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NRSA/HD/RGNDWM/TR:02:2003 For Official Use Only



METHODOLOGY & TECHN CAL GU DEL NE8 METHODOLOGY & TECHN CAL GU DEL NE8 METHODOLOGY & TECHN CAL GU DEL NE8 METHODOLOGY & TECHN CAL GU DEL NE8
FOR PREPARATION OF GROUND WATER PROSPECTS MAPS
Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission Project
(Phase-II)














Sponsored by Dept. of Drinking Water Supply
Ministry of Rural Development
Govt. of India












NATIONAL REMOTE SENSING AGENCY
(DEPT. OF SPACE, GOVT. OF INDIA)
BALANAGAR, HYDERABAD-37

April, 2003
2






















This is an official document. No part of it should be reproduced in
any manner without due acknowledgement.




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METHODOLOGY FOR PREPRATION OF
GROUND WATER PROSPECTS MPS

Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission Project (PHASE-II)












Dr. P.R. Reddy
Dr. K. Chandra Mouly
S.K. Srivastava
K. Seshadri
G. Srinivasa Reddy
Manoj Dangwal
I.C. Das











NATIONAL REMOTE SENSING AGENCY
(DEPT. OF SPACE, GOVT. OF INDIA)
BALANAGAR, HYDERABAD-37
4

PROJECT MANAGEMENT



Dr. D.P. Rao Director, NRSA (till, April, 2001) Overall guidance & supervision

Dr. R.R. Navalgund Director, NRSA (since, May, 2001)

Shri S.K. Bhan Dy. Dir. (Appls.) till June, 2002

Dr. A. Bhattacharya Dy. Dir. (RS & GIS) since, July, 2002

Dr. V. S. Hegde Dy. Dir. (Appls.) ISRO/DOS Hqrs. Adviser

Dr. P.R. Reddy Project Director Project coordination & execution

Dr. Chandra Mouly Project Manger (Andhra Pradesh & Himachal Pradesh States)

Shri S.K. Srivastava Project Manger (M. P. & Chhattisgarh States) till June 2001

Shri K. Shesadri Project Manger (Kerala, Rajasthan & Orissa states)

Shri G.S. Reddy Project Manger ( Karnataka State)

Shri M. Dangwal Project Manger (Rajasthan State) till October, 2001

Shri I.C. Das Project Manger (M.P., Chhattisgarh & Jharkhand States)

Shri M.V. Kama Raju Project Coordinator (Orissa State ) since Feb. 2003

Shri V. K. Jha Project Coordinator (Himachal Pradesh State ) since, Feb. 2003

Shri V. Tamilarasan Project Coordinator (Gujarat State ) since, Feb. 2003

Dr. S. K. Subramanian Project Coordinator (Jharkhand State ) since, Feb. 2003

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The following scientists / experts participated in the discussions and
offered their suggestions in finalising the technical guidelines for preparation of
ground water prospects map.

1. Shri N. Kittu Officer on Special Duty
Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission
Ministry of Rural Areas & Employment

2. Dr. P. Babu Rao Director
Ground Water Department, Hyderabad

3. Dr. S.V.B.K. Bhagwan Director
APSRAC, Hyderabad

4. Dr. G.V.A. Rama Krishna Scientist
APSRAC, Hyderabad

5. Dr. M. Bassappa Reddy Director
Dept. of Mines & Geology, Bangalore

6. Dr. Y. Lingaraju Director
KSRSAC, Bangalore

7. Shri V. Gopalappa Geologist
PHED, Bangalore

8. Shri P. Radhakrishnan Nair Director
Kerala State Remote Sensing & Environment
Centre, Trivendrum

9. Shri M. Subramanian Suptd. Engineer
State Ground Water Dept., Trivendrum

10. Shri A. Jaju Jacobs Executive Engineer
Kerala water Authority, Trivendrum

11. Shri S.B. Tiwari Senior Hydrogeologist
PHED, Bhopal

12. Shri R.S. Bharadwaj Scientist
RSAC, MPCST, Bhopal

13. Shri K.K. Sharma Senior Hydrogeologist
PHED, Jaipur



14. Dr. Ashok Gahlot Research Officer
State Centre, Dept. of Science & Technology
Jodhpur
6

15. Shri S. Adiga Director
NNRMS-RRSSC, ISRO Hqrs., Bangalore

16. Shri V.S. Hegde Dy. Director (Applications)
EOS, ISRO Hqrs., Bangalore

17. Shri K. Ganesh Raj Scientist
NNRMS, ISRO Hqrs., Bangalore

18. Shri V. Tamilarasan Scientist
SAC, Ahmedabad

19 Shri Arun Sharma Scientist
SAC, Ahmedabad

20. Shri Uday Raj Scientist
RRSSC, Bangalore

21. Dr. A. Jeyram Scientist
RRSSC, Nagpur

22. Shri M. Suryanarayana Head, Geophysics Division
NRSA, Hyderabad

23. Prof. V.K. Jha Head, Geology Division
IIRS, Dehra Dun

24. Dr. A. Perumal Head, Integrated Surveys Division
NRSA, Hyderabad

25. Dr. S.K. Subramanian Scientist, Integrated Surveys Division
NRSA, Hyderabad

26. Shri M.V.V. Kamaraju Scientist, Geophysics Division
NRSA, Hyderabad


7
LITERATURE CONSULTED




1. Bhan, S.K. and Bedi, N. (1978). Satellite remote sensing survey of natural resources
of Andhra Pradesh. Project Report, NRSA, Hyderabad.

2. Bhan, S.K., Bhattacharya, A., Guha, P.K. and Ravindran, K.V. (1991). IRS-1A
applications in geology and mineral resources. Current Science, Vol. 61, Nos. 3 & 4,
pp 247-251.

3. Department of Space / ISRO (1988). Manual for Hydrogeomorphological mapping
for Drinking Water Mission.

4. Fairbridge, R.W. (1968). The Encyclopaedia of Geomorphology. Reinhold Book
Corporation, New York.

5. Fetter, C.W. (1990). Applied Hydrogeology. CBS Publishers, Delhi.

6. Gold, D.P. (1980). Remote sensing in geology Chapter 14 (Edited by Barry et al.).
John Wiley & Sons, New York.

7. NRSA (1995). Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development Technical
Guidelines. National Remote Sensing Agency, Dept. of Space, Hyderabad.

8. NRSA and RRSSC (1997). Manual of procedure for preparation of wastelands digital
data base using remote sensing & GIS techniques. NRSA and RRSSC, Dept. of
Space, Govt. of India.

9. Rao, D.P. et al. (1974). Integrated resources survey a pilot project in parts of
Karimnagar district, A.P. Internal Report of Indian Photointerpretation Institute (IPI),
Dehra Dun.

10. Rao, D.P., Bhattacharya, A. and Reddy, P.R. (1996). Use of IRS-1C data for
geological and geomorphological studies. Current Science, Vol. 70, N0. 7, pp 619-
623.

11. Reddy, P.R. (1991). New concepts and approach for ground water evaluation and
modelling with special reference to remote sensing. Ph.D. Thesis, Osmania
University, Hyderabad, India (Unpublished).

12. Reddy, P.R., Kumar, K.V. and Seshadri, K. (1996). Use of IRS-1C data in ground
water studies. Current Science, Vol. 70, N0. 7, pp 600-605.





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13. Reddy, P.R. (1999). Remote sensing in ground water studies. In : Remote Sensing
for Earth Resources Chapter 12, Publication of Association of Exploration
Geophysicists, Hyderabad.

14. Reeves, R.G., Anson,A. and Landen, D. (1975). Manual of Remote Sensing, Vol.-II,
American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, Virginia, USA.

15. Sabins, F.F. (1997). Remote sensing principles and interpretation. W.H. Freeman &
Company, New York.

16. SAC (1997). National (Natural) Resources Information System (NRIS) Node
Design and Standards. SAC Document No. SAC/RSA/NRIS-SIP/SD-01/97.

17. Thornbury, W.D. (1984). Principles of Geomorphology. Wiley Eastern Limited, New
Delhi.

18. Whitten, D.G.A. and Brooks, J.R.V. (1983). A Dictionary of Geology. Penguin Books
Ltd., England.


9

CONTENTS











1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.










7.
















List of Tables, Figures and Plates

List of Annexures



INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND

OBJECTIVES

REMOTE SENSING IN GROUND WATER STUDIES

DATA REQUIREMENTS AND COLLECTION

GROUND WATER PROSPECTS MAPPING-
THE CONCEPT AND BROAD METHODOLOGY

6.1 Factors Controlling Ground Water Regime

6.2 Classification Systems
6.2.1 Lithology
6.2.2 Geological Structures
6.2.3 Geomorphology
6.2.4 Hydrological Information and Recharge Conditions

METHODOLOGY FOR PREPARING GROUND WATER
PROSPECTS MAP

7.1 Preparation of Base Map

7.2 Preparation of Lithological Map Overlay

7.3 Preparation of Structural Map Overlay
7.4 Preparation of Geomorphic Map Overlay

7.5 Preparation of Hydrological Map Overlay
7.6 Field Visit And Data Collection
Page No.

III

IV


1

2

3

4

6

7



7

8
8
9
9
10

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19

19

21

22


23

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8.
7.6.1 Planning
7.6.2 Verification of Lithological, Structural,
Geomorphological and Hydrological Maps
7.6.3 Collection of Ground Water Information
7.6.4 Information about Problem Habitations

7.7 Corrections / Modifications in the Lithological, Structural,
Geomorphological, Hydrological and Base Maps

7.8 Preparation Of Ground Water Prospects Map
7.8.1 Draft map preparation
7.8.2 Digitisation
7.8.3 Generation of final ground water prospects map
7.8.4 Ground water prospects evaluation
7.8.5 Colour scheme

7.9 Quality Check

7.10 Output Generation
7.10.1 Option-I
7.10.2 Option-II

SCOPE OF GROUND WATER PROSPECTS MAPS

ANNEXURES - I to X


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24

25
25

26



26
27
32
32
32
33

33

35



36


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LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES AND PLATES




Tables

Table-1

Table-2

Table-3
Classification of rock types / lithologic units.

Classification of geological structures.

Classification of geomorphic units / landforms.






Figure

Figure-1

Flow chart depicting the methodology for preparation of ground water
prospects map.






Plate

Plate-1

Ground water prospects map for parts of Tumkur district, Karnataka (part
of toposheet no. 57 G/3).

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LIST OF ANNEXURES



Annexure-I Symbols for representing base map information

Annexure-II Symbols for representing structural information

Annexure-III Symbols for representing hydrological information

Annexure-IV Colour scheme for representing ground water prospects information

Annexure-V Proforma for collecting lithologic / structural / geomorphic /
hydrological information

Annexure-VI Proforma for collecting well inventory data

Annexure-VIIA Description of geological units

Annexure-VIIB Description of geomorphic units

Annexure-VIII Additional geomorphic units, methodology for Deccan Traps & sample
legend, Guidelines for suggesting recharge structures

Annexure-IX Phase-II -- Improvements / Modifications in the methodology

Annexure-X Quality check proforma

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1. INTRODUCTION



The Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (RGNDWM), Ministry of Rural
Areas and Employment, Govt. of India has approached the Dept. of Space / NRSA for
taking up a project for preparation of ground water prospects maps on the scale of
1:50,000, using high resolution satellite data towards scientific source finding of drinking
water for all the non-covered (NC) and partially-covered (PC) habitations in the country
by the concerned States and Union Territories. The RGNDWM indicated that as on
1.4.98, nearly 4.4 lakhs NC and PC habitations existed in the country spread over in
different States. Thus, more than 30% of the total habitations in the country are not
having proper drinking water sources. Due to increasing population and declining
ground water levels, more villages are added to PC and NC habitations every year.
Taking this as a serious issue, the Govt. of India has included this in the common
minimum programme for providing drinking water to all the villages in the country on
priority basis in a time-bound manner.

In pursuance of the above objectives and realizing the importance of scientific
database for selection of well sites for establishing drinking water sources to all the
problematic habitations in the country, the RGNDWM has requested NRSA / DOS to
prepare the ground water prospects maps. In response to the above, NRSA / DOS has
submitted a project proposal to the RGNDWM for taking up the total work as an
integrated project including satellite data interpretation, preparation of ground water
prospects maps, follow-up ground surveys, identification of sites on the ground for
drilling, selection of sites for construction of water harvesting structures and ultimately
creating a digital database.

After detailed discussions and deliberations, ultimately the RGNDWM has
entrusted NRSA to prepare the ground water prospects maps on 1:50,000 scale based
on satellite imagery interpretation with limited field checks. Initially in Phase I
programme six (6) states namely - Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra
Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala were taken up in January, 1999 and subsequently
during Phase II Jharkhand state was added in October 2001 and Himachal Pradesh,
Orissa and Gujarat states in October 2002.




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2. BACKGROUND



In India, more than 90% of rural and nearly 30% of urban population depends on
ground water for meeting their drinking and domestic requirements. In addition, it
accounts for nearly 60% of the irrigation potential created in the country. The distribution
of ground water is not uniform in all the regions. The spatio-temporal variations in
rainfall and regional / local differences in geology and geomorphology have led to an
uneven distribution of ground water in different regions across the country. This uneven
distribution (poor prospects) and indiscriminate tapping (over-exploitation) in certain
zones are the main reasons leading to scarcity of drinking water in many parts of the
country. In view of this, a large number of habitations in the country have remained as
problem villages not having sustainable drinking water sources. In this context, the
ground water source finding for planning sustainable drinking water schemes assumes
great significance.

In many States, Public Health Engineering Departments (PHEDs) and
Panchayath Raj Engineering Departments (PREDs) are engaged in rural drinking water
supply. Potable water is provided to the rural masses by these departments mainly
through hand pump wells and piped water supply schemes by pumping of water from
bore / tube wells and connecting to overhead tanks / ground level reservoirs. In water
scarcity areas, water is also supplied to villages through tankers during summer season.
These departments are having well established drilling and maintenance units
supported by experienced hydrogeologists for selection of sites for drilling. However,
scientific database on ground water, which facilitates identification of prospective
ground water zones for systematic selection of appropriate sites for drilling is not
available in majority of the cases. Added to this, these hydrogeologists do not have
enough time to select the sites by conducting systematic hydrogeological studies in the
area followed by site specific investigations in the favourable zones. Due to work
pressure, they have to select large number of sites for drilling in a short period to tackle
the drinking water problem on war footing. This has resulted in low success rate of
wells. In addition, many wells have started drying up very soon due to recharge
problem; thus, more and more habitations are falling into problematic category.
15

3. OBJECTIVES



The main objective of this project is to generate a scientific database for ground
water on appropriate scale towards scientific source finding of ground water for all the
non-covered (NC) and partially-covered (PC) habitations besides promoting systematic
planning and development of ground water in the country. In addition, these maps
should also provide necessary information for selection of sites for construction of
recharge structures to improve the sustainability of drinking water sources, wherever
required.

Towards this, it has been decided to prepare the ground water prospects
maps on 1:50,000 scale incorporating geological (lithological and structural),
geomorphological and hydrological information. Such integrated information provided in
the ground water prospects maps form a suitable database for narrowing down the
target zones and systematic selection of sites for drilling, after conducting follow-up
ground surveys to establish drinking water sources to all the non-covered and partially-
covered habitations, besides providing information for selection of sites for construction
of recharge structures to improve the sustainability of drinking water sources, wherever
required.

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4. REMOTE SENSING IN GROUND WATER STUDIES


During the last three decades, different organisations like Geological Survey of
India (GSI), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), National Remote Sensing Agency
(NRSA), Space Application Centre (SAC), Ground Water Departments of different
states, Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres (RRSSCs), State Remote Sensing
Centres, and Academic Institutions / Universities have used the aerial photographs and
satellite imagery for mapping geology, geomorphology and for identifying potential
ground water zones.

The methodology for preparing ground water maps using remote sensing data
has undergone rapid changes during the last two decades. Initially, remote sensing
data was used mainly for updating and refining the hydrogeological maps prepared from
ground surveys. Subsequently, many organisations in the country have started
preparing the ground water maps through visual interpretation of satellite data with
limited field checks. These maps, prepared by different workers with different titles,
vary greatly in their quality and information content. However, these studies have
undoubtedly contributed to gradual improvement in the mapping procedures.
Significant studies carried out at NRSA/DOS during this period are discussed below :

Hydromorphological maps were prepared (D.P.Rao et al., 1974) through aerial
photo-interpretation on 1:50,000 scale indicating the hydromorphic unit-wise ground
water potential in qualitative terms i.e. very good, good, poor, none, etc.

Geomorphological maps were prepared (S.K. Bhan and Naresh Bedi, 1978)
based on visual interpretation of Landsat-1 imagery on 1:250,000 scale and geomorphic
province-wise ground water potentials were evaluated taking into account the landform,
lithology, drainage and lineament density and the ground water potentials were
indicated in qualitative terms as very high, high, moderate and low.

Ground water potential maps were prepared on 1:25,000 scale based on visual
interpretation of Landsat-MSS data (P.R. Reddy and R.S. Rao, 1984), wherein the
ground water potentials were evaluated by combining the geology, geomorphology,
terrain conditions, depth of weathering, etc. Ground water potential maps were
prepared on 1:50,000 scale using high resolution Landsat-TM data (P.R. Reddy and A.
Perumal, 1985; R.S. Rao, 1985), wherein the ground water prospects were evaluated
taking into account the lithology, landform and structural information. Ground water
potential maps were also prepared on 1:250,000 scale using Landsat-TM data(Dept.of
Space 1986-87) for the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Rajasthan by adopting a
common legend.

Hydrogeomorphological maps were prepared on 1:250,000 scale using Landsat-
TM and IRS-1A/1B data for all the 447 districts in the country(Dept.of Space with the
support of other depts., 1987-92), under National Drinking Water Technology Mission.
In these maps, the ground water prospects were evaluated in terms of low, moderate,
17
high, etc by taking into account the lithology, geomorphology and structural information.
Subsequently, hydrogeomorphological maps were also prepared on 1:50,000 scale for
some selected areas under Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (NRSA /
DOS, 1995-99). In these maps also, the ground water prospects were indicated as very
good, moderate, poor, etc.

During the last few years, studies conducted at NRSA and other centers of Dept.
of Space (under IMSD Project and other R&D studies)have proved the usefulness of
satellite data for selection of sites for construction of recharge structures
7,13
,ground
water resource estimation and budgeting

, ground water draft estimation, mapping of
ground water over-exploited zones
13
.

Thus, the use of satellite data has been demonstrated for ground water mapping
and selection of sites for planning recharge structures.



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5. DATA REQUIREMENTS AND COLLECTION



The data requirements and collection for preparing the ground water prospects
map are given here under :

1. Geocoded (precision scale corrected) IRS-1C/1D LISS-III FCC imagery on 1:50,000
scale, preferably of February-April period with scene specific enhancement (to be
provided by NRSA ),

2. Locations of the non-covered (NC) and partially-covered (PC) habitations (to be
provided by the concerned Depts of the respective States),

3. Survey of India (SOI) toposheets on 1:50,000 scale for consultation (to be procured
by the investigator),

4. Existing geological, hydrogeological, geomorphological and geophysical maps and
information (to be collected by the investigator),

5. Historic data of the observation wells available with the concerned State Depts. and
CGWB (to be collected by the investigator), and

6. Ground hydrogeological and well observation data for 80 100 wells in each map
(to be collected by the investigator during field surveys).

19
6. GROUND WATER PROSPECTS MAPPING-
THE CONCEPT AND BROAD METHODOLOGY



The conventional hydrogeological maps prepared mainly based on ground
hydrogeological surveys provide geological unit-wise ground water prospects. However,
within each geological unit (rock type), the ground water conditions vary significantly
depending upon the relief, slope, depth of weathering, nature of the weathered material,
presence of fractures, surface water bodies, canals, irrigated fields, etc. Therefore, a
different but systematic approach / methodology, which can take care of large amount
of variability within a geologic unit, is required to understand the ground water prospects
more clearly. Such a methodology was developed (P.R. Reddy, 1991) defining the total
ground water regime as a combination of 4 factors, i.e. 1) Lithology, 2) Landform,
3) Structure and 4) recharge conditions. Systematic and well defined classification
systems were evolved for each of these factors and an innovative approach was
developed for preparing the ground water prospective zone maps representing lithology
with code numbers, landforms with alphabetic annotation, geological structures with line
symbols, hydrological data with colours / symbols and ground water prospects with
different colours following the VIBGYOR colour scheme. Thus, by integrating the
lithological, landform, structural and hydrological data sets, supported by correlation
models, the quantitative information on ground water prospects could be provided
indicating the nature of aquifer, type of aquifer, type of wells suitable, their depth range,
yield range, success rate, sustainability, etc.

These ground water prospects maps form a very good database and help the
geologists of user departments in identifying favourable zones (prospective zones)
around the problem villages, thereby narrowing down the target areas. Then, by
conducting detailed ground hydrogeological and geophysical surveys within these
zones, most appropriate sites can be selected for drilling. Further, these maps will also
be useful for identifying suitable zones/sites for planning recharge structures to improve
the sustainability of drinking water sources. Thus, the ground water prospects maps
will serve the twin benefit of helping the field geologists to - 1) quickly identify the
prospective ground water zones for conducting site specific investigations, and
2) select the sites for planning recharge structures to improve sustainability of drinking
water sources, wherever required. The factors controlling the ground water regime,
their classification systems and the methodology for preparing ground water prospects
maps are described here under (Chapters 6 & 7). Most of this is adopted from P.R.
Reddy, 1991 with minor modifications.


6.1 FACTORS CONTROLLING GROUND WATER REGIME

The ground water regime is a dynamic system wherein water is absorbed at the
surface of the earth and eventually recycled back to the surface through the geological
strata. In this process, various elements like relief, slope, ruggedness, depth and nature
of weathering, thickness and nature of deposited material, distribution of surface water
bodies, river / stream network, precipitation, canal command areas, ground water
irrigated areas, etc also influence the ground water regime, besides the geologic
framework. Thus, the framework in which the ground water occurs is as varied as that of
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rock types, as intricate as their structural deformation and geomorphic history, and as
complex as that of the balance among the lithologic, structural, geomorphic and
hydrologic parameters. The possible combinations of variety and intricacy are virtually
infinite leading to the unavoidable conclusion that the ground water conditions at a given
site are unique and not completely amenable to scientific understanding. Some of the
conditions are often obscured and not readily apparent even from the field observations.
However, factor-wise analysis, systematic mapping, data integration and interpretation
based on conceptual understanding will help in overcoming this problem to some
extent
11
.

Though, there are a large number of variables that are important in
understanding the ground water conditions of an area, it is not possible to separately
map and study all the variables individually during the course of the investigation.
Rarely it is possible for an investigator to complete all the examinations to eliminate
uncertainties and provide quantitative information about the type, thickness and depth
of aquifer, its yield potential, success rate, etc with complete confidence. Varying
degrees of uncertainty and inconsistency are inherent in the present methodology
(conventional hydrogeological mapping). Hence, the entire procedure of mapping has to
be made more systematic and simpler with well defined units based on which better
inferences can be made. For this purpose, all the variables that control the ground water
regime have been grouped into the following 4 factors -

1. Geology / Lithology
2. Geological Structures
3. Geomorphology / Landforms
4. Recharge conditions.

Once, information on these 4 factors is precisely known, it is possible to
understand the ground water regime better by visualising the gross aquifer
characteristics of each unit
11
. Systematic visual interpretation of satellite imagery in
conjunction with existing geological / hydrogeological / geomorphological maps and
data supported by limited field checks / observations provide the information related to
these 4 factors. By integrating the lithological, structural, landform and hydrological
information referred above, the ground water prospects map can be prepared which
provide better understanding of ground water regime as compared to the conventional
hydrogeological map.

6.2 CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

6.2.1 Lithology

The geological classification of different rock types which is mainly based on their
origin and mineral composition does not provide sufficient information for
hydrogeological studies. In ground water studies, texture of the rocks is more important
as it defines the water holding and transmitting capacity of the rocks vis-a-vis the aquifer
characteristics. Considering this, a separate lithologic classification system has been
evolved, wherein all the rocks having similar or matching hydrogeological characteristics
are grouped together. Thus, mainly based on the texture of the rocks (primary /
secondary porosity and permeability resulting from inter-granular pore spaces, bedding,
21
cleavage, schistosity, foliation, etc), a two stage lithological classification system has
been evolved
11
and presented in Table-1.

In this classification, all the rock types have been classified into 9 rock groups.
Under each group, several lithologic units that are likely to occur have been identified.
For the sake of easy representation on the maps, numerical code numbers have been
assigned to different rock groups and rock types / lithologic units. In the numerical
code number of the rock type / lithologic unit, the first digit represents the rock group
and the second digit represents the lithologic unit. In a given area, if more than one
similar lithologic unit occurs at different stratigraphic positions, a third digit has to be
added to the code number for further differentiation as explained in section 7.2 in more
detail. Efforts have been made to include all possible variations in lithologic units in
each rock group. Further, provision has also been kept to include additional units,
wherever required. However, this should be done judiciously after fully satisfying that
such variations are not covered in the existing litho-units and creating an additional unit
is absolutely essential. This should be done in consultation with the Project Director,
Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission, NRSA.


6.2.2 Geological Structures

In the hard rock areas, geological structures exercise definite control on the
aquifer characteristics of different rock types, as the structurally weak planes act as
conduits for movement and occurrence of ground water, thereby introducing an element
of directional variation in hydraulic conductivity
11
. The geological structures that can be
identified on satellite imagery can be divided into two categories: (i) primary
structures- associated with specific rock types and (ii) secondary structures- which
cut, deform and otherwise affect the rock units themselves
13
. Both these primary and
secondary geological structures have been classified into the following 8 categories to
facilitate systematic mapping based on satellite imagery interpretation with limited field
checks (Table-2). All these structures like - i) bedding, ii) schistosity / foliation, iii)
faults, iv) fractures / lineaments, v) fractures / lineaments (inferred), vi) shear zones,
vii) folds and viii) trend lines have to be represented on the map with different line
symbols as indicated in Annexure-II.


6.2.3 Geomorphology

The earths surface can be classified into different geomorphic units /
landforms based on their physiographic expression, origin, material content and
climatic conditions, etc. Different types of geomorphological maps can be prepared
giving emphasis to some of these factors. Hence, the geomorphological maps vary
greatly depending on the purpose for which they are prepared, i.e. terrain evaluation,
land resource mapping, soil classification, watershed prioritisation, ground water
studies, etc. A number of terms are available in the geomorphic literature for describing
a variety of landforms, but all of them may not exercise definite control on the ground
water regime. In view of this, a systematic classification of geomorphic units / landforms
wherein the individual geomorphic unit / landform has definite bearing on the ground
water regime
11
, has become necessary to follow in this project.

22
Considering this, a geomorphic classification system has been developed
11
for
preparing the ground water prospects map on 1:50,000 scale. The same has been
pesented in Table-3. In this classification all the geomorphic units / landforms have
been broadly classified into 3 major zones, (1) Hills & Plateaus, (2) Piedmont Zones
and (3) Plains. In each of these zones, a number of geomorphic units / landforms which
are possible to occur have been included as shown in Table-3. The details provided in
this classification are commensurate with the scale of mapping, i.e. 1:50,000 scale.
However, depending on the ground realities, additional landforms, if any, can also be
included.

Further, it may be mentioned here that much of the geomorphic terminology used
in this classification system have been taken from the existing geomorphic literature.
But, these terms are used more liberally to cover additional landforms which were not
originally intended for. Thus, the names of landforms given in this classification system
are not used in their strict sense. Their usage has been extended to cover a variety of
landforms. For example, the terms pediment and pediplain were originally used to
represent rock-cut surfaces / plains formed mainly by massive rocks in arid and semi-
arid climatic zones; whereas, these terms are used here to represent all gently
undulating plains formed on all rock formations (including sedimentary and volcanic
rocks) in all climatic zones.


6.2.4 Hydrological Information and Recharge Conditions

Recharge is the most important factor in ground water studies. If sufficient
recharge is not there, the most favourable aquifer zones will also go dry. Hence, it is
essential to pay sufficient attention to study the recharge conditions before evaluating
the ground water prospects of each unit. As already mentioned earlier at section 6.1.4,
the hydrological information derived from satellite imagery in conjunction with ground
hydrological data will be quite useful in proper evaluation of recharge conditions. The
recharge conditions can be given as excellent, very good, good, moderate, limited, poor
and nil considering the perennial / ephemeral nature of water bodies, rivers, streams
and canals, amount of rainfall, the extent of recharging area and the hydrogeological
conditions. In the ground water prospects map, the recharge conditions also have to be
given in the legend for each hydrogeomorphic unit along with rock type and landform.
This not only helps in proper evaluation of ground water prospects but is also useful for
selection of sites for planning recharge structures in different units to improve the
sustainability of drinking water sources
11
.
23
TABLE-1 classification of rock types / lithologic units.
(P.R. Reddy, 1991 with minor modifications)

Code Rock Group Code Rock Type / Lithologic Unit
No. No.

1 UNCONSOLIDATED
SEDIMENTS
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Alluvium sand / silt dominant
Alluvium clay dominant
Alluvium sand / silt & clay alternating beds
Colluvium clay / silt dominant
Colluvium pebble / cobble dominant
Eolian Sand / silt
Loess
----------
----------

2 RESIDUAL CAPPINGS 21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Laterite (ferricrete)
Bauxite (alecrete)
Kankar (Calcrete)
Chert (silcrete)
Detrital laterite / bauxite
---------
---------

3 DECCAN TRAPS &
INTERTRAPPEANS
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
Inter-/infra-trappean sand / clay beds
Tuffacious basalt
Vesicular basalt
Amygdaloidal basalt
Massive basalt
Columnar basalt
Red / green bole
----------
----------

4 OLDER VOLCANICS &
METAVOLCANICS
41
42
43
44
45
46

Basalt / meta basalt
Rhyolite / meta rhyolite
Dacite / meta dacite
Andesite / meta andesite
----------
----------

5 SEMI-CONSOLIDATED
SEDIMENTS
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
Sandstone / pebble bed / conglomerate
Shaly sandstone
Sandstone with shale / coal bands
Sandy shale
Shale with sandstone / limestone bands
Shale / coal / lignite
Limestone / shell limestone
Limestone with shale bands
----------


Table contd.

24
6 CONSOLIDATED
SEDIMENTS
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
Thin bedded / flaggy sandstone / quartzite
Thick bedded / massive sandstone / quartzite
Thin bedded / flaggy limestone / dolomite
Thick bedded / massive limestone / dolomite
Shaly limestone
Shale with limestone / sandstone bands /
lenses
Shale
Conglomerate
----------

7 PLUTONIC ROCKS 71
72
73
74
75

Alkaline rocks | Name of rock
Basic rocks | to be specified
Ultrabasic / ultramafic rocks |
----------
----------

8 GNEISS-GRANITOID
COMPLEX / CHARNOCKITE-
KHONDALITE COMPLEX /
MIGMATITE
81
82
83

84
85
86
87
88
Granites / Acidic rocks
Migmatite / Migmatite complex
Granitoid Gneiss / Gneissic Granitoid /
Granitoid complex
Charnockite
Khondalite
Charnockite Khondalite complex
----------
----------

9 METAMORPHIC ROCKS 91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
Gneiss
Schist
Phyllite
Slate
Quartzite
Calc-gneiss / schist
Marble / Crystalline limestone
----------
----------

(Red Colour) Q _______ Q Quartz reef / Quartzite band
P _______ P Pegmatite
D _______ D Basic dyke

Note:

1) This classification is based on texture of the rocks, mainly for hydrogeological purpose. In the map
legend, the rock types have to be listed as per the geological sequence indicating their type name like
Barakar sandstone Peninsular gneiss etc. giving the appropriate code number from this table.

2) In case of unconsolidated sediments where they are shallow (less than 10 m thick), their composition
may be indicated in the remarks column of the map legend and the rock type occurring below such
sediments should be indicated in the rock type / geologic sequence column.

3) In case of residual cappings, the underlying rock type should be indicated in the remarks column of
the map legend.

4) Quartz reef, pegmatite, basic dyke may also be marked as polygon features, wherever required.

25

Table-2 Classification of geological structures



Structure Category

1.

Bedding

Gentle (<10
0
dip)
Moderate (10-45
0
dip)
Steep (45-80
0
dip)
Sub-vertical to vertical (>80
0
dip)


2.

Schistosity / Foliation

Gentle (<10
0
dip)
Moderate (10-45
0
dip)
Steep (45-80
0
dip)
Sub-vertical to vertical (>80
0
dip)


3.

Fault

Minor (< 3 km length)
Major (> 3 km length)


4.

Fracture / lineament

Minor (< 3 km length)
Major (> 3 km length)


5.

Fracture / lineament
(inferred)

Minor (< 3 km length)
Major (> 3 km length)


6.

Folds

Anticline / Antiform
Syncline / Synform


7.

Shear zone




8.

Trend line




Symbols for representing the above structures are shown in Annexure-II.
26

Table-3 Classification of geomorphic units / landforms.
(P.R. Reddy, 1991 with minor modifications)


Physiography Geomorphic Unit / Landform Code


I.

HILLS &
PLATEAUS

Hills

Structural Hills
Denudational Hills
Residual Hills
Inselberg

SH
DH
RH
I

Plateaus
Upper Plateau
- Undissected
- Mod. Dissected
- Highly Dissected


UP
UPU
UPM
UPH
Middle Plateau
- Undissected
- Mod. Dissected
- Highly Dissected

MP
MPU
MPM
MPH


Lower Plateau
- Undissected
- Mod. Dissected
- Highly Dissected
LP
LPU
LPM
LPH
Other Landforms common to
Hills and Plateaus
Linear / Curvilinear Ridge
Cuesta
Mesa
Butte
Inselberg
Outer Fringe of Plateau
Fracture / Fault line Valley
Intermontane Valley
Valley
Valley fill Shallow
Valley fill Moderate
Valley fill Deep


LR/CR
C
M
B
I
OFP
FV
IV
V
VFS
VFM
VFD

II. PIEDMONT
ZONE


Piedmont Slope
Pediment
Pediment-
Inselberg Complex

Piedmont Alluvium









- Shallow
- Moderate
- Deep


PS
PD
PIC


PA
PAS
PAM
PAD

Bajada
- Shallow
- Moderate
- Deep
BJ
BJS
BJM
BJD





27

Linear / Curvilinear Ridge
Cuesta
Mesa
Butte
Inselberg
Alluvial Fan
Talus Cone
Fracture / Fault line valley
Valley
Valley fill Shallow
Valley fill Moderate
Valley fill Deep

LR/CR
C
M
B
I
AF
TC
FV
V
VFS
VFM
VFD

III. PLAINS Pediplain Weathered
- Shallow
- Moderate
- Deep

Buried
- Shallow
- Moderate
- Deep

PP
PPS
PPM
PPD

BP
BPS
BPM
BPD
Stripped Plain
Shallow Basement
Moderate Basement
Deep Basement
SP
SPS
SPM
SPD

Other Landforms common to
Pediplain & Stripped Plain
Linear / Curvilinear Ridge
Cuesta
Mesa
Butte
Inselberg
Valley fill Shallow
Valley fill Moderate
Valley fill Deep
Fracture / Fault line valley
Valley



LR/CR
C
M
B
I
VFS
VFM
VFD
FV
V

Flood Plain
- Shallow
- Moderate
- Deep
FP
FPS
FPM
FPD

Alluvial Plain


- Shallow
- Moderate
- Deep

AP
APS
APM
APD
Deltaic Plain
- Shallow
- Moderate
- Deep
DP
DPS
DPM
DPD












































Other Landforms common to
Flood Plain, Alluvial Plain and
Deltaic Plain
Channel Bar
Point Bar
River Terrace








CB
PB
RT



NL
BS
28
Natural Levee
Back Swamp
Cut-off Meander
Abandoned Channel

Ox-bow Lake
Palaeochannel
Buried Channel

CM
AC

OL
PC
BC
Coastal Plain
- Shallow
- Moderate
- Deep





Beach
Beach Ridge
Beach Ridge & Swale Complex
Swale
Offshore Bar
Spit
Mud Flat
Salt Flat
Tidal Flat
Lagoon
Channel Island
Palaeochannel
Buried Channel
CP
CPS
CPM
CPD

BH
BR
BSC
SW
OB
ST
MF
SF
TF
LG
CI
PC
BC

Eolian Plain


- Shallow
- Moderate
- Deep



EP
EPS
EPM
EPD

Sand Dune
Stabilised Dune
Dune Complex
Interdunal Depression
Interdunal Flat
Playa
Desert Pavement
Loess Plain
Palaeochannel
Buried Channel

Escarpment

SD
STD
DC
ID
IF
PL
DPV
LP
PC
BC



Note:
1. In case of Plateau, the elevation range (in metres) have to be given in the parenthesis along with the unit name [e.g.
Upper Plateau Undissected (UPU) (400-500 m)] in the legend.

2. The Flood Plain, Alluvial Plain, Deltaic Plain and Coastal Plain may be further classified and mapped as
upper / lower, older / younger, wherever required.

29

7. METHODOLOGY FOR PREPARING GROUND WATER
PROSPECTS MAP


The broad methodology to be followed for preparing the ground water prospects
map is shown in the flow chart (Figure-1). It involves the following 7 steps :

Preparation of base map from SOI toposheet, and lithological, structural,
geomorphological and hydrological map overlays based on the visual interpretation of
satellite image in conjunction with the existing maps / literature.

Preliminary quality check and suggestions for improvement.

Field visits for checking the interpretation, collecting the additional hydrogeological
information.

Incorporation of field observations in the lithological, structural, geomorphological,
hydrological and base map overlays.

Preparation of ground water prospects map by combining the lithological, structural,
geomorphological and hydrological map overlays and transferring the details on to the
base map, and preparation of legend indicating hydrogeomorphic unit-wise ground
water prospects.

Final quality check and suggestions for improvement.

Incorporation of corrections / modifications suggested during the quality check.

Output generation and submission to NRSA. For this purpose, there are 2 options

OPTION-I : This option is for the organisations where the digitisation and hard copy
output generation facilities are not available. Such organisations can
submit the outputs (individual map overlays and ground water
prospects map) in the form of cartographically drawn hard copies.

OPTION-II: This option is for the organisations where digitisation and output
generation facilities are available in-house. Such organisations can
take up the digitisation, integration and map composition job and have
to submit the soft and hard copies of the outputs as explained in
section 7.10.2.

The detailed methodology for preparing the individual map overlays, i.e. base
map, lithological map, structural map, geomorphological map and hydrological map,
their integration for preparing the ground water prospects maps are discussed in this
chapter. The Quality Check (QC) will be carried out by the Quality Assurance and
30
Standardisation (QAS) team of NRSA/DOS as shown in Figure-1 to ensure the high
quality and uniformity in the end products.


7.1 PREPARATION OF BASE MAP

The base map has to be prepared on a transparent overlay mainly using the
precission corrected Satelite Imagery on 1:50,000 scale. Field information and collateral
data have to be used and toposheet may be consulted for preparing the base map. The
base map should contain the following details with appropriate symbols as shown in the
Annexure-I :

1. Rivers / streams (entire drainage upto first order strteams). In case of Hilly areas
and highly dissected terrain where drainage density is very high, some first order
streams can be omitted to reduce the clumsiness in the map).

2. All water bodies, both perennial and ephemeral have to be mapped based on the
satellite image.

3. Canals
4. National highways
5. State highways
6. Metalled and unmetalled roads connecting all the habitations
7. Railway lines
8. Cities / major towns / villages / Habitations as seen on the satellite data (Names
of the habitations have to be indicated on the map by consulting the toposheet or
any other map)

9. Problem villages (NC / PC habitations) with names to be indicated with different
symbols as shown in Annexure-I. The locations of NC/PC villages have to be
collected from the concerned State Depts.

10. International, State, District, Taluk / Tahsil boundaries
11. Springs / seepages (Sfrom ground surveys)

7.2 PREPARATION OF LITHOLOGICAL MAP OVERLAY

The synoptic view and multispectral nature of the satellite imagery help in
discrimination and mapping of different lithologic units. Geological mapping is carried
out mainly based on visual interpretation of satellite images adopting deductive
approach by studying image characteristics and terrain information in conjunction with
a priori knowledge of general geological setting of the area. The tone (colour) and
landform characteristics combined with relative erodibility, drainage, soil type, land use/
land cover and other contextual information observable on the satellite image are useful
in differentiating different rock groups / types.

31
The direct clue for interpretation of rock type / lithologic unit comes from the tone
(colour) of the image. For example, the acidic and arenaceous rocks appear in lighter
tone as compared to the basic / argillaceous rocks. Similarly, coarse grained rocks
having higher porosity and permeability appear brighter on the image as compared to
fine grained rocks having higher moisture retaining capacity. The highly resistant rock
formations occur as different types of hills depending upon their texture and internal
structure; whereas, the easily erodible rocks occur as different types of plains and
valleys. While dendritic drainage indicates homogeneous rocks, the trellis, rectangular
and parallel drainage patterns indicate structural and lithological controls. The coarse
drainage texture indicates highly porous and permeable rock formations; whereas, fine
drainage texture is more common in less pervious formations. The coarse textured and
light coloured soils indicate the acidic / arenaceous rocks rich in quartz and felspars;
whereas, the fine textured and dark coloured soils indicate basic / argillaceous rocks.
Thus, by combining all these evidences, it is possible to interpret different rock groups /
formations. Though, one or two recognition elements, mentioned above, may be
diagnostic for the identification of a particular rock type, the convergence of evidences
must be considered by studying all the recognition elements conjunctively. However,
limited field checks are a must to identify the rock types and to make necessary
corrections in the interpreted map based on field evidences. Once, the rock types are
identified, the contacts can be extended over large areas with minimum ground control.
The identification, correlation and extrapolation of rock types is possible based on
similar spectral and morphological characters.
For preparation of lithological map overlay, information from the following
sources is required :

1. Consultation of existing geological / hydrogeological maps or literature
2. Interpretation of satellite imagery
3. Field visits / surveys.

Consultation of existing maps/literature helps in knowing general geological
setting of the area and different rocks types that occur or likely to occur in the area.
Where previous literature is not available and differentiation of rock types is very
difficult/not possible, a reconnaissance field visit will be useful. With this a priori
knowledge, the geologist should look at the satellite imagery and try to correlate the
different image characteristics with different rock types. Where, contrasting rock types
are occurring, the boundaries can be seen very clearly on the satellite imagery with
different colours (tones) or landforms. In other cases, complementary evidences have to
be considered to demarcate the boundaries between different rock types. This can be
done more effectively by keeping the satellite imagery on light table and putting a fully
transparent overlay. On this overlay all lithological boundaries should be marked.
Where previous geological maps on 1:50,000 scale are available, the same may be
overlaid on the satellite imagery in the form of transparent tracing and further
modifications / corrections and editing should be done incorporating additional details
that can be interpreted from satellite imagery. After total interpretation of the imagery,
each lithologic unit / rock type should be indicated with appropriate lithologic code
number like 21, 34, 76 as given in the lithologic classification system (Table-1). In this
code number, the first numeral represents the rock group code and the second numeral
32
represents the lithologic unit / rock type code. If similar rock type occurs at different
stages of succession or if a rock is sub-divided based on mineralogic composition, it
has to be indicated by adding a 3rd digit like - 541, 542, 543, in the increasing order
from top to bottom. If any lithologic unit / rock type is not covered in Table-1, it may be
added as provision has been made to include the extra units, if any. In case two digit
codes are exhausted for a particular rock group, third digit may be added to the last
code to include the extra lithologic unit / rock type, e.g. 691, 692, 693, etc. Wherever the
lithological units are not clearly identifiable, they should be indicated with question
marks for verification on the ground during field visit. After the field verification, final
lithological map overlay has to be prepared by incorporating the field observations.


7.3 PREPARATION OF STRUCTURAL MAP OVERLAY

The utility of satellite imagery for mapping the geological structures has been
emphasised by various workers. The synoptic coverage provided by the satellite
imagery enable mapping regional structures which is difficult in conventional ground
surveys due to scanty rock exposures, soil cover, lack of continuous observations, etc.
The different types of primary and secondary geological structures (attitude of beds,
schistosity / foliation, folds, lineaments etc.) can be interpreted from satellite imagery by
studying the landforms, slope asymmetry, outcrop pattern, drainage pattern, individual
stream / river courses, etc.

Lineaments representing the faults, fractures, shear zones, etc are the most
obvious structural features interpretable on the satellite imagery. They control the
occurrence and movement of ground water in hard rock terrain, and their significance in
ground water exploration has been proved beyond doubt. They occur in parallel sets in
different directions indicating different tectonic events. They appear as linear to
curvilinear lines on the satellite imagery and are often marked by the presence of
moisture, alignment of vegetation, straight stream / river courses, alignment of tanks /
ponds, etc. These lineaments can be further subdivided into faults, fractures and shear
based on their image characters and geological evidences.

The attitude of beds (strike and dip) can be estimated broadly by studying the
slope asymmetry, landform, drainage characteristics, etc. For example, horizontal to
sub-horizontal beds show mesa / butte type of landform, dendritic drainage pattern and
tonal / colour banding parallel to the contour lines. Inclined beds show triangular dip
facets, cuestas, homoclines and hogbacks. The schistosity / foliation of the rocks are
depicted on the satellite imagery by numerous thin, wavy and discontinuous lines. Folds
can be identified on the satellite imagery by mapping the marker horizons. Further
classification into anticline or syncline can be made on the basis of dip direction of beds.

For preparation of structural overlay, information from the following sources is
required :

1. Existing geological / hydrogeological maps and literature
2. Interpretation of satellite imagery
3. Field visits / surveys.

33
As discussed earlier, the primary and secondary geological structures have to be
identified and mapped through visual interpretation of satellite imagery taking the help of
existing maps / literature. Different structures that have to be mapped have been
classified into following 6 groups which have to be represented on the map with
appropriate line symbols as shown in the Annexure-II :

1. Bedding
2. Schistosity / Foliation
3. Faults
4. Fractures / Lineaments
5. Shear Zones
6. Folds
7. Trend Lines

The first 4 structures mentioned above, have to be further classified and mapped
into different types as discussed in section 6.2.2. Initially, a pre-field structural map
overlay has to be prepared which has to be checked in the field wherever they are
mapped based on inferences and then, a final map has to be prepared by incorporating
the field observations.


7.4 PREPARATION OF GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP OVERLAY

The synoptic view of satellite imagery facilitates better appreciation of
geomorphology and helps in mapping of different landforms and their assemblage. The
photo-interpretation criteria, such as tone, texture, shape, size, location, association,
physiography, genesis of the landforms, nature of rocks / sediments, associated
geological structures, etc., are to be used for identification of different landforms /
geomorphic units. Initially, the entire image has to be classified into 3 major zones, i.e.
Hills & Plateaus, Piedmont Zones, and Plains considering the physiography and relief
as the criteria. Then, within each zone, different geomorphic units have to be mapped
based on the landform characteristics, their areal extent, depth of weathering, thickness
of deposition etc as discussed earlier. Subsequently, within the alluvial, deltaic, coastal,
eolian and flood plains, individual landforms as listed in Table-3, have to be mapped
and represented on the map using the standard alphabetic codes shown against each
landform.

These geomorphic units / landforms interpreted from the satellite imagery have to
be verified on the ground during the field visit to collect the information on the depth of
weathering, nature of weathered material, thickness of deposition and nature of
deposited material, etc. For this purpose, nala / stream cuttings, existing wells, lithologs
of the wells drilled have to be examined. By incorporating these details in the pre-field
interpretation map, the final geomorphic map overlay has to be prepared.

For preparation of geomorphic map overlay, information from the following
sources is required :



34
1. Lithological map overlays
2. Interpretation of satellite imagery
3. Field visits / surveys.

If previous maps / literature is available, the job becomes easier; even otherwise
also, a good geomorphological map showing assemblage of different landforms can be
prepared based on the above sources of information. The satellite image along with the
interpreted lithological map overlay should be kept on the light table. A fresh
transparent overlay should be kept on the top and each rock type should be classified
into different geomorphic units / landforms as per the classification system suggested.
Sometimes one lithologic unit may be classified into 2 or more geomorphic units /
landforms and vice versa. This is to note that wherever the lithologic/ geomorphic
boundaries are common, they should be made co-terminus. All the geomorphic units /
landforms should be labeled with alphabetic annotation as given in Table-3, e.g. RH,
PPS, VFD, etc.

7.5 PREPARATION OF HYDROLOGICAL MAP OVERLAY

Satellite imagery provide excellent information on hydrologic aspects like
stream/river courses, canals, major reservoirs, lakes, tanks, springs / seepages, canal
commands, ground water irrigated areas, etc. Based on visual interpretation of satellite
data, all the above information can be derived and mapped.

The hydrologic information, derived from satellite imagery in conjunction with
collateral data has to be shown on a separate map overlay in a classified manner with
appropriate symbols as indicated in Annexure-III. Further, the observation wells of State
and Central Ground Water Depts. and the wells inventoried during field visit have to be
marked on this map overlay in a classified manner with appropriate symbols as shown
in Annexure-III and as discussed in section 7.7.1.

For preparation of hydrological map overlay, the following sources of information
are required -

1. Interpretation of satellite imagery
2. Field visits / surveys
3. Observation well data and
4. Meteorological data

The following details have to be shown in the hydrological map overlay -

1. Canal / tank commands
2. Ground water irrigated areas
3. Well observation data collected in the field and Govt. Depts.
4. Rain gauge stations indicating average annual rainfall. In case of absence of rain
guage station in a toposheet, average annual rainfall in mm has to be given in the
legend. Source of rainfall data should be either IMD or District Gazetteer.

35
The symbols for representing the above information are given in the Annexure-III
Initially, a pre-field hydrological map overlay has to be prepared by visually interpreting
the satellite image and taking the help of toposheet. Subsequently, during the field
surveys, necessary information on the surface and ground water irrigated areas,
cropping pattern, command areas, existing wells, etc have to be collected and
incorporated for preparing the final hydrological map overlay.


7.6 FIELD VISIT AND DATA COLLECTION

7.6.1 Planning

Before proceeding to the field for ground checks, proper planning has to be made
regarding the type of data to be collected and the locations. For this purpose, based on
the road network, the doubtful areas marked with question marks while interpreting
lithology, landforms, faults, fractures, etc which need to be verified in the field, should be
identified and noted in the field note book as well as on the maps.

Similarly, the locations of the problematic habitations (as provided by the
concerned State Depts.) have to be marked on the map overlays for checking them on
the ground for further details. A check list may be prepared indicating the locations and
the information to be observed / collected.

In addition to this, other areas where well inventory data have to be collected
should also be marked on the pre-field hydrological map. It should be planned to collect
well inventory data from all the lithologic-landform combinations in such a way that the
wells are distributed throughout the map. At least 2-3 wells should be observed in each
unit so that the ground water prospects of each unit can be evaluated judiciously. Within
each unit also, special care should be taken to observe the depth of weathering, nature
of weathered material, thickness and composition of deposited material, etc. The
proforma for collecting the lithological / structural / geomorphological / hydrological
information and well inventory data, in the field are given in Annexures-V and VI,
respectively. These proformas should be xeroxed and used for collecting necessary
data in the field.


7.6.2 Verification of Lithological, Structural, Geomorphological and
Hydrological Maps

During the field visit, the doubtful areas where the question marks have been
indicated on the pre-field interpreted lithologic, structural, geomorphic and hydrological
map overlays have to be verified / checked on the ground and necessary corrections /
modifications have to be incorporated. In addition, it is also desirable to check the
lithological units / rock types, structures and landforms / geomorphic units randomly at
some places, where the confirmed boundaries have been drawn, to ascertain
the correctness of interpretation. The inferred faults / fractures / lineaments have to be
checked on the ground for field evidences. Careful examination of the wells located
along the faults / fractures have to be made to observe the effect of these structures on
ground water prospects as compared to the surrounding areas. The geomorphic units/
landforms which have to be classified into shallow, moderate and deep categories
36
based on their depth of weathering, thickness of deposited material, etc have to be
verified on the ground by observing the nala / stream cuttings, well sections, etc.
However, the contacts between shallow, moderate and deep categories of a given
geomorphic unit / landform are gradational. The proforma for collecting the lithological /
structural / geomorphological / hydrological information in the field is given in
Annexure-V.


7.6.3 Collection of Ground Water Information

During the field visit, extensive well observation data has to be collected atleast
80 100 wells in each map for proper evaluation of unit-wise ground water prospects in
the area. For collecting the well observation data, traverses should be undertaken in
such a way that the observations are well distributed through out the area and represent
all the units (at least 2-3 wells in each unit). During the field visits, the location of wells
observed have to be marked correctly on the map and numbered. The information
about the wells has to be filled in the proforma enclosed in Annexure-VI as indicated
above. The details to be collected in the field include - type of well, depth to water table,
water table fluctuation (i.e. pre- and post-monsoon water tables), yield, total depth of
well, type of subsurface formations and any other related information. This information
can be collected partly by observing the wells and partly by discussing with well owners,
neighbours, villagers, Gram Panchayat representatives etc.

In addition to the above, the data on the observation wells (water table
fluctuations) and the drilling results, pump test data if any available with the State and
Central Govt. Depts. have to be collected.


7.6.4 Information about Problem Habitations

The locations of problem habitations (NC and PC habitations) provided by the
concerned State Depts, if available in advance, have to be marked on the base map
with different symbols as shown in Annexure-I before proceeding to the field. If the
locations of NC/PC habitations are not available before proceeding to the field, they
have to be collected from district headquarters of the concerned State Depts. in the
beginning of the field visit. During the field visit, efforts should be made to visit
maximum number of these villages in order to understand the nature of the problem. In
case, if the problematic villages are too many and / or not approachable, then a
minimum of 40 to 50 villages have to be selected and visited in such a manner that they
are well distributed through out the area and represent all the units.


7.7 CORRECTIONS / MODIFICATIONS IN THE LITHOLOGICAL, STRUCTURAL,
GEOMORPHOLOGICAL, HYDROLOGICAL AND BASE MAPS

The observations made during field surveys have to be incorporated on all the
overlays, i.e. lithological, geomorphological, structural, hydrological and base map
overlays, by modifying / correcting the boundaries of the units, renaming the units, etc.
37
Particularly, for classifying and mapping the geomorphic units / landforms and lithologic
units correctly, well observations data collected in the field and also from the Govt.
Depts. have to be used to know the depth of weathering and thickness of deposited
material. Care should be taken that the lithological and landform boundaries, wherever
common, should be co-terminus.

The well observation data collected in the field and other depts. should be
incorporated in the hydrological map overlay indicating the type of well, its yield range,
depth to water table and total depth of the well as shown in Annexure-III.


7.8 PREPARATION OF GROUND WATER PROSPECTS MAP

For preparing the ground water prospects map the following procedure has to be
followed:-


7.8.1 DRAFT MAP PREPARATION

First a draft ground water prospect map has to be prepared by manually
integrating the information from lithological, structural, geomorphological and
hydrological map overlays as indicated below

1. Take a fresh transparent overlay and transfer the integrated lithologic-geomorphic
units by superimposing the lithological and geomorphological map overlays. These
integrated lithologic-geomorphic units are the hydrogeomorphic units and have to
be annotated with alphanumeric codes, e.g. PPS-71, PPD-81, UPM-32, etc.
wherein the alphabetic code represents the geomorphic unit and the numeric code
represents the lithologic unit.

2. Transfer the geological structures from the structural map overlay on to the
integrated lithologic-landform map. The geological structures which act as conduits
and barriers for ground water movement should be drawn in blue and red pencil
colours, respectively as indicated in Plate-1.

3. Transfer the hydrological information including all the drainages and water bodies
from the hydrological map overlay on to the integrated lithologic-landform -structure
map.

4. In addition to above, some (to reduce the clumsiness) of the rivers/streams, major
water bodies and metalled roads (including NH & SH) have also to be transferred
on the integrated map for control. To avoid the confusion in identification of
features, rivers/stream/water bodies have to be drawn in cyan colour and roads in
brown colour. However, while preparing the final ground water prospects map
prepared digitally, all the rivers / streams and water bodies and entire road network
and other details available in hydrology and base layers have to be shown.

5. All the hydrogeomorphic units occurring in the area have to be listed in the legend
following the geological sequence. Then, the ground water prospects of each
hydrogeomorphic unit have to be evaluated by considering the lithological,
38
structural, geomorphological and hydrological information. The ground water
prospects information has to be furnished in a tabular manner as shown in the map
legend (Plate-1).


7.8.2 Digitisation

All the theme layers prepared for each map has to be digitised and an error free
digital data base has to be created. Care should be taken while registering the tick
marks on 4 corners of the map. There should not be any mismatch between the
digitised features and scanned features. Regarding attributes and look-up tables, see
the digitisation guidelines manual.

7.8.3 Generation of final ground water prospects map

All the digitized layers are to be overlaid using one predefined AML programme
to come out with the final ground water prospects map. Towards that coverage naming
convention should be followed as per digitization guidelines manual. Before running the
AML all the extra coverages should be removed from the work space and extra items
should be droped from the coverage attribute tables. Refer the AML manual for step-
by-step procedure to run the final ground water prospect map composition AML
programme.

7.8.4 Ground Water Prospects Evaluation

As mentioned above, based on the lithological, structural, geomorphological and
hydrological information, the ground water prospects of each unit have to be evaluated
in terms of different parameters as indicated in the legend. Since no separate report
has to be prepared for each map, an exhaustive legend has been designed containing
two parts. The upper part of the legend provides map unit-wise ground water prospect
information and lower part provides the symbology details about the base map,
hydrological and geological information, colour scheme for representing the yield range
and depth range of wells, location map, toposheet index, administrative index and other
reference information. The format of the legend is fixed and it has to be followed strictly
to maintain the standards and uniformity. The details which have to be furnished in the
upper and the lower parts of the legend are discussed below -



Upper Part of the Legend

The upper part of the legend, which is meant for showing the unit-wise ground water
prospects, is divided into 14 columns. The heading for each column is given in Plate-1.
The details to be furnished

Column-1 : Map Unit

In this column, the information about map unit (hydrogeomorphic unit) has to be
furnished with alpha-numeric code, where the alphabetic code (alphabets) represents
geomorphic unit and numeric code (number) represents lithological unit and both are
39
separated by a dash (e.g. DH-91, PPM-91, etc). Further, the box is filled with colour
hatching. The colour represents the yield range of wells and hatching pattern indicates
the depth range of wells. While arranging all the hydrogeomorphic units in the legend,
the geological sequence should be followed. Within the rock types, the geomorphic
units have to be arranged as per the relief (i.e. starting from valleys and plains on the
top to hills at the bottom).


Column-2 : Geological sequence / Rock Type

In this column, the lithologic units / rock types have to be indicated following the
geological sequence (stratigraphy). This column has to be sub-divided into 2 sub-
columns .In the first sub-column, name of the Supergroup / Group has been given
vertically (with geological age if possible in the brackets). In the second column,
rock type / lithologic unit indicating the Formation / Type name has been given
horizontally (e.g. BARAKAR SANDSTONE, PENINSULAR GNEISS etc). The code
no. appropriate to each has to be given in the brackets after the rock type . The
names of the rock types should be given in capital letters.


Column-3 : Geomorphic Unit / Landform

In this column, the name of geomorphic unit / landform has given followed by alphabetic
codes inbrackets, e.g. VALLEY FILL - Shallow (VFS), BAJADA Shallow (BJS). All the
geomorphic units / landforms within a given rock type have been arranged as per the
relief, i.e. starting from valleys and plains on the top and hills at the bottom. The names
of the geomorphic units should be given in capital letters.

Column-4 : Depth to Water Table and No. of Wells Observed

In this column, information collected from field work on depth to the water level of
summer season / pre-monsoon period (minimum to maximum range in metres) along
with the number of wells observed have been given. In the units where no wells are
present, there it is mentioned as No Wells. Where, wells are not observed, it should
be mentioned as wells not observed.


Column-5 : Recharge conditions

In this column, the recharge conditions generalised for each hydrogeomorphic
unit have been given based on the water availability from rainfall and other sources, and
hydrogeomorphic conditions. The recharge conditions have been categorised as
excellent, very good, good, moderate, limited, poor or nil .



40
Column-6 : Aquifer material

In this column, the nature of aquifer material has been indicated for each
hydrogeomorphic unit. The aquifer material can be one of the following 6 categories
based on their material content. The abbreviation of the appropriate category has to be
indicated.

Loose Sediments (LS) Mainly Quaternary formations comprising of
unconsolidated sediments represented by coastal,
deltaic, eolian, alluvial and flood plains should be
indicated under this category.

Permeable Rock (PR) The semi-consolidated sediments and vesicular volcanic
rocks having primary porosity and permeability should be
indicated under this category.

Weathered Rock (WR) Mainly weathered zones in hard rocks where the
occurrence and movement of ground water is controlled
by the depth of weathering and the nature of weathered
material should be indicated under this category.

Fractured Rock (FR) The fractured zones in the hard rocks which generally act
as conduits for movement of ground water should be
indicated under this category.

Fissured Rock (FIR) The hard rocks like gneisses, schists, slates, quartzites,
limestones, etc having jointing, bedding, cleavage and
other weak planes which impart limited porosity and
permeability to the rock should be indicated under this
category.

Impervious Rock (IR) Massive Rocks without significant porosity and
permeability like massive granite, dolerite dyke, etc which
act as barrier for ground water movement should be
indicated under this category.


Where, more than one category has to be indicated, it should be shown as LS + WR or
WR + FIR as the case may be.
Column-7 : Types of Wells Suitable

In this column, type of well suitable for that particular hydrogeomorphic unit has been
given. This is done based on depth to water table, material content and aquifer
characteristics as indicated in table 2.
Dug Well (DW) Where, the water table is very shallow and/or aquifers
with low transmissivities are present (weathered,
fissured/clayey formations).

41
Bore Well (BW) Where, the water table is deep and/or a thick column of
weathered / fractured rocks or semi-consolidated rocks
with fairly good transmissivities are present.

Tube Well (TW) Where, loose or collapsible unconsolidated and semi-
consolidated sediments with fairly good transmissivities
are present.

Dug-cum-Bore Well (DBW) Where, the water toable is at moderate depth, having
semi-confined aquifers and the formation is not
collapsible.

Dug-cum-Tube Well (DTW) Same as above (DBW), but where the formation is loose
and collapsible requiring slotted casing.

Ring Well (RW) Same as DW, but where loose and collapsible formation
is present.

If in a particular map unit, more than one type of wells is suitable, they are mentioned in
this column in two separate lines giving depth range, yield range and other particulars
separately for each type of well.

Column-8: Depth Range of wells (Suggested)

In this column, the optimum depth range of wells in metres has been indicated. This
depth range should be decided considering the depth to ground water table, the
thickness of the aquifer, the depth range of existing wells and knowing the depth range
of productive aquifers in the unit. Though in this column, colour scheme-wise the depth
range of wells is classified into 3 categories i.e. <30, 30-80 mtr, >80mtr, actual depth
range of wells like 40-55 mtr, 70-80mtr, 90-110mtr should be given depending on the
situation.


Column-9 : Yield Range of Wells (Expected)

In this column, the tentative yield range of the wells has been given in litres per minute
(lpm) for bore/tube wells or in cu.m per day for dug wells considering the lithological,
structural, geomorphological and recharge conditions supported by limited well
observation data. While doing this the average yield of wells in the unit after avoiding
the abnormally high and abnormally low yields abserved in some wells. Here, one has
to use his judgement based on his hydrogeological experience and knowledge. A more
porous and pervious rock cannot give lower yield than a less porous and pervious
rocks. Similarly, a shallow weathered zone (PPS) on the same rock cannot give high
yield than deeply weathered zone (PPD) Hence, while filling the yield range for each
unit, the rock type, landform, recharge condition and other hydrogeological conditions
also have to be taken into consideration. It should not be just based on 2-3 wells
observed. IBased on such correlation, the expected yield range of wells in lpm or
cu.m/day has been fixed for each unit. In those hydrogeomorphic units, where presently
42
no wells are available, a tentative yield range has been given purely based on
hydrogeological considerations.

Column-10 : Homogeneity in the Aquifer and Success Rate of Wells

The success rate of wells varies from unit to unit depending on the homogeneity in the
aquifer. Therefore, after careful analysis of the controlling factors and the well
observation data, the success rate of wells (very high, high, moderate, low or poor) has
been indicated in the legend for each unit based on the homogeneity in the aquifer. For
example, homogeneity in the aquifer and success rate of wells is very high in well
sorted semi-consolidated formations like sandstones, whereas they are low/poor in hard
rocks (fissured rocks) without fractures and significant weathering. While fixing the
success rate of wells, the yield range fixed for the unit also to be kept in mind.
Wherever yield range is given high the success rate should be moderate or low, since
majority of wells drilled in that unit may not give such high yields. Hence, yield range
and success rate are inter-related. Considering these things one has to take the
decision.

Column-11 : Water Quality

In this column, the ground water quality, i.e. Potable (P) or Non-Potable (NP) has been
mentioned for each unit. Wherever the water is non-potable, the reasons for non-
potability (e.g. high TDS, high fluoride, high nitrate content, brackishness, etc) have
been given in this column.

Column-12 : Ground Water Irrigated area

In this column, for each hydrogeomorphic unit, the extent of ground water irrigated area
(range in %) has been indicated. This information is mainly based on visual estimation
of ground water irrigated areas as seen on the satellite image. The clusters of red
patches (ground water irrigated areas) can be clearly seen on the satellite image and its
proportion with reference to the total unit has been estimated visually and indicated
in this column as 5-10%, <5%, >30% etc.

Column-13 : Recharge Structures Suitable / Priority

In this column, the type of recharge structure suitable and priority for taking up recharge
structures has been indicated. The type of recharge structure should be decided based
on the relief, slope, surface material, availability of water, recharging capability of the
aquifer, etc. Based on the suitability, the following types of recharge structures
(abbreviations) have been indicated against each unit in the legend. In some cases,
even two or three types of recharge structures also can be indicated in the order of
priority like CD / PT / D etc.

1. Check Dam (CD)
2. Percolation Tank (PT)
43
3. Invert Well (IW)
4. Subsurface dyke (SD)
5. Desilting of Tank (D)
6. Recharge Pit within the tank (R)

The priority should be decided based on 1) the existing recharge conditions 2) depth to
water levels 3) status of ground water exploitation 4) demand for water in the area and
distribution of NC/PC habitations, etc. The areas with !) poorlow recharge 2) high
exploitation 3) deep ground water table and 4) high demand for water is categorised as
high priority and vice versa.

In addition the types of recharge structures suitable for each unit are suggested and the
ideal locations for these recharge structures also have been indicated in the ground
water prospects map with appropriate symbols.

Columns 13 & 14 are indicating the ground water condition, its explotation and
necessary structures required for rechrge the ground water are recommended.


Column-14: Problems / Limitations / Remarks

In this column, the problems / limitations with reference to ground water prospects, e.g.
caving and collapsing of wells, high failure rate, quality / potability etc. and any other
relevant information have been given. In the sedimentary and volcanic formations
where the ground water prospects are better in the underlying rock type, such things
have also been indicated in this remarks column, which particular zone / stratigraphic
unit form the aquifer may also be indicated there. Because of space constraint, it
should be indicated in telegraphic language with minimum number of words and
preference may be given to such information, which has not been clarified in any other
columns of the legend.



Lower Part of the Legend

The lower part of the legend comprises of different symbols used in the map to
represent the base map details, structural, hydrological and ground water prospects
information, location map, toposheet index, administrative index, data used, etc. Most
part of it is fixed, however, the following details vary from map to map and have to be
given in each map as shown in Plate-1.

1. Data used (details of satellite imagery, toposheet, geological maps consulted, etc.)

2. Name of the organisation involved in preparing the ground water prospects maps in
the box provided under the head Prepared By.

3. Location map, toposheet index and administrative index as per the format shown in
Plate-1.

4. Any other information in the box provided (see Plate-1)
44

Other details such as title of the map, scale, north arrow, map sheet no., district
names, etc have to be given as per the format shown in Plate-1.


7.8.5 COLOUR SCHEME

In the final ground water prospects map, hydrogeomorphic units have to be
coloured with different hatching patterns based on their yield and depth ranges. For this
purpose, VIBGYOR colour scheme with seven colours, i.e. violet to red, have to be
used for depicting different yield ranges as indicated in Annexure-IV. Within each yield
range, 3 hatching patterns have to be used for depicting the depth range of wells as
given in Annexure-IV. Thus, a hydrogeomorphic unit showing one of the three hatching
patterns in a particular colour (from violet to red) indicates the expected yield range and
suggested depth range of the wells. For example, a unit with horizontal hatching in blue
colour indicates that the expected yield range in that unit is 200-400 lpm and the depth
range of the well is <20 m. The inselbergs, linear ridges, dykes, etc which act as run-off
zones/ barriers for ground water movement, should be indicated with solid red colour,
and the hills (SH, DH and RH) and dissected plateaus where the prospects are limited
to valley portions only have to be indicated with red hatching.

In addition to the above colour scheme, the rivers / streams and perennial water
bodies / tanks have to be shown in light cyan colour and roads, railways and
settlements have to be shown in brown colour. All the faults, fractures / lineaments
which mainly act as conduits for ground water movement have to be represented in the
map with blue colour. Similarly, the quartz reefs / quartzite bands, pegmatite veins,
dykes, shear zones, etc which mainly act as barriers for ground water movement have
to be shown in the map with red colour. The unit boundaries (polygon boundaries) and
unit annotations have to be represented in black colour as shown in Plate-1.


7.9 QUALITY CHECK

The maps will be quality checked at NRSA / DOS at final stage only. Therefore,
it is the responsibility of the work centres to comply with the strict norms of internal
quality check to produce a high quality map. Towards this, it is essential for each work
centre to have an internal quality expert, who will carryout quality checks at each stage
of map preparation i.e. preliminary interpretation, post field work stage, draft map
preparation and pre-final stage etc. These quality checks have to be done as per the
proforma indicated in Annexure-X and send to NRSA. The final quality check will be
conducted by the quality team of NRSA / DOS and the corrections / modifications, if any
suggested by the quality team have to be implemented by the work centre and the
revised and final maps after the corrections / modifications have to be submitted to
NRSA. Major discrepancy observed in non-compliance with the comments of Quality
Expert will be noted seriously and it will be reflected on the performance of work centre
leading to cancellation of work order.




45
7.10 OUTPUT GENERATION

As mentioned earlier, there are essentially two options for generating and
submitting the final outputs. Option-I is for those organisations where the infrastructural
facilities for digitisation and hard copy generation do not exist. Option-II is for those
organisations where end-to-end facilities for interpretation, digitisation and hard copy
output generation are available. Therefore, an organisation can select either of the
above 2 options depending upon its infrastructure. The outputs to be generated and to
be submitted to NRSA for both the options are as follows


7.10.1 Option-I

In this option, cartographic outputs of all the 5 map overlays and the ground
water prospects map have to be generated. It is to note that though all the features
have to be neatly drawn with ink, the annotation / text could be freehand and use of
template may be avoided to save time and money. The following outputs have to be
generated and submitted to NRSA for taking up digitisation work and generation of
soft / hard copies

1. Original tracing of base map overlay with names of the habitations / villages
(freehand with capital letters).

2. Original tracing of lithological map overlay.

3. Original tracing of structural map overlay.

4. Original tracing of geomorphological map overlay.

5. Original tracing of hydrological map overlay.

6. Original tracing of ground water prospects maps with legend. Other information
which is not covered in the standard legend should also be given.

7. A xerox copy of the ground water prospects map in which the hydrogeomorphic
units have to be coloured by pencil as per the colour scheme suggested in section
7.8.2. Other features, such as drainage, geological structures (carriers and
barriers), roads, etc. should be coloured by sketch pens with appropriate colours
discussed earlier. The boxes of hydrogeomorphic units in the legend should also
be coloured by pencil.


7.10.2 Option-II

In this option, all the 5 map overlays have to be digitised and integrated to create
the digital database and to generate the ground water prospects map digitally. The
guidelines for digitisation and output generation (soft and hard copies) along with the
AML program in ARC/INFO will be supplied by NRSA.

In this case, the following outputs have to be generated and submitted to NRSA
46

1. Soft copies of lithological, structural, geomorphological, hydrological and base map
overlays, and integrated lithological and geomorphological layer in e00 format in
CD-ROM. These layers should strictly comply with the specifications decided by
NRSA (Refer to digitization guidelines of ground water prospects maps, Sep.2000)

2. Soft copy of the plot file of final ground water prospects map in HP-GL/2 format in
CD-ROM.

3. Hard copies (1 no. each) of individual layers, i.e. lithology, structure,
geomorphology, hydrology and base map layers with proper symbolisation and
legend on 1:50,000 scale. The lithology and geomorphology layers should be
generated as black and white prints and the hydrology, geological structures and
base map layers should be generated as colour prints.

4. Hard copies (5 nos.) of ground water prospects maps on 1:50,000 scale colour
prints.


47


8. SCOPE OF GROUND WATER PROSPECTS MAP




The ground water prospects map prepared as per the methodology described in
this manual based on the interpretation of satellite imagery in conjunction with limited
field surveys and other collateral data indicate the prospective ground water zones in
the area. The User Depts. can use these maps for narrowing down the target zones
around the problem habitations for detailed ground hydrogeological and geophysical
investigations, ultimately to select the sites for drilling. These maps should not be used
directly for selection of sites without follow-up ground surveys. It is suggested that
detailed hydrogeological / ground geophysical investigations have to be carried out in
the prospective zones to obtain the exact information about the weathered zone,
fractured zone, thickness of deposited material, depth and thickness of aquifers,
presence of fractures in the subsurface and their subsurface configuration, information
about the existing wells, etc. Subsequently, based on the confirmatory evidences
obtained from ground geophysical / hydrogeological surveys, the sites have to be
selected for drilling. Similarly for recharge structures also, though each unit has been
evaluated for its suitability for planning different types of recharge structures, the exact
site for locating these recharge structures have to be evaluated based on the
requirement, nature of underlying aquifer, site conditions, availability of water for
recharge, etc. The sites shown in the map for recharge structures are tentative.

Thus, these maps will be useful in narrowing down the target zones for detailed
ground surveys / exploration for selection of sites, both for drilling as well as for taking
up recharge structures.
1
ANNEXURE - VIIA
Description of Rock Types / Lithologic Units and their Aquifer Characteristics.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CODE ROCK GROUP / DESCRIPTION AQUIFER CHARACTERISTICS
LITHOLOGIC UNIT
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 UNCONSOLIDATED
SEDIMENTS
Quaternary sediments associated with alluvial,
deltaic, coastal, eolian, flood plains, valley fills,
etc. Based on their composition, 7 litho-units
are identified in this group as shown below -

Aquifer characteristics depend on the ratio of
granular to non-granular sediments. Suitable for
shallow tube / filter point / ring wells depending
on the thickness of sediments and recharge
conditions.

1.1 Alluvium sand / gravel
dominant
Granular sediments comprising sand, gravel,
pebbles & cobbles.
Very good aquifers with high porosity and
permeability.

1.2 Alluvium clay dominant Mainly non-granular sediments comprising clay
and silt.
Aquicludes with limited permeability; form
confining beds for underlying aquifers.

1.3 Alluvium sand/ silt and clay
alternating beds

Alternating sequence of granular and non-
granular sediments interbedded.
Granular sediments form semi-confined to
confined aquifers with moderate to good
permeability. The non-granular sediments form
confining beds.
1.4 Colluvium clay / silt
dominant

Mainly clay / silt comprising assorted mixture of
cobbles and pebbles.

Aquifers with moderate to good permeability.
1.5 Colluvium pebble / cobble
dominant
Assorted mixture of cobble and pebbles comprising
limited clay / non-granular material.
Aquifers with limited to moderate permeability.
1.6 Eolian sand / silt Well sorted sand and silt deposited due to wind
action.

Very good aquifer subject to recharge.
1.7 Loess

Wind blown dust accumulated in the desert
regions often reworked by streams / rivers.
Moderate aquifers subject to recharge. The dust
particles clog the slotted pipes and submersible
pumps.

2
2 RESIDUAL CAPPINGS Duricrusts associated with remnants of
planar surfaces. Occur as plateaus, mesas,
buttes, etc. 5 litho-units are identified in this
group as shown below -
Low transmissivities; suitable for large diameter dug
wells; bore wells suitable only along fractures.
Prospects depend upon geomorphic position and
recharge.

2.1 Laterite (Ferricrete) Hard and pisolitic oxidised crust at surface
underlain by soft lithomargic clays formed by
deep chemical weathering and enrichment of
iron oxides by leaching.

Form aquitards with low transmissivities;
suitable for large diameter dug wells; bore wells
suitable only along fractures.
2.2 Bauxite (Alecrete) Same as above, but formed due to enrichment
of aluminium oxide.

----do----
2.3 Kankar (Calcrete) Produced by the formation of calcium carbonate
nodules.

----do----
2.4 Chert (Silcrete) Cryptocrystalline silica; occur as bands or
layers of nodules.

----do----
2.5 Detrital Laterite Formed by deposition of laterite / ferrugenous
detritus as valley fills.

Aquifers with moderate transmissivities;
suitable for shallow bores and small
diameter dug wells.
3 Deccan Traps &
Intertrappeans
Upper Cretaceous to Palaeocene volcanic
flows like Deccan basalts and their
equivalents. Based on their aquifer
characteristics, 7 litho-units are identified in
this group as shown below

Aquifer characteristics vary greatly depending
upon the type of volcanic flow. Suitable for dug
wells, bore / tube wells.


3.1 Inter- / Infra-trappean
Sand / Clay Bed
Thin beds of semi-consolidated sediments
occurring between different lava flows and
also at the base of the Deccan traps.

Sand beds form good aquifers with high porosity
and permeability. Clay beds form aquicludes.
3.2 Tuffacious Basalt Soft, friable and porous basalt formed
mainly by volcanic tuff.

Forms good aquifer with moderate porosity and
permeability.
3.3 Vesicular Basalt Hard and vesicular basalt with limited
porosity.

Moderate to good aquifers suitable for bore
wells and dug wells.
3
3.4 Amygdaloidal Basalt Vesicular basalt filled with amygdales. Limited to moderate aquifers suitable for bore /
dug wells.

3.5 Massive Basalt Hard and massive basalt. Fracturing and
weathering lead to the development of
secondary porosity and permeability.

Forms aquifuge unless faulted, fractured or
weathered.
3.6
Columnar Basalt
Basalt occurring as columnar blocks due to
close spaced hexagonal joints.
Limited to moderate aquifers suitable for bore /
dug wells.

3.7
Red / Green Bole
Red / Green clay beds of 0.5 - 5 m thickness
occur between different lava flows.
Aquicludes; act as confining beds for underlying
aquifers. Create problems during drilling.


4 OLDER VOLCANICS /
METAVOLCANICS / META-
SEDIMENTS & OTHERS
Volcanic / metavolcanic / metasedimentary
and other rocks of different composition
of Precambrian age.

Act as aquifuge, unless highly weathered
and fractured.
4.1 Basalt / Meta Basalt Hard and massive basalt with or without
metamorphism.

----do---
4.2 Rhyolite / Meta Rhyolite Hard and massive rhyolites with or without
metamorphism.


----do----
4.3 Dacite / Metadacite Hard and massive dacites with or without
metamorphism.

----do----
4.4

Andesite / Meta Andesite Hard and massive andesites with or without
metamorphism.

----do----
4.5 Meta Gabbro Metamorphosed Gabbrones not converted into
schist or gneiss.

----do----
4.6 Metabasics Unclassified basic rock suite slightly
metamorphosed but not converted into schist or
gneiss.

----do----

4
5 SEMI-CONSOLIDATED
SEDIMENTS
Upper Carboniferrous to Pliocene
sediments comprising of mainly
Gondwanas, Rajamundry Sandstone, Nari,
Gaj series, Cretaceous beds of Trichy etc,
which are partially consolidated, soft and
friable having significant intergranular
pore spaces. Based on their composition,
7 litho-units are identified in this group as
shown below -

Highly productive aquifers suitable for
heavy duty moderate to deep tube wells.
Aquifer characteristics depend on the sand-
shale ratio and recharge conditions. Form
very good confined aquifers with artesian
condition at places.
5.1


Sandstone / pebble bed /
conglomerate
Comprising of dominantly granular sediments
with insignificant shale/clay content.

Very good aquifers with high porosity and
permeability.
5.2 Shaly sandstone Comprising of dominantly granular sediments
with significant shale/clay content.

Good aquifers with high porosity and moderate
permeability.
5.3 Sandstone with shale / coal
bands
Dominantly granular sediments, interbedded
with shale, clay or coal partings.

Very good aquifers. Shale/clay/coal layers form
confining beds.
5.4 Sandy shale Comprising of dominantly non-granular
sediments with significant sand content.
Aquitards with high porosity and lower
permeability.

5.5 Shale with sandstone /
limestone bands
Mainly shale/clay, coal, lignite formations with
thin sandstone partings.
Sandstones form good confined aquifers
subject to sufficient thickness and favourable
recharge conditions.

5.6 Shale / coal / lignite


Comprising of dominantly non-granular
sediments with insignificant sand content.
Aquicludes with limited permeability.

5.7 Limestone / shell limestone Friable limestone or limestone formed by shell
fragments and oolites.
Very good aquifers with high porosity and
permeability.

5.8 Limestone and shale mixed
sequence
Mixed sequence of limestone and shale having
primary porosity and permeability.
Moderate to good aquifers depending on the
porosity.




5
6.0 CONSOLIDATED SEDIMENTS Mainly Precambrian to Cambrian
sedimentaries of Cuddapah, Delhi, Vindhyan
Groups and their equivalents, comprising of
fully consolidated sediments without any
intergranular pore spaces (except the
bedding planes). Based on their aquifer
charastristics, 8 litho-units are identified in
this group as shown below -

Aquifer characteristics depend mainly on the
bedding planes and secondary porosity
developed by fractures, joints, foliation,
schistosity, cleavage planes etc besides
weathering. The porosity and permeability
vary widely depending upon the rock type.

6.1 Thin bedded / flaggy
sandstone/ quartzite

Thin bedded/ flaggy sandstone / quartzite with a
no. of well defined bedding planes.
Aquifers with limited to moderate porosity and
permeability due to thin bedded nature.

6.2 Thick bedded / massive
sandstone / quartzite
Hard and massive sandstone / quartzite, with
very few bedding planes and no intergranular
pore spaces.

Aquifuge; fractured or weathered sandstone /
quartzite form good aquifers.

6.3 Thin bedded limestone /
dolomite
Thin bedded, flaggy limestone / dolomite with a
no. of well defined bedding planes.
Aquifers with limited to moderate porosity and
permeability due to thin bedded nature.

6.4 Thick bedded / massive
limestone / dolomite
Hard and massive limestone / dolomite with
very few bedding planes.
Aquifuge; fractured, weathered or cavernous.
limestones / dolomites form good aquifers.

6.5 Shaly limestone Dominantly limestone with significant shale
content as impurity or with shale intercalations.
Aquitards with limited porosity and permeability
imparted by bedding planes.

6.6 Shale with limestone/
sandstone bands/lenses
Mainly shale sequence with bands and lenses
of limestone / sandstone.

Aquiclude with good porosity and limited
permeability along bedding planes.
6.7 Shale Hard and compact shale / claystone.

Aquitard; very low permeability.
6.8 Conglomerate Hard & massive conglomerate without
significant intergranular pore spaces.
Aquifuge; fractured or weathered conglomerate
develops limited porosity / permeability.






6

7

MASSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS

Include a variety of hard and massive
igneous rocks with no primary porosity.


Act as aquifuge; ground water prospects
depend on weathering and fracturing in these
rocks.

7.1 Granitoid rocks /
acidic rocks

Massive igneous rocks of granitic / acidic
composition. Actual name of the rock type to
be mentioned in the map legend on case to
case basis.

----do----
7.2 Alkaline rocks Massive igneious rocks of alkaline composition.
Actual name of the rock type to be mentioned in
the map legend on case to case basis.

----do----
7.3 Basic Rocks Massive igneous rocks of basic composition.
Actual name of the rock type to be mentioned in
the map legend on case to case basis.

----do----

7.4 Ultrabasic / ultramafic rocks Massive igneous rocks of ultrabasic
composition. Actual name of the rock type to be
mentioned in the map legend on case to case
basis.

----do----

7.5 Others Massive igneous rocks other than 71-74
referred above.

----do----
8 Gneiss Granitoid
Complex / Charnockite
Khondalite complex /
Migmatite

Complex rock suites like Peninsular
gneissic complex Bundelkhand gneissic
complex, charnockite khondalite complex
and migmatite complexes.

Granites / migmatites act as aquifuge;
Gneisses weather faster than granites and
form aquifers. Ground water prospects
depend on the depth of weathering, intensity
of fracturing and recharge.

8.1 Gneiss granitoid complex

Gneisses and granites occurring together which
can not be separately mapped..

Granite forms aquifuge and gneiss forms aquifer
depending on the extent of weathering and
fracturing, and recharge.



7

8.2 Granitic Gneiss

Mainly comprising of gneisses with granitic
lenses.
Gneisses form aquifer depending on extent of
weathering and fracturing, and recharge.

8.3 Migmatite complex Hard and massive migmatites. Act as aquifuge unless fractured.

8.4 Migmatite with Granite Lenses

Hard and massive migmatites with lenses of
granite.
----do----
9 METAMORPHICS Include a variety of metamorphosed
igneous, sedimentary and volcanic rocks.
Ground water prospects depend on secondary
porosity developed due to cleavage, schistosity,
foliation, fracturing, faulting and weathering, and
recharge conditions.

9.1 Gneiss Gneisses of different mineral composition with
crude to well developed foliations.
Gneisses form moderately productive aquifers
depending on extent of weathering and fracturing,
and rechathe rge.

9.2 Schist Crudely foliated schists of different composition. Aquitards with limited transmissivities; fracturing
and weathering improve the ground water
prospects to a limited extent.

9.3 Phyllite Crudely foliated phyllites. ----do----

9.4 Slate Slates with well developed slaty cleavage. Aquitards with limited transmissivities; fracturing
and weathering improve the ground water
prospects to a limited extent.

9.5 Quartzite Hard and brittle quartzites.

Generally, act as barriers for movement of ground
water unless fractured.

9.6 Calc-gneiss / calc-schist

Calcareous gneisses / schists with crude to
well-developed foliations.

----do----
9.7 Crystalline limestone Hard and brittle limestone / marble. Generally, acts as barriers for movement of ground
water unless fractured.

(Source : Modified after Reddy, 1991)
8

ANNEXURE VIIB

Description of Geomorphic Units / Landforms And Their Influence on the Ground Water Regime.
(P. R. Reddy, 1991 with minor modifications)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GEOMORPHIC UNIT / DESCRIPTION INFLUENCE ON GROUND WATER REGIME
LANDFORM
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hill ranges / Composite
Hills (HR/CH)
A group of hills occupying large area having
minimum extent of 10 KM in all directions.
Mainly act as run-off zone. Large hills
contribute significant recharge to the narrow
valleys and other favourable zones within the
hills and to the adjoining plains.

Structural Hills (SH)

Linear to arcuate hills showing definite
structural trends
8
.

-- do --
Residual Hills (RH)

A group of hills occupying comparatively
smaller area than composite hills ranging from
2 x 2 sq.km to 10 x 10 sq.km.
Limited prospects along valleys and limited
recharge potential to the surrounding plains.
Inselberg (I)
Plateaus (PL) Elevated flat uplands occupying fairly large
area (greater than 5 km x 5km) and bound by
escarpments / steep slopes on all sides.
Based on their geomorphic position, they are
classified into 3 categories 1) Upper, 2)
Middle and 3) Lower. Further, based on
dissection, these Upper, Middle and Lower
Plateaus have been further classified into
undissected, moderately dissected and highly
dissected categories.

Ground water regime on the plateaus
depends on their geomorphic position, areal
extent, dissection pattern and recharge
conditions, besides underlying lithology,
fractures and depth of weathering.

- Undissected A plateau (upper / middle / lower) which is fully
preserved in its original form and has not been
dissected.
Better prospects in the central part.
Recharge depends on its relative elevation
compared to the surrounding landforms.
9





- Moderately Dissected A plateau (upper / middle / lower) dissected by
deep valleys/ gullies changing the original
form considerably.
Shallow aquifers partially drain out into the
deep valleys formed by dissection.

- Highly Dissected A plateau (upper / middle / lower) more
frequently dissected by deep valleys
separating into individual mesas / buttes.

Shallow aquifers fully drain out into deep
valleys formed by dissection.

Valleys Low lying depressions and negative landforms
of varying size and shape occurring within the
hills associated with stream / nala courses.
Favourable zones for ground water
accumulation. Act as discharge zones at
places with springs & seepages.


Fracture / Fault Line (FV) Narrow linear valleys formed along fractures /
faults.
Very good recharge from surrounding hills,
subject to good rainfall. Ground water
prospects depend on the depth persistence
and nature of fracture / fault.

Intermontane Valley (IV) Small valleys occurring within the hill ranges /
composite hills and residual hills.

Very good recharge from surrounding hills,
subject to good rainfall. Ground water
prospects depend on the underlying rock
types, structures, thickness of valley fill and
its composition.

Linear / Curvilinear Ridge
(LR / CR)

A narrow linear / curvilinear resistant ridge
formed by dolerite dyke, quartz reef, quartzite
bed, etc.

Forms divide for both surface & ground
water unless cut across by faults / fractures.

Cuesta (C)

An isolated hill formed by gently dipping (5-
15
o
) sedimentary beds having escarpent /
steep steep slopes on one side and gentle dip
slopes on the other side.

Form run-off zones without any significant
recharge potential and prospects.

Mesa (M) Flat-topped hills having width 2 km to 250 m. Form run-off zones without any significant
recharge potential and prospects.

Butte (B) Flat-topped hills having width < 250 m ----do---
10


Inselberg (I)

An Isolated hill of massive type abruptly
rising above surrounding plains.

Act as run-off zone.
Pediment (PD)

Gently undulating plain dotted with rock
outcrops with or without thin veneer of soil
cover.

Forms run-off and recharge zone with limited
prospects along favourable locales.

Buried Pediment (BPD)

Same as above, but buried under
unconsolidated sediments.
Limited to moderate recharge zone depending
on the thickness of buried column.

Dissected pediment
(DPD)

Same as pediment, but dissected. Shallow aquifers drain out due to dissection.
Pediment-Inselberg
Complex (PIC)

Pediment dotted with a number of inselbergs
which cannot be separated and mapped as
individual units.

Inselbergs form run-off zones. Pediment
contributes for limited to moderate recharge.
Piedmont Slope (PS)

Slope formed by bajada and pediment
together.

Forms run-off and recharge zone.

Piedmont Alluvium
- Shallow (PAS)
- Moderate (PAM)
- Deep (PAD)

Alluvium deposited along foot hill zone due
to sudden loss of gradient by rivers /
streams in humid and sub-humid climate.
Based on the thickness, it is divided into 3
categories 1) Shallow (0-10 m), 2)
Moderate (10-20 m), and 3) Deep (more
than 20 m).
Alluvium forms good shallow aquifer depending
on its thickness, composition and recharge
conditions.

Bajada (BJ)
- Shallow (BJS)
- Moderate (BJM)
- Deep (BJD)

Detrital alluvial out-wash of varying grain
size deposited along the foot hill zone in arid
and semi-arid climate. Based on the
thickness, it is divided into 3 categories - 1)
Shallow (0-10 m), 2) Moderate (10-20 m)
and 3) Deep (> 20 m).


Forms highly productive shallow aquifers
subject to the thickness of deposited material
and recharge conditions.

11

Linear / Curvilinear Ridge
(LR / CR)

Same as earlier

Same as earlier

Cuesta (C)

----do----

----do----

Mesa (M) ----do---- ----do----

Butte (B)

----do----

----do----
Inselberg (I)

----do----

----do----
Alluvial Fan (AF)

A fan shaped mass of sediment deposited
at a point along a river where there is a
decrease in gradient.

Form productive aquifers subject to thickness
of sediment and recharge.
Talus Cone (TC) A cone shaped deposit of coarse debris at
the foot of hills / cliffs adopting the angle of
repose.

Form productive aquifers in the lower reaches
subject to thickness of sediment and recharge.

Pediplain-Weathered
(PP)
- Shallow (PPS)
- Moderate (PPM)
- Deep (PPD)

Gently undulating plain of large areal extent
often dotted with inselbergs formed by the
coalescence of several pediments. Based
on the depth of weathering, weathered
pediplains are classified into 3 categories -
1) Shallow (0-10 m), 2) Moderate (10-20 m),
and 3) Deep (more than 20 m).



Pediplains occupied by semi-consolidated
sediments form good aquifers depending on
their composition. In hard rocks, they form
very good recharge and storage zones
depending upon the thickness of weathering /
accumulated material, its composition and
recharge conditions. Faults / fracture zones
passing through pediplains act as conduits for
movement and occurrence of ground water.

Pediplain-Buried (BP)
- Shallow (BPS)
- Moderate (BPM)
- Deep (BPD)


Same as above, but buried under
transported material. Based on the total
thickness of transported material and depth
of weathering, buried pediplains are
classified into 3 categories - 1) Shallow (0-
10 m), 2) Moderate (10-20 m), and 3) Deep
(more than 20 m).

----do----





12

Stripped Plain (SP)
- Shallow Basement
(SPS)
- Mod. Basement
(SPM)
- Deep Basement
(SPD)

Gently undulating plain formed by partial
stripping (erosion) of older pediplains. The
presence of rock outcrops along valleys and
deeply weathered zones along inter-stream
divides indicate the stripped plains. Based
on depth to basement, it is classified into 3
categories - 1) Shallow (0-10 m), 2)
Moderate (10-20 m), and 3) Deep (more
than 20 m).

The ground water prospects depend on the
depth to basement, faults / fractures passing
through the hard rocks and recharge.
Linear / Curvilinear Ridge
(LR / CR)

Same as earlier

Same as earlier

Cuesta (C)

----do----

----do----

Mesa (M) ----do---- ----do----

Butte (B)

----do----

----do----
Inselberg (I)

----do----

----do----
Valley Fill (VF)
- Shallow (VFS)
- Moderate (FVM)
- Deep (FVD)
Valleys of different shapes and sizes
occupied by valley fill material (partly detrital
and partly weathered material). They are
classified into 3 categories - 1) Shallow (0-
10 m), 2) Moderate (10-20 m), and 3) Deep
(more than 20 m).

Form moderately productive shallow aquifers,
subject to thickness of valley fill material, its
composition and recharge conditions.
Fracture / Fault line
Valley (FV)
Valley (V)


Flood Plain (FP)
- Shallow (FPS)
- Moderate (FPM)
- Deep ((FPD)

Alluvium deposited along the river / stream
courses due to repeated flooding. Based on
the thickness of alluvium, it is classified into
3 categories - 1) Shallow (0-10 m), 2)
Moderate (10-20 m) and (3) Deep (>20 m).

Flood plains receive good recharge and form
good shallow aquifers depending on the type
of sediments, their thickness and recharge
conditions.
13

Alluvial Plain (AP)

- Shallow (APS)
- Moderate (APM)
- Deep (APD)
Flood Plain-Younger /
Lower (FPY)
- Shallow (FYS)
- Moderate (FYM)
- Deep (FYD)

Same as above. Younger refers to late cycle of
deposition and lower refers to lower elevation.
Based on the thickness of alluvium, it is
classified into 3 categories - 1) Shallow (0-10 m),
2) Moderate (10-20 m) and (3) Deep (>20 m).

Deltaic Plain (DP)

- Shallow (DPS)
- Moderate (DPM)
- Deep (DPD)

Alluvial plain formed by the distributary
network of the rivers / streams at their
confluence with sea. Based on the thickness
of alluvium, it is classified into 3 categories -
1) Shallow (0-10 m), 2) Moderate (10-20 m)
and (3) Deep (>20 m).




These deltaic plains receive very good
recharge due to repeated flooding and form
shallow aquifers. The aquifer conditions
depend upon the nature of sediments and
their thickness. Nearer to the coast, they are
underlain by marine sediments containing
brackish water.

Channel Bar (CB) Sand bar formed in the braided river course
due to vertical accrition of the sediments.
Highly productive shallow aquifer with good
recharge from the river flow.

Point Bar (PB) Sand bar formed at the convex side of
meandering river by lateral accrition of
sediment.

Form moderate to highly productive aquifers
depending on their thickness and recharge.

River Terrace (RT) Flat upland adjoining the river course,
occurring at different levels and occupied by
river-borne alluvium. It indicates the former
valley floor.

Form good aquifer depending on the
thickness of alluvium, composition and
recharge.
Natural Levee (NL) Natural embankment formed by deposition
of alluvium on river bank due to flooding.
Aquifer condition depends mainly on the grain
size of sediments and the recharge.

Back Swamp (BS) Depressions formed adjacent to natural
levees in the flood plains of major
streams/rivers. Occupied by clay & silt with
or without water.


These swamps are temporarily occupied by
water. Form aquitards due to the dominance
of clayey sediments.

14
Cut-off Meander (CM) Meander loop of a matured river, cut-off
from the main stream / river, filled with river-
borne sediments.

Highly productive shallow aquifers with good
recharge from the river.
Abandoned Channel
(AC)
An old river bed cut-off from the main
stream, occupied by channel- lag / channel-
fill material.

Highly productive shallow aquifers with good
recharge from the river.
Ox-bow Lake (OL) A lunate shaped lake located in an
abandoned meandering channel.

Generally forms ground water discharge zone
with highly productive shallow aquifer.

Palaeochannel (PC) An earlier river course filled with channel
lag or channel fill sediments, which is cut off
from the main river.

Forms highly productive shallow aquifer
subject to the thickness of sediment, its
composition and recharge.

Buried Channel (BC) Old river course filled with channel lag or
channel fill deposits, buried by recent
alluvium / soil cover.

----do----
Coastal Plain (CP)

- Shallow (CPS)
- Moderate (CPM)
- Deep (CPD)



Nearly level plain formed by marine action
along the coast, mainly containing brackish
water sediments. Based on the thickness of
alluvium, it is classified into 3 categories - 1)
Shallow (0-10 m), 2) Moderate (10-20 m)
and (3) Deep (>20 m).


Coastal plains are generally occupied by
marine sediments containing brackish water.
Fresh water occurs as a thin layer floating
over brackish water.
Beach (B)

Narrow stretch of unconsolidated sand/silt
deposited by tidal waves along the shore
line.


Fresh water occurs as a thin layer over the
brackish water under favourable morphologic
and recharge conditions. Over-exploitation
disturbs the sensitive balance between fresh
and brackish water resulting in sea water
intrusion.

Beach Ridge (BR) A linear ridge of unconsolidated sand / silt
parallel to the shore line.


----do----

15
Beach Ridge & Swale
Complex (BSC)
A group of beach ridges and swales
occurring together.



Fresh water may occur as thin layer in the
beach ridges.
Swale (SW) Linear depression occurring between two
beach ridges.

Generally, ground water is brackish.
Offshore Bar (OB) Embankments of sand and gravel formed on
the sea floor by waves and currents,
occurring parallel to the coast line.

----do----
Spit (SP) Off-shore bar attached to the land at one
end and terminating in open water at the
other.

----do----
Mud Flat (MF) Mud deposited in the back swamps and
along tidal creeks.

Form aquiclude due to high clay content.
Salt Flat (SF) Flat lands along the coast comprising of salt
encrustations.

Quality of ground water is saline/ brackish.
Tidal Flat (TF) Flat surface formed by tides comprising of
mostly mud and fine sand.

----do----
Lagoon (LG)



An elongated body of water lying parallel to
the coast line and separated from the open
sea by barrier islands.

----do----



Channel Island (CI)

An island formed in the braided river course. Good recharge from river, however, fresh
water occurs as thin layer.

Palaeochannel (PC) An earlier river course filled with channel
lag or channel fill sediments, which is cut off
from the main river.

Forms productive shallow aquifer subject to
the thickness of sediment, its composition
and recharge.



16

Buried Channel (BC) Old river course filled with channel lag or
channel fill deposits, buried by recent
alluvium / soil cover.

----do----
Eolian Plain (EP)
- Shallow (EPS)
- Moderate (EPM)
- Deep (EPD)

A plain formed by the deposition of wind
blown sand dotted with a number of sand
dunes. Based on the thickness of sand
sheet and dissection, it is classified in to 3
categories 1) Shallow (0-10 m), 2)
Moderate (10-20 m), and 3) Deep (more
than 20 m).

Eolian plains do not receive good recharge
due to scanty rainfall. They form good shallow
aquifers depending on their thickness and
recharge conditions.
Sand Dune (SD) Heaps of sand of different shapes and sizes
formed by wind action in the desertic terrain.

Not suitable for ground water development.
Stabilised Dune (STD) Same as above, but stabilised.

----do----
Dune Complex (DC) Group of sand dunes occuring together
which can not be mapped separately.
Very Limited prospects in the interdunal
depressions; quality is often brackish.

Interdunal Depression
(ID)

Depression occurring between sand dunes. Suitable for water harvesting structures.

Interdunal Flat (IF) Flat land occurring between sand dunes.

----do----
Playa (PL) Dry lake in an interior desert basin. Better prospects, subject to recharge.

Desert pavement (DPV) Flat or gently sloping surfaces, developed
on fans, bajadas and desert flats formed by
concentration of pebbles after removal of
finer material by wind action.

Better prospects subject to sufficient
thickness of pebbly zone and recharge.
Loess Plain (LS) Deposit of wind-blown silt. Forms moderate aquifer under favourable
recharge conditions.



17

Palaeochannel (PC) An earlier river course filled with channel
lag or channel fill sediments.

Forms highly productive shallow aquifer
subject to the thickness of sediment, its
composition and recharge.

Buried Channel (BC) Old river course filled with channel lag or
channel fill deposits, buried by recent
alluvium / soil cover.

----do----


18
1
ANNEXURE-VIII
ADDITIONAL GEOMORPHIC UNITS / LANDFORMS INCLUDED

PHYSIOGRAPHY GEOMORPHIC UNIT / LANDFORM CODE
1. Hills & Plateaus Plateau Undissected
Plateau Slightly Dissected
Plateau Moderately Dissected
Plateau Highly Dissected
Plateau - Weathered
PLU
PLS
PLM
PLH
PLW

Dyke Ridge / Quartz Reef
Escarpment Slope
Hill Slope / Denudational Slope
Valley Slope
Valley Flat
Hill Top - Weathered
DR / QR
ES
HS / DS
VS
VT
HTW

2. Plains Sheet Rock
Residual Mound
SR
RM


Lateritic Plains
Lateritic Plain With Shallow Basement
Lateritic Plain With Moderate Basement
Lateritic Plain With Deep Basement

LPS
LPM
LPD


Fluvial Landforms
Meander Scar
Migrated River Course

MS
MR


Coastal Landforms
Beach Ridge / Palaeo Beach Ridge
Beach Ridge & Swale Complex / Palaeo
Beach Ridge & Swale Complex
Mud Flat Younger / Older
Offshore Island
Reef Island

BR / PBR
BSC / PBS

MFY /
MFO
0I
RI

Note: The gullied, ravenous, dissected and canal command areas within the Plains and Plateaus
can be separately mapped by adding G, R, T and C, respectively as the third digit to the alphabetic
code of the geomorphic unit, wherever applicable.
For example:

Alluvial Plain Gullied -- APG
Alluvial Plain under Canal Command -- APC
Pediplain Dissected -- PPT
Pediplain under Canal Command -- PPC

* These units replace the Plateau terminology given earlier in the Technical Guidelines
(February, 2002).
1
METHODOLOGY TO BE FOLLOWED IN DECCAN TRAPS

In case of Deccan Traps, the textural characteristics of individual basalt flows and their vertical
disposition (or stratigraphy) exercise significant control on the movement and occurrence of
ground water. In view of this, mapping of individual basalt flows, which are of generally 10-30
m thickness having horizontal to sub-horizontal dips, has been considered essential. Towards
this, the following guidelines/procedures have to be followed. However, in case of Mesa,
Butte and Highly Dissected Plateaus, which mainly act6 as run-off zones, instead of
delineating individual basalt flows, all of them may be clubbed together and mapped as Group
of Flows. Different geomorphic units that have to be mapped in Deccan Traps, the guidelines
for mapping the individual basalt flows and representation of hydrogemorphic units in the map
and as well as legend are given below. A model legend is also enclosed (Table-1) for
reference.
Geomorphic Units / Landforms to be Mapped:

The following geomorphic units / landforms have to be used for mapping geomorphology in
Deccan Trap Terrain

Plateau Undissected -- PLU
Plateau Slightly Dissected -- PLS
Plateau Moderately Dissected -- PLM
Plateau Highly Dissected -- PLH
Plateau Weathered -- PLW
Plateau Canal Command -- PLC
Mesa -- M
Butte -- B
Escarpment Slope -- ES
Valley Fill Shallow / Moderate / Deep -- VFS / VFM / VFD
Valley -- V
Valley Flat -- VT
Intermontane Valley -- IV
Fracture / Fault line Valley -- FV

Guidelines for Mapping Basalt Flows:

The typical characteristic of basalt flows in Deccan Traps is that the contacts between
individual / group of flows are generally marked by the presence of escarpments / steep slopes
resulting in terraced landscape. These escarpments / steep slopes are often reflected on the
satellite imagery, which in turn help to map the flows. However, at some places, these
escarpments / steep slopes are not clearly observed or are obscured on the satellite imagery. In
such cases, the field checks and the contours of toposheet can be taken as control. Since, the
thickness of basalt flows generally varies from 10-30 m and they have horizontal to sub-
horizontal dips, the 20 m contours of toposheet provide good control for mapping the flows in
addition to satellite imagery and field observations. The procedure for mapping the basalt
flows is given here under

1. Draw all the contours (except where the contour spacing is too close, i.e. where scale of
mapping does not permit delineation of each and every contact) on a tracing film from the
SOI toposheet on 1:50,000 scale.
2

2. Keep the tracing over the image and delineate all the flow contacts with the help of these
contours and also using image signatures, existing geological maps / literature. The flow,
thus, delineated have to be checked up at places during field visit and confirm the
boundaries besides identifying their nature, i.e. Vesicular, Massive, etc. While doing so, it
may happen that more than one flow may occur within one unit, however, it is permissible
in the present context of mapping.

3. Number all the flows as 1,2,3,.. from top to bottom based on their elevations. Note
that these numbers represent essentially the basalt flows / group of flows. Instead of
lithologic / rock type codes as suggested earlier in the lighological classification system
(Table-1 of Technical Guidelines, February 2000), individual basalt flows have to be
indicated / represented with these flow nos. only in the map and legend.

4. The individual basalt flows have to be named based on their textural characteristics as
Massive, Vesicular, Amygdalodial, Tuffacious or Columnar / Fractured (Based on ground
truth). The units, which consist of multiple flows have to be named as Group of Flows.

5. In the legend, the type of flow (i.e. vesicular, massive, etc.) along with their elevations
(range in meters above MSL) have to be given for each unit (see Table-1).

6. The inter-/infra-trappean beds, if forming polygons, should be represented as one of the
units in the sequence. Otherwise, they should be indicated in the geological sequence (not
in the map) without giving number, but giving the elevation range. Where they are too
thin or not well defined, they should be indicated in the Remarks column.

Preparation of Legend

The following guidelines have to be considered while preparing the legend for Deccan Traps

1. In column 1 (i.e. Map Unit), the flow numbers should be taken as numeric codes of map
unit instead of lighologic code as discussed earlier. The numeric code (flow no. or range of
flow nos. separated by a dash) should be kept in brackets and placed after the alphabetic
code representing the geomorphic unit / landform. However, M/B (Mesa / Butte), the
numeric code need not be given, and this unit has to be placed as the last unit in the Deccan
Traps (refer Table-1).

2. In column 2, sub-column 1 (Geological Sequence / Rock Type), write Deccan Traps
vertically with capital letters as shown in Table-1. In sub-column 2, the list of flows with
heading Basalt Flows should be given as shown in Table-1. For each flow no., type of flow
(e.g. massive, vesicular, unclassified group, etc) has to be written in 1
st
line in capital letters
and its elevation range (in m MSL) to be given in 2
nd
line in small letters. Note that the list
of flows should also include intertrappeans as discussed earlier. In between two flows, line
separator is not required. however, between Mesa / Butte (M/B) unit and the rest of the
units in Deccan Traps, line separator is required. Further, for this unit, in place of no. and
type of flow, it should be written as On Different Flows in capital letters (see model legend
enclosed for reference).


3
3. In column 3, the name of geomorphic unit / landform should be given in capital letters in
the 1
st
line and the elevation range for each unit has to be given in second line.

4. In column 13 (i.e. Recharge Structures), the type of recharge structures suitable should be
mentioned in the 1
st
line with abbreviations in capital letters (e.g. CD/PT/NB), and priority
should be mentioned in the second line as High Priority, Low Priority, etc. This has to be
followed for all the units. In this column, indicating with dashes or leaving it blank should
be avoided.

5. in column 14 (i.e. Remarks), mention should be made in telegraphic language about the
following aspects, wherever applicable-

(i) Wherever the basalt flow exposed at the surface is not forming an aquifer, mention
should be made of the underlying flows or intertrappean beds, if any, which form /
likely to form aquifers along with their elevation range (in m MSL).

(ii) Basis for suggesting the depth and yield range of wells should be given. For
example, in a unit if no wells are existing or observed, it should be mentioned as
Prospects are inferred as no wells are available. Similarly, it can be mentioned that
Vesicular zone / potential aquifer encountered at m MSL in few/ . wells,
which needs to be explored / exploited.

(iii) In case of units like Mesa / Butte, etc which are given solid red colour, it should be
written as Run-off zone; Not suitable for ground water development.

(iv) For the units like Highly Dissected Plateau, which is given red hatching, it should be
written as Mainly run-off zone; Prospects limited to valley portions only.

(v) In case of (iv) & (v), nothing should be written in 4
th
to 13
th
columns, and a dash has
to be given (refer Table-1)

(vi) For the units, which are mainly occupied by forest and / or inhabited, the same may
be mentioned in the remarks column.

In addition to the above, wherever Very High, High Priority, No Priority or Not Suitable is
given in column no. 13, that should be justified in column no. 14 giving reason. For example-

(i) Very high priority for recharge structures, since ground water exploitation is very
high / wells dry up during summer.

(ii) No priority for recharge structures, since mainly occupied by forest and no
habitation.

(iii) Recharge structures not suitable, since mainly gullied / ravenous area, etc.
4

GUIDELINES FOR SUGGESTING RECHARGE STRUCTURES

The objective of suggesting the recharge structures is to augment the ground water mainly for
improving the sustainability of drinking water sources. In order to meet this objective, the
information on the type of recharge structures suitable in each unit and their tentative locations
are essential, in addition to the prioritization of areas (unit-wise). Considering this, for each
map unit (hydrogeomorphic unit), the type of recharge structures suitable have to be given by
abbreviations as shown below in the 13
th
column of the legend. In addition to this, in the
second line, priority for taking up the recharge structures should be indicated by mentioning as
Low Priority, Moderate Priority, High Priority, Very High Priority and Not Suitable. Further,
the tentative sites for locating the recharge structures have to be shown in the map. For this
purpose, the following broad guidelines are suggested, which can be followed wherever
possible for suggesting the suitability, priority and tentative locations of the recharge
structures.
Types of Recharge Structures

The following types of recharge structures may be considered for suggesting in each map unit-
1. Percolation Tank (PT)
2. Check Dam (CD)
3. Nala Bund (NB)
4. Invert Well (i.e. Recharge Wells) (IW)
5. Desilting of Tank (DT)
6. Recharge Pit (RP)

Note that Subsurface Dyke suggested earlier (Technical Guidelines, February, 2000) is
replaced by Nala Bund (NB). One or more types of the above recharge structures suitable in
each map unit has / have to be given in the 13
th
column of the legend (e.g. CD/NB/PT).

Prioritization for Recharge Structures

As mentioned earlier, in addition to the type of recharge structures, the priority also has to be
indicated for each map unit in the 13
th
column of the legend. For this purpose, depending upon
the requirement of recharge in each unit, one of the following categories has to be mentioned
in the 13
th
column of the legend below the type of recharge structures suitable

1. Very High Priority
2. High priority
3. Moderated Priority
4. Low Priority
5. No Priority
6. Not Suitable.

Example: CD /PT
High Priority
5
The prioritization of constructing recharge structures should be based on the following criteria

1. Presence of NC/PC villages (mainly due to declining of water table)
2. Status of ground water development.
3. Areas where ground water levels are declining fast
4. Areas where water quality problem exists
5. Where natural recharge is poor or limited due to unfavorable hydrogeological
conditions.

It is suggested that in the map units where drinking water sources have dried up / water levels
are declining fast / more no, of NC/PC villages are located / percentage of ground water
irrigated area is very high / quality problem is reported (which can be improved by dilution
through recharge), Very High Priority should be indicated. Similarly, the units, which are
mainly covered under forests / inhabited / shallow water table having good to excellent
recharge from canal commands and surface water bodies and rivers etc, should be given No
Priority. The remaining units may be given the High Priority / Moderate Priority / Low
Priority. For the zones, which are not suitable for recharge structures, it should be indicated as
Not Suitable.

Location of Recharge Structures:

The tentative locations of the appropriate recharge structures have to be shown in the map with
the respective symbols indicated in the Technical Guidelines (February, 2002). The following
broad guidelines may be considered while identifying and suggesting the tentative locations of
recharge structures-

1. Check Dam: On the 1
st
and 2
nd
order streams along the foot hill zones and the areas with
0-5% slope.

2. Percolation Tank: On the 1
st
to 3
rd
order streams located in the plains and valleys having
sufficient weathered zone / loose material / fractures.

3. Nala Bund: On the 1
st
to 4
th
order streams flowing through the plains and valleys where
acquisition of land for inundation of large areas is not possible. In this case, limited water
will be stored in the river bed for some time which increases recharge.

4. Invert Well: In the areas where transmissivity of the upper strata is poor, e.g. in shales
underlain by sandstones, in buried pediplains with top soil having low permeability, in
Deccan Traps where vesicular basalt is overlain by massive basalt or thick black cotton soil
(or impervious zone). (i.e.Recharge Well)

5. Desilting of Tank: This should be recommended in several small tanks, which are partially
silted up. Siltation in the tanks may be found by comparative study of image and toposheet
apart from other techniques.

6. Recharge Pit: Around the NC / PC habitations where drainage does not exist, e.g. water
divide areas, hill/plateau tops, etc.
6

While showing the recharge structures in the map, the following precautions have to be taken-

1. Recharge structures should be shown about 200-300 m upstream of the problem
habitations.

2. Recharge structures should be suggested mainly upto 3
rd
order streams and at the most up
to the initial stages of 4
th
order stream. No recharge structure should be suggested on major
streams / rivers occupying large area and forming polygons.


3. Care should be taken to place the recharge structures perpendicular to the drainage.

4. Length of the CD, PT and NB symbols should be more or less through out the map.

5. Recharge structure should not cut across more than one drainage. However, they can be
suggested at the junction of two streams, wherever required.
7
ANNEXURE-IX

RGNDWM Project Phase - II
Improvements / Modifications in the methodology

For preparing the ground water prospects maps under RGNDWM project Phase-II, certain
improvements/ modifications have been made in the methodology. Hence, all the work centers
and the scientists involved in this work are requested to note the following improvements /
changes in the Technical guidelines for preparation of ground water prospects maps
brought out earlier in Feb 2000, based on which the maps were prepared under RGNDWM
project Phase-I programme.

Field work: Under Phase-II programme, a minimum of 10-12 days effective field work has
to be carried out for each map (full toposheet) to collect sufficient ground survey data on
geology, geomorphology, geological structures and hydrogeological information, NC / PC
habitations etc.

Observation of wells: During the field work for each map (Full map covering about 700 Sq.
km) a minimum of 80-100 wells have to be observed and represented on the map. These
observation wells should be selected in such a way, that they are properly distributed
throughout the map covering all the map units. Even in smaller units also, at least 2-3 wells
should be observed. In case, if wells are totally absent in a particular unit, then it should be
mentioned in the legend as No Wells. But, before mentioning the same, one should make
himself sure about the absence of wells in that unit. After searching in the entire unit, if wells
are not available, then only such statement can be made. Any such wrong statement given will
lead to rejection of maps and blacklisting of the concerned scientist, internal quality expert and
the work center.

While selecting the wells for observation, preference should be given in the following order

Irrigation bore / tube wells:
Water supply bore / tube wells
Irrigation dug wells
Hand-pump wells (drinking water)
Dug-wells community water supply
Dug-wells individual house

Further, preference should be given to the wells located outside the village since, they will not
clash with the village symbol while representing on the map.

In a bore / tube-well, where it is not possible to measure the water level, the depth to water
level in a near by dug-well may be observed and mentioned for reference purpose. For
ascertaining the yield range, wherever pumping is in progress or switching on the pump is
possible, the yield may be measured by filling the bucket of known quantity (15-20 liters
capacity) several times noting the time in seconds. The yield should be calculated based on the
average time taken for filling the bucket of known quantity.

Where, pumping is not in progress, the yield may be estimated as shown below by noting the
diameter of the delivery pipe i.e. 2, 2 , 3 etc. full delivery, delivery, delivery or
delivery with gaps etc. by discussing with the well owner / farmer.
1

Yield Ranges (in lpm)


Water flow
2 dia pipe 2
1/2
dia pipe 3 dia pipe
Half () delivery
(Half pipe)
10-50 15-75 22-112

Three-fourth ()
delivery
(three-fourth pipe)
50-75 75-112 112-168

Full delivery
(full pipe)
75-100 112-150 168-225

Full pipe with pressure
up to 1ft distance
100-150 150-225 225-337
Full pipe with pressure
up to 2ft distance
150-200 225-300 337-450
Full pipe with pressure
up to 3ft distance
200-250 300-375 450-560

For final representation on the map, 80100 wells are sufficient. However, for fixing the
average yield for each unit, it is advisable to take into consideration the yield information of
several wells in each unit by discussing / enquiring with farmers and villagers. While fixing
the average yield range, the wells with abnormally low and high yields should be avoided,
where abnormally high yields are noticed in the hard rocks i.e. >200 lpm, the reasons also
should be verified and possibility of its occurrence on fracture zones may be checked by
examining the satellite imagery. If any fracture / lineament is inferred on the satellite data,
some more wells should be observed along such zone to confirm the existence of fracture and
represent the same on the map as confirmed fracture with solid line symbol.

Observation of rock types: All the rock types that have been demarcated on the satellite
imagery (with or without the help of previous literature / existing maps) should be verified on
the ground at several places and confirmed. Ultimately, based on the field verification only,
the nomenclature of rock type and rock codes to be finalized, not based on previous literature.
Previous literature may be taken as a guide, but its confirmation on the ground and collection
of few typical rock specimens is essential.

The boundaries between different rock types should be observed at several places on the
ground and confirmed. The boundaries taken from previous geological maps should not be
taken as it is. They have to be superimposed on the imagery and adjust the boundaries taking
into account the image characteristics. However, these boundaries have to be checked at
several places on the ground and satisfied.

Observation of geological structures: The minor geological structures like strike and dip of
bedding in sedimentary rocks, foliation in metamorphic rocks and major joints in igneous rocks
to be marked wherever rock out crops are observed. Searching for outcrops and measuring
strike and dip (bedding / foliation / joints) and representing them with appropriate symbols on
the map is essential. Unless, a particular rock type is totally covered by soil and not exposed
anywhere except in the well sections and nala cuttings. Trends observed on satellite imagery
may be taken as a guide for determining the strike and dip. But, without examining the same
on the ground, the strike and dip symbols should not be marked on the map.

2
In hard rock areas, since, fracture zones act as conduits for ground water movement, their
importance in selection of well sites needs no emphasis. Hence, majority of lineaments
interpreted form satellite imagery should be verified on the ground and where evidences are
very clear, they have to be shown on the map as confirmed with solid line symbol. The
lineaments which have no evidences on the ground should be deleted from the map and the
others which have limited evidences have to be shown with dashed line symbols as inferred
category. Considering the importance of this information, it is essential to pay sufficient
attention to confirm as many lineaments as possible during the field work.

Observation of geomorphic units: All the geomorphic units interpreted from satellite
imagery should be cross verified on the ground and confirmed. The depth of weathering and
thickness of deposition (whatever / wherever applicable) should be verified for each
geomorphic unit at several places to facilitate proper classification of the same into shallow (1-
10 mtrs.) moderate (10-20 m) and deep (>20 m) categories. In the legend also, wherever
shallow, moderate and deep are added to any geomorphic unit as suffix, the actual depth range
/ thickness observed on the ground should be indicated below that unit in the brackets as (5-
8m) etc.

Edge matching: Before finalisation of the maps, edge matching with the adjacent maps is a
must. Hence, the concerned work center has to take care of edge matching of all the maps by
consulting the concerned state project coordinator / project manager about the distribution of
adjacent maps.

Quality Check:

The maps will be quality checked at NRSA / DOS at final stage only. Therefore, it is the
responsibility of the work centres to comply with the strict norms of internal quality check to
produce high quality maps. As, strategic partners of NRSA, all the work centers have to take
the responsibility for producing high quality maps with sufficient field data. To achieve, it is
essential for each work centre to have an internal quality expert, who will carryout quality
checks at each stage of map preparation i.e. preliminary interpretation, post field work stage,
draft map preparation and pre-final stage etc besides providing technical guidance to the
scientists. These quality checks have to be done as per the proforma indicated in Annexure-X
and send to NRSA. The final quality check will be conducted by the quality team of NRSA /
DOS and the corrections / modifications, if any suggested by the quality team have to be
implemented by the work centre and the final maps after incorporating the corrections /
modifications have to be submitted to NRSA. Any discrepancies observed in complying with
the modifications / corrections suggested by the Quality Expert will be noted seriously and
will be reflected on the performance of work centre leading to cancellation of work order.

The guidelines given above have to be followed very strictly. If any map does not contain the
required field information or edge matching is not done with the adjacent maps, it will be
rejected at any stage even if it has passed through regular quality checks and payment is
released also. Thus, for insufficient field data and problems in edge matching, the total
responsibility rests with the concerned work centers. Hence, all the work centers have to be
extra cautious in collecting required field information and confirming the interpretations made
based on satellite data and other sources and edge matching of all the maps before their
submission to NRSA.
Due to unforeseen reasons, if sufficient field work is not carried out in a particular mapping
unit, it should be mentioned in the remarks column indicating the reasons. If, it applies to a
larger area or the entire map, it should be indicated as foot note below the legend.
3
4

PROCEDURAL GUIDELINES TO BE FOLLOWED
FOR PREPARING THE GROUND WATER PROSPECTS MAPS

1. Total drainage from toposheet should be traced on to a 50 or 75 micron tracing film using
very thin and dull back colour pen (ball point or rotring pen). Over the hills and high relief
areas, some of the 1
st
order drainage may be omitted to avoid clumsiness, but none of the
2
nd
order streams have to be omitted.

2. The drainage overlay should be superimposed on to the satellite imagery and match both
the drainages by making best fit adjustment.

3. Transfer the lat-long ticks (+marks) from the image on to the drainage overlay for
reference.

4. Along major rivers and streams where changes in the river / stream courses is more
common, necessary corrections in the drainage courses may be made using image
interpretation.

5. Hanging drainages lines, if any, should be connected using image control.

6. New water bodies, tanks, canals etc if any seen on the imagery to be marked on to the
drainage overlay.

7. The drainage overlay should be used for interpretation of all themes.

8. On the drainage overlay, transfer the geological / lithological boundaries from the known
sources / literature / existing geological maps.

9. Make necessary corrections in the lithologic boundaries based on tone, texture, assemblage
and other information observed on the image. Confirmed boundaries to be marked with
solid lines and inferred boundaries with dashed lines.

10. Then, the overlay should be superimposed on to the toposheet and all the hills, inselbergs,
mesa / butte, plateau etc to be marked based on contour information. Then, the overlay
should be superimposed on to the image and correct the boundaries of the hills, inselbergs,
mesa / butte / plateau etc seeing the image.

11. Wherever too many inselbergs are occurring, PIC boundary should be drawn enclosing all
such inselbergs seeing image tone, texture assemblage etc.

12. Along major rivers and streams, fluvial landforms like point bar, channel bar, migrated
river course, palaeochannel, floodplain, alluvial plain etc. to be marked.

13. After marking the above landforms, the remaining area between the hills and valley
(stream) should be divided into PPS / PPM / PPD etc.
14. Wherever intensive gullying is seen, it should be marked as PPG, APG, FPG, EPG, CPG
etc.

15. Wherever canal command is seen on the plains and plateaus, they should be marked as
PPC, APC, FPC, EPC, CPC etc. as the case may be.
5

16. Thus, after demarcating all the landforms, the lithologic and landform boundaries should
be made co-terminus and drawn using colour pencil.

17. For all the hydrogeomorphic units, thus mapped, alpha-numeric annotation to be given.

18. Faults should be marked where evidences are clearly observed, i.e. shifting in the
alignment of dykes, linear ridges, juxtaposition of the rock types etc. is observed.

19. Faults having positive topographic expression should be mapped as shear zones.

20. All the fractures and lineaments should be marked seeing the image and drainage
alignment.

21. The lineaments which are not forming parallel sets to be removed, if evidences are not
very clear on the image.

22. Those lineaments having definite evidences should be marked as confirmed with solid
lines and the remaining ones with dashed lines.

23. Based on their length, the major lineaments (>3 km) to be marked with thick line and the
minor ones (<3 km) with thin lines.

24. Now, since total interpretation is complete, individual layer-wise information may be
separated, i.e. lithology, landform, geological structures from this overlay.

25. The hydrogeomorphic boundaries which need to be checked up in the field should be
transferred on to the toposheet. For this purpose, the toposheet to be kept on the map
overlay on the light table and the unit boundaries and lineaments that need to be checked
in the field should be marked on to the toposheet using pencil.

26. Then seeing the road network, accessibility etc. on the toposheet, the points for field
check should be decided based on the information to be collected in the field. These
field check points should be numbered as (1), (2), (3) etc. on the toposheet with red
colour pencil. About 40-50 such points to be identified for checking in the field; this is
in addition to well observations.

27. What type of information to be collected in the field points at (1), (2), (3) etc should be
clearly noted down in the field note book.


28. At this stage, QC-1 to be conducted and people should be allowed to go for field checks.

29. During the field visit, all the points marked in the toposheet should be verified and
information collected in addition to observing at least 40-50 wells in each toposheet, in
such a way that these wells are distributed throughout the map in all the units. Preference
should be given to bore-tube wells; where bore/tube wells are not available, dug wells
information may be collected.

30. After returning from the field, first field data should be checked up and unwanted,
disputed and irrelevant information to be removed.

6
31. In the light of the field observations, necessary corrections to be effected in the
integrated overlay as well as individual overlays.

32. Then, legend to be prepared for the total map, colour coding to be given in the boxes
for all the units using colour pencils.

33. At this stage, one internal QC to be done by the specialist of the concerned work center.

34. Then, QC expert to be called for conducting QC-II.

35. After QC-II, necessary modifications and corrections should be incorporated. An
ammonia xerox copy of the integrated map overlay to be taken and coloured with
colour pencil as per the colour coding (hatching). The legend should be neatly typed on
to an A-3 size sheet.

36. This should be shown to the Quality Expert and his signature should be taken on the
map and legend, then, go for digitization.

37. After digitization, a draft ground water prospects map (hard copy output) should be
taken and shown to QC expert for conducting QC-III. After QC-III, if the changes /
modifications are very few, by incorporating them, the final maps (5 copies of ground
water prospects map + 1 copy each of the individual map overlay) and soft copy may
be generated and send them to NRSA duly certified by the Quality Expert. If more
number of corrections are involved, after incorporating them a fresh output to be taken
and shown to the Quality Expert. After the Quality Experts approval only, remaining
copies to be generated and submitted to NRSA (duly certified by the Quality Expert).
The details of deliverables / outputs to be submitted to NRSA are given in the
Technical Guidelines.





7
ANNEXURE-IX


RGNDWM Project Phase - II
Improvements / Modifications in the methodology

For preparing the ground water prospects maps under RGNDWM project Phase-II, certain
improvements/ modifications have been made in the methodology. Hence, all the work centers
and the scientists involved in this work are requested to note the following improvements /
changes in the Technical guidelines for preparation of ground water prospects maps
brought out earlier in Feb 2000, based on which the maps were prepared under RGNDWM
project Phase-I programme.

Field work: Under Phase-II programme, a minimum of 10-12 days effective field work has
to be carried out for each map (full toposheet) to collect sufficient ground survey data on
geology, geomorphology, geological structures and hydrogeological information, NC / PC
habitations etc.

Observation of wells: During the field work for each map (Full map covering about 700 Sq.
km) a minimum of 80-100 wells have to be observed and represented on the map. These
observation wells should be selected in such a way, that they are properly distributed
throughout the map covering all the map units. Even in smaller units also, at least 2-3 wells
should be observed. In case, if wells are totally absent in a particular unit, then it should be
mentioned in the legend as No Wells. But, before mentioning the same, one should make
himself sure about the absence of wells in that unit. After searching in the entire unit, if wells
are not available, then only such statement can be made. Any such wrong statement given will
lead to rejection of maps and blacklisting of the concerned scientist, internal quality expert and
the work center.

While selecting the wells for observation, preference should be given in the following order

Irrigation bore / tube wells:
Water supply bore / tube wells
Irrigation dug wells
Hand-pump wells (drinking water)
Dug-wells community water supply
Dug-wells individual house

Further, preference should be given to the wells located outside the village since, they will not
clash with the village symbol while representing on the map.

In a bore / tube-well, where it is not possible to measure the water level, the depth to water
level in a near by dug-well may be observed and mentioned for reference purpose. For
ascertaining the yield range, wherever pumping is in progress or switching on the pump is
possible, the yield may be measured by filling the bucket of known quantity (15-20 liters
capacity) several times noting the time in seconds. The yield should be calculated based on the
average time taken for filling the bucket of known quantity.

Where, pumping is not in progress, the yield may be estimated as shown below by noting the
diameter of the delivery pipe i.e. 2, 2 , 3 etc. full delivery, delivery, delivery or
delivery with gaps etc. by discussing with the well owner / farmer.
8




Yield Ranges (in lpm)


Water flow
2 dia pipe 2
1/2
dia pipe 3 dia pipe
Half () delivery
(Half pipe)
10-50 15-75 22-112

Three-fourth ()
delivery
(three-fourth pipe)
50-75 75-112 112-168

Full delivery
(full pipe)
75-100 112-150 168-225

Full pipe with pressure
up to 1ft distance
100-150 150-225 225-337
Full pipe with pressure
up to 2ft distance
150-200 225-300 337-450
Full pipe with pressure
up to 3ft distance
200-250 300-375 450-560

For final representation on the map, 80100 wells are sufficient. However, for fixing the
average yield for each unit, it is advisable to take into consideration the yield information of
several wells in each unit by discussing / enquiring with farmers and villagers. While fixing
the average yield range, the wells with abnormally low and high yields should be avoided,
where abnormally high yields are noticed in the hard rocks i.e. >200 lpm, the reasons also
should be verified and possibility of its occurrence on fracture zones may be checked by
examining the satellite imagery. If any fracture / lineament is inferred on the satellite data,
some more wells should be observed along such zone to confirm the existence of fracture and
represent the same on the map as confirmed fracture with solid line symbol.

Observation of rock types: All the rock types that have been demarcated on the satellite
imagery (with or without the help of previous literature / existing maps) should be verified on
the ground at several places and confirmed. Ultimately, based on the field verification only,
the nomenclature of rock type and rock codes to be finalized, not based on previous literature.
Previous literature may be taken as a guide, but its confirmation on the ground and collection
of few typical rock specimens is essential.

The boundaries between different rock types should be observed at several places on the
ground and confirmed. The boundaries taken from previous geological maps should not be
taken as it is. They have to be superimposed on the imagery and adjust the boundaries taking
into account the image characteristics. However, these boundaries have to be checked at
several places on the ground and satisfied.

Observation of geological structures: The minor geological structures like strike and dip of
bedding in sedimentary rocks, foliation in metamorphic rocks and major joints in igneous rocks
to be marked wherever rock out crops are observed. Searching for outcrops and measuring
strike and dip (bedding / foliation / joints) and representing them with appropriate symbols on
the map is essential. Unless, a particular rock type is totally covered by soil and not exposed
anywhere except in the well sections and nala cuttings. Trends observed on satellite imagery
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may be taken as a guide for determining the strike and dip. But, without examining the same
on the ground, the strike and dip symbols should not be marked on the map.




In hard rock areas, since, fracture zones act as conduits for ground water movement, their
importance in selection of well sites needs no emphasis. Hence, majority of lineaments
interpreted form satellite imagery should be verified on the ground and where evidences are
very clear, they have to be shown on the map as confirmed with solid line symbol. The
lineaments which have no evidences on the ground should be deleted from the map and the
others which have limited evidences have to be shown with dashed line symbols as inferred
category. Considering the importance of this information, it is essential to pay sufficient
attention to confirm as many lineaments as possible during the field work.

Observation of geomorphic units: All the geomorphic units interpreted from satellite
imagery should be cross verified on the ground and confirmed. The depth of weathering and
thickness of deposition (whatever / wherever applicable) should be verified for each
geomorphic unit at several places to facilitate proper classification of the same into shallow (1-
10 mtrs.) moderate (10-20 m) and deep (>20 m) categories. In the legend also, wherever
shallow, moderate and deep are added to any geomorphic unit as suffix, the actual depth range
/ thickness observed on the ground should be indicated below that unit in the brackets as (5-
8m) etc.

Edge matching: Before finalisation of the maps, edge matching with the adjacent maps is a
must. Hence, the concerned work center has to take care of edge matching of all the maps by
consulting the concerned state project coordinator / project manager about the distribution of
adjacent maps.

Quality Check:

The maps will be quality checked at NRSA / DOS at final stage only. Therefore, it is the
responsibility of the work centres to comply with the strict norms of internal quality check to
produce high quality maps. As, strategic partners of NRSA, all the work centers have to take
the responsibility for producing high quality maps with sufficient field data. To achieve, it is
essential for each work centre to have an internal quality expert, who will carryout quality
checks at each stage of map preparation i.e. preliminary interpretation, post field work stage,
draft map preparation and pre-final stage etc besides providing technical guidance to the
scientists. These quality checks have to be done as per the proforma indicated in Annexure-X
and send to NRSA. The final quality check will be conducted by the quality team of NRSA /
DOS and the corrections / modifications, if any suggested by the quality team have to be
implemented by the work centre and the final maps after incorporating the corrections /
modifications have to be submitted to NRSA. Any discrepancies observed in complying with
the modifications / corrections suggested by the Quality Expert will be noted seriously and
will be reflected on the performance of work centre leading to cancellation of work order.

The guidelines given above have to be followed very strictly. If any map does not contain the
required field information or edge matching is not done with the adjacent maps, it will be
rejected at any stage even if it has passed through regular quality checks and payment is
released also. Thus, for insufficient field data and problems in edge matching, the total
responsibility rests with the concerned work centers. Hence, all the work centers have to be
extra cautious in collecting required field information and confirming the interpretations made
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based on satellite data and other sources and edge matching of all the maps before their
submission to NRSA.

Due to unforeseen reasons, if sufficient field work is not carried out in a particular mapping
unit, it should be mentioned in the remarks column indicating the reasons. If, it applies to a
larger area or the entire map, it should be indicated as foot note below the legend.
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