the
water table level to rise

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