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EXPERIMENT 3 TOPIC: FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTION

OBJECTIVE To study the effect of concentration, temperature and catalyst on the rate of reaction.

INTRODUCTION The rate of a reaction is the change in concentration of the reactants of products per unit time. Among the factors which influence the rate of reaction are the concentration of the reactant, temperature and catalyst. The rate of a reaction can be studied by observing the change in the chemical properties or the change in physical properties of species involved in the reaction. The rate of a reaction affects the time factor, example: the faster the reaction occurs, the shorter the time for the reaction to complete. The relationship between the concentration of the chosen reactants and time can be used to measure the rate of a reaction. The rate of reaction can also be influenced by changes in temperature and the presence of the catalyst.

EXPERIMENT 3a: Reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) will produce insoluble sulphur, sulphur dioxide (CO2) gas, sodium chloride and water. The chemical reaction rates will be measured after the cloudy sulphur appears.

CHEMICALS 0.1 M Na2S2O3 solution, 0.1M HCl solution, ice

APPARATUS Pipette 5 ml, Test tube 150mm, Stop watch, Beaker and Thermometer.

PROCEDURS 1. 2 sets (A and B) of different test tubes is prepared. Each set has 3 test tubes. 2. 2 ml Na2S2O3 solution is measured using pipette and a pipette bulb and it added to 3 test tubes for SET A and 2ml HCl solution is measured to another 3 test tubes for SET B. 3. The first pair of test tubes which have Na2S2O3/ HCl from set A and B immersed in the beaker that containing some ice until the thermal equilibrium has been achieved (about 5 minutes). 4. The HCl solution poured into the Na2S2O3 solution and start timing. The mixture shaked for a few second and the test tube putted back in the beaker that containing the ice. Stop timing when the mixture becomes cloudy. Then, the time of the reaction changes and temperature of the test tube recorded immediately with suitable significant figures.

5. Procedure 3 repeated with the second pair of test tubes but using water bath with water temperature (<60C). Water temperature recorded accurately. The test tubes which have Na2S2O3/ HCl from set A and set B immersed in the water bath. The HCl solution added with Na2S2O3 solution immediately and starts timing. The mixture shaked for a few second and the test tube putted back in the water bath. Stop timing when the mixture becomes cloudy. 6. Procedures 3 repeated with the last couple of test tubes but using an empty beaker at room temperature. The HCl solution added with the Na2S2O3 solution and start timing. The mixture shaked for a second and putted the test tubes back in the beaker. When the mixture become cloudy, stop timing.

EXPERIMENT 3b: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is stable but will decompose to water and oxygen with the present of catalyst. CHEMICALS 3% H2O2 solution, Crystal MnO2, 3.0 M H2SO4 solutions.

APPARATUS Pipette 5 ml, Test tube 150mm

PROCEDURES 1. 2ml of 3% H2O2 solution measured into the test tube using a pipette.1-2 pieces MnO2 crystals added into the solution and any changes that occurs will be observed.

EXPERIMENT 3c: The complete reaction between iodic acid (HIO3) and sulphurous acid (H2SO3) will produce free iodine (I2) , sulphuric acid and water. The presence of iodine will be tested by using starch.

CHEMICALS 0.01M HIO3 solution, 0.01 M H2SO3 solution, Starch solution, Distilled water. APPRATUS Dropper, Test tube 150 mm, Stop watch, White marble.

PROCEDURES 1. The following solution is prepared. SOLUTION IN THE TEST TUBE Starch solution 1 drop 1 drop 1 drop 1 drop 1 drop Distilled water 17 drops 14 drops 8 drops 5 drops 0 SOLUTION ADDITION 0.01 M H2SO3

Test tube 1 2 3 4 5

0.01 M HIO3 3 drops 6 drops 12 drops 15 drops 20 drops

1 ml 1 ml 1 ml 1 ml 1 ml

2. The white marble or white paper placed behind the test tube. 0.01 M H2SO3 added in the first tube and start timing. The test tube is shaked. When the blue colour of iodine complex appears start timing immediately.

3. Procedure 2 is repeated for the next test tubes (test tubes 2-5) 4. The graph of ionic acid concentration versus time for this reaction is plotted.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION EXPERIMENT 3a: Result Time for appearance of sulpur(s) 389 second 11second 28 second Temperature(C) 3C 51C 23C

From the graph, we can see that it takes 389 seconds at 3C but only 11 seconds at 51C. Therefore the reaction is very much faster at higher temperature. In theory, when the temperature increases by 10C the rate of reaction will be doubled. From the graph, when the time is 15 seconds, the temperature is 32C.

The balanced equation is

2HCl (aq) + Na2S2O3 (aq)

H2O (l) +SO2 (g) + S(s)

At the higher temperature, particles travel faster with more energy, and colliding harder and more often. At the lower temperature, particles travel slower, with less energy with weaker collision less often.The higher the temperature, the faster is the reaction.

EXPERIMENT 3b: 1. Adding small amount of MnO2 powder will suddenly make the reaction proceed faster. So the rates of decomposition of oxygen gas increase. 2. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes according to the following equation. 2H2O2 (aq) 2H2O (l) + O2(g)

When a glowing wooden splinter is inserted into the mouth of both test tubes which has a catalyst. When oxygen is evolved, the kindles glowing splinter will occur. Manganese oxide is a catalyst. It is not used up in the reaction. Its mass is unchanged at the end of the reaction. In the presence of a catalyst, a collision needs lesser energy to react successfully. The result is that as more collisions become successful, the reaction will be faster. The energy needed for a reaction is called the activation energy. A catalyst lowers the activation energy.

Experiment 3c:

Results Concentration of HIO3: Concentration of H2SO3: Volumn of I drop of HIO3: Volumn of 1 drop of water: 0.01 M 0.01M 0.033ml 0.030ml

We get 30 drops of HIO3 for 1ml, so 1 drop will has 1/30 ml that is 0.033 ml. We get 33 drops of water for 1ml, so 1 drop of water will content 0.030ml.

Test tube 1 2 3 4 5 HIO3 0.10 0.20 0.40 0.50 0.67

Volume (ml) H2O H2SO3 0.52 1.0 0.42 1.0 0.24 1.0 0.15 1.0 0 1.0

[HIO3] 0.0068 0.0074 0.0085 0.0091 0.01

Time (s) 1120 223 126 69 40

Concentration HIO3 for test tube 1 [(0.1/1000)(0.01)+(1/1000)(0.01)]/ [(0.1+0.52+1.0)/1000]=0.0068M Concentration HIO3 for test tube 2 [(0.2/1000)(0.01)+(1/1000)(0.01)]/ [(0.2+0.42+1.0)/1000]=0.0074M Concentration HIO3 for test tube 3 [(0.4/1000)(0.01)+(1/1000)(0.01)] / [(0.40+0.24+1.0)/1000]=0.0085M

Concentration HIO3 for test tube 4 [(0.5/1000)(0.01)+(1/1000)(0.01)]/[(0.50+0.15+1.0)/1000]=0.0091M Concentration HIO3 for test tube 5 [(0.67/1000)(0.01)+(1/1000)(0.01)]/[(0.67+1.0)/1000]=0.01M

From the graph we can see that the more concentration of the HIO3, the time for the appearance of blue colour of starch complex is shorter and the reverse. iv) Concentration of HIO3 after adding 10drops.10 drops equal to 0.33ml. Concentration= [(0.33/1000)(0.01)+(1/1000)(0.01)]/[(0.33+1.0)/1000]=0.01M From the graph, the time for the appearance of the colour of starch complex is almost 40 second. The babanced equation is

2HIO3 + 5H2SO3
Conclusion

I2 +5H2SO4 + H2O

A reaction becomes slower when the concentration of the reactant decreases and the reverse. In the dilute solution, the particles are far apart and are less likely to meet and react, while in the more concentrated solution, more particles are present in the same volume. So they are closing together and more likely to meet and react.

In general, the rate of reaction is influenced by temperature of the reactant, presence of catalyst and the concentration of the reactant.