IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 4, October 1997 1711
Abstract -This paper presents a new fuzzy-set based algorithm The term real-time 'optimal switching' (OS) deserves some
for optimal switching. The algorithm deals with feeder clarifications in contrast with the planning mode optimal switching.
contingencies and service restoration. Qptimality will be pursued In a planning mode, optimal switching deals with the long-term
to get a preventive solution to avoid further contingencies. Issues economical factors and/or system reliability, while in the short-
of the inter-feeder load balance and inter-phase load balance will term operational mode, optimal switching needs a fast reliable
be emphasized. A fast algorithm has been developed by the fuzzy algorithm to relieve all electrical violations. Another interest of
approach to avoid numerical computation. And the state-space of real-time OS is to put the system in a preventive mode instead of
all the feasible solutions is confined by limited search instead of the corrective mode to avoid further contingencies. That is,
the time-consuming exhaustive search. real-time OS indicates this preventive and corrective switching in
this paper. An example of real-time OS application is the feeder
service restoration function where a fast reliable algoritlu:i is
important to put the system in a secure mode.
I. ZYTROEUCTION
Many papers have dealt Lvith the feeder recor?figuration
Typical distribution feeders contain a few normal-close problem. Aoki et al.[l] developed a method to transfer load, which
sectionalizing switches and a few normal-open tie switches. Under used the load indices to make load balancing for feeders and
normal operating conditions, switching can be used to balance the transformers. An indicative fomiula and approximate power flow
transfonner/feeder loads and minimize the risk of overload. Load methods were proposed in [5]and [6]. Many other methods using
transfer can also be performed by switching to meet new load mathematical programming techniques[4,11], expert systems [ 13-
requirenients[l-3]. During a fault, switches are used for fault 151 and optimization algorithms [16] have been proposed in recent
isolation and service restoration. Switching can also be conducted years. In this piper, an algorithm based on fuzzy-set theory[ 171 is
to minimize feeder loss[4-6]. proposed to deal with the problem. This algorithm makes use of
the branch current flow indicated by CM in this paper. Computer
With the progress of distribution management systems (DMS) simulations were conducted to show the effectiveness of this
and SCADA, real-time feeder control and monitoring is becoming approach.
possible. Meters are installed along feeders to collect data. Current
magnitudes (CM) measurements are generally the ones metered in
real-time [7-91. Switches will play an important role in real-time 11. PROBLEM FORMULATION
feeder operations, and have a higher priority for metering and
control. Many other sophisticated functions can also be developed A. Objectives
based on these CM meters such as the distribution state
estimation[9]. In Taiwan, Feeder Dispatch Control System (FDCS) hi the operational mode, the goal of a "corrective" OS 111 a
for Taipower Company (TPC) has been installed to perfonn remote distribution system is to quickly resolve network contingencies to
switching[lO]. The sectionalizlng switches and tie switches can be satisfy electrical constraints. A "prcvcnrivc" switching, however,
controlled through pilotwires. Dispatchers could isolate a fault or should prevent the system from being contingent again. Feeder
restore services remotely following a fault identification process. violations are generally caused by the low voltage, branch overload
This paper tried to develop an algorithm based on the FDCS and the phase unbalance problems. Protective relays might trip
switching capability. The algorithm is efficient for either the owing to these violations. However, to put the system in a
planning or operational purposes. If the remote switching system preventive mode instead of a corrective mode, the inter-feeder load
has been installed with SCADA, it is even possible to switch in balance (IFLB) and inter-phase load balance (IPLB) should be
real-time with the help of CM measurements as will be delineated pursued by switching operations. Transformer loading has to be
in this paper. watched too. Note that the feeder numbers at each main-
transformers are not necessarily the same. A balanced main-
transfomier loading might cause feeder overload to happen. On the
PE-287-WVRD-0-01-1997 A paper recommended and approved contrary, balanced feeder loading generally guarantees the safe
by the IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE operation of transfcnwrs, which is a prime concern under
Power Engineering Society for publication in the IEEE Transactions contingency. The goal of OS is thus becoming the problcni of
on Power Delivery. Manuscript submitted July 22, 1996; made achieving IFLB and IPLB.
available for printing January 8, 1997.
B. Fuzzy Notations
Irfi = mar;. [ phase Gun-ent affer relieving load by switching] Fig. I Membership function of p ST and p s~
{Phase}
c
With F~~ and psg, S can be detemiined. The optimal
Ibfi = max. [ phase current after accepting load by switching]
decision is the one with the highest membership value in 5 That
{Phase)
is
1713
customers served by the transformer. For TPC, the energy
consumption of each customer is determined by the billing data
stored in the Customer Information System (CIS). By using the
where load pattems and load compositions of each service section, the
CL(& B) = membership value after switching (4B). hourly current flow at the feeder and CM measurements at each
sectionalizing switch can be obtained from computer
B. Membership Function of IPLB simulation[l6].
For a pair of switch operation (A,B), the-membership However, for further applications such as the service
functions of phase balance can be defined similar to S.To instate restoration, the knowledge of "true" load is more or less required
the degree of phase balance, membership functions %and Vb are either from SCADA or other sources. Service restoration is
used. The fuzzy decision for phase balance T i s defined as formulated based on the knowledge of branch current flow. Real-
time CM measurements are thus assumed to be available from
SCADA, on-line load flow or state estimation.
Kma can be chosen by dispatchers to prevent the dead looping. sll s12 s35 s33
However, planning department should be notified under these
circustances.
reduces the number of feasible states drastically, and is based on f . ' feeder i
1'
the fact that feeder contingencies need to be resolved by switching @ : normal close sectionalizing switch
loads to adjacent feeders. The OS can be conducted locally instead 0 : normal open tie switch
of the exhaustive search. If a local solution is not satisfactory,
the OS process will be expanded by considering the burden
Fig. 4 A sample distribution system
feeders as new relief feeders in the next search. However, the
state-space is always confined.
The switch CM is shown in Table I. The rated ampacities
RCsys = 800A, actual loading ACsys = 671.6A, system loading
ratio LRsys = 0.84, and ideal load current Idfi = 1 6 M . W, c2n sce
that Feeder 2 is overloadcd, and Feeder 4 is unbalanced. Tliese
violations will be solved by the load balance scheme as follows.
CM Input
A. Feeder Balance
I f l f 2 D f 4 I
180 195 180 110
180 195 190 110
170 185 170 150
operation
s316 \s:
i
IA
fl
135
1, 120
f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f 7 fs f9 1
170 160 180 110 110 130 150 85
175 150 190 110 100 140 130 80
Case 2: Fault Service Restoration I C 130 165 150 180 100 120 140 150 100
The second case deals with a distribution system in the service Table X Final Feeder Current Flow
area of Kaohsiung District Office of TPC. This system consists of
4 substations, 9 feeders, 75 switches, and the one-line diagram is
shown in Figure 5. The load pattems were obtained by a field test
over a one year time period. The load composition data in Table VI IA185 150 160 0 110 110 180 190 135
was provided by TPC from the Customer Information System [15]. 1, 180 145 150 0 110 100 180 180 140
Based on the load profile and the load composition, the hourly IC 165 150 150 0 100 120 190 180 150
current flow through switches are calculated by the three phase
load flow program. That is, Real-time CM data is simulated by the A comparison chart is also provided in Table XI to show the
use of the three-phase load flow program. adaptability of various methods.
Table IX lists the pre-fault currents of the feeder outlets in Fig. VII. CONCLUSIONS
5 at 1 PM. If a fault occurs in the common section bounded by
switches s41, s42, s47 and s341. S41 will be opened and locked In this paper, a fuzzy-set based OS has been developed for the
out by FDCS remotely after fault identification. The isolated area
is the part of Feeder 4 beyond S4 1 bounded by switches s34 1, s471 distribution systems. The proposed fuzzy set algorithm resolves the
problem by branch exchanges through the use of sectionalizing
1716
switches and the tie switches. To model the fwzy term 'balance', [7] R. E. Lee, C. L. Brooks, "A method and its application to
membership functions were derived for the load and phase evaluate automated distribution control", IEEE Trans. Power
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[SI W. M. Lin, M. T. Tsay, and S. W. Wu, "Application of
space, the OS problem can be solved effectively. A planning-mode
geographic information system to distribution information
OS can also be conducted by the use of the three phase program.
support", IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 11, No.1 Jan.
Examples were also given to show the applications of this 1996, pp. 190-197.
algorithm. From the tests, it can be seen that the proposed [9] W. M. Lin, J. H. Teng, "State Estimation for distribution
algorithm is very effective in both the operational and planning systems with zero-injection constraint", IEEE Trans. on Power
mode. Application of the fuzzy set theory not only formulates the Systems, Vol. 11, No. 1 Feb. 1996, pp.518-524.
problem more flexibly, but also simplifies the computation [lo] Y. H. Tsai, "Fault Processing of Feeder Dispatch Control
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r
I I pt. C,No. 5, 1988, pp. 461-467.
Method Adaptability State :om putation 121 K. P. Wong and H. N. Cheung, "Artificial Intelligence
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Hsu[ 18 ]
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Wong [ 12 ]
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I Medium Complex
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intelligence distribution feeders: optimality and algorithms", IEEE Trans.
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VIII. REFERENCES
Whei-Min Lin was bom on October 3rd, 1954. He received his BS-
[ l ] K. Aoki, T. Ichimori, M. Kanezashi, "Normal state optimal EE from the National Chao-Tung university, MS-EE from the
load allocation in distribution systems", IEEE Trans. on Power University of Connecticut, and his Ph.D. EE from the University of
Delivery, No. 1, 1987, pp. 147-155. Texas in 1985. He worked at Chung-Hwa Institute for Economic
[2] K. Aoki, H. Kawabara, T. Satoh, M. Kanezashi, "An efficient Research, Taiwan, as a visiting researcher after his graduation. He
algorithm for load balancing of transformers and feeders", joined Control Data Crop. in 1986 and worked with Control Data
IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1988, pp, 1865- Asia in 1989. He has been with National Sun Yat-Sen university,
1872. Taiwan, since 1989. Dr. Link interests are GIs, Distribution
[3] C. S. Chen, M. Y. Cho, "Determination of critical switches in System, SCADA and Automatic Control System. Dr. Lin is a
distribution system", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 7, member of IEEE and Tau Beta Pi.
NO. 3, 1992, pp. 1443-1448.
[4] D. Shirmohammadi, H. W. Hong, "Reconfiguration of electrical Hong-Chan Chin Received his MS degree from the National Sun
distribution networks €or resistive line losses reduction", IEEE Yat-Sen University in 1991 Currently, he is pursuing his Ph D
Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. PWRD-4, 1989, pp, 1492-1498. degree in the same University His interests are Energy
[5] S. Civanlar, J. J. Grainger, H. Yin, S. S. H. Lee, "Distribution Management Systems, Distribution Automatic System
feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction", IEEE Trans. on
Power Delivery, Vol. PWRD-3, 1988, pp. 1217-1223.
[6] M. E. Baran, F. F. Wu, "Network reconfiguration in
distribution systems for loss reduction and load balancing",
IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. PWRD-4, 1989, pp.
1401-1407.