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Complete the following questions by selecting the corresponding letter which matches
the correct answer.

*1. Stream load refers to:

a) the quantity of rock material carried by a stream

b) the weight of rock material carried by a stream
c) the amount of water carried by a stream
d) the velocity of water movement downstream

*2. A channel bottom is known as a:

a) bed
b) bank
c) levee
d) waterfall
e) floor

*3. The longest river in North America is the:

a) Nile
b) Mississippi
c) Ganges
d) Amazon

*4. When a mesa is eroded and its width is less than its height, the sides fall
steeply away and a monument remnant is produced is called:

a) butte
b) razor back
c) tableland
d) hogback
e) cliff

*5. When channels link up together to form branching patterns, which feature is

a) drainage network
b) branching network
c) river valley
d) drainage channel

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*6. A tree or fern-like pattern formed by several tributary channels is
representative of which type of drainage pattern?

a) radial
b) trellis
c) scattered
d) dendritic

*7. Deranged streams:

a) do not comprise a continuous network

b) are straight and form right angles at junctions
c) flow outwards from central point
d) break up into smaller channels with upstream movement

*8. Which one of the following orders correctly matches the four stream patterns )

i ii

iii iv

a) i] radius
ii] trellis
iii] dendritic
iv] centripetal

b) i] centripetal
ii] rectangular
iii] trellis
iv] radius

c) i] radius
ii] trellis
iii] rectangular
iv] centripetal

d) i] centripetal
ii] trellis
iii] rectangular
iv] radius
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*9. Which landscape would give rise to the formation of a radial stream?

a) flat land
b) faulted landscape
c) volcanic cone
d) all of the above

*10. Which of the following pairs of statements are incorrect?


1. are formed from old river meanders that have been cut off and become
separated from the main channel
2. are usually shallow
3. are usually deep
4. may be referred to as ox bow lakes
5. may be referred to as crescent lakes
6. are formed from new river meanders

a) 3&5
b) 2&6
c) 1&4
d) 2&4
e) 4&6

*11. This feature is formed a the base of waterfall through hydraulic action and

a) pot hole
b) delta
c) plunge pool
d) rapids

12. Beaches are continually being subjected to periods of erosion, transportation

and deposition. This is referred to as the:

a) swash cycle
b) transient cycle
c) accretion cycle
d) oscillation cycle
e) beach cycle

13. Which ingredients are necessary for a dune system to be created?

a) wind,waves and sun

b) sand,wind and waves
c) sand,vegetation and wind
d) sand,vegetation and waves

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Question 14 refers to the wave diagram below:



swash is stronger than backwash

14. The type of wave illustrated above is a:

a) constructive wave
b) destructive wave
c) oscillation wave
d) translation wave

15. Waves are generated by:

a) moving water
b) wind drag across the ocean surface
c) strong winds blowing across the ocean surface
d) the sun’s energy

16. The bending of a wave as it approaches the shoreline is called:

a) refraction
b) reflection
c) oscillation
d) translation

17. If a wave approaches a headland , what is likely to happen to wave energy

upon contact?

a) wave energy will diffuse

b) wave energy will become concentrated
c) wave energy will be evenly distributed
d) wave energy will become weakened

18. The uppermost part or top of a wave is called the:

a) crest
b) head
c) trough
d) ridge

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19. This diagram of wave refraction illustrates the process of:

Particles carried or rolled to new

position by backwash Particles carried obliquely
forward by swash

sea floor
zig-zag motion

Refracted waves reaching the

shore obliquely
net movement along shore wind direction

a) longshore drifting
b) rip current formation
c) cuspate spit formation
d) shortshore drifiting

20. Which of the following definitions is correct concerning wave motion?

a) wave height: is the vertical distance between a trough and the adjoining crest
b) wave velocity: is the time taken for two successive crests to pass a fixed point
c) wave period: is the horizontal distance between two successive crests
d) wave length: is the forward speed of a wave crest

21. The foamy water which surges up the beach face is called:

a) swash
b) surf
c) backwash
d) rip current

22. A floating cork that moves upwards as the wave swells and downwards as the
waveform passes, returning to its original position illustrates:

a) an oscillation wave
b) a translation wave
c) a constructive wave
d) destructive wave

23. The swale section of a dune system correlates to:

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a) the dip between dunes
b) the crest of a dune
c) any dune binding plant
d) the small incipient dune

24. Abrasion would best be described as:

a) where rock fragments from previous erosions are used as tools for scraping or
scouring at rock surfaces
b) the smoothing and reducing in size of rock fragments
c) the erosive force of water alone
d) the hammering effect of water

25. When rock fragments are rolled backwards and forwards across the shore or a
rocky platform, which process is said to have occurred?

a) hydraulic action
b) corrasion
c) longshore drift
d) corrosion

26. Which of the following major processes is not an example of wave erosion?

a) abrasion
b) attrition
c) hydraulic action
d) hydration

27. An inlet is:

a) a narrow strip of sediment joined to the land at one end

b) the opening of an estuary through a barrier
c) the accumulated sediment deposited by waves at the coast
d) a water body located behind a barrier

28. Which feature will result if a sea cave is sufficiently cut back?

a) a natural bridge
b) a blow hole
c) a wave cut platform
d) a sea cliff
e) a sea stack

29. The four coastal processes shown in the diagram below are:

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i Cliff Air in cracks ii Rock fragments
compressed by scratch the base of
Air pressure wave impact the cliff
released Cliff
shattering rock


Water dissolves rock

iii Rock particles iv minerals and widen
themselves are cracks
ground down

Cliff Cliff

a) i] abrasion
ii] hydraulic action
iii] corrosion
iv] attrition

b) i] hydraulic action
ii] abrasion
iii] attrition
iv] corrosion

c) i] hydraulic action
ii] attrition
iii] abrasion
iv] corrosion

d) i] hydraulic action
ii] abrasion
iii] corrosion
iv] corrasion

Question 30-31 refer to the coastal landform feature diagram below:

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7 3


land 4

30. Number 4 correlates to which coastal landform?

a) bay
b) lagoon
c) estuary
d) shore

31. Which number represents a spit?

a) 3
b) 7
c) 5
d) 1

32. A deposit of sediment lying parallel to the coast but submerged during high
tide is a:

a) dune
b) barrier
c) bar
d) shelf

*33. Lapies are formed through which of the following coastal weathering

a) crystalisation
b) water layer weathering
c) biotic weathering
d) solution

*34. The process of crystalisation involves:

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a) the alternate wetting and drying of saltwater on a rock surface
b) the laying down of salt crystals in pores or cracks of rocks
c) the absorption of moisture by crystals that causes a rock to fracture
d) rock breakup from the salt crystals released through biotic weathering

35. Which list correctly identifies features produced through wave erosion?

a) sea cliff, wave cut platform, sea cave, spit, sea stack
b) sea cliff, wave cut platform, tombolo, spit, sea stack
c) natural bridge, sea cave, blowhole, cuspate spit, tombolo
d) sea stack, natural bridge, blowhole, sea cave, sea cliff

*36. Which of the following statements correctly describes a coral coast?

1. coral reefs develop in deep and cool waters

2. coral reefs develop in deep and warm waters of the tropics
3. coral reefs develop in shallow and warm tropical waters of the tropics
4. are composed of new coastsal rock
5. fringing coral reefs enclose lagoons between the reef and the mainland
6. coral atolls are irregular in shape

a) 1&2
b) 2,3&5
c) 3&4
d) 4&5
e) 1,3&6

*37. Deflation may be defined as:

a) to decrease in volume
b) the removal of light and loose particles by wind erosion
c) to decrease in quality
d) excavation through wind erosion

*38. Wind erosion occurs through which two major processes?

a) corrosion and deflation

b) deflation and attrition
c) abrasion and attrition
d) abrasion and deflation

Question 39-42 refer to the cross section of the coastal landscape below:

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13 1
12 3
11 4
10 5

9 8 7

39. Which two coastal features match number 1 and 6 respectively?

a) spit and island

b) headland and stack
c) beach and island
d) tombolo and island

40. A wave cut platform corresponds to which number?

a) 12
b) 7
c) 11
d) 4

41. Which of the following numbers refer to only erosional features?

a) 9,10&11
b) 4,5&8
c) 4,7&13
d) 1, 3&12

42. A cliff and sea stack refers to which pair of numbers?

a) 11&6
b) 12&3
c) 13&4
d) 11&4

43. Which statement is correct?

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a) wind has the ability to only erode material
b) wind has the ability to only erode and transport material
c) wind has the ability to only erode, transport and deposit material
d) wind has the ability to only erode and deposit material

*44. After deflation has occurred, the heavy material that is not removed by wind
due to its weight is called:

a) lag gravel
b) desert pavement
c) deflection armour
d) gibber
e) all of the above

*45. Ayers Rock in Central Australia is an example of:

a) an inselberg
b) a dust bowl
c) a blow out
d) a hamada

*46. The Kalahari desert is located in:

a) South America
b) Australia
c) South West Africa
d) South West United States
e) North Africa

47. Saltation occurs when:

a) clay or sand particles are continually lifted and pushed forward by a hopping
and jumping motion
b) sand particles are rolled across a surface by strong winds
c) extremely fine materials are picked up and circulated into the upper
d) wind speed exceed 38 kilometres per hour

*48. When atmospheric winds can no longer suspend dust particles, the particles
are forced to settle. These thick accumulations of dust into layers are called:

a) bed load
b) loess
c) loes
d) sand drifts

Question 49-50 refers to the following diagram which illustrates examples of

landforms resultant from sandblast action.

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*49. Which of the following are examples of honeycombed rocks?

1 2

a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) all of the above

*50. The landforms that wind abrasion has produced from left to right include:

a) natural arch/window rocks/mushroom shaped rock

b) platform/window rocks/mushroom shaped rock
c) hollow rock/mushroom rocks/natural arch
d) mushroom rock/window rocks/natural arch

*51. The following sand dune is called a:

a) parabolic dune
b) transverse dune
c) barchan dune
a) star dune

*52. The correct wind direction required to produce the sand dune diagram below is
represented by arrow number:

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gentle slope

steep slope
4 2

a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

*53. The sandy dunefields of the Sahara desert are refered to as:

a) ergs
b) arg
c) sergs
d) hamadas
e) regs

*54. When soil is removed by either wind or water and jagged channels remain,
which type of erosion would result?

a) gully
b) sheet
c) stream
d) tunnel

*55. By which other name is a parabolic dune known?

a) blowout
b) blowin
c) U dune
d) convex dune

*56. Which of the following definition(s) regarding wind erosion is incorrect?

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1. ventifacts: when rock fragments are worn smooth and polished through the
wind cutting action of blowing sands
2. honeycombed rock: when abrasion causes the hollowing of rocks at the lower
3. deflation basin: deep depressions that remain after lightweight materials are
removed by wind
4. dust bowl: swirling mass of air that contains removed top soil

a) 1&2
b) 2
c) 3
d) 3& 4
e) 4

57. The diagram below of sand particles illustrates the process of:

wind direction

a) ripple marks
b) saltation
c) surface creep
a) dust storm formation

58. Which descriptions of a sand dune are true?

1. the leeward side of a sand dune experiences erosion

2. small dunes move slowly with the direction of the winds
3. the windward side of a sand dine possesses a steep slope
4. the leeward side of a sand dune experiences deposition
5. sand dunes trap sand and continue to develop by accretion
6. sand grains move up the leeward side to be deposited on the windward side

a) 2&5
b) 4&5
c) 1,3&6
d) 2,4&5
e) 1,3&5

*59. Box canyons:

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a) occur when eroded material accumulates on the valley floor producing a
square shaped valley
b) are steep sided narrow valleys
c) are gently sloping plains found at the base of eroded highlands
d) are a basin into which streams flow

*60. Compound alluvial fans are referred to as:

a) arroyos
b) bajadas
c) bolsons
d) wadis
e) flash floods

*61. Which of the following statements are correct regarding the cacti succulent?

1. cacti store their water in their fleshy stems called cladodes

2. cacti have a shallow extensive root system
3. cacti have spines instead of leaves in order to reduce water loss
4. cacti have a deep vertical root system

a) 1&4
b) 2&4
c) 1&3
d) 1,2&3
e) 3&4

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