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A SOURCE BOOK FOR

PLANNING, EXECUTION AND MONITORING OF MASONRY STRUCTURES

August 2008

FOUNDATION FOR ECOLOGICAL SECURITY

A Manual For Planning, Execution And Monitoring Of Masonry Structures

Foundation For Ecological Security August, 2008

INDEX
Definition of Dam Classification of dams Advantage and Disadvantage of cement masonry dam Survey for the team Dam design Basic concept of masonry structures Standard formats for design and cost estimation Drawings of masonry dam Rate analysis Page no. 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 6

Cement structure Definition of dam: It is an impermeable structure constructed across the drainage line for storage of water. The side of the dam where water is stored is called the upstream side and other side of the dam is called downstream side. During the site selection for water harvesting structures under the watershed programmes, the cement masonry structures are usually preferred over the earthen structures. The designing and cost estimation process of cement masonry structures is a tedious job and requires skilled persons. However, anyone who has a learning attitude can easily understand the underlying principles. Watershed projects also focus on aspects that provide employment to the rural community but the construction of the cement masonry structure involves a very small component of unskilled labour cost. The proportion of wage cost and non-wage cost for the construction of the masonry structure is in the proportion of 40: 60. Hence, these structures should be planned only on such sites that are not favorable for the construction of earthen structures. Uses of dam: The stored water may be used for a variety of purposes that may be irrigation, drinking, electricity generation, and flood control etc. History of dam: It is hard to say that when was the first dam constructed but based on the archeological findings, the first dam was constructed before 3000 to 5000 years ago. The first modern dam was constructed in Furnace, France in 1861, the design which is being mostly followed. The first dam (Aswan dam) across the big river (Nile River) is constructed in 1902 in Egypt.

Classification of dams: Dams are generally classified by three types: Type I: On the basis of use Geographical location, storage capacity and location of the dam are the three main parameters for further classifying dams on the basis of use a) Storage: The main purpose of this structure is to store the excess surface runoff during the rainy season. It can further be used for irrigation, electricity

generation and the ground water recharge. Example: Rihand dam, Indira Sagar, Nagarjuna Sagar and Bhakra Dam etc. b) Irrigation: The main purpose of this dam is irrigation through canal network. All minor irrigation dams are the examples of this class. c) Flood control structure: The main purpose of this structure is to protect a particular area from flooding by storing the water at flood times and releasing it during the normal period. Farraka barage is one such barrage constructed on River Ganga to protect Bangladesh from inundation. On the basis of overflow and non overflow A dam where water flows over the dam body is called an overflow dam and otherwise it is called a non-overflow dam. All masonry structures are overflow dams and all earthen dams are the examples of non-overflow dams. On the basis of construction material/shape a) Earthen dam: It is the dam constructed by earth therefore it is called earthen dam. b) RCC dam: It is constructed by concrete and steel bars hence it is called RCC dam. c) Concrete dam: Concrete is mainly used for construction of this structure. d) Arch dam: shape of the dam is arch type hence it is called arch dam. e) Steel dam: the dam constructed by steel thus, it is called steel dam. f) Wooden dam: wooden planks are mainly used for construction of the wooden dam.

Advantage and disadvantage of cement masonry dam Earthen dam Construction available. It mainly requires unskilled labor. material is Masonry dam locally Construction material is not available locally. It requires both skilled & unskilled labor. Height of the dam can be modified Height cannot be modified unless there easily. is an additional provision in the

foundation for such a modification. Wage cost and non-wage cost Wage cost and non-wage cost

proportion is 80: 20. Initial construction cost is low. Maintenance cost is high.

proportion is 40: 60. Initial construction cost is very high Maintenance cost is low.

Foundation strata is not a major Foundation strata should be firm and constraint in site selection. hard when selecting a site for such a dam. It can fail suddenly. It warns before failure.

It can be constructed up to a maximum There is no limitation with regards to height of 30 m. the height of a dam.

Survey for the dam: Site of a dam is selected on the basis of its catchment area and the total amount of runoff generated from the catchment. Following points should be kept in mind while conducting survey for a dam: The banks of the drain should be high and firm. Width of the drain at the site should be narrow and the slope of the drain bed should be gentle. The site should be approachable for an easy transportation of construction materials. The submergence area of the dam should be marked on the ground. Conduct cross section survey at regular intervals across the drain to estimate the storage capacity of the dam. 3

Check the status of catchment area i.e. whether it is treated or untreated. If it is not treated then a plan for the same should be made and incorporated into the proposal of dam.

Dam design: During the preliminary survey, Following technical parameters have to be found out: A = catchment area in hectare from Toposheet. H = maximum height of the structure in meter Step I: Calculate peak discharge, Q = C*(A/100) 3/4 Here, Q = Peak discharge in cusec A = catchment in hectares C= coefficient of runoff, the value of C is as below Zone Central India North India Western Ghat C 14 to 19.5 11.5 22 to 26

Step II: Calculate peak runoff per running meter q = Q/L here L is length of the dam Step III: Calculate depth of the flow considering peak discharge h = (q/1.71) 2/3 Step IV: Calculate the hydraulic head (HL), H L = H + h, here H is height of the dam Step V: Calculate the top width of the dam (a) a = [HL/(G+1)1/2], here G is specific gravity of construction material Step VI: Calculate the bottom width of the dam (b) b = [HL/(G-1)1/2], here G is specific gravity of the construction material

Step VII: Calculate the length of the downstream apron (L a) L a = 1.45 * K * (HL/13)1/2, here K is coefficient of hydraulic gradient Step VIII: Calculate the thickness of the downstream apron (t) t = 1.33 * [h/(G+1)], here G is specific gravity of the construction material

Specific gravity of different construction material: Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Construction material Plain cement concrete (PCC) Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) Stone masonry in cement mortar Dry stone masonry Random rubble masonry Brick masonry Reinforced brick masonry Plum cement concrete Specific gravity (G) 2.24 2.40 2.54 2.08 2.32 1.92 2.00 2.24

Hydraulic gradient (K) for different situation of drain bed: Sr. No. Situation of drain bed Safe hydraulic gradient (K) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Coarse sand Fine sand + mud Sand + Boulder Fine sand Boulder Big Boulder 12 8 5 to 9 15 5 3.5 to 4.5

Step IX: Design of Baffle wall: The downstream drain bed may get damaged by the water falling over the top of the dam, it is thus necessary that a baffle wall be constructed at the end of the downstream apron, so that an additional water cushion may be provided at the scour. 5

Calculate height of the baffle wall (h b), hb = yc - y1 Here = yc is critical depth, yc = (q2/g) which is 9.81. And y1 is pre-jump depth, y1 = 0.183 * q0.89 * HL-0.35 If the y c - y 1 is less than 0.30 m then hb = yc Thickness of baffle wall (tb) tb = 2/3 * h b Distance of baffle wall from head wall (Lb) Lb = 5.25 * h b Step X: Design of sidewall and wing-wall: These are constructed for protection of the structure, especially where the banks are weak. Weep holes should be provided in the wing wall for the drainage of excess water. Foundation depth of the sidewall and wing wall depends on the soil strata of foundation bed. It is an expensive measure, and thus it should be constructed only where it is necessary. In certain cases, a gabion wall may be constructed instead of masonry wall depending on the bank condition and the catchment area. Height of the sidewalls at the dam section should be equal to the height of the structure plus the depth of the flow over dam plus the freeboard. Top width of the wing wall should be equal to 1/6 to 1/7th of the height of the wing wall. Bottom width of the wing wall should be equal to 1/3 to 1/4th of the height of the wing wall. Wing wall turns at the radius of 1.5 to 2 times of height of the dam. Example: If peak discharge (Q) is = 18 cusec, length of the dam (L) = 22 m, height of the dam (H) = 1.8 m, situation at drain bed is big boulder, construction material is concrete and site is in Madhya Pradesh. Design the structure. Solution: q = Q/L = 18/22 = 0.81 cusec/running meter h = (q/1.71)2/3 = (0.81/1.71) 2/3 =0.58 m y c = (q2/g) 0.33 = (0.812/9.81) 0.33 = 0.40 m y1 = 0.183 * q0.89 * HL-0.35 = 0.183 * 0.810.89 * 2.38-0.35 = 0.30m (HL =H+h, HL =1.8 + 0.58 = 2.38 m) h b = y c - y 1 = 0.4 - 0.3= 0.10 m, it very less so h b = y c, h b = 0.40 m
0.33

here g is acceleration due to gravity,

Thickness of baffle wall (tb) = 2/3 * h b = 2/3 * 0.40 = 0.26 m Distance of baffle wall from head wall (Lb) = 5.25 * h b = 5.25 * 0.40 = 2.1 m Length of downstream apron (L a) = 1.45 * K * (HL/13)1/2 = 1.45 * 4.5 * (2.38/13)1/2 = 2.79 m Thickness of downstream apron (t) = 1.33 * [h/(G+1)] = 1.33 * [0.58/(2.24+1)] = 0.62 m Top width of dam (a) = [HL/(G+1)1/2] = [2.38/(2.24+1)1/2] = 1.11 m Bottom width of dam (b) = [HL/(G-1)1/2] = [2.38/(2.24-1)1/2] = 1.8 m Forces acting on dam wall: Stored water in upstream side of the dam body Self-weight of dam Uplift force of stored water Forces due to earthquake Ice force in cold terrain Wind force Force due to siltation

If height of the dam is less than 10 m, forces acting on the dam would be negligible. Horizontal forces due to stored water: Horizontal forces act on the dam body mainly due to the standing water column. Resultant of the forces acts at H/3 from the base of the dams. Formula for calculating horizontal force (P) on the dam body is P = 1/2 * w *H2, here w = specific unit weight of water = 1000Kg/m3 and H is height of the stored water Self weight force of the dam: W = 1/2 * w * H * b *G Here W is self-weight force in KG, w is specific unit weight of water, H is depth of water column, G is specific gravity of construction material, and b is bottom width of dam

Uplift force due to standing water column: The standing water enters the foundation through small pores and the pore water would force upwardly from the dam body. U = 1/2 * *w * b * H Here U is uplift force in Kg is a constant for uplift force, value of varies from 0.60 to 0.75 Failure of dam is mainly due to: Overturning Crushing Shearing or sliding Sinking

Normally failure of the dam occurs above the ground level.

Overturning: Resultant force of all forces except self weight force, acting on the dam body, causes the dam failure by overturning. If the summation of all negative movements divided by summation of all positive movements falls between 1.5 and 2.5, then dam is safe from failure by overturning. Negative movement mainly occurs due to self-weight of the dam whereas positive movement occurs due to uplift force and the force due to standing water column. -M/+M > 2.5 to 1.5 mean dam is safe Crushing: the bearing capacity of the foundation strata should resist the forces occurring due to the dam body. On comparing the bearing capacity of the soil to the forces due to dam body, if the answer comes more than 1, it would mean that the dam is safe from crushing failure. Bearing capacity of the soil per unit area divided by forces of dam on foundation per unit area should be more than 1.

Shearing or sliding: If the force of standing water is more than the force of selfweight of the dam then the dam may fail due to shearing or sliding. If summation of all vertical forces acting on the dam body divided by summation of all

horizontal forces acting on the dam is more than 1, it would mean dam is safe from shearing or sliding failure. Friction constant is 0.75.

Example1: Silent features of the dam are as follows: Length of the head wall = 32 m, catchment area = 200 hectares, construction material RCC, situation at drain bed is big boulder, height of the head wall of the dam is 3.2 m, location of the dam is in Central India. Design the dam. Solution: Q= C *(A/100) 3/4 = 14 * (200/100) 3/4 = 23.54 cusec Here, C = 14 and A = 200 ha q = Q/L = 23.54/ 32 = 0.73 m h = (q/1.71)2/3 = (0.74/1.71)2/3 = 0.54 m Hydraulic head (HL) = H + h = 3.2 + 0.54 = 3.74 m y c = (q2/g) 0.33 = (0.732/9.81) 0.33 = 0.44 m y1 = 0.183 * q0.89 * HL-0.35 = 0.183 * 0.730.89 * 3.74-0.35 = 0.35 m h b = y c - y 1 = 0.44-0.35= 0.09m, it is very less hence, h b = y c, h b = 0.44 m Thickness of baffle wall (tb) = 2/3 * h b = 2/3 * 0.44 = 0.29 m Distance of baffle wall from head wall (Lb) = 5.25 * h b = 5.25 * 0.44 = 2.31 m Length of downstream apron (La) = 1.45 * K * (HL/13) 1/2 = 1.45 * 4.5 * (3.74/13) 1/2 = 3.50 m Thickness of downstream apron (t) = 1.33 * [h/(G+1)] = 1.33 * [0.54/(2.24+1)] = 0.62 m Top width of dam (a) = [HL/(G+1) 1/2] = [3.74/(2.24+1) 1/2] = 2.07 m Bottom width of dam (b) = [HL/(G-1) 1/2] = [3.74/(2.24-1) 1/2] = 3.35 m Force of standing water (P) = 1/2 * w * H2 = 1/2 * 1000 *3.2 2 = 5120 Kg Self weight of dam = 1/2 * w * H *b *G = 1/2 *1000 * 3.2 *3.35 *2.24 = 12006 Kg Uplift force (U) = 1/2 * * w *b *H = 1/2 * 0.75 *1000 *3.35 *3.2 = 4020 Kg Negative movement due to self weight of dam = Self weight of dam x perpendicular distance from toe of the dam (b/2) = 12006 * 3.35/2 = 201110 Kg-m

Positive movement due to force of water = force of water X perpendicular distance from toe of dam (H/3) = 5120 * 3.2/3 = 5461 Kg-m Positive movement due to uplift force of water = uplift force of water X perpendicular distance from toe of the dam (b/2) = 4020 * 3.35/2 = 6733.5 Kg-m Shearing or sliding check: Summation of vertical forces acting on dam body divided by summation of horizontal forces acting on dam body should be more than 1 = 0.75 = (12006-4020)/5120 = 1.56 >1 hence OK Check for Overturning = -M/ +M >2.5 to 1.5 = 20110/12194 =1.64>1.5 hence OK

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Basic concept of masonry structures

Physical properties of concrete: Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand and coarse aggregates. Concrete is prepared in different proportions of its components governed by the as per the requirements, as for instance: 1(cement): 2(sand): 4(coarse aggregate), 1: 3: 6, 1: 4: 8 etc. 1. Workability: It is a property of the concrete, which determines as to how effectively it can be placed in position and compacted. It is measured by slump test. In order to obtain concrete of maximum strength, good compaction is essential and can be achieved if the concrete possess an adequate degree of workability in relation to the proposed method to be used for compaction. 2. Water cement ratio: It is the ratio of weight of water and weight of cement in the preparation of concrete mix. This is the most important factor governing the strength of concrete. The correct quantity of water required for a particular mix depends upon various factors such as: Mix proportions, type and grading of aggregate, method of compaction applied and weather condition. 3. Water content and workability: the workability of concrete increases as the water content of the mix is increased as the water lubricates the mixture. But increase in water content would cause a decrease in strength. Excess of water weakens concrete, and produce shrinkage cracks besides decreasing the density. Concrete made with low water /cement ratio is unworkable. If stiff or dry concrete is used honeycombing will result in decreased density and strength. An unworkable concrete results in an incomplete compaction giving rise to air voids. Therefore, there is an optimum value of the water/cement ratio for every mix. The best mix is the one, which gives the maximum workability with the minimum amount of water content. 4. Segregation: This process involves separating the coarser aggregates from the rest of the mix or the segregation of the cement water paste from the aggregates. It may occur in mixes, which are too dry or too wet. Segregation

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leads to the lack of uniformity causing honeycombing which reduces the strength and durability of the structure. 5. Bleeding: It is the appearance of a watery scum on the surface of a concrete after compaction. It is an indicator that there is too much water or deficiency of fine material in the mix, or that too much tampering has been done. This scum should be removed. Bleeding makes weak joints between successive lifts in structural work. 6. Hydration of cement: When water is added to cement, the cement hydrates; and calcium hydroxide or hydrated lime is librated. During the chemical reaction, during the setting and hardening of the cement, an increase in temperature occurs and a considerable quantity of heat is evolved. Hydration of cement is incomplete in an adequate quantity of water. If the water cement ratio is less than 0.4 to 0.5, the complete hydration of cement will not occur. 7. Slump test: It is a test conducted at the field for the workability of the concrete. 8. Strength: The strength of hardened concrete mainly depends upon: a) water cement ratio b) the quality and characteristics of cement compaction obtained in the concrete d) curing and c) the degree of

e) age of the concrete

9. Shrinkage: Concrete shrinks during setting and drying. The hydration of cement produces shrinkage cracks. The drying shrinkage increases due to an increase in the cement content or the water content. 10. Quality of water for concrete: Water for concrete should be clean and free from any oils, acids, alkalis, vegetables or other organic impurities. In general, water fit to drink is suitable for concrete.

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Properties of Cement: Manufacture of cement Chemically cement is composed of lime (60 to 67%), silica (17 to 25%) and alumina (3 to 8 %). These are thoroughly mixed together with water to form into a slurry, which is subsequently heated, dried, calcined and grounded to a very fine powder. A small proportion of gypsum is added before grinding in order to control the rate of setting.

Types of cement: There are mainly five kinds of cement classified according to their properties and their chemical composition: 1. Ordinary Portland cement: It is the most commonly used cement for general engineering work. Other cement types with different properties are used for particular purposes. Initial setting time of this cement is one hour and final setting time is around 10 hour. 2. Rapid hardening cement: It is a high strength cement. This has same composition as common cement but it is ground more finely. It is used where an early high strength is required. It develops the same compressive strength in 4 days, as the common cement develops in 28 days. 3. Quick setting time cement: This type of cement sets initially after about 5 minutes and finally in about 30 minutes. Its uses are generally restricted to works in running water. The quick setting action of this cement allows very little time for mixing, placing and compacting of the concrete. It hardens at the same rate as ordinary cement. 4. Blast furnace slag cement: It is a mixture of Portland cement, clinkers and granulated blast furnace slag. It is used for massive structure. 5. High alumina cement: It is used where it is required to impose loads on the concrete structure even earlier than that possible in case of the rapid hardening cement. 6. Low heat cement: It is used in the construction of structures where it is necessary to restrict heat generation during concreting to avoid cracks, in large masses of concrete.

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Deterioration of cement with storage Cement exposed to the atmosphere gets hydrated and loses strength. If the absorption of water exceeds by 5% the cement gets totally ruined and rendered useless for all ordinary purposes. Average reduction of strength in concrete, as a result of storage: Cement fresh Cement after 3 month storage Cement after 6 month storage Cement after 12 month storage 100 Reduced by 20% Reduced by 30% Reduced by 40%

Storage of cement Cement can be safely stored in sacks for a few months if kept in dry and air tight room. Cement bags should be stored in a dry room on a raised wooden platform15 to 23 cm above the floor and 30 cm away from walls. The layers of the bags to be stacked should not exceed more than 10.

Quality of sand Fresh water, river, or lake sand is most suitable for the construction. Sand generally contains some percentage of silt and clay. However, the content of silt and clay should not be more than 8 percent. It can be easily measured in the field itself.

Bulking of sand Sand when moist bulks (expands) and occupies more space than it does when completely dry. Moisture content of 2 to 3 percent will increase the volume by 10 to 20 percent or even 30 percent. Fine sand bulks more than coarse sand.

Batching and mixing of concrete: After finalizing the proportion of the different ingredients of concrete for a particular work the material, viz. aggregates, cement, and water are measured out in batches for mixing. This process is called

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batching. For measuring aggregates and sand, wooden box is made in units of one whole bag of cement, i.e. in unit of 35 liters. For example a convenient size of box would be 40 cm long, 35 cm wide and 25 cm deep. Overall capacity of this box should be 35 liter. Quantity of water, sand and aggregates per bag of cement (35 lit): Mix 1:2:4 1:3:6 1:4:8 Water (liter) 29 to 32 34 to 36 45 to 47 Sand (liter) 70 105 140 Aggregate (liter) 140 210 280

Note: If the mix is prepared by mixer machine than quantity of water can be reduced by about 20%. If the sand is wet, increase its quantity by 25% and reduce quantity of water by 20%.

Hand mixing It should be done on clean paved platform of size 3 m X 3 m with strips along three sides. Cement and sand should be first mixed dry, followed with the addition of the aggregate. The entire mixture should then be turned over 3 times (dry), followed by 5 more times (wet) and thoroughly mixed until the concrete is of uniform color.

Setting time retarding admixture Addition of sugar while mixing water with the concrete is found to delay the setting of the cement. It has been found that the addition of 0.05 percent of sugar, by weight of cement, is increases the setting time of concrete by about two hours in outdoor hot weather condition. Overdose of sugar is thus harmful.

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Curing of concrete When water is added to the cement, chemical reactions occur (hydration of cement), which result in setting and hardening of the cement. Usually, mixing water is sufficient to bring about the initial hydration of cement. However, if there is insufficient water in the concrete for the complete hydration of the cement during the setting period, the concrete does not develop its full strength. Curing thus becomes necessary for at least 14 days. 100% strength can be achieved only, if the curing is continued up to 28 days.

Compressive strength of ordinary Portland cement at different ages: 3 days 7 days 28 days 3 months 6 months 12 months 40% 65% 100% 115% 120% 130%

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Standard Formats for Design and cost estimation: Hydraulic design of structure Calculation for peak runoff by Rational formula (For Catchment up to 1300 ha) Sr. Particulars 1 Catchment area 2 Land use with area a) Wood land (A1) b) Pasture land (A2) c) Cultivated land (A3) d) Urban area (A4) 3 Topography with area Flat (0-5%) Rolling (5-10%) Hilly (10-30%) 4 Coefficient of runoff a) C1 b) C2 c) C3 d) C4 Weighted C= (A1*C1+A2*C2+A3*C3+A4*C4)/(A1+A2+A3+A4) 5 6 7 1200 1200 0 0 0 1200 Unit hectare hectare hectare hectare hectare hectare hectare hectare

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 meter meter hour

Length of maximum length of travel from remotest point (L) 3000 Difference in head between remotest point and the point of 15 disposal (H) 1.19

Time of concentration (t)= {(0.01947*(L3/H)0.5)0.77)}/60 Constant for the calculation of rainfall intensity (Nearest 8 station: Veraval) a) K b) a c) b d) n 9 Recurrence interval (T) 10 Peak rainfall intensity (I) = 10* [(K*Ta)/ (t+b)n 11 Peak discharge (Q) = CIA/360 Calculation for peak runoff by Dicken's formula Catchment more than 1300 ha) Sr. Particulars 1 Catchment area (A) 2 Runoff coefficient ( C ) 3 Peak discharge (Q) = C*(A/100)0.75

7.787 0.2087 0.5 0.8908 25 95.671 191.341

Year mm/hour cum/sec (For Unit hectare cum/sec

500 14 46.81

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Structural design of structure Sr. No. Particulars 1 2 3 A 1 2 3 4 5 B 1 2 3 4 5 C 1 Peak discharge (Q) Depth of flow over head wall (h) = (Q/(1.71*Lhw))2/3 Dimensions Designed taken for dimensions estimate 46.81 1.23 0.50

Unit

cum/sec 46.81 meter 1.23 0.5

Net Freeboard (F) = (TBL-HFL) generally taken is 0.5m meter Details of head wall Length of head wall (Lhw) Height of head wall (Hhw) Top width of head wall (TW hw) = (Hhw+ h)/ sq root of (bulk density of masonry+1) meter meter meter

20 1.9 1.74 2.80 2.05

20.00 1.90 1.74 2.80 2.05

Bottom width of head wall (BW hw) = (Hhw+h)/sq root of (bulk density-1) meter Foundation depth of head wall (Dhw)= 1.5*0.47*(Q/Hhw)1/3 Details of head wall extension Length of one side head wall extension (Lhwe) = Hhw+h+1 meter Top width of head wall extension (TW hwe) = generally taken as 0.50 m meter meter

4.13 0.5 1.45 3.63 2.05

4.13 0.50 1.45 3.63 2.05

Bottom width of head wall extension (BW hwe) = 0.4*(Hhw+h+F) meter Height of head wall extension (Hhwe) = (Hhw+f+F) meter Foundation depth of head wall extension (Dhwe) = Foundation depth of head wall (Dhw) meter Details of downstream side sidewall Length of d/s side wall (Ldsw) = TW hw+(0.75*(Hhw+h))+Hhw 18 meter

5.99

5.99

2 3 4 5

Top width of d/s side wall (TW dsw) = generally kept 0.50m

meter

0.5 1.45 0.5 3.63

0.50 1.45 0.5 3.63

Bottom width of d/s side wall (BW dsw) = Bottom width of head wall extension (BW hwe) meter Foundation depth of d/s side wall (Ddsw) = Depends on site conditions Maximum height of d/s side wall (Hmxdsw) = height of head wall extension (Hhwe) Minimum height of d/s side wall (Hmidsw) = generally kept half of Maximum height of d/s side wall (Hmxdsw) Details of upstream side sidewall Length of u/s side wall (Lusw) = Length of d/s side wall (Ldsw)/2 Top width of u/s side wall (TW usw) = generally kept 0.50m meter meter meter meter

6 D 1 2 3 4 5 6 E 1 2 3 4 5 F

meter

1.82

1.82

2.994 0.5 1.45 0.5 3.63 1.82

2.994 0.50 1.45 0.5 3.63 1.82

Bottom width of u/s side wall (BW usw) = Bottom width of d/s side wall (BW dsw) meter Foundation depth of u/s side wall (Dusw) = Depends on site conditions Maximum height of u/s side wall (Hmxusw) = Maximum height of d/s side wall (Hmxdsw) Minimum height of u/s side wall (Hmiusw) = Minimum height of d/s side wall (Hmidsw) Details of downstream side wing wall Length of d/s wing wall (Ldww) = 2.25*h meter meter meter meter

2.77 0.5 1.45 0.5 1.82

2.77 0.50 1.45 0.50 1.82

Top width of d/s wing wall (TW dww) = Top width of d/s side wall (TW dsw) meter Bottom width of d/s wing wall (BW dww) = Bottom width of d/s side wall (BW dsw) meter Foundation depth of d/s wing wall foundation (Ddww) = Foundation depth of d/s side wall (Ddsw) meter Height of d/s wing wall (Hdww) = Minimum height of d/s side wall (Hmidsw) meter Details of upstream side wing wall 19

1 2 3 4 5

Length of u/s wing wall (Luws) = Length of d/s wing wall (Ldww) Top width of u/s wing wall (TW uww) = width of u/s side wall (TW usw) Top

meter meter

2.77 0.5 1.45 0.5 1.82

2.77 0.50 1.45 0.5 1.82

Bottom width of u/s wing wall (BW uww) = Bottom width of u/s side wall (BW usw) meter Foundation depth of u/s wing wall (Duww) = Foundation depth of u/s side wall (Dusw) meter

Height of u/s wing wall (Huww) = Minimum height of u/s side wall (Hmiusw) meter

G Details of downstream side apron 1 2 3 H 1 2 3 I 1 2 3 4 Width of d/s apron (W da) = Length of d/s side wall (Ldsw) - Bottom width of head wall (BW hw) meter 3.19 20 0.50 3.19 20 0.60

Length of d/s apron (Lda) = Length of head wall (Lhw) meter Thickness of d/s apron (Tda) = 1.33*(h/(G+1)) Details of upstream side apron Width of u/s apron (W ua) = Width of u/s apron (W da)/2 meter meter

1.59 20 0.25

1.59 20 0.40

Length of u/s apron (Lua) = Length of head wall (Lhw) meter Thickness of u/s apron (Tua) = Thickness of d/s apron (Tda)/2 meter Details of downstream side Toe wall Length of d/s toe wall (Ldtw) = Length of d/s apron (Lda) Top and Bottom Width of toe wall (W dtw) = genrally kept 0.50m Height of d/s toe wall (Hdtw) = generally kept 0.50m meter meter meter

20 0.5 0.5 2.05

20 0.5 0.5 2.05

Foundation depth of toe wall (Ddtw) = Foundation depth of head wall (Dhw) meter

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Measurement Sheet S.N. Particulars 1 Foundation excavation (BW+30cm) 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 20.00 4.13 5.99 2.99 20.00 20.00 2.77 2.77 20.00 3.10 1.75 1.75 1.75 3.19 1.59 1.75 1.75 0.80 2.05 2.05 0.50 0.50 0.60 0.40 0.50 0.50 2.05 127.27 29.73 10.50 5.25 38.22 12.74 4.86 4.86 32.82 266.26 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 20.00 4.13 5.99 2.99 20.00 20.00 2.77 2.77 20.00 2.95 1.60 1.60 1.60 3.04 1.44 1.60 1.60 0.65 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.20 0.20 0.30 17.71 3.98 5.76 2.88 18.21 8.66 1.78 1.78 3.90 64.65 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 20.00 4.13 5.99 2.99 20.00 20.00 2.77 2.77 20.00 2.80 1.45 1.45 1.45 2.89 1.29 1.45 1.45 0.50 1.75 1.75 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.10 0.30 0.30 1.75 98.15 21.04 3.48 1.74 17.31 2.59 2.42 2.42 17.51 166.66 21 1.1 Head wall 1.2 Head wall extension 1.3 Side wall (Downstream side) 1.4 Side wall (Upstream side) 1.5 Apron (Downstream side) 1.6 Apron (Upstream side) 1.7 Wing wall (Downstream side) 1.8 Wing wall (Upstream side) 1.9 Toe wall (Downstream side only) TOTAL 2 P.C.C. in foundation base (BW+15cm) 1.1 Head wall 1.2 Head wall extension 1.3 Side wall (Downstream side) 1.4 Side wall (Upstream side) 1.5 Apron (Downstream side) 1.6 Apron (Upstream side) 1.7 Wing wall (Downstream side) 1.8 Wing wall (Upstream side) 1.9 Toe wall (Downstream side only) TOTAL 3 R.R. masonry in foundation 1.1 Head wall 1.2 Head wall extension 1.3 Side wall (Downstream side) 1.4 Side wall (Upstream side) 1.5 Apron (Downstream side) 1.6 Apron (Upstream side) 1.7 Wing wall (Downstream side) 1.8 Wing wall (Upstream side) 1.9 Toe wall (Downstream side only) Total No. Length Width H/D/T Quantity

R.R. masonry in superstructure 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 20.00 4.13 5.99 2.99 0.00 0.00 2.77 2.77 20.00 2.27 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.00 0.00 0.98 0.98 0.50 1.90 3.63 2.72 2.72 0.00 0.00 1.82 1.82 0.50 86.26 29.32 31.86 15.93 0.00 0.00 9.84 9.84 5.00 188.05 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 20.00 4.13 5.99 2.99 20.00 20.00 2.77 2.77 20.00 1.74 0.50 0.50 0.50 3.19 1.59 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 3.48 0.41 0.60 0.30 6.37 3.19 0.28 0.28 1.00 15.90

1.1 Head wall 1.2 Head wall extension 1.3 Side wall (Downstream side) 1.4 Side wall (Upstream side) 1.5 Apron (Downstream side) 1.6 Apron (Upstream side) 1.7 Wing wall (Downstream side) 1.8 Wing wall (Upstream side) 1.9 Toe wall (Downstream side only) Total 5 P.C.C. coping 1.1 Head wall 1.2 Head wall extension 1.3 Side wall (Downstream side) 1.4 Side wall (Upstream side) 1.5 Apron (Downstream side) 1.6 Apron (Upstream side) 1.7 Wing wall (Downstream side) 1.8 Wing wall (Upstream side) 1.9 Toe wall (Downstream side only) Total Plastering 20mm thick in cement mortar

1.1 Head wall 1.2 Head wall extension 1.3 Side wall (Downstream side) 1.4 Side wall (Upstream side) 1.5 Apron (Downstream side) 1.6 Apron (Upstream side) 1.7 Wing wall (Downstream side) 1.8 Wing wall (Upstream side) 1.9 Toe wall (Downstream side only) Total 7 Soil filling after construction

2 4 4 4 1 1 4 4 2

20.00 4.13 5.99 2.99 20.00 20.00 2.77 2.77 20.00

1.90 3.63 2.72 2.72 3.19 1.59 1.82 1.82 0.50

76.00 60.05 65.25 32.63 63.71 31.85 20.15 20.15 20.00 389.80 34.95

22

Abstract sheet S.N. Particulars 1 Foundation excavation & filling As per BSR 2007 page no-1, item no.(B), (C),(E). 1.1 1.2 1.3 Hard soil 40% Disintegrated rock 35% Rock required blasting 25% As per BSR 2007 page no-2, item no. 13(A). Ratio P.C.C. In foundation base 1:4:8 As per BSR 2007 page no-12, item no.164. Ratio R.R. masonry in foundation 1:6 As per BSR 2007 page no-12, item no 164 & page no-3, item no.28. Ratio R.R. masonry in superstructure 1:6 As per BSR 2007 page no-12, item no.166. Ratio P.C.C. coping 1:2:4 As per BSR 2007 page no-6, item no 72 (B). Ratio Plastering - 20mm in cement mortar 1:4 Ratio Volume 301.21 Unit Cum Rate Cost

120.48 105.42 75.30

Cum Cum Cum

44.20 70.00 332.4

5325 7380 25030

64.65

Cum

1600

103442

166.66

Cum

1500

249984

188.05

Cum 1569.7

295184

15.90

Cum

2100

33385

7 As per BSR 2007 - Annexure - 4.

389.80 Sqm 80.00 31184 Additional Transportation cost for more than 20km lead 30.00 21867 Total Rs.772,7 cost 81 Rs.23,183 Rs.795,964

Contingencies Approximately @ 3.0% Grand Total

23

S.N.

Rs. 140 Rs. 73 1 2 3 4 5 6

Labour and Material Requirement Cement Particular bags Sand Aggregate Boulder Remark Rs.220 Rs.400 Rs.600 Rs.500 Volume Cum 150 cum for P.C.C. in foundation base 3.45 0.46 0.92 Mtrl. Cost 100 cum PCC 96,657 Ratio 1:4:8 223.06 29.74 59.48 42+125 cum for 100 cum of work R.R.M. in foundation 2.01 0.36 Mtrl. Cost 1.25 201,951 Ratio 1:6 335.42 60.00 208.32 42+100 cum for 100 cum of R.R.M. in work superstructure 2.01 0.36 Mtrl. Cost 1.25 125 cum for 100 cum of 227,878 Ratio 1:6 378.48 67.70 235.06 work 150cum for P.C.C. coping 6.33 0.43 0.85 Mtrl. Cost 100 cum PCC 32,965 Ratio 1:2:4 100.56 6.84 13.51 2.5 Cum for 100Sqm of Plastering - 20mm in cement mortar 0.14 0.025 Mtrl. Cost work Rs.19,30 8 Ratio 1:4 70.05 9.74 0.00 TOTAL QUANTITY 1107.57 174.01 72.99 443.38 728.91 Rs.243,6 Rs.221,6 Total cost of materials 66 Rs.69,606 Rs.43,795 92 Rs.578,759 Cost of Mandays Total Cost of Recent minimum wage Labour Mandays of Sem.skille of Labour & for mason Cost Labour d mason mason Mtrl. Recent minimum wage for labour Foundation excavation & filling 30783 30783 422 P.C.C. in foundation base 112173 10344 142 5172 37 R.R.M. in foundation 276946 49997 685 24998 179 R.R.M. in superstructure 334144 70844 970 35422 253 P.C.C. coping 38974 4006 55 2003 14 Plastering - 20mm in cement mortar 30534 5613 77 5613 40 Total 171588 2351 73209 523 823555

24

Drawings of masonry dam:

3.00m

1.20m

1.20m Sidewall

1.9m 1.2m

Head wall in RRM 1:6 CM Toe wall GL

D/S Apron 2.00m

Foundation 1.7m 2.10m 4.50m D/S Apron

30 cm thick PCC in 1:3:6

2.40m

Cross section of masonry dam

Head wall Extension Drain Bank Sidewall Head wall

20m

1.90m

2.00m

Head wall extension foundation

Head wall foundation

Longitudinal Section of masonry dam

25

Wing wall Sidewall Head wall Exten.

2.0M

U/S Apron

1.2 M 2.1M Head Wall Bottom width

Head wall top width

Earthen Dam 4.5M D/S Apron Toe wall

Earthen Dam

5.23m

Plan of Stone masonry dam

0.5m

3.1m

GL 1.3m

1.5m

Cross section of Side wall and Wing wall

26

Rate Analysis This is a very useful document, for understanding the method for calculating rates of different items. This is also helpful in the monitoring the work as per the estimates and the specifications.

Rate Analysis for the different items of cement masonry check dam 1.Plain cement concrete (PCC) 1: 4: 8 for 10 cubic meters (A) Cost of material Material Cement with transportation Sand with transportation Coarse aggregate with transportation Sub total (B) Cost of Labour Labour Mason Labour Tools & plants Sub total Total cost of material and labour Water charges 1.5% of total cost Contingency 3% of total cost Grand Total cost of 10 cum Cost of 1 cum PCC 1: 4: 8 Man days Rate 3 34 125 60 Unit Day Day Amount 375 2040 100 2515 13528 203 406 14137 1414 9.36 400 Cum 3744 11013 Quantity Rate 34.5 4.68 170 300 Unit Bag Amount 5865

Cum 1404

27

2. Plain cement concrete (PCC) 1: 3: 6 for 10 cubic meters (A) Cost of material Material Cement with transportation Sand with transportation Coarse aggregate with transportation Sub total (B) Cost of Labour Labour Mason Labour Tools & plants Sub total Total cost of material and labour Water charges 1.5% of total cost Contingency 3% of total cost Grand Total cost of 10cum Cost of 1 cum PCC 1: 3: 6 Man days Rate 3 34 125 60 Unit Day Day Amount 375 2040 100 2515 15143 227 454 15824 1582 9.36 400 Cum 3744 12628 Quantity Rate 44 4.68 170 300 Unit Bag Amount 7480

Cum 1404

28

3. Plain cement concrete (PCC) 1: 2: 4 for 10 cubic meters (A) Cost of material Material Cement with transportation Sand with transportation Coarse aggregate with transportation Sub total (B) Cost of Labour Labour Mason Labour Tools & plants Sub total Total cost of material and labour Water charges 1.5% of total cost Contingency 3% of total cost Grand Total cost of 10cum Cost of 1 cum PCC 1: 2: 4 Man days Rate 3 34 125 60 Unit Day Day Amount 375 2040 100 2515 18543 278 556 19377 1938 9.36 400 Cum 3744 16028 Quantity Rate 64 4.68 170 300 Unit Bag Amount 10880

Cum 1404

29

4. Plaster 20mm thick 1: 4 cement mortar for 100 sqm (A) Cost of material Material Cement with transportation Sand with transportation Quantity Rate 19 2.6 170 300 Unit Bag Amount 3230

Cum 780

Sub total (B) Cost of Labour Labour Mason Labour Tools & plants Sub total Total cost of material and labour Water charges 1.5% of total cost Contingency 3% of total cost Grand Total cost of 100 sqm. Cost of 1 sqm plaster 1: 4 cement mortar Man days Rate 12 18 125 60 Unit Day Day

4010

Amount 1500 1080 100 2680 6690 100 201 6991

70

30

5. Plaster 20 mm thick 1: 6 cement mortar for 100 sqm (A) Cost of material Material Cement with transportation Sand with transportation Quantity Rate 13.65 2.8 170 300 Unit Bag Amount 2321

Cum 840

Sub total (B) Cost of Labour Labour Mason Labour Tools & plants Sub total Total cost of material and labour Water charges 1.5% of total cost Contingency 3% of total cost Grand total cost of 100 sqm. Cost of 1 sqm plaster 1: 6 cement mortar Man days Rate 12 18 125 60 Unit Day Day

3161

Amount 1500 1080 100 2680 5841 88 175 6103

Rs. 61

31

6. Pointing 20 mm thick 1: 3 cement mortar for 100 sqm (A) Cost of material Material Cement with transportation Sand with transportation Quantity Rate 2 0.25 170 300 Unit Bag Amount 340

Cum 75

Sub total (B) Cost of Labour Labour Mason Labour Tools & plants Sub total Total cost of material and labour Water charges 1.5% of total cost Contingency 3% of total cost Grand Total cost of 100 sqm. Cost of 1 sqm pointing 1: 3 cement mortar Man days Rate 12 12 125 60 Unit Day Day

415

Amount 1500 720 100 2320 2735 41 82 2858

29

32

7. Random rubble masonry 1: 4 cement mortar for 10 cum (A) Cost of material Material Cement with transportation Sand with transportation Dressed Stone with transportation Sub total (B) Cost of labour Labour Mason Labour Tools & plants Sub total Total cost of material and labour Water charges 1.5% of total cost Contingency 3% of total cost Grand Total cost of 10 cum. Cost of 1 cum stone masonry 1: 4 cement mortar 1423 Man days Rate 16 26 125 60 Unit Day Day Amount 2000 1560 100 3660 13615 204 408 14228 Quantity Rate 23.5 3.2 12.5 170 300 400 Unit Bag Amount 3995

Cum 960 Cum 5000 9955

33

8. Random rubble masonry 1: 6 cement mortar for 10 cum (A) Cost of material Material Cement with transportation Sand with transportation Dressed stone with transportation Sub total (B) Cost of Labour Labour Mason Labour Tools & plants Sub total Total cost of material and labour Water charges 1.5% of total cost Contingency 3% of total cost Grand Total cost of 10 cum. Cost of 1 cum stone masonry 1:6 CM 1310 Man days Rate 16 26 125 60 Unit Day Day Amount 2000 1560 100 3660 12536 188 376 13100 Quantity Rate 16.8 3.4 12.5 170 300 400 Unit Bag Amount 2856

Cum 1020 Cum 5000 8876

34