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University of Sydney

School of Electrical & Information Engineering

Dr Keith Mitchell

ELEC 5205 - High Voltage Engineering

Unit Overview

An introduction to the practical application of the supply of electric energy over high voltage transmission systems to electricity users

Topics Covered in This Unit


M McAlpine: - High Voltage Engineering K Mitchell: - Overhead Transmission Lines. - Underground Cables. - Switchgear. - Switchyard Earthing - Testing Techniques - Environmental Impacts - Use of Standards

Teaching Format & Assessment

Format: One 2-hour lecture plus 3-hour tutorial/lab session per week Assessment: Mid-semester assignment plus Final exam

Reference Text Books


Power System Analysis & Design - J Glover, M Sarma, 2nd ed. Electric Power Engineering Handbook Electric Power Generation, Transmission & Distribution. L L Grigsbey (Ed). Cable Systems for High and EH Voltage E Peschke & R von Olshausen, Pirelli Cables Transmission & Distribution Electrical Engineering C Bayliss & B Hardy High Voltage Test Techniques D Kumud & K Feser

Purchase of these books is NOT being recommended, but they do provide useful additional background information. Other references and material appear and are acknowledged in the i b d f th t i t

The Lecturer
Dr Keith Mitchell Who am I? What is my background? Contact details?
Room 406 11-12 AM Tues

ELEC 5205 - High Voltage Engineering

1. Overhead Transmission Lines

Power System Outline

Power System Components

An electric power system consists of three basic elements:

One or more generators, almost universally of the synchronous machine type in power stations close to sources of primary energy A transmission and distribution network, which transmits power in bulk from generation points to load centres and then steps this down and distributes it to ultimate customers The customers who use electric energy by way of connecting loads to the network.

Typical Power Requirements

Light bulbs - 40 to 100 Watts; energy efficient bulb 15 Watts Vacuum cleaner - 600 to 1,000 Watts Electric oven - 4.8 kW (4,800 Watts) Water Heater - 4.8 kW Average demand (diversified) of domestic residence - 4 kW Equivalent peak power of medium motor car - 100 to 150 kW Westfield Shopping town, Parramatta - 30 MW Clyde Oil Refinery - 30 MW Parramatta CBD load - 150 MW Sydney city CBD load 600 MW Starting power of 8- car Tangara commuter train - 4.5 MW; running power about 1.5MW.

Role of Transmission

Bulk transmission of major amounts of power from base-load power stations to transmission substations (and ultimately down to the customer) High capacity (up to ~1200 MW), hence high voltage Must be highly reliable, hence meshed structure with built-in redundancy

TransGrid 500kV and 330kV OH Double-Circuit Lines

Note the use of V-insulators on the 500kV line, to reduce easement size.

The wood-pole line in the background is a single-cct 132kV line.

132 kV Transmission Line (DoubleCircuit)

33kV Subtransmission Line with 11kV and 415 V distribution underneath

HV Woodpole Single Circuit Line


Source: Ref (1) About 220 kV. Note the transition from bundled to single conductor. There are 2 earth wires

Revision: Representation of Transmission Lines


Both overhead and underground cables are transmission lines in the electrical sense Distributed (true) model always used in high frequency (communications) analysis; only in power system analysis for high voltages and very long lengths (>250 km) Medium length or pi model for subtransmission/transmission lines over about 80 km Short lines with a simple series R and jX for distribution lines and sub-transmission lines < 80 km.

True Representation of a Transmission Line

Medium Length Transmission Line


R X

Short Transmission Line


R X

Transm ission Line M odels.

z y y y

Z = R + jL /m series im pedance per unit length y = G + jc V /m shunt adm ittance per unit length Z = Zl l = Line length in m eters IR Z Is Y = yl V Short line VR Vs 80km or less
Is Z Vs IR

Transmission Lines Comparison of Short, Medium and Long models

Medium length line 80km to 250km Long line 250km or more


Is Vs

Z = sinh
Y/2 Y/2 Z Y/2 Y/2 VR

IR VR

Zc = z / y C haracteristic Im pedance Y /2 = tanh ( l / 2) Zc

= z y m -1

Propagation C onstant

Medium and Short Line Approximations Using ABCD parameters VS=AVR+BIR IS=CVR+DIR
A, B, C, D are parameters depend on the transmission line parameters: R, L, C, G The ABCD parameters are complex numbers. Solving the system of 2 equations: AD-BC=1

Standard Short Line pi Equivalent Model for a transmission line

Medium Length Transmission Line Determining the ABCD


Medium line length from 80 to 250 km

VRY I S = IR + 2 V ZY RY V ) =V ) + ZI R S = VR + Z ( I R + R (1 + 2 2 ZY A = D = 1+ Medium-Length transmission line nominal pi circuit 2 B=Z ZY C = Y (1 + ) 2 Y = yxl = (G + jc)l

Meshed Vs Radial Power Network Arrangements

Major transmission lines serve many customers and are meshed sub-systems have redundant capacity automatic switching; no loss of supply Major transmission substations have redundant transformer capacity Local distribution lines serve fewer customers each and are radial Local distribution substations have simple switch gear and no redundancy manual reswitching; some loss of supply

Reliabilitybased Design and Deliberate Redundancy

Modern systems give outage rates of ~ 1 hour per customer per year (99+ % availability) Key to design philosophy is (Probability of outage) X (number of customers affected) Major transmission assets -> more customers supplied -> higher reliability required

Meshed Power System

Example of Meshed Network Integral Energy Sub-transmission

Ring-Main Power System

Why Overhead HV Transmission?

Greater power capacity per easement (due to bundled conductors and air-cooling) UG/OH cost ratios up to 15:1 for voltages of 300 kV and above EHV cable not available until fairly recently

Why Double-Circuit OH?

More efficient use of space (easement space for EHV OH lines is very difficult to get). Reliability of OH HV lines is high compared pot same length of lower voltage line. A double-circuit outage is very rare.

Conductors Used in HV Transmission

Source: Ref (1)

Typical ASCR Conductor

Source: ref (1). The higher-resistance steel inner core and skin effect force current mainly into the Al outer layers. Straight Al is used in sub-transmission and distribution lines Stranding adds about 15% to resistance Skin effect can add up to 30% for large conductors.

Resistance of OH Transmission Lines


Formulas: Rdc = l/A hot = cold*(Thot + Tref)/(Tcold + Tref) Rac = Rdc *Fskin*Fstrand

Resistance Stranding Factor

L and C of Transmission Lines

D n

GMD L = 2 x10 7 . ln GMR

Equal spacing, GMD = D Single wire, GMR = r for L GMR = r for C

2 . C = GMD ln GMR

Internal Flux Linkage

At internal distance x, H(x) = I(x)/2x

Consider uniform current density. At internal distance x, the linked current I(x) = I(x/r)2, with the field intensity H(x). The inductance is constant regardless of radius r.

Flux Linkage Between 2 Conductors


12 = 2x10-7.I.ln(D2/D1)

Self and Mutual L for 2 Wires

Consider flux linkages between conductor x and conductor y, (both internal and external linkages) and then repeat process fro linkages between conductor y and conductor x, and sum.

Self GMR (r) of Conductors


Simplifies inductance calcs by incorporating effect of internal flux Is radius of equivalent hollow conductor r = r.exp(1/4) where r is radius of smooth conductor Typical values: Al/Cu 0.726 (7-strand) to 0.779 (solid conductor); ACSR 0.68 (6-strand) to 0.81(54 strand)

Extended for Balanced 3-Phase


a = 2x10-7.I.ln(D/r)

Consider the flux linkages with a phase, due to i) itself, ii) b phase and iii) c phase, then sum up. Note: currents balanced in all phases and sum to zero. Due to symmetry, the same results will apply to the other two phases.

Flux Linkage M Conductors

Consider flux linkages from all M conductors and point P, then move P to infinity, at the same time setting sum of currents to zero (balanced system).

Extended for N Conductors

This system has N forward and M return conductors, sharing a total current I. Dkm represents the distance from conductor k and conductor m; Dkk represents the self inductance of conductor k.

Extended for Bundled Conductors

Extending general formula from previous slide, the flux linkage with composite conductor x is and hence the inductance is

Concept of GMR

Using general formula for N conductors developed previously, there is a term for the self GMD among all conductors and themselves. This is defines as the GMR (geometric mean radius). Formula:

(prove as tutorial exercise) Determine GMRs for 2-, 3- and 4-wire bundles

Advantages of Bundled Conductors

Increased rating - less weight than an equivalent single conductor Less skin effect losses Reduced series L - improves power transmission capacity Reduces electric field strength around conductors - reduces corona See tutorial exercise

Transposition of Conductors (unequal Spacing)

Real lines are rarely geometrically arranged. The unequal spacing causes unbalanced inductances. Solved by rotating conductors about every km or so to average out spacings. Average flux linkages are then the average of the logs (see formula above) - this creates a geometric mean distance or GMD = 3D1.D2.D3

Effect of Earth in Line Series Impedance


Earth return currents can be replaced with equivalent conductors under the surface carrying the negative current of the overhead conductor (Carsons equations). Dkk = Dkk m (GMRs the same) Dkk = 658.5(/f) m Rk = 9.869x10-7f /m In Australia, f = 50 hz

3 phases (a,b,c) and N O/H neutrals (n1-nN)

Images of the 3 phase and N O/H neutrals

Complete Equiv Cct for all Conductors and Images


Note: Only phase conductors have driving voltages (phase volts); the neutrals have no driving voltages

Determination of Phase and Sequence Impedances (1)


Reference: Glover & Sarma (Ref 1), pp 176-182. Equations for a system of 3 phases and N O/H neutrals. The impedance matrix is often referred to as the primitive matrix. The Rk, resistance of the earth image of conductor k, is given by the previous slide.

Determination of Phase and Sequence Impedances (2)


Reference: Glover & Sarma (Ref 1), pp 176-182. The primitive impedance matrix is simplified by partitioning and transformation into a phase matrix, ZP (Kron reduction)

Determination of Phase and Sequence Impedances (3)


Reference: Glover & Sarma (Ref 1), pp 176-182. The phase matrix ZP can be converted into a sequence matrix ZS for analysis by symmetrical components, which is normally easier. Only works if ZP is symmetrical. This is approximately true for a line with transposed conductors.

Determination of Phase and Sequence Impedances (4)


Reference: Glover & Sarma (Ref 1), pp 176-182. If ZP is assumed symmetrical (by, eg taking averaged values), then the transformation into the sequence matrix ZS is a lot easier. Refer to tutorial example. There are also computer programs that do these calculations for you.

Elec Field and Potential Diff Single Wire


Consider a cylinder with a radial electric field. Guasss Law is then applied. For a length l and a circular path of radius x, .E(x).2x.l = q.l, for charge of q per unit length. Thus E(x) = q/2x V/m Note: the field is >0 only outside the charge. Refer tutorial exercise, and show that V12 = (q/2 ).ln(D2/D1)

Extended for M Conductors


Extend the previous slide to determine the potential difference between conductors k and i, due to a charge qm on conductor m. Thus, Vki,m = (qm/2 ).ln(Dim/Dkm) Now, sum the effect of all m conductors.

Capacitance of 2-Wire System


D r

Apply the previous slide to case of M = 2, radius r and spacing D. Consider potential difference between conductors 1 and 2 due to charge +q on conductor 1, and then add the potential difference between conductors 2 and 1, due to charge -q on conductor 2. Thus,

V12 = (1/2)[q.ln(D12/D11 - q.ln(D22/D21)] V12 = (1/).q.ln(D/r), as D12/D21 = D; D11/D22 = r. (where did the 2 go to?)

Thus C = q/V = / ln(D/r) Note: for capacitance, use r, not r. Why? Capacitance per phase to neutral C = 2/ ln(D/r) F/m. Why the 2? Refer tutorial exercise.

Extended for Balanced 3-Phase


Extend the 2-wire system to a balanced 3-wire system (or use the M conductors case). Consider potential difference on conductor 1 due to charges on conductors 2 and 3. Note that the charges and electric field contributions have to be considered as phasors. Result is: C = 2/ ln(D/r) F/m (phase to neutral). Refer to tutorial exercise.

Balanced 3-wire system, radius r, spacing D

Capacitance of Bundled Conductors

Consider a 3-ph system with a twin-conductor bundle. There is a charge of q/2 on each conductor. The potential difference between say conductors a and b can be determined as before by considering all charges on all conductors. The capacitance can be shown to be C = 2/ln(GMD/GMRc) F/m.

The conductor GMD is the same as with inductance calcs. However, GMRc uses the conductor radius r, not r. Why? Refer tutorial exercise.

Effect of Earth on Elec Field

The earth is a conducting plane and effects the electric field. The effect is the same if all conductors were replaced by image conductors under the earths surface. Each image conductor has the same radius and is the same distance below ground as its corresponding real conductor is above earth. Note that these image conductors are different from the image conductors used with inductance calculations..

Effect of Earth on Capacitance - 2 Wire System


x Hxx Hxy y D y Earth plane

Consider the 2-wire system shown, of conductors x and y and their respective image conductors x and y. If conductor x has a charge of +q, then y will have a charge of -q. Image conductors have reverse charges ie image x has charge -q and image y a charge of +q.

The voltage difference between conductors x and y, Vxy, can be determined by considering the electric field contributions from all conductors including images.

The result is Vxy = (q/)[ln(D/r) - ln(Hxy/Hxx)] and thus capacitance Cxy = /[ln(D/r) - ln(Hxy/Hxx)] F/m. The effect is minimal except for horizontal arrangements close to earth. Refer tutorial exercise.

Determination of Phase and Sequence Capacitances (1)


Consider now a general system, of 3 phase conductors a, b, c; N overhead neutrals n1 .. nN; and their respective earth images. For conductor k, the the potential difference Vkk between it and its image conductor k, due to all m conductors,is the sum of effects of all conductors and their images. Thus, Vkk is given by -

Determination of Phase and Sequence Capacitances (2)


Refer Glover & Sarma (ref 1), pp 194-197.

Determination of Phase and Sequence Capacitances (3)


Refer Glover & Sarma (ref 1), pp 194-197. The procedure is similar to the line inductances, creating a potential matrix P

Determination of Phase and Sequence Capacitances (4)


Refer Glover & Sarma (ref 1), pp 194-197. As before, this matrix is transformed into a phase capacitance matrix CP and thence into a sequence matrix CS.

Determination of Phase and Sequence Capacitances (5)


Refer Glover & Sarma (ref 1), pp 194-197. Again, the phase capacitance matrix must be symmetrical to enable its easy conversion into the sequence matrix and use in symmetrical components analysis.

Determining Sequence Impedances

As all HV transmission lines are transposed, then we can average phase impedance matrices and convert into sequence impedances. For transmission lines and cables, negative sequence impedance Z2 = positive sequence impedance Z1. Positive sequence impedances (L and C) can be readily calculated by the normal method, ignoring earth for L and only considering earth for C with horizontal conductor arrangements reasonably close to the ground. Zero sequence impedances Z0 however require the consideration of all conductors and their earth images, for both R, L and C and matrix transformation.

Thermal Ratings of OH Transmission Lines

Thermal rating of overhead lines depends on (i) the maximum allowable conductor temperature, before it anneals (softens) and falls down, and (ii) the maximum sag permissible, before the lines get too close to lines underneath, structure, humans, etc The first factor is often referred to as ampacity The ampacity of a line depends on ambient temperature, wind, solar radiation and conductor surface condition.

Main Factors Affecting Ratings


Equations:

Rating Equation

Typical Ratings of OH Lines

Available from conductor manufacturers.

Short Term and Real Time Ratings


It will take a little while for a cold conductor to reach working temp following a step increase in current. This allows the application of short-time, emergency ratings to overhead lines. Usual emergency rating is about 10 minutes. If line ratings are constrained by sag, often a retensioning and/or lifting conductors higher off the ground will allow an increased rating.

Insulators Used on OH Transmission Lines

Long Rod Insulators

Standard Clevis Disk

Insulator Materials

Toughened Glass (Clevis disks) Porcelain (Clevis disks, cable terminating structures, transformer bushings, CTs Epoxy (post or stand-off insulators)

Advantages of Standoff Insulators


Source: Ref (1). The use of stand-off insulators reduces conductor swing, enabling the use of larger conductors and increased voltages, as with less swing, conductor clearances can be maintained. In this example, the MVA rating has been increased by about a factor of 3 times.

Typical HV Line Design Parameters

Source: Ref (3)

Lightning & Switching Surges


Lightning is a fast wavefront (few microsec) Switching causes slow wave fronts (few milliseconds) Insulators can with stand higher levels of fast surges Lightning surges tend to be fixed, due to the lightning process itself, independent of line voltage Switching surges can be as high as 2 x line volts Lightning more of a problem <200 kV; switching more of a problem > 300kV

Lightning Surges
Lightning (direct stroke, induced, earth potential rise) Switching (sudden energisation)

Typical 1/50 Lightning surge (travelling wave)

Lightning Mitigation Methods

Lightning Ground Flash Density

Where GFD = ground flash density, strokes/km2/yr TD = thunder-day level = 35/year in Sydney region TH = thunder hours/year

Lightning Stroke Incidence

Where Ns = no of strokes per 100 km of line/year h = height of conductor above earth GFD = ground flash density

Lightning Inductive Overvoltage on Tower

Where l = length of line h = height of conductor above earth r = conductor radius

Lightning Outages on Shielded Lines

Source: Ref 2

Lightning Outages on Unshielded Lines

Source: Ref 2

Earth Wire Shield Angle


The 30 deg angle has been determined from experience

Transmission Line SIL (or BIL)

The SIL (standard insulation level) of an OH transmission line varies with line nominal voltage Determined by peak value of standard 1.2 x 50 surge Set by AS and IEC (also IEEE etc) standards. For example (IEC) 36 kV line: 70 kV 170 kV 245 kV line: 460 kV 1050 kV 525 kV line: 1175 kV 1550 kV (short-time power freq/lightning impulse withstands)

Typical Clearances

The SIL determines clearances in air Determined by safety, max electric field levels Set by AS and IEC standards. 52 kV line: 0.17 m (power freq) / 0.7 m (surges) 245 kV line: 0.69 m/2.0 m 765 kV line: 2.3 m / 5.6 m

Atmospheric Pollution

Dust, plant pollens, industrial particles, salt (near coast) get coated on outside of insulators When damp (eg in light rain), these are semi-conductors Cause partial discharges and eventually flash-over PDs cause audible and electrical noise Skirt design on insulators increases tracking path length Artificial rain test on insulator sets Creepage distances 16-31mm/peak kV (based on pollution classification)

IEC HV Equipment Creepage Distances

Ref: AS 60044.1

Other OH Line Design Issues


Flash-over path in air must be long enough to extinguish power frequency arc Sag-tension of conductors - not exceed tensile strength (when cold) or sag excessively (ground clearance) when hot. Mid-span conductor clearances (allow for swing) Clearances to structures, ground high enough for surges and safe working.

Ageing & Failure Mechanisms

Mechanical Failure (Porcelain) Insulator (glaze and porcelain) punch-through

Electrical Corona Onset Formula

Where Ec is critical electrical field a is conductor radius m is is

Audible Noise (AN) Coronas


Source: Ref 2

Radio Interference (RI) Coronas

Electric Field Strength on Conductors


Q = CV

Single conductor Average of n conductors

Refer tutorial exercise

Electric Field Strength at Earth

Refer tutorial exercise

Environmental Impacts of HV OH Lines

Aesthetics - theyre big! Electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment (50 hz induction, corona noise) Low frequency electromagnetic radiation (health concerns)

Magnetic Field Under OH Transmission Line

Calculate horizontal and vertical components of magnetic flux density at a chosen point, based on distance to each phase conductor Add effects of all 3 phases (these are phasors) Resultant H and V components are also phasors Square and add, convert to a new phasor and take sqrt Refer tutorial example. Field is highest directly under the lines (or directly above, in the case of UG cables).

Power Frequency EMR

Report by Karolinska Institute (Sweden) in early 1970s suggested a possible low-level link between power frequency magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia No effect noted by electric fields Later reports in UK and US seemed to support the earlier report Latest studies have not proven any direct link. If present, it seems very weak. There is however, more of a concern with RF fields near the head - hence worries with mobile phone use.

OH Line Testing & Commissioning

Design checks, etc for structures Current injection test (for impedances, earth resistances) Insulator tests (done on insulator sets) Power voltage withstand ) Fast and slow surge test ) values set by IEC Artificial rain (pollution test) Power arc test ) RI strength test ) Corona onset test ) as agreed with supplier