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Piering a foundation is the process of installing steel piers under the footing of a foundation and driving the piers

through the soil down to load bearing stratum. The piers can be used to either support the structure or lift the structure. CONCRETE CAISSONS A 10" or 12" diameter holes are drilled into the earth and embedded into bedrock 3 to 4 feet. Usually used for the structural support for a type of foundation wa ll, porch, patio, monopost, or other structure. Two or more "sticks" of reinforcing bars (r ebar) are inserted into and run the full length of the hole and then concrete is poured in to the caisson hole. A caisson is designed to rest on an underlying stratum of rock or satisfactory soil and is used when unsatisfactory soil exists. HELICAL piers are typically used to support a structure and not to lift it. These types of piers are "turned" into the ground much like a corkscrew. Each pier has one or m ore "flights" that are like blades that do the pulling into the ground. These flight s keep the pier in place after installed. The advantage of a helical pier is that is can be used on very light structures, unlike resistance piers, like a porch. However, to instal l a helical pier properly, a soils test should be performed by a geotechnical engineer to de termine how far down the soil is sturdy enough to support the structure. After all, if you t urn a helical into loose soil, it loses most of its holding strength. UNDERPINNING - CANTILEVER BEAMS TECHNICAL DATA SHEET 1.3 This method stabilises existing wall foundations either internally or externally whichever the most appropriate. Two mini-piles are installed, one compression a nd one tension. A pocket is broken out into the existing wall and a reinforced c oncrete beam is cast linking the two piles. This system is used where traditional underpinning is not appropriate due to the existing foundations being deep, or that good-bearing strata is so deep that it is uneconomical to dig. (Depths greater than 1.5m). Or needle beams cannot be u sed due to access constraints. Reducing the span between cantilevers can accommodate high loads. However, the b earing capacity of the underlying strata will determine the number, diameter and spacing of piles used. Load Capabilities using mini-piles:

105mm dia SWL 60KN 150mm dia SWL 90KN Piles are installed at approximately 1.0m 1.5m centers and 1.2m apart determined by loadings. Then pockets are broken out and reinforced beams are placed to pic k up the walls. Beams are usually cast alternate. Advantages of this system are: Faster than traditional underpinning. Access from one side only. Occupants can stay in the property during construction. Economical at depths greater than1.5m. Suitable for restricted access. Cantilever beam constructed at a higher level if existing foundation too deep. High load capability. UNDERPINNING RAFT This method stabilises existing wall foundations to whole rooms or buildings. Mi ni-piles are installed within the property and capped with an integral reinforce d concrete raft. Needle beams project from the slab into the walls below ground level. Reducing the span between projecting needle beams and increasing pile numbers ca n accomodate highly loaded structures. However, the bearing capacity of the unde rlying strata will determine the number, diameter and spacing of piles used. Load Capabilities using mini-piles: 105mm diameter SWL 60KN per pile 150mm diameter SWL 90KN per pile This system is used where whole rooms or whole structures are to be underpinned and includes the provision of a new integral floor slab. It is appropriate when existing foundations are deep, or that good bearing strata is so deep that it is uneconomical to dig. (Depths greater than 1 .0m) Piles are installed at centers determined by loadings. Pockets are then broken o ut and reinforced needle beams are placed to pick up the walls. A ring beam is c onstructed and linked to the needles, mesh is laid and the whole stucture poured . Advantages of this system are: Provides lateral and traverse ties throughout the structure. Provides new floor slab upon compleation. Economical at depths greater than 1.5m. No need for external access. Minimises disruption to drainage and services. TRADITIONAL This method stabilises existing wall foundations by digging under the present fo undation in sequenced bays to a depth where firm strata exists and replacing the excavated material with mass concrete. The loading capabilities are based upon the strata encountered. In some circumst ances when the existing footing is adequate to span between supports, intermedia

te piers can be used to reduce cost, i.e missing out piers 2 and 4 as shown on t he diagram below. A suitable bearing stratum is assessed by the Supervising Offi cer or Building Inspector upon completion of the first sequence of bays. Traditional Underpinning is usually applied when the existing foundations are at shallow depth. Bays are excavated generally 1.0m 1.2m in length, 0.6m wide, and up to 2.5m from ground level. However a minipiled solution would be more economical over depths of 1.5m. Advantages of this system are: Simple engineering and easily understood. Suitable for heavy loads and massive structures. Occupants can remain in the propertyas work can be undertaken from outside. Method can be used in restricted access areas. Suitable for formation of new cellars and basements. Low cost solution at shallow depths. Minimal distruption and noise generated.

NEEDLE BEAM This method stabilises wall foundations by the use of piles installed either sid e of an existing wall. A small pocket is broken out below the ground level and a reinforced concrete needle beam is cast in-situ connecting the piles and suppor ting the wall. Reducing the span between needle beams can accommodate very high loads. However, the bearing capacity of the underlying strata will determine the number, diamet er and spacing of piles used. Load capabilities using mini-piles: 105mm diameter SWL 60KN per pile. 150mm diameter SWL 90KN per pile. This system is used where traditional underpinning is not appropriate due to the existing foundations being too deep, or that good bearing strata is so deep tha t it is uneconomical to dig.(Depths greater than 1.5m) Piles are installed in pairs at 1.0m - 1.5m intervals and approximately 1.0m - 1 .5m apart. Advantages of this system are: Suitable for restricted access. Needle beam constructed at a higher level if existing foundation too deep. Faster than traditional underpinning. High load capability. More economical at greater depths. Less disruption, less spoil generated and compleated quickly.