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IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 4, October 1997 1711

Preventive and Corrective Switching for Feeder Contingencies in Distribution Systems

with Fuzzy Set Algorithm

Whei-Min Lin Hong-Chan Chin


Department of Electrical Engineering

National Sun Yat-Sen University
Kaohsiung, Taiwan 804, R. 0. C.

Abstract -This paper presents a new fuzzy-set based algorithm The term real-time 'optimal switching' (OS) deserves some
for optimal switching. The algorithm deals with feeder clarifications in contrast with the planning mode optimal switching.
contingencies and service restoration. Qptimality will be pursued In a planning mode, optimal switching deals with the long-term
to get a preventive solution to avoid further contingencies. Issues economical factors and/or system reliability, while in the short-
of the inter-feeder load balance and inter-phase load balance will term operational mode, optimal switching needs a fast reliable
be emphasized. A fast algorithm has been developed by the fuzzy algorithm to relieve all electrical violations. Another interest of
approach to avoid numerical computation. And the state-space of real-time OS is to put the system in a preventive mode instead of
all the feasible solutions is confined by limited search instead of the corrective mode to avoid further contingencies. That is,
the time-consuming exhaustive search. real-time OS indicates this preventive and corrective switching in
this paper. An example of real-time OS application is the feeder
service restoration function where a fast reliable algoritlu:i is
important to put the system in a secure mode.
Many papers have dealt Lvith the feeder recor?figuration
Typical distribution feeders contain a few normal-close problem. Aoki et al.[l] developed a method to transfer load, which
sectionalizing switches and a few normal-open tie switches. Under used the load indices to make load balancing for feeders and
normal operating conditions, switching can be used to balance the transformers. An indicative fomiula and approximate power flow
transfonner/feeder loads and minimize the risk of overload. Load methods were proposed in [5]and [6]. Many other methods using
transfer can also be performed by switching to meet new load mathematical programming techniques[4,11], expert systems [ 13-
requirenients[l-3]. During a fault, switches are used for fault 151 and optimization algorithms [16] have been proposed in recent
isolation and service restoration. Switching can also be conducted years. In this piper, an algorithm based on fuzzy-set theory[ 171 is
to minimize feeder loss[4-6]. proposed to deal with the problem. This algorithm makes use of
the branch current flow indicated by CM in this paper. Computer
With the progress of distribution management systems (DMS) simulations were conducted to show the effectiveness of this
and SCADA, real-time feeder control and monitoring is becoming approach.
possible. Meters are installed along feeders to collect data. Current
magnitudes (CM) measurements are generally the ones metered in
real-time [7-91. Switches will play an important role in real-time 11. PROBLEM FORMULATION
feeder operations, and have a higher priority for metering and
control. Many other sophisticated functions can also be developed A. Objectives
based on these CM meters such as the distribution state
estimation[9]. In Taiwan, Feeder Dispatch Control System (FDCS) hi the operational mode, the goal of a "corrective" OS 111 a
for Taipower Company (TPC) has been installed to perfonn remote distribution system is to quickly resolve network contingencies to
switching[lO]. The sectionalizlng switches and tie switches can be satisfy electrical constraints. A "prcvcnrivc" switching, however,
controlled through pilotwires. Dispatchers could isolate a fault or should prevent the system from being contingent again. Feeder
restore services remotely following a fault identification process. violations are generally caused by the low voltage, branch overload
This paper tried to develop an algorithm based on the FDCS and the phase unbalance problems. Protective relays might trip
switching capability. The algorithm is efficient for either the owing to these violations. However, to put the system in a
planning or operational purposes. If the remote switching system preventive mode instead of a corrective mode, the inter-feeder load
has been installed with SCADA, it is even possible to switch in balance (IFLB) and inter-phase load balance (IPLB) should be
real-time with the help of CM measurements as will be delineated pursued by switching operations. Transformer loading has to be
in this paper. watched too. Note that the feeder numbers at each main-
transformers are not necessarily the same. A balanced main-
transfomier loading might cause feeder overload to happen. On the
PE-287-WVRD-0-01-1997 A paper recommended and approved contrary, balanced feeder loading generally guarantees the safe
by the IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE operation of transfcnwrs, which is a prime concern under
Power Engineering Society for publication in the IEEE Transactions contingency. The goal of OS is thus becoming the problcni of
on Power Delivery. Manuscript submitted July 22, 1996; made achieving IFLB and IPLB.
available for printing January 8, 1997.
B. Fuzzy Notations

There are numerous switches in a distribution system, the

number of possible switching operations is voluminous. Feeder

0885-8977/97/$10.00 0 1997 IEEE

reconfiguration is an ovewhelming task for dispatchers in dealing A distribution system with every feeder loaded to the ideal load
with the contingencies[7]. In developing an efficient algorithm, a level shown in Equation (4) is called a system with "balanced
quick decision-making process is important. Fuzzy-set theory is feeder loads". This paper developed an algorithm with two stages
chosen to take advantage of its fast solution process to avoid the for OS. The first stage solves the overload problem and the second
numerical burden. In developing the fast algorithm, the state- stage deals with the phase unbalance problem.
space o f feasible solutions can be confined by looking at the
selected switching operations instead of the exhaustive search.
To take advantage of the fuzzy set theory, the feeder load
balance and phase balance are chosen to be fuzzified. Besides, a Two membership functions are defined to show the degree of
proper switching has to obey a few rules: load balance, S for IFLB and V for IPLB.
a) Radial network structure must be retained.
b) No feeder section can be left out-service except the faulty A. Membership Function of IFLB
feeder section.
c) Besides the opeidclosed switch status, the network topology For a pair of switch operation (A,B), the degree of load
should remain the same. variations aer- defined by membership functions s^; for the relief
feeder, and Sb for the burden feeder A decision for load balance
The above rules can be attained by adding the constraint that is obtainekby t h e 3 f l u e n c e " ("intersection") of the membership
"closing a switch should always follow the opening of a switch." functions Sr and Sb , shown in Equation ( 5 ) as
The notation (A,B) is used to denote the operation of "opening
switch A and closing switch B." In this paper, the particular feeder - - n36
S=Sr (5)
to release load is called the relief feeder, and the feeder to accept
load is call the burden feeder. Other notations used in this paper
are introduced below. All the rated values are on per-phase bases The membership values of %,b can be defined by p si; as
in this paper, and have to be collected a priori from the field.

RCTk rated Ampacity of transformer T,

RCfi rated feeder Ampacity of feeder f , at feeder source
ACTk actual current loading ( in Amp) of transformer T,

ACfi actual current loading ( in Amp ) of feeder f,

RCSys rated Ampacity of the system, defined by where
r mln (RCTk, RCf11 (1) AI=Irfi -1dfi ; for psT (7)
k 1 'Ibfi -1dfi ; for psg
where feeder f, is connected to transfomier T, Ie = I yxRCfi - Idfi I (8)
ACSys actual system loading in Amperes y =1.1 is used to allow a 10% fuzziness for the feeder rated
= I:ACTk (2)
k Figure 1 shows the degree of load balance for membership
LRSys loading ratio ( LR) of the system values p SF and p sg A high current variation AI is given a low
- ACSp / RCSys, LRsys < 1 is assumed
value p ST (or p s~ ), and a low variation is given a high value
Idfi : ideal current loading of feeder fi For the overload problem, the minimum feeder current variation
( AI ) will be sought
LRSys . RCf, (4)

For a given feeder, the above parameters can be calculated before

switching. Two more parameters are further defined for every
proposed switching action by using I, for the relief feeder and Ibn
for the burden feeder

Irfi = mar;. [ phase Gun-ent affer relieving load by switching] Fig. I Membership function of p ST and p s~
With F~~ and psg, S can be detemiined. The optimal
Ibfi = max. [ phase current after accepting load by switching]
decision is the one with the highest membership value in 5 That
customers served by the transformer. For TPC, the energy
consumption of each customer is determined by the billing data
stored in the Customer Information System (CIS). By using the
where load pattems and load compositions of each service section, the
CL(& B) = membership value after switching (4B). hourly current flow at the feeder and CM measurements at each
sectionalizing switch can be obtained from computer
B. Membership Function of IPLB simulation[l6].
For a pair of switch operation (A,B), the-membership However, for further applications such as the service
functions of phase balance can be defined similar to S.To instate restoration, the knowledge of "true" load is more or less required
the degree of phase balance, membership functions %and Vb are either from SCADA or other sources. Service restoration is
used. The fuzzy decision for phase balance T i s defined as formulated based on the knowledge of branch current flow. Real-
time CM measurements are thus assumed to be available from
SCADA, on-line load flow or state estimation.

The membership values of Vr, b can be defined by p ~ 7~5

, as For a permanent fault on a feeder section, the source switch
will have been opened remotely by the FDCS following the fault
identification process. No current could flow beyond this switch,
and all other switches in the so called "isolated area" will remain
unchanged. This area will also be bounded by normal-open tie
switches. Note that SCADA will see "Zero" CM measurements for
all switches in this isolated area. Under this circumstance, the
prefault CM measurements will be used for load balance.

For service restoration, the switch(es) immediately after the

fault section have to be opened mandatorily to isolate the fault.
Note that Ig is set to 40 Amp as specified by the local utility. The
The loads on the rest of the feeder should be picked up by other
coefficient p = 0.95 is suggested by field people to force C, feeders. That is, the normal-open bounded tie switch(es) need to be
below 95% Ig. The membership values of p v7 and p vi; are closed to restore the services. To enforce the above process, an
artificial feeder number is assigned to the isolated area, and the
depicted in Figure 2 to show the degree of phase balance. "relief' membership value pS7 = 1 is assigned to this artificial
G Pvk feeder. The whole process is implemented by operation (A,B) as

Fig. 2 Membership function of F ~ and

, pn
With p v7 and p vg, V can be determined. The optimal
decision is the one with the highest membership value in We V. THE OVERALL SOLUTION PROCESS
Figure 3 is the flowchart of the overall switching process.
The proposed algorithm will read in the CM measurements from
load flow, SCADA or the state estimation. [Rr] and [Ru] are the
where sets of contingent feeders for feeder balance and phase balance.
cy4 B) = membership value after switching (4B) Feeder balance will first be resolved then the phase balance,
starting from the most severe feeder. Phase balance will be
conducted among phases of the same feeder only. The process is
A FAULTY FEEDER repeated until [Rr] and [Ru] become empty, and the OS problem
will be solved. If a faulty feeder is detected, the adjustments
For networks without SCADA, or in a planning mode, a stated previously have to be made.
computer-assisted load balance can be implemented with the
support of the three phase load flow program. Loads are generally For extreme cases where the system has been stretched to its
classified into three categories; the residential, industrial and design limits, a feasible solution may not exist. Dispatchers'
commercial loads. Typical load pattern (daily load curve) of each attention has to be aroused to set priorities to
category can be obtained by load synthesis or load survey 1) expand the system by getting more feeders;
technique. The load composition of each distribution transformer 2) relax the thermal limit by adjusting parameters yand p;
can be calculated according to the energy consumption of all 3) shed load.

Kma can be chosen by dispatchers to prevent the dead looping. sll s12 s35 s33
However, planning department should be notified under these

For every feeder contingency, only the neighboring tie

switches are considered for switching. On the relief feeder, all the
switches of the "source" path are identified for each tie switch to
form the state space. For faulty line-section isolated by open
switches, these open switches become the "sources" for sorting to
make sure that all customers' power can be restored. This process
m: substation

reduces the number of feasible states drastically, and is based on f . ' feeder i
the fact that feeder contingencies need to be resolved by switching @ : normal close sectionalizing switch
loads to adjacent feeders. The OS can be conducted locally instead 0 : normal open tie switch
of the exhaustive search. If a local solution is not satisfactory,
the OS process will be expanded by considering the burden
Fig. 4 A sample distribution system
feeders as new relief feeders in the next search. However, the
state-space is always confined.
The switch CM is shown in Table I. The rated ampacities
RCsys = 800A, actual loading ACsys = 671.6A, system loading
ratio LRsys = 0.84, and ideal load current Idfi = 1 6 M . W, c2n sce
that Feeder 2 is overloadcd, and Feeder 4 is unbalanced. Tliese
violations will be solved by the load balance scheme as follows.

Table I Currents (Amp) flowing through feeders and switches

1 NehvorkDataInput I

CM Input

A. Feeder Balance

At the first stage, Feeder 2 entered set [Rr].For Feeder 2,

neighboring Feeders 1 and 4 are selected as the candidate burden

In this system, Feeder 2 has five feasible solutions to relieve

loads, which are (s21,s14), (sZ3,sl4), (s21,s43j, (si2,s43j, ana
(s24,s43). The membership value of fhese switching operations
are listed in Table E. For example, the value of switching
operation (s24,s43) is calculated as follows:
I Fuzzy Load Balance Algorithm I For relief feeder f2
1, = 1 1 1 X200 - 1681 = 52
Feeder Reconfiguration I Irf2 = wax [ 235-20,215-10,205-10]=215A
AI = Irfi - Id, = 215 - 168 = 47
p ST = ( 1, - AI)/Ie = 0.096
Fig. 3 Overall solution process
For burden feeder r4
Ibf4=max[110+20, 110+10,150+10] = 160
UTER SIMULATION AT IbfJ - Tdfi = 160 - 168 = -8
psg = ( AI + I e )/Ie = 0 846
Case 1: Corrective switching
From Table II,the Ciizzy decision can be made The decision IS the
Considering the distribution system in Figure 4 with constant
loads, each substation has a rated ampacity of 500A. The iine maximrirn value p5(s23,q14) fcr Feeder 2 TE.c T.c,!~~:G;; is :!;us
iaiiiig is 200 m p , and the ground current relay setting is 40 Amp. [(s23,s14)] Table III shows the resultant teeder loading atter these
B. Phase Balance and s481. Switches s42 and s47 have to be opened to isolate the
faulty section and restore the service to the rest of the feeder.
After solving the overload problem, the phase imbalance is
checked. Feeder 4 has violation. Using the same algorithm, the Table VI Load composition of distribution feeder(%)
unbalance problem can be solved by the switching operation
(s34,s44), and Table IV shows the results. Table V lists the
resultant feeder loading after the switching.
- fl f2 t3 f4f5f6f7 E3 f9
Com. 0 100 100 0
Table II The membership values of load balancing
Ind. 0 0 0 0 0 80 100 50 0
Relief Burden Switching Membership values
feeder feeder operation 'b ' py By using the proposed algorithm, the optimal switching
problem is solved by the consecutive operations {(s42,s471),
I I I (s24,s43) I 215 160 I 0.096 0.846 0.096 I (s47,s41 l), (s44,s481), (s24,s212), (s28p921)). The operations
155 210 0.750 0.192 0.192 {(s42,s471), (s47,s411)} isolate the faulty area and create overload
35 320 0 0 0 to feeders 1,2, and 7. Operations {(s44,s481), (s24,s212),
195 180 0.481 0.769 0.481 * (s28,s921)} relieve the overload conditions of feeders 7, 1 and 2.
35 340 0 0 0
I I I I I I The final feeder loading of this operation is shown in Table X.
"* " is the optimal switching operation
Table I
II Current (Amp.) flowing through feeder after (s23,s14)

I f l f 2 D f 4 I
180 195 180 110
180 195 190 110
170 185 170 150

Table IV The membership values of unbalance phase current

s316 \s:

"*" is the optimal switching operation

Table V Current (Amp.) flowing through feeder after (s34,s44) Fig. 5 TPC distribution system

1-1 f l f 2 f 3 f 4 Table IX Pre-fault current (Amp) flowing through feeder outlets

1, 120
f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f 7 fs f9 1
170 160 180 110 110 130 150 85
175 150 190 110 100 140 130 80
Case 2: Fault Service Restoration I C 130 165 150 180 100 120 140 150 100

The second case deals with a distribution system in the service Table X Final Feeder Current Flow
area of Kaohsiung District Office of TPC. This system consists of
4 substations, 9 feeders, 75 switches, and the one-line diagram is
shown in Figure 5. The load pattems were obtained by a field test
over a one year time period. The load composition data in Table VI IA185 150 160 0 110 110 180 190 135
was provided by TPC from the Customer Information System [15]. 1, 180 145 150 0 110 100 180 180 140
Based on the load profile and the load composition, the hourly IC 165 150 150 0 100 120 190 180 150
current flow through switches are calculated by the three phase
load flow program. That is, Real-time CM data is simulated by the A comparison chart is also provided in Table XI to show the
use of the three-phase load flow program. adaptability of various methods.
Table IX lists the pre-fault currents of the feeder outlets in Fig. VII. CONCLUSIONS
5 at 1 PM. If a fault occurs in the common section bounded by
switches s41, s42, s47 and s341. S41 will be opened and locked In this paper, a fuzzy-set based OS has been developed for the
out by FDCS remotely after fault identification. The isolated area
is the part of Feeder 4 beyond S4 1 bounded by switches s34 1, s471 distribution systems. The proposed fuzzy set algorithm resolves the
problem by branch exchanges through the use of sectionalizing
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Whei-Min Lin was bom on October 3rd, 1954. He received his BS-
[ l ] K. Aoki, T. Ichimori, M. Kanezashi, "Normal state optimal EE from the National Chao-Tung university, MS-EE from the
load allocation in distribution systems", IEEE Trans. on Power University of Connecticut, and his Ph.D. EE from the University of
Delivery, No. 1, 1987, pp. 147-155. Texas in 1985. He worked at Chung-Hwa Institute for Economic
[2] K. Aoki, H. Kawabara, T. Satoh, M. Kanezashi, "An efficient Research, Taiwan, as a visiting researcher after his graduation. He
algorithm for load balancing of transformers and feeders", joined Control Data Crop. in 1986 and worked with Control Data
IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1988, pp, 1865- Asia in 1989. He has been with National Sun Yat-Sen university,
1872. Taiwan, since 1989. Dr. Link interests are GIs, Distribution
[3] C. S. Chen, M. Y. Cho, "Determination of critical switches in System, SCADA and Automatic Control System. Dr. Lin is a
distribution system", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 7, member of IEEE and Tau Beta Pi.
NO. 3, 1992, pp. 1443-1448.
[4] D. Shirmohammadi, H. W. Hong, "Reconfiguration of electrical Hong-Chan Chin Received his MS degree from the National Sun
distribution networks €or resistive line losses reduction", IEEE Yat-Sen University in 1991 Currently, he is pursuing his Ph D
Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. PWRD-4, 1989, pp, 1492-1498. degree in the same University His interests are Energy
[5] S. Civanlar, J. J. Grainger, H. Yin, S. S. H. Lee, "Distribution Management Systems, Distribution Automatic System
feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction", IEEE Trans. on
Power Delivery, Vol. PWRD-3, 1988, pp. 1217-1223.
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distribution systems for loss reduction and load balancing",
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