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Dr Keith Mitchell

Unit Overview

An introduction to the practical application of the supply of electric energy over high voltage transmission systems to electricity users

M McAlpine: - High Voltage Engineering K Mitchell: - Overhead Transmission Lines. - Underground Cables. - Switchgear. - Switchyard Earthing - Testing Techniques - Environmental Impacts - Use of Standards

Format: One 2-hour lecture plus 3-hour tutorial/lab session per week Assessment: Mid-semester assignment plus Final exam

Power System Analysis & Design - J Glover, M Sarma, 2nd ed. Electric Power Engineering Handbook Electric Power Generation, Transmission & Distribution. L L Grigsbey (Ed). Cable Systems for High and EH Voltage E Peschke & R von Olshausen, Pirelli Cables Transmission & Distribution Electrical Engineering C Bayliss & B Hardy High Voltage Test Techniques D Kumud & K Feser

Purchase of these books is NOT being recommended, but they do provide useful additional background information. Other references and material appear and are acknowledged in the i b d f th t i t

The Lecturer

Dr Keith Mitchell Who am I? What is my background? Contact details?

Room 406 11-12 AM Tues

One or more generators, almost universally of the synchronous machine type in power stations close to sources of primary energy A transmission and distribution network, which transmits power in bulk from generation points to load centres and then steps this down and distributes it to ultimate customers The customers who use electric energy by way of connecting loads to the network.

Light bulbs - 40 to 100 Watts; energy efficient bulb 15 Watts Vacuum cleaner - 600 to 1,000 Watts Electric oven - 4.8 kW (4,800 Watts) Water Heater - 4.8 kW Average demand (diversified) of domestic residence - 4 kW Equivalent peak power of medium motor car - 100 to 150 kW Westfield Shopping town, Parramatta - 30 MW Clyde Oil Refinery - 30 MW Parramatta CBD load - 150 MW Sydney city CBD load 600 MW Starting power of 8- car Tangara commuter train - 4.5 MW; running power about 1.5MW.

Role of Transmission

Bulk transmission of major amounts of power from base-load power stations to transmission substations (and ultimately down to the customer) High capacity (up to ~1200 MW), hence high voltage Must be highly reliable, hence meshed structure with built-in redundancy

Note the use of V-insulators on the 500kV line, to reduce easement size.

Source: Ref (1) About 220 kV. Note the transition from bundled to single conductor. There are 2 earth wires

Both overhead and underground cables are transmission lines in the electrical sense Distributed (true) model always used in high frequency (communications) analysis; only in power system analysis for high voltages and very long lengths (>250 km) Medium length or pi model for subtransmission/transmission lines over about 80 km Short lines with a simple series R and jX for distribution lines and sub-transmission lines < 80 km.

R X

R X

z y y y

Z = R + jL /m series im pedance per unit length y = G + jc V /m shunt adm ittance per unit length Z = Zl l = Line length in m eters IR Z Is Y = yl V Short line VR Vs 80km or less

Is Z Vs IR

Is Vs

Z = sinh

Y/2 Y/2 Z Y/2 Y/2 VR

IR VR

= z y m -1

Propagation C onstant

Medium and Short Line Approximations Using ABCD parameters VS=AVR+BIR IS=CVR+DIR

A, B, C, D are parameters depend on the transmission line parameters: R, L, C, G The ABCD parameters are complex numbers. Solving the system of 2 equations: AD-BC=1

Medium line length from 80 to 250 km

Major transmission lines serve many customers and are meshed sub-systems have redundant capacity automatic switching; no loss of supply Major transmission substations have redundant transformer capacity Local distribution lines serve fewer customers each and are radial Local distribution substations have simple switch gear and no redundancy manual reswitching; some loss of supply

Modern systems give outage rates of ~ 1 hour per customer per year (99+ % availability) Key to design philosophy is (Probability of outage) X (number of customers affected) Major transmission assets -> more customers supplied -> higher reliability required

Greater power capacity per easement (due to bundled conductors and air-cooling) UG/OH cost ratios up to 15:1 for voltages of 300 kV and above EHV cable not available until fairly recently

More efficient use of space (easement space for EHV OH lines is very difficult to get). Reliability of OH HV lines is high compared pot same length of lower voltage line. A double-circuit outage is very rare.

Source: ref (1). The higher-resistance steel inner core and skin effect force current mainly into the Al outer layers. Straight Al is used in sub-transmission and distribution lines Stranding adds about 15% to resistance Skin effect can add up to 30% for large conductors.

Formulas: Rdc = l/A hot = cold*(Thot + Tref)/(Tcold + Tref) Rac = Rdc *Fskin*Fstrand

D n

2 . C = GMD ln GMR

Consider uniform current density. At internal distance x, the linked current I(x) = I(x/r)2, with the field intensity H(x). The inductance is constant regardless of radius r.

12 = 2x10-7.I.ln(D2/D1)

Consider flux linkages between conductor x and conductor y, (both internal and external linkages) and then repeat process fro linkages between conductor y and conductor x, and sum.

Simplifies inductance calcs by incorporating effect of internal flux Is radius of equivalent hollow conductor r = r.exp(1/4) where r is radius of smooth conductor Typical values: Al/Cu 0.726 (7-strand) to 0.779 (solid conductor); ACSR 0.68 (6-strand) to 0.81(54 strand)

a = 2x10-7.I.ln(D/r)

Consider the flux linkages with a phase, due to i) itself, ii) b phase and iii) c phase, then sum up. Note: currents balanced in all phases and sum to zero. Due to symmetry, the same results will apply to the other two phases.

Consider flux linkages from all M conductors and point P, then move P to infinity, at the same time setting sum of currents to zero (balanced system).

This system has N forward and M return conductors, sharing a total current I. Dkm represents the distance from conductor k and conductor m; Dkk represents the self inductance of conductor k.

Extending general formula from previous slide, the flux linkage with composite conductor x is and hence the inductance is

Concept of GMR

Using general formula for N conductors developed previously, there is a term for the self GMD among all conductors and themselves. This is defines as the GMR (geometric mean radius). Formula:

(prove as tutorial exercise) Determine GMRs for 2-, 3- and 4-wire bundles

Increased rating - less weight than an equivalent single conductor Less skin effect losses Reduced series L - improves power transmission capacity Reduces electric field strength around conductors - reduces corona See tutorial exercise

Real lines are rarely geometrically arranged. The unequal spacing causes unbalanced inductances. Solved by rotating conductors about every km or so to average out spacings. Average flux linkages are then the average of the logs (see formula above) - this creates a geometric mean distance or GMD = 3D1.D2.D3

Earth return currents can be replaced with equivalent conductors under the surface carrying the negative current of the overhead conductor (Carsons equations). Dkk = Dkk m (GMRs the same) Dkk = 658.5(/f) m Rk = 9.869x10-7f /m In Australia, f = 50 hz

Note: Only phase conductors have driving voltages (phase volts); the neutrals have no driving voltages

Reference: Glover & Sarma (Ref 1), pp 176-182. Equations for a system of 3 phases and N O/H neutrals. The impedance matrix is often referred to as the primitive matrix. The Rk, resistance of the earth image of conductor k, is given by the previous slide.

Reference: Glover & Sarma (Ref 1), pp 176-182. The primitive impedance matrix is simplified by partitioning and transformation into a phase matrix, ZP (Kron reduction)

Reference: Glover & Sarma (Ref 1), pp 176-182. The phase matrix ZP can be converted into a sequence matrix ZS for analysis by symmetrical components, which is normally easier. Only works if ZP is symmetrical. This is approximately true for a line with transposed conductors.

Reference: Glover & Sarma (Ref 1), pp 176-182. If ZP is assumed symmetrical (by, eg taking averaged values), then the transformation into the sequence matrix ZS is a lot easier. Refer to tutorial example. There are also computer programs that do these calculations for you.

Consider a cylinder with a radial electric field. Guasss Law is then applied. For a length l and a circular path of radius x, .E(x).2x.l = q.l, for charge of q per unit length. Thus E(x) = q/2x V/m Note: the field is >0 only outside the charge. Refer tutorial exercise, and show that V12 = (q/2 ).ln(D2/D1)

Extend the previous slide to determine the potential difference between conductors k and i, due to a charge qm on conductor m. Thus, Vki,m = (qm/2 ).ln(Dim/Dkm) Now, sum the effect of all m conductors.

D r

Apply the previous slide to case of M = 2, radius r and spacing D. Consider potential difference between conductors 1 and 2 due to charge +q on conductor 1, and then add the potential difference between conductors 2 and 1, due to charge -q on conductor 2. Thus,

V12 = (1/2)[q.ln(D12/D11 - q.ln(D22/D21)] V12 = (1/).q.ln(D/r), as D12/D21 = D; D11/D22 = r. (where did the 2 go to?)

Thus C = q/V = / ln(D/r) Note: for capacitance, use r, not r. Why? Capacitance per phase to neutral C = 2/ ln(D/r) F/m. Why the 2? Refer tutorial exercise.

Extend the 2-wire system to a balanced 3-wire system (or use the M conductors case). Consider potential difference on conductor 1 due to charges on conductors 2 and 3. Note that the charges and electric field contributions have to be considered as phasors. Result is: C = 2/ ln(D/r) F/m (phase to neutral). Refer to tutorial exercise.

Consider a 3-ph system with a twin-conductor bundle. There is a charge of q/2 on each conductor. The potential difference between say conductors a and b can be determined as before by considering all charges on all conductors. The capacitance can be shown to be C = 2/ln(GMD/GMRc) F/m.

The conductor GMD is the same as with inductance calcs. However, GMRc uses the conductor radius r, not r. Why? Refer tutorial exercise.

The earth is a conducting plane and effects the electric field. The effect is the same if all conductors were replaced by image conductors under the earths surface. Each image conductor has the same radius and is the same distance below ground as its corresponding real conductor is above earth. Note that these image conductors are different from the image conductors used with inductance calculations..

x Hxx Hxy y D y Earth plane

Consider the 2-wire system shown, of conductors x and y and their respective image conductors x and y. If conductor x has a charge of +q, then y will have a charge of -q. Image conductors have reverse charges ie image x has charge -q and image y a charge of +q.

The voltage difference between conductors x and y, Vxy, can be determined by considering the electric field contributions from all conductors including images.

The result is Vxy = (q/)[ln(D/r) - ln(Hxy/Hxx)] and thus capacitance Cxy = /[ln(D/r) - ln(Hxy/Hxx)] F/m. The effect is minimal except for horizontal arrangements close to earth. Refer tutorial exercise.

Consider now a general system, of 3 phase conductors a, b, c; N overhead neutrals n1 .. nN; and their respective earth images. For conductor k, the the potential difference Vkk between it and its image conductor k, due to all m conductors,is the sum of effects of all conductors and their images. Thus, Vkk is given by -

Refer Glover & Sarma (ref 1), pp 194-197.

Refer Glover & Sarma (ref 1), pp 194-197. The procedure is similar to the line inductances, creating a potential matrix P

Refer Glover & Sarma (ref 1), pp 194-197. As before, this matrix is transformed into a phase capacitance matrix CP and thence into a sequence matrix CS.

Refer Glover & Sarma (ref 1), pp 194-197. Again, the phase capacitance matrix must be symmetrical to enable its easy conversion into the sequence matrix and use in symmetrical components analysis.

As all HV transmission lines are transposed, then we can average phase impedance matrices and convert into sequence impedances. For transmission lines and cables, negative sequence impedance Z2 = positive sequence impedance Z1. Positive sequence impedances (L and C) can be readily calculated by the normal method, ignoring earth for L and only considering earth for C with horizontal conductor arrangements reasonably close to the ground. Zero sequence impedances Z0 however require the consideration of all conductors and their earth images, for both R, L and C and matrix transformation.

Thermal rating of overhead lines depends on (i) the maximum allowable conductor temperature, before it anneals (softens) and falls down, and (ii) the maximum sag permissible, before the lines get too close to lines underneath, structure, humans, etc The first factor is often referred to as ampacity The ampacity of a line depends on ambient temperature, wind, solar radiation and conductor surface condition.

Equations:

Rating Equation

It will take a little while for a cold conductor to reach working temp following a step increase in current. This allows the application of short-time, emergency ratings to overhead lines. Usual emergency rating is about 10 minutes. If line ratings are constrained by sag, often a retensioning and/or lifting conductors higher off the ground will allow an increased rating.

Insulator Materials

Toughened Glass (Clevis disks) Porcelain (Clevis disks, cable terminating structures, transformer bushings, CTs Epoxy (post or stand-off insulators)

Source: Ref (1). The use of stand-off insulators reduces conductor swing, enabling the use of larger conductors and increased voltages, as with less swing, conductor clearances can be maintained. In this example, the MVA rating has been increased by about a factor of 3 times.

Lightning is a fast wavefront (few microsec) Switching causes slow wave fronts (few milliseconds) Insulators can with stand higher levels of fast surges Lightning surges tend to be fixed, due to the lightning process itself, independent of line voltage Switching surges can be as high as 2 x line volts Lightning more of a problem <200 kV; switching more of a problem > 300kV

Lightning Surges

Lightning (direct stroke, induced, earth potential rise) Switching (sudden energisation)

Where GFD = ground flash density, strokes/km2/yr TD = thunder-day level = 35/year in Sydney region TH = thunder hours/year

Where Ns = no of strokes per 100 km of line/year h = height of conductor above earth GFD = ground flash density

Source: Ref 2

Source: Ref 2

The 30 deg angle has been determined from experience

The SIL (standard insulation level) of an OH transmission line varies with line nominal voltage Determined by peak value of standard 1.2 x 50 surge Set by AS and IEC (also IEEE etc) standards. For example (IEC) 36 kV line: 70 kV 170 kV 245 kV line: 460 kV 1050 kV 525 kV line: 1175 kV 1550 kV (short-time power freq/lightning impulse withstands)

Typical Clearances

The SIL determines clearances in air Determined by safety, max electric field levels Set by AS and IEC standards. 52 kV line: 0.17 m (power freq) / 0.7 m (surges) 245 kV line: 0.69 m/2.0 m 765 kV line: 2.3 m / 5.6 m

Atmospheric Pollution

Dust, plant pollens, industrial particles, salt (near coast) get coated on outside of insulators When damp (eg in light rain), these are semi-conductors Cause partial discharges and eventually flash-over PDs cause audible and electrical noise Skirt design on insulators increases tracking path length Artificial rain test on insulator sets Creepage distances 16-31mm/peak kV (based on pollution classification)

Ref: AS 60044.1

Flash-over path in air must be long enough to extinguish power frequency arc Sag-tension of conductors - not exceed tensile strength (when cold) or sag excessively (ground clearance) when hot. Mid-span conductor clearances (allow for swing) Clearances to structures, ground high enough for surges and safe working.

Source: Ref 2

Q = CV

Aesthetics - theyre big! Electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment (50 hz induction, corona noise) Low frequency electromagnetic radiation (health concerns)

Calculate horizontal and vertical components of magnetic flux density at a chosen point, based on distance to each phase conductor Add effects of all 3 phases (these are phasors) Resultant H and V components are also phasors Square and add, convert to a new phasor and take sqrt Refer tutorial example. Field is highest directly under the lines (or directly above, in the case of UG cables).

Report by Karolinska Institute (Sweden) in early 1970s suggested a possible low-level link between power frequency magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia No effect noted by electric fields Later reports in UK and US seemed to support the earlier report Latest studies have not proven any direct link. If present, it seems very weak. There is however, more of a concern with RF fields near the head - hence worries with mobile phone use.

Design checks, etc for structures Current injection test (for impedances, earth resistances) Insulator tests (done on insulator sets) Power voltage withstand ) Fast and slow surge test ) values set by IEC Artificial rain (pollution test) Power arc test ) RI strength test ) Corona onset test ) as agreed with supplier

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