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Centre Paper Reference


No.

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No. 6 1 0 3 0 3
Paper Reference(s)

6103/03 Examiner’s use only

Edexcel GCE Team Leader’s use only

Biology
Biology (Human) Question Leave
Number Blank

Advanced Subsidiary/Advanced 1
2
Unit Test 3 Paper 03
3
Monday 10 January 2005 – Morning
Time: 1 hour
Materials required for examination Items included with question papers
Ruler Nil

Instructions to Candidates
In the boxes above, write your centre number, candidate number, your surname, initials and signature.
The paper reference is shown above.
Check that you have the booklet for the correct unit.
Answer ALL THREE questions in the spaces provided in this booklet.
Show all the steps in any calculations and state the units. Calculators may be used.
Include diagrams in your answers where these are helpful.

Information for Candidates


The marks for individual questions and parts of questions are shown in round brackets: e.g. (2).
The total mark for this question paper is 38.

Advice to Candidates
You will be assessed on your ability to organise and present information, ideas, descriptions and
arguments clearly and logically, taking account of your use of grammar, punctuation and spelling.

Total
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N18607A
W850/R6103/57570 7/7/7/2
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Answer ALL questions in the spaces provided.

1. Explain what is meant by each of the following terms.

(a) Autotrophic nutrition

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(2)

(b) Productivity

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(2)

(c) Sustainable management of forests

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(2) Q1

(Total 6 marks)

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2. A student investigated the decomposition of leaves from a sweet chestnut tree. In
November 1988, she placed an equal number of leaves in nylon bags with three different
mesh sizes. The bags were then buried in garden soil. A fourth sample was placed in a
mesh bag and suspended in the air. She examined the bags at intervals of six months and
made estimates of the percentage of leaves that remained before reburying the bags. Her
results are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 – The percentage of sweet chestnut leaves remaining in nylon bags of differing
mesh size over a period of two and a half years.

Percentage of sweet chestnut leaves remaining in the bags


November May November May November May
Sample 1988 1989 1989 1990 1990 1991
0.05 mm mesh
100 62 60 51 42 38
bag in soil
1 mm mesh
100 62 38 30 30 29
bag in soil
5 mm mesh
100 33 10 10 10 10
bag in soil
0.05 mm mesh
100 96 92 88 84 80
bag in air

In another investigation, the nitrogen content of leaves from six species of tree was
measured. Some fresh leaves from these trees were then placed in separate nylon bags
with a 5 mm mesh and buried in garden soil in July. The bags were examined after four
months and the percentage of the leaves remaining was recorded. The results of this
investigation are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 – A scattergraph showing the relationship between the percentage of leaves


remaining after four months and the nitrogen content of the leaves.

100 –
90 – Cherry
Percentage 80 – Pine
of leaves 70 – Birch Sweet Chestnut Sycamore
remaining afte r 60 –
four months 50 – Oak
40 –
30 –
20 –
10 –
0–

0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Nitrogen content of leaves / %

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(a) (i) Using the information in Figure 1, compare the breakdown of the sweet chestnut
leaves in the four bags between November 1988 and May 1991.

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(4)

(ii) Suggest an explanation for the differences that you have described in (a)(i).

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(2)

(b) Using the information in Figure 2, describe the relationship between the nitrogen
content of the leaves and the decomposition of the leaves. Suggest a reason for this
relationship.

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(2)

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(c) Coniferous forests in Northern Europe have long cold winters and short warm
summers. Tropical rain forests are found in the hot and wet regions of the world.

Coniferous forests have a thick layer of pine needles (leaves) lying on the forest floor.
Tropical rain forests have relatively few leaves lying on the forest floor. Suggest
reasons for this difference.

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(3)

(d) The organic nitrogen in fallen leaves is eventually converted into nitrates. Describe
the role of soil microorganisms in this process.

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(3) Q2

(Total 14 marks)

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3. The pH of the water in a river is affected by many factors. Most river-dwelling species
are able to tolerate water of between pH 6 and pH 7. However, a reduction of the pH to
less than 6 can be harmful to many species living in the river. Figure 1 shows the range
of pH below a value of 7 tolerated by four common river invertebrates. These
invertebrates feed at the lower trophic levels of the food chains within the river.

Figure 1 – pH range below a value of 7 tolerated by four river invertebrates.

Freshwater shrimp

Snail

Freshwater mussel

Freshwater hog louse


4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0


pH
Adapted from information obtained
from Norwegian Pollution Control Authority

During the last century, many rivers have become increasingly acidic. If the pH of the
river water falls below 5, the river is considered to be acidified. This can have severe
effects upon many of the fish in the upper trophic levels of the food chains. Figure 2
shows the changes in the annual catch of salmon from acidified rivers in Nova Scotia
(Canada) between 1935 and 1985 compared with rivers that were not acidified.

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Figure 2 – The annual catch of salmon in rivers from Nova Scotia of pH above 5
compared with rivers of pH below 5 between 1935 and 1985.

120 Rivers
above pH 5

100

80
Catch of salmon
as a percentage
of 1935 catch
60

40

20

Rivers
below pH 5
0
1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985
Year
Adapted from Principles of Ecotoxicology

One of the measures used to try to counteract the acidification of rivers is the addition of
lime in the form of calcium carbonate. Many rivers in the southern regions of Norway
became acidified during the twentieth century. Since the early 1980s, the addition of lime
to acidified rivers has been funded by the Norwegian Government. Figure 3 shows the
mass of lime added to acidified rivers in Norway from 1985 to 1997.

Figure 3 – The mass of lime added to rivers in Norway from 1985 to 1997

Lime used
Year
/1000 tonnes
1985 5
1987 12
1989 20
1991 30
1993 38
1995 85
1997 125

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(a) It has been suggested that atmospheric pollution has contributed to the acidification
of rivers. Explain how atmospheric pollution may cause acidification of rivers.

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(4)

(b) Using the information in Figure 1, suggest which invertebrates may increase in
number when a river has become acidified. Give two reasons why their numbers may
increase.

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(3)

(c) Compare the changes in the annual catch of salmon in Nova Scotia (Canada) from
non-acidified rivers with those from acidified rivers between 1935 and 1985.

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(3)

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(d) Explain why increasing acidity in a river may lead to a fall in the population of fish.

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(4)

(e) (i) Using the data in Figure 3, calculate the percentage increase in the use of lime in
rivers between 1985 and 1997. Show your working.

Answer .................
(2)

(ii) Suggest why the addition of lime may be more successful as a long-term measure
for lakes rather than for rivers.

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(2) Q3

(Total 18 marks)
TOTAL FOR PAPER: 38 MARKS

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