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Kinematics

and Dynamics

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Quantum

Kinematics

and Dynamics

JULIAN SCHWINGER

University of California, Los Angeles

Frontiers in Physics Series, edited by David Pines,

Western

PRESS

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2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ADVANCED BOOK CLASSICS

David Pines, Series Editor

Anderson, P.W., Basic Notions of Condensed Matter Physics

Bethe H, and Jackiw, R,, Intermediate Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition

Cowan, G. and Pines, D., Compkxity: Metaphors, Models, and Reality

de Germes, P.G., Superconductivity of Metals and Alloys

d'Bspagnat, B., Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition

Feynman, R., Photon-Hadron Interactions

Feynman, R., Quantum Electrodynamics

Feynman, R., Statistical Mechanics

Feynman, R., The Theory of Fundamental Processes

GeH-Mann, M. and Ne'eman, Y., The Eightfold Way

Khalatnikov, I. M. An Introduction to the Theory of Superfluidity

Ma, S-K., Modern Theory of Critical Phenomena

Migdal, A. B., Qualitative Methods in Quantum Theory

Negele, J. W, and Orland, H,, Quantum Many-Particle Systems

Nozieres, P., Theory of Interacting Fermi Systems

Nozieres, P. and Pines, D., The Theory of Quantum Liquids

Parisi, G., Statistical Field Theory

Pines, D., Elementary Excitations in Solids

Pines, D., The Many-Body Problem

Quigg, C, Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak, and Electromagnetic Interactions

Schrieffer, J.R., Theory of Superconductivity, Revised

Schwinger, J-, Particles, Sources, and Fields, Volume I

Schwinger, J., Particles, Sources, and Fields, Volume II

Sehwinger, J., Particles, Sources, and Fields, Volume III

Schwinger, J., Quantum Kinematics and Dynamics

Wyld, H.W., Mathematical Methods for Physics

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Editor's Foreword

it possible for leading physicists to communicate in coherent fashion

their views of recent developments in the most exciting and active

fields of physics—without having to devote the time and energy

required to prepare a formal review or monograph. Indeed,

throughout its nearly forty year existence, the series has emphasized

informality in both style and content, as well as pedagogical clarity.

Over time, it was expected that these informal accounts would be

replaced by more formal counterparts—textbooks or monographs—

as the cutting-edge topics they treated gradually became integrated

into the body of physics knowledge and reader interest dwindled.

However, this has not proven to be the case for a number of the

volumes in the series: Many works have remained in print on an on-

dernand basis, while others have such intrinsic value that the physics

community has urged us to extend their life span,

The Advanced Book Classics series has been designed to meet this

demand. It will keep in print those volumes in Frontiers in Physics

that continue to provide a unique account of a topic of lasting

interest And through a sizable printing, these classics will be made

available at a comparatively modest cost to the reader.

The late Nobel Laureate Julian Schwinger was not only one of the

great theoretical physicists of our time, but also one of the great

pedagogues of the past century. His lectures were legendary for their

almost unique combination of clarity and elegance. I am accordingly

very pleased that the publication in Advanced Book Classics of

Quantum Kinematics and Dynamics will continue to make his lectures

on this topic readily accessible to future generations of the scientific

community.

David Pines

Cambridge, England

May, 2000

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Vita

Julian Schwinger

University Professor, University of California, and Professor of Physics at the University

of California, Los Angeles since 1972, was born in New York City on February 12,1918.

Professor Schwinger obtained his Ph.D. in physics from Columbia University in 1939. He

has also received honorary doctorates in science from five institutions: Purdue University

(1961), Harvard University (1962), Brandeis University (1973), Gustavus Adolphus

College (1975), and the University of Paris (1990). In addition to teaching at the

University of California, Professor Schwinger has taught at Purdue University (1941 -43),

and at Harvard University (1945-72). Dr, Schwinger was a Research Associate at the

University of California, Berkeley, and a Staff Member of the Massachusetts Institute of

Technology Radiation Laboratory. In 1965 Professor Schwinger became a co-recipient

(with Richard Feynman and Sin Itiro Tomonaga) of the Nobel Prize in Physics for work

in quantum electrodynamics. A National Research Foundation Fellow (1939-40) and a

Guggenheim Fellow (1970), Professor Schwinger was also the recipient of the C. L.

Mayer Nature of Light Award (1949); the First Einstein Prize Award (1951); a J. W. Gibbs

Honorary Lecturer of the American Mathematical Society (1960); the National Medal of

Science Award for Physics (1964); a HumboJdt Award (1981); the Premio Citta di

Castiglione de Sicilia (1986); the Monie A. Ferst Sigma Xi Award (1986); and the

American Academy of Achievement Award (1987).

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Special Preface

The first two chapters of this book are devoted to Quantum Kinematics. In 1985 I had the

opportunity to review that development in connection with the celebration of the 100th

anniversary of Hermann Weyl's birthday, (See the last footnote of Chapter 2.) In

presenting my lecture (Hermann Weyl and Quantum Kinematics, in Exact Sciences and

Their Philosophical Foundations, Verlag Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 1988, pp. 107-

129), I felt the need to alter only one thing: the notation. Lest one think this rather trivial,

recall that the ultimate abandonment, early in the 19th century, of Newton's method of

fluxions in favor of the Leibnitzian calculus, stemmed from the greater flexibility of the

latter's notation.

Instead of the symbol of measurement: M(a', b'), I now write: I a'b'l , combining

reference to what is selected and what is produced, with an indication that the act of

measurement has a beginning and an end. Then, with the conceptual analysis of I a'b' I

into two stages, one of annihilation and one of creation, as symbolized by

the fictitious null state, and the symbols HP and <fy can be discarded.

As for Quantum Dynamics, I have long regretted that these chapters did not contain

numerous examples of the practical use of the Quantum Action Principle in solving

physical problems. Perhaps that can be remedied in another book, on Quantum Mechan-

ics. There is, however, a cornucopia of action applications in the non-operator context of

Source Theory. (See Particles, Sources, and Fields, Vols. I, 2, 3, Advanced Book

Classics.)

April 1991

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Foreword

Early in 1955 I began to write an article on the Quantum Theory of Fields. The introduction

contained this description of its plan. "In part A of this article a general scheme of quantum

kinematics and dynamics is developed within the nonrelativistic framework appropriate

to systems with a finite number of dynamical variables. Apart from specific physical

consequences of the rclativistic invariance requirement, the extension to fields in part B

introduces relatively little that is novel, which permits the major mathematical features of

the theory of fields to be discussed in the context of more elementary physical systems."

A preliminary and incomplete version of part A was used as the basis of lectures

delivered in July, 1955 at the Les Houches Summer School of Theoretical Physics. Work

on part A ceased later that year and part B was never begun. Several years after, I used

some of the material in a series of notes published in the Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences. And there the matter rested until, quite recently, Robert Kohler

(State University College at Buffalo) reminded me of the continuing utility of the Les

Houches notes and suggested their publication. He also volunteered to assist in this

process. Here is the result. The main text is the original and still incomplete 1955

manuscript, modified only by the addition of subheadings. To it is appended excerpts from

the Proc. Nat. Acad. of Sciences articles that supplement the text, together with two papers

that illustrate and further develop its methods.

JULIAN SCHWINGER

Belmont, Massachusetts

1969

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Contents

I.1 Measurement Symbols 2 2

1.2 Compatible Properties. Definition of State 5

1.3 Measurements that Change the State 7

1.4 Transformation Functions 9

1.5 The Trace 12

1.6 Statistical Interpretation 14

1.7 The Adjoint 17

1.8 Complex Conjugate Algebra 19

1.9 Matrices 19

1.10 Variations of Transformation Functions 22

1.11 Expectation Value 25

1.12 Addendum: Non-Selective Measurements 26

2.1 The Null State 29

2.2 Reconstruction of the Measurement Algebra 32

2.3 Vector Algebra 35

2.4 Wave Functions 37

2.5 Unitary Transformations 40

2.6 Infinitesimal Unitary Transformations 44

2.7 Successive Unitary Transformations 46

2.8 Unitary Transformation Groups. Translation and Rotations 48

2.9 Reflections S3

2.10 Continuous Spectra 54

x.v

xvi Contents

2.12 Addendum: Unitary Operator Bases 62

3.1 The Action Operator 74

3.2 Lagrangian Operator 76

3.3 Stationary Action Principle 77

3.4 The Hamiltonian Operator 79

3.5 Equations of Motion. Generators 80

3.6 Commutation Relations 83

3.7 The Two Classes of Dynamical Variables 86

3.8 Complementary Variables of the First Kind 97

3.9 Non-Hermitian Variables of the First Kind 103

3.10 Complementary Variables of the Second Kind 106

I. VARIABLES OF THE FIRST KIND 114

4.1 Differential Operators 115

4.2 Schrodinger Equations 119

4.3 The q p Transformation Function 120

4.4 Differential Statements of Completeness 122

4.5 Non-Hermitian Canonical Variables 125

4.6 Some Transformation Functions 126

4.7 Physical Interpretation 130

4.8 Composition by Contour Integration 133

4.9 Measurements of Optimum Compatibility 140

II. VARIABLES OF THE SECOND KIND 143

4.10 Rotation Group 143

4.11 External Algebra 145

4.12 Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues 148

III. UNIFICATION OF THE VARIABLES 152

4.13 Constructive Use of the Special Canonical Group 152

4.14 Transformation Functions 156

4.15 Integration 166

4.16 Differential Realizations 170

5 1 Group Properties and Superfluous Variables 175

5.2 Infinitesimal Canonical Transformations 178

Contents xvii

5.4 Translations. Linear Momentum 185

5.5 Transformation Parameters 187

5.6 Hamilton-Jacobi Transformation 190

5.7 Path Dependence 191

5.8 Path Independence 194

5.9 Linear Transformations 195

6.1 Integrability Conditions 202

6.2 Finite Matrix Representation 204

6.3 Subgroups 207

6.4 Differential Forms and Composition Properties 209

6.5 Canonical Parameters 211

6.6 An Example, Special Canonical Group 216

6.7 Other Parameters. Rotation Group 219

6.8 Differential Operator Realizations 226

6.9 Group Volume 228

6.10 Compact Groups 231

6.11 Projection Operators and Invariants 233

6.12 Differential Operators and the Rotation Group 238

6.13 Non-Compact Group Integration 243

6.14 Variables of the Second Kind 247

6.15 Reflection Operator 249

6.16 Finite Operator Basis 250

6.17 Addendum: Derivation of the Action Principle 254

6.18 Addendum Concerning the Special Canonical Group 259

6.19 Addendum: Quantum Variables and the Action Principle 275

7.1 Ordered Action Operator 285

7.2 Infinitesimal Canonical Transformation Functions 287

7.3 Finite Canonical Transformation Functions 293

7.4 Ordered Operators. The Use of Canonical

Transformation Functions 297

7.5 An Example 299

7.6 Ordered Operators and Perturbation Theory 302

7.7 Use of The Special Canonical Group 306

7.8 Variational Derivatives 309

7.9 Interaction of Two Sub-Systems 317

7.10 Addendum: Exterior Algebra and the Action Principle 321

xviii Contents

8.1 Incorporation of Initial Conditions 331

8.2 Conservative Systems. Transforms 335

8.3 Operator Function of a Complex Variable 337

8.4 Singularities 340

8.5 An Example 341

8.6 Partial Green's Function 343

9.1 Brownian Motion of a Quantum Oscillator 347

9.2 Coulomb Green's Function 374

CHAPTER ONE

THE ALGEBRA OF MEASUREMENT

1.2 Compatible Properties. Definition of 5

State

1.3 Measurements that Change the State 7

1.4 Transformation Functions 9

1.5 The Trace 12

1.6 Statistical Interpretation 14

1.7 The Adjoint 17

1.8 Complex Conjugate Algebra 19

1.9 Matrices 19

1.10 Variations of Transformation Functions 22

1.11 Expectation Value 25

1.12 addendum: Non-Selective Measurements 26

upon the conception of an interaction between

the system of interest and the measuring apparatus

that can be made arbitrarily small, or at least

precisely compensated, so that one can speak mean-

ingfully of an idealized measurement that disturbs

1

2 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

istic of atomic phenomena that the interaction

extent it is uncontrollable and unpredictable.

Accordingly, a measurement on one property can

assigned to another property, and it is without

ical quantities by numbers. The laws of atomic

scopic measurement.

ematical structure by discussing simplified phys-

THE ALGEBRA OF MEASUREMENT 3

measurement, an ensemble of independent similar

systems is sorted by the apparatus into subensembles,

others. We define the addition of such symbols to

signify less specific selective measurements that

plication is associative. With 1 and 0 symbol-

4 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

accepts every system produced by M(a') and rejects

algeoraic properties

and

THE ALGEBRA OF MEASUREMENT 5

where

does not destroy the knowledge gained by prior

' '

ments MC a i) and Mia,) / performed in either

order, produce an ensemble of systems for which one

i

can simultaneously assign the values a to A^

i

and a2 to A2 . The symbol of this compound

measurement is

6 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYHAMICS

A , ...A , we mean that every pair of these quan-

J. J^fc

measurement symbol

such that the systems chosen possess definite values

changes in one or more of the previously assigned

cerning a given system is realized by subjecting

systems admitted by the complete measurement

symbolic properties of complete measurements are

THE ALGEBRA OF MEASURMENT 7

symbol M(a', a") indicates a selective measure-

type M(a', a") are symbolized by

systems enter the second stage and the compound

if the two stages are reversed, we have

8 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

tative.

The physical quantities contained in one com-

sical attributes of the system. One can form other

complete sets, B, C, ..., which are mutually in-

general selective measurement involves two incompat-

apparatus. The compound measurement

M(a', b')M(c', d') serves to select systems in the

But, in addition, the first stage supplies systems

THE ALGEBRA. OF MEASUREMENT 9

compound measurements that we have already consid-

ered involve the passage of all systems or no sys-

tems between the two stages, as represented by the

multiplicative numbers 1 and 0. More generally,

measurements of properties B, performed on a sys-

tem in a state c' that refers to properties in-

compatible with B, will yield a statistical dis-

tribution of the possible values. Hence, only a

determinate fraction of the systems emerging from

the first stage will be accepted by the second

stage. We express this by the general multiplication

law

statistical relation between the states b1 and c'.

In particular,

10 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and

property (1.3) that

and similarly

be expressed as a linear combination of the measure-

ment symbols of another type. The general relation

is

THE ALGEBRA OF MEASUREMENT 11

signifies the description of a system in terms of

the states produced by selective measurements of

A.

A fundamental composition property of trans-

with

namely

becomes

12 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and similarly

the particular choice of compatible physical quanta^

can simultaneously assign the values a toA^

in additive combination thus form the elements of

a linear algebra of dimensionality N - the

algebra of measurement. The elements of the measure-

ment algebra are called operators.

We call this linear correspondence between operators

and numbers the trace,

THE ALGEBRA OF MEASUREMENT 13

that

(1.27). In particular,

14 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

<a'|a"> are left unaltered. In view of this arbi-

THE ALGEBRA OP MEASUREMENT 15

interpretation of the traasformation function can

be inferred, by a consideration of the sequence

of selective measurements M(b')M{a')M(b'), which

differs from M(b') in virtue of the disturbance

attendant upon the intermediate A-measurement.

Only a fraction of the systems selected in the

initial B-measurenten-t is transmitted through the

complete apparatus. Correspondingly, we have the

symbolic equation

we perform an A-measureinent that does not distin-

guish between two (or more) states, there is a

related additivity of the numbers p(a', b') ,

among any of the states, there appears

16 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

whence

the probability that one observes the state a 1 in a,

ble restriction on the numbers appearing in the

for then

THE ALGEBRA OP MEASUREMENT 17

real values.

formula (1»36) is the symmetry property

panies the interpretation of the measurement sym-

bols and their products - the order of events is

read from right to left (sinistrally). But any

measurement symbol equation is equally valid if

interpreted in the opposite sense (dextrally).

and no physical result should depend upon which

convention is employed. On introducing the dextral

interpretation, <a'|b'> acquires the meaning

possessed by <b' a'> with the sinistral conven-

tion. We conclude that the probability connecting

states a 1 and b' in given sequence must be con-

structed symmetrically from <a'|b'> and <b' a'> .

The introduction of the opposite convention for

measurement symbols will be termed the adjoint

operation, and is indicated by t . Thus,

18 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and

In particular,

Hermitian operator. For measurement symbol pro-

ducts we have

or equivalently.

adjoint procedure, which permits us to extend

these properties to all elements of the measurement

algebra:

THE ALGEBRA OF MEASUREMENT 19

which all numbers are replaced^ by the complex con-

the dual algebra are written X* , the correspon-

laws

1.9 MATRICES

tion provide a basis for the representation of an

20 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

2

arbitrary operator by N numbers, and the abstract

properties of operators are realized by the combina-

torial laws of these arrays of numbers, which are

those of matrices. Thus

a-representation, and the product

shows that

be expressed as

and in particular

the trace of the operator. The corresponding

THE ALGEBRA OF MEASUREMENT 21

conjugate and transpose, respectively, of the matrix

matrix.

is defined by

where

representations is

examples of the connection between the matrices of

22 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

tions among measurement symbols. Thus,

matrix

THE ALGEBRA OP MEASUREMENT 23

alteration of the corresponding transformation

functions, the implied variation of <a'|c'> is

and also

the matrix of an operator in the ab-representation.

We therefore write

6Wac are defined similarly, the differential proper-

ty (1,66) becomes the matrix equation

24 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

formation functions is expressed by an additive compo-

sition law for the infinitesimal operators 6W.

On identifying the a- and b~ descriptions in

(1.70), we learn that

or

transformation function

on transformation functions but is implied by the

composition property and the requirement that

transformation functions, as matrices, be nonsingu-

lar. If we identify the a- and c- descriptions we

are informed that

Now

THE ALGEBRA OF MEASUREMENT 25

and therefore

functions is thus expressed by the statement that

the infinitesimal operators <§W are Hermitian.

tems in the state b 1 is the average of the possible

values of A, weighted by the probabilities of oc-

curence that are characteristic of the state b1

On using (1.33) to write the probability formula

as

26 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and physical quantities is such that a function

f(A) of the property A is assigned the operator

£{A) , and the operators associated with a complete

set of compatible physical quantities form a com-

plete set of commuting Hermitian operators. In

particular, the function of A that exhibits the

value unity in the state a' , and zero otherwise,

is characterized by the operator M(a')

t

Reproduced from the Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences Vol. 45, pp. 1552-1553 (1959).

1552 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGEK PJROC. N. A, 8.

paratus capable of separating an ensemble into subensembles that are distinguished

by the various values of a', together with the act of selecting one subenserable and

rejecting the others. The measurement process prior to the stage of selection,

which we call a nonselective measurement, will now be considered for the purpose of

finding its symbolic counterpart. It is useful to recognize a general quantitative

interpretation attached to the measurement symbols. Let a system in the state

e' be subjected to the selective M(b') measurement and then to an A -measurement.

The probability that the system will exhibit the value b' and then a', for the re-

spective properties, is given by

If, in contrast, the intermediate B-measurement accepts all systems without dis-

crimination, which is equivalent to performing no .B-measurenient, the relevant

probability is

There are examples of the relation between the symbol of any selective measure-

ment and a corresponding probability,

Now let the intervening measurement be nonselective, which is to say that the ap-

paratus functions but no selection of systems is performed. Accordingly,

that the symbol to be associated with the nonselective ^-measurement is

where the real phases w are independent, randomly distributed quantities. The

uncontrollable nature of the disturbance produced by a measurement thus finds its

mathematical expression in these random phase factors. Since a nonselective

measurement does not discard systems we must have

Voi. 4S, 1989 ACKNOWLEDGMENT: I. OLKIN 1SS3

It should also be noted that, within this probability context, the symbols of the

elementary selective measurements are derived from the nonseleetive symbol by re-

placing all but one of the phases by positive infinite imaginary numbers, which is an

absorptive description of the process of rejecting subenaembles.

The general probability statement for successive measurements is

urement symbol. Other versions are

and

each of which can also be extended to all types of selective measurements, and to

nonseleetive measurements (the adjoint form is essential here). The expectation

value construction shows that a quantity which equals unity if the properties A,

B,. . . S successively exhibit, in the sinistral sense, the values a', 6', . . . «', and is

zero otherwise, is represented by the Hermitian8 operator (M(a')... M(s'))t-

(M(a1) ,. M(«')).

Measurement is a dynamical process, and yet the only time concept that has

been used is the primitive relationship of order. A detailed formulation of quan-

tum dynamics must satisfy the consistency requirement that its description of the

interactions that constitute measurement reproduces the symbolic characterizations

that have emerged at this elementary stage. Such considerations make explicit

reference to the fact that all measurement of atomic phenomena ultimately involves

the amplification of microscopic effects to the level of macroscopic observation.

Further analysis of the measurement algebra leads to a geometry associated with

the states of systems.

1

Thia development has been presented In numerous lecture series since 1951, but is heretofore

unpublished.

* Here we bypass the question of the utility of the real number field. According to a comment in

THESE PROCMEBINOS, 44, 223 (I9S8), the appearance of complex numbers, or their real equivalents,

may be an aspect of the fundamental matter-antimatter duality, which can hardly be discussed at

this stage.

!

Compare P. A. M. Dirae, Be», Mad. Phys, 17, 19S (1945), where n<»n-Hermitian operators

and complex "probabilities" are introduced.

CHAPTER TWO

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES

2.2 Reconstruction of the Measurement 32

Algebra

2.3 Vector Algebra 35

2.4 Wave Functions 37

2.5 Unitary Transformations 40

2.6 Infinitesimal Unitary Transformations 44

2.7 Successive Unitary Transformations 46

2.8 Unitary Transformation Groups- 48

Translations and Rotations

2.9 Re 53

2.10 Continuous Spectra 54

2.11 Addendum: Operator Space 56

2.12 Addendum: Unitary Operator Bases 62

a measurement implies that the act of measurement

is indivisible. That is to say, any attempt to

trace the history of a system during a measurement

process usually changes the nature of the measure-

29

30 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

compound measurement is without physical implica-

We shall call this mental construct the null state

0 , and write

null state,

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 31

the indiscernability of M(a" , b 1 } from the com-

pound process of the annihilation of a system in

the state b* followed by the creation of a system

in the state a' ,

include the null state supplies the properties of

the f and * symbols. Thus

and

whereas

and

32 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 33

of the *F and * symbols. Thus

and

while

measurement operators in accordance with (2.12).

The various equivalent statements contained

in (2.6) show that the only significant products —

those not identically zero — are of the form

¥<f , <f¥ and X¥ , 4>X , in addition to XY ,

where the latin symbols are operators, elements of

the physical measurement algebra. According to

34 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

ff

to a number,

and in particular

Accordingly,

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 35

tion. Now the symbols of one description are

36 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and

bra can be derived, with its properties character-

(2.27) describe a change in coordinate system.

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 37

is given by

eigenvalues a' . Associated with each vector

vide a basis for the representation of an arbitrary

38 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

which are known as wave functions. We write

and

the corresponding wave functions are connected by

and, in particular,

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 39

sented by the matrix

are

and

ferent representations,

in the-a-description is

40 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

It is a convenient fiction to assert that

tems in the state ¥ is

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 41

unitary operator U obeys

among vectors and operators are preserved by this

transformation. Two successive unitary transfor-

mations form a unitary transformation, and the

inverse of a unitary transformation is unitary -

unitary transformations form a group. The appli-

cation of a unitary transformation to the ortho-

normal basis vectors of the a-description, which

are characterized by the eigenvector equation

42 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

tion associated with quantities A that possess

the same eigenvalue spectrum as the properties A ,

Since all relations among operators and vectors

are preserved by the transformation, we have

vectors as the a-representatives of associated

operators and vectors.

The basis vectors of any two descriptions,

with each set placed in a definite order, are

connected by a unitary operator. Thus

where

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 43

obeys

b-representations can thereby be exhibited as a

matrix referring entirely to the a- or the b--

representations ,

expressed as a-representatives of associated oper-

ators and vectors,

the same spectrum of values, the operators A and

B are also connected by a unitary transformation.

With the ordering of basis vectors established by

44 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

expressed as

The coordinate vector transformation described by

this operator is indicated by

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 45

and

where

and

operator and vector variations are governed by

46 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

tions, it must be recognized that a transformation

cients is symbolized by a unitary operator that de-

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 47

the coordinate system that has resulted from the

initial transformation, is

transformation is

transformations multiplied from right to left,

applies to any number of transformations. In

particular, if one follows two transformations,

applied in one order, by the inverse of the suc-

cessive transformations in the opposite order, the

unitary operator for the resulting transformation

is

48 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

individual transformations,

AND ROTATIONS

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 49

Hermitian operator G , the generator of the

unitary transformation, as STG/,» , we find that

the limit St-M) ,

IK)

of unitary transformations if they form a linear

linear combinations of the generating operators.

50 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

dimensional space. A measurement apparatus defines

tation, are intrinsically equivalent. In particu-

lar, physical quantities that are analogously de-

form a six-parameter continuous group, we infer

operators.

where

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 51

antisymmetrical tensors characteristic of three

dimensions. On comparing the two ways in which

a pair of infinitesimal coordinate changes can be

performed, in the manner of (2.68), we find that

generators obey the commutation relation (2.71),

Hence,

52 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

sional vector notation as

and J , the generators of infinitesimal transla-

appear measured in certain natural units - pure

numbers for angular momentum, and inverse length

ment of P and J with fe P and ti J, respec-

THE GEOMETRY OF STATES 53

2,9 REFLECTIONS

tion the unitary reflection operator R ,

54 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

or

tain range are selected, and the concept of state

their completeness by

THE GEOMETRY OP STATES 55

that

function ,

56 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

to continuous spectra, integrals replace summa-

over that set, / da" f^(a')| , so that

ing a system with properties A in the infinitesi-

t

Reproduced from the Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences, Vol. 46, pp 261-265 (I960).

Vox,. 46, I960 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGEK 2t»t

The geometry of states provides the elements of the measurement algebra with

the geometrical interpretation of operators on a vector space. But operators con-

262 PHYSICS: J, SCHWWGER Pnoe. N. A, S,

sidered In themselves also form a vector space, for the totality of operators is closed

under addition and under multiplication by numbers. The dimensionality of this

operator space is Nt according to the number of linearly independent measurement

symbols of any given type. A unitary scalar product is defined iu the operator

space by the number

can now be viewed as the transformation connecting two orthonormal bases. This

change of basis is described by the transformation function

and

The probability relating two states appears as a particular type of operator space

transformation function.

The connection with the M(a', V) basis is described by the transformation function

Vol.. 46, WOT PHYSICS: J. 8CHWINQER 2(iH

We also have

with respect to ft' and b" yields the o-matrix representation of the operator equation

the validity of which for arbitrary Y is equivalent to the completeness of the oper-

ator basis X(a). Since the operator set Z(a)t also forms an orthonormal basis

we must have

space is evaluated as

and

On altering the basis the components of a given operator change in accordance with

For measurement symbol bases this becomes the law of matrix transformation.

264 PHYSICS: J. 8CHWINOER PBOC, N. A. S.

There are two aspects of the operator space that have no counterpart in the

state spaces—the adjoint operation and the multiplication of elements are defined

*in the same space. Thus

and

where

and

which generalize the adjoint and multiplication properties of matrices. The ele-

ments of the operator space appear in the dual role of operator and operand on de-

fining matrices by

The measurement symbol bases are distinguished in this context by the complete

reducibility of such matrices, in the sense of

Otherwise expressed, the set of N measurement symbols M(a', b'), for fixed b', or

fixed a', are left and right ideals, respectively, of the operator space.

The possibility of introducing Hermitian ortbonormal operator bases is illustrated

by the set

and

VOL. 46, 1960 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGER 265

Hermitian basis, and therefore

a change of basis is a real orthogonal transformation,

When the unit operator (multiplied by N~l/a) is chosen as a member of such bases

it defines an invariant subspace, and the freedom of orthogonal transformation

refers to the JV2 — 1 basis operators of zero trace.

Important examples of orfhonormal operator bases are obtained through the

study of unitary operators,

1

Sehwinger, J., these PEOCBBDINOS, 45,1542 (1959).

62 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

f

Reproduced from the Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences, Vol. 46, pp. 570-579 (1960).

Hepriat«d from the Proceedings of the NATIONAL ACAWJSMV or Scieufcisis

Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 5T0-S79. April, 1980,

BY JULIAN SCHWINUJSK

HABVABB OMIVSRSOTf

Communicated February t, 1900

operators must suffice to construct all possible quantities of that system. Such

operator? will therefore be identified as the generators of a complete operator basis.

Unitary operator bases are the principal subject of this note.1

Two state vector space coordinate systems and a rule of correspondence define a

unitary operator. Thus, given the two ordered sets of vectors (o*|, {&*[, k = I . . N,

aad their adjoints, we construct

and

for both Ua> and £/»„. If a third ordered coordinate system is given, (c*|, k — I . .N,

we can similarly define the unitary operators U,f, [/»„, which obey the composition

property

Voi. 46, 1960 PHYSICS: J. SCSWINGER 571

space, that have the same multiplication properties:

Let us define

where the latter statement follows from the remark that the F(a)t form an ortho-

normal basis and therefore

and in consequence

according to the completeness of the X(a) basis. Thus the operator U is unitary

if we choose

The converse theorems should be noted. For any unitary operator U, the ortho-

normal basis

obeys the same multiplication law as the X(a), and the F(a) t are given by the same

linear combination of the F(«) as are the X(«)f of the X(a) set. In particular, if

X{a) is a Hermitiari basis, so also is F(a),

We cannot refrain from illustrating these remarks for the simplest of the N*-

dimensional operator spaces, the quaternion space associated with a physical system

possessing only two states. If a particular choice of these is arbitrarily designated

as + and —, we obtain the four measurement symbols M(±, ±), and can then in-

troduce a Hermitian orthonormal operator basis

572 PHYSICS: J, SCHWINGSB, Pmoc. N. A, 8

such that

the coefficients of which constitute the well-known Pauli matrices. With these

definitions, the multiplication properties of the & operators can be expressed as

any other Hermitian orthonormal operator basis F(a) = 2~1/2S'a, with *« = 1,

the resulting three-dimensional orthonormal basis transformation

onal transformation is proper, the multiplication properties of the ff-basis coincide

with those of the o--basis, while with an improper transformation the opposite sign

of t is effectively employed in evaluating the <r»»j products. Hence only in the first

situation, that of a pure rotation, does a unitary operator exist such that

with

Voiu 48, 1080 PHYSICS: J SCHWINOER 573

Let us return to the definition of a unitary operator through the mapping of one

coordinate system or another, and remark that the two of vectors can be iden-

tical, apart from their ordering. Thus, consider the definition of a unitary operator

F by the cvclic permutation

where

which indicates the utility of designating the same state by any of the integers that

are congruent with respect to the modulus N, The repetition of F defines linearly

independent unitary operators,

until we arrive at

Thus

is the minimum equation, the polynomial equation of least degree obeyed by this

operator, which we characterize as being of period N. The eigenvalues of F obey

the same equation and are given by the N distinct complex numbers

and the entire spectral theory of Hermitian operators can be transferred to them.

If the unitary operator F has JV distinct eigenvalues, its eigenvectors constitute an

orthonormal coordinate system. The adjoint of a right eigenvector |»') is the left

eigenvector (v1 associated with the same eigenvalue, and the products

have all the properties required of measurement symbols. Now let us observe

that the factorization of the minimum equation for F that is given by

874 PHYSICS: J. 8CHWINQSR PROC, N. A, S.

the elements of the transformation functions that connect the given coordinate

system with the one supplied by the eigenvectors of the unitary operator that

cyclically permutes the vectors of the given system.

Turning to the new coordinate system {»*(, we define another unitary operator

by the cyclic permutation of this set. It is convenient to introduce U such that

which is equivalent to

After using the property U"~l = U~l to write the corresponding measurement

symbol as

Thus, the original coordinate system is regained and our results can now be stated

as the reciprocal definition of two unitary operators and their eigenvectors,

Vox,. 48, 1960 PHYSICS: J, 8CHWINOBR 67S

that

in itself forms a complete set of physical properties. It is natural lo transfer this

identification directly to the unitary operators which are more accessible than the

implicit Hermitian operators. Accordingly, we now speak of the statistical rela-

tion between the properties U and F, as described by the probability

quence that includes a nonselective measurement, as in

for this asserts that the intervening non-selective w-measurement has destroyed

all prior knowledge concerning w-states. Thus the properties U and F exhibit the

maximum degree of incompatibility. We shall also show that U and F are the

generators of a complete orthonormal operator basis, such as the set of Nf operators

and therefore together supply the foundation for a full description of a physical

system possessing N states. Both of these aspects are implied in speaking of U and

F as a complementary pair of operators.* Incidentally, there is complete symmetry

between U and F, as expressed by the invariance of all properties under the sub-

stitution

The latter could be emphasized by choosing the elements of the operator basis as

which are invariant under this substitution when combined with m -*• », n -*• — m.

One proof of completeness for the operator basis generated by U and F depends

upon the following lemma: If an operator commutes with both U and F it is neces-

sarily a multiple of the unit operator. Since U is complete in itself, such an opera-

tor must be a function of U. Then, according to the hypothesis of eomniutatrvity

with V, for each k we have

576 PHYSICS: J. SCHWIN0MR PBOC. N. A. S,

and this function of U assumes the same value for every state, which identifies it

with that multiple of the unit operator. Now consider, for arbitrary F,

and observe that left and right hand multiplication with U and U~ , respectively,

or with F and F~ J , only produces a rearrangement of the summations. Accord-

ingly, this operator commutes with U and F. On taking the trace of the resulting

equation, the multiple of unity is identified with ir Y, and we have obtained

the statement of completeness for the ]V2-dimensional operator basis X(mn). Al-

ternatively, we demonstrate that these JV2 operators are orthonormal by evaluating

The unit value for m = m', n — n' is evident. If m ^ TO', the difference TO' — m

can assume any value between N — I and — (N — 1), other than zero. When the

trace is computed in the v-representation, the operator [/«'-»> changes each vector

(vk\ into the orthogonal vector {»*+»>-»' j and the trace vanishes. Similarly, if n 7*

n' and the trace is computed in the «-representation, each vector {«* is converted

by Vn'~" into the orthogonal vector (t**'H1/~n| and the trace equals zero.

One application of the operator completeness property is worthy of attention.

We first observe that

which exhibits the unitary transformations that produce only cyclic spectral trans-

lations. Now, if F is given as an arbitrary function of U and F, the completeness

expression of the operator basis reads

which is a kind of ergodic theorem, for it equates an average over all spectral trans-

lations to an average over all states. The explicit reference to operators can be

removed if F(U, V) is constructed from terms which, like the individual operators

X(mn), are ordered with U standing everywhere to the left of F, Then we can

evaluate a matrix element of the operator equation, corresponding to the states

hf and I tf), which gives the numerical relation

have the period N. This will occur whenever the integers fc and N have no common

factor and thus the multiplicity of such operators equals $(AT), the number of in-

Vol., 48, I960 PHYSICS: J, SCHWINGSM 877

tegers less than and relatively prime to N. Furthermore, to every such power of U

there can be associated a power F', also of period N, that obeys with 17* the same

operator equation satisfied by U and V,

The pair of operators U*, V1 also generate the operator basis X(mn), in some per-

muted order,

We shall now proceed to replace the single pair of complementary operators U, V

by several such pairs, the individual members of which have smaller periods than

the arbitrary integer N. This leads to a classification of quantum degrees of free-

dom in relation to the various irreducible, prime periods. Let

with

It is seen that Ui, Yt are of period N\t while Ut, V% have the period Nt, and that the

two pairs of operators are mutually commutative, as illustrated by

Furthermore,

so that I/i, Fi and Ut, Vt constitute two independent pairs of complementary oper-

ators associated with the respective periods JVi and Nt. We also observe that the

N = JViJVz independent powers of U can be obtained as

since all of these are distinct powers owing to the relatively prime nature of N\ and

Nt. With a similar treatment for F, we recognize that the members of the ortho-

normal operator basis are given in some order by

578 PHYSICS; J, SCSWINGSR PEOC, N A. S.

where

ceeds through the construction of the eigenvalue index k = 0.. N — 1 with the aid

of a pair of integers,

Equivatently, we replace

by

which gives

operators, we can deine U\,t, Vi,» by the reciprocal relations

together with the commutativity of any two operators carrying different sub-

scripts. The orthonormality of the NfN<? — N* operators X'(?»i«»»j»z} can now

be directly verified. Also, by an appropriate extension of the proceeding discus-

sion, we obtain the transformation function

with

Vol. 46, 1960 PHYSICS: J, SCHWINGER 579

this characteristic property of N the number of degrees of freedom for a system

possessing N states. The resulting eommutatively factored basis

is thus constructed from the operator bases individually associated with the / de-

grees of freedom, and the pair of irreducible complementary quantities of each de-

gree of freedom is classified by the value of the prime integer v — 2, 3, 5, . . . «.

In particular, for v — 2 the complementary operators U and V are anticommutative

and of unit square. Hence, they can be identified with <n and <r», for example, and

the operator basis is completed by the product —iUV — <r\.

The characteristics of a degree of freedom exhibiting an infinite number of states

can be investigated by making explicit the Hermitian operators upon which U and

V depend,

and where

We shall not carry out the necessary operations for v -*• «, which evidently yield

the well-known pair of complementary properties with continuous spectra. One

remark must be made, however. In this approach one does not encounter the

somewhat awkward situation in which the introduction of continuous spectra re-

quires the construction of a new formalism, be it expressed in the language of

Dirac's delta function, or of distributions. Rather, we are presented with the direct

problem of finding the nature of the subspaees of physically meaningful states and

operators for which the limit v -*• <*> can be performed uniformly,

* Publication assisted by the Office of Scientific Research, United States Air Force.

1

For the notation and concepts used here see these PROCEEDINGS, 45, 1542 (1959), and 46,287

(1«60).

2

The absence in the available literature of an explicit statement of this simple, general result

is rather surprising. The inverse calculation giving the three-dimensional rotation matrix in

terms of the elements of the unitary matrix is very we!! known (rotation parametrizations of

Buler, Cay ley-Klein), and the construction of the unitary matrix with the aid of Euleriftn angles

is also quite familiar.

* Operators having the algebraic properties of U and F have long been known from the work of

Weyl, H., Theory of Groups and Quantum Mechanics (New York: B. P. Button Co., 1932), chap.

4, sect. 14, but what has been lacking is an appreciation of these operators as generators of a com-

plete operator basis for any If, said of their optimum incompatibility, as summarized in the at-

tribute of complementarity. Nor bag it been clearly recognized that an a priori classification of

all possible typee of physical degrees of freedom emerges from these considerations.

CHAPTER THREE

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE

3.2 Lagrangian Operator 76

3.3 Stationary Action Principle 77

3.4 The Hamiltonian Operator 79

3.5 Equations of Motion. Generators 80

3.6 Commutation Relations 83

3.7 The Two Classes of Dynamical 86

Variables

3.8 Complementary Variables of the 97

First Kind

3.9 Non-Hermitian Variables of the 103

First Kind

3.10 Complementary Variables of the 106

Second Kind

space and in time. The properties of a system

are described in relation to measurements at a

given time, and no value of the time is intrin-

sically distinguished from another by the results

of measurements on an isolated physical system.

73

74 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

the disturbance produced by a measurement implies

times are incompatible, in general. Accordingly,

complete sets of compatible properties will per-

formation function relating two arbitrary des-

1 H

criptions thus appears as <a_t.|a2t2> , special

<a't 1 |a l l t_> , which relates analogous properties

at different times. The connection between states

characterizes the general transformation function.

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 75

1

i " t_>

formation function <a,t,|a~ can be expressed

as [Eq. (1.68)1

J.1&

tor with the additivity property

by appropriate variation of a single operator,

tesimal operators to assert that the action opera-

tor is Hermitian,

76 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

a

If one views the transformation from the 2t2

continuously in time through an infinite succession

where

writing

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 77

hood of time t . There is no loss of generality

and, for our present purposes, we suppose their

number to be finite. The conceivable objects of

variation in the action operator are the terminal

times t, and t- , the dynamical variables, and

the structure of the Lagrangian operator.

transformation function can be produced only by

explicit alteration of the states to which it

refers. Such variations of states arise from

changes of the physical properties or of the time

involved in the definition of state, and infini-

tesimal eigenvector transformations are generated

by Hermitian operators that depend only upon dyna-

mical variables at the stated time,

78 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

Hence,

tion for it asserts that the variation of the

action integral involves only dynamical variables

at the terminal tiroes. This principle implies

equations of motion for the dynamical variables

and yields specific forms for generators of infi-

nitesimal transformations. Note that the Lagran-

gian operator cannot be determined completely by

the dynamical nature of the system, since we must

be able to produce a variety of infinitesimal

transformations for a given system. Indeed, if

two Lagrangians differ by a time derivative,

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 79

and

ment but implies new generators of infinitesimal

by

variables through an infinitesimal time interval

al form of Lagrangian operator that yields first

80 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

speak of the two parts of the Lagrangian operator

as the kinematical and the dynamical parts, re-

spectively. Note that the kinematical part has

been symmetrized with respect to transference of

the time derivative. The Hermitian requirement on

L applies to the two parts separately. Hence

H , the Hamiltonian operator, must be Hermitian,

and the finite matrix A must be skew - Hermitian.

plicit reference to time in H

structure of L in (3.17) is

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 81

of variation. However, one can think of intro-

ducing an auxiliary variable T , and producing

tional dependence of t = t(t) upon T , with

the time variable on somewhat the same footing as

the dynamical variables. Now

since

that

or

82 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

as yet unspecified. If its variation is to possess

should be able to displace each Sx entirely to

SI

tives Of H ,

thus obtain

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 83

and

equations of motion. Similarly, the infinitesimal

assume in our discussion that the matrix A is

variable x obeys an explicit equation of motion,

ci

34 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

from a description at time t to the analogous

tion of the dynamical variables x(t) and of the

or

ing F = H , we obtain

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 85

variables, which, requires that

and

Gx , that

demanding that each variation 6x a commute with

the Hamiltonian operator,

86 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

to be stated as

as the change of each dynamical variable x OL

by

*s6xa . Accordingly, for an arbitrary function of

the dynamical variables at the stated time, we

have

in x and 5x , indicate that displacing a

variation <$x Si across any of the dynamical vari-

ables induces a linear transformation on these

variables,

ment is

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 87

a

invariance properties

nature of H . On forming the commutator with a

ka form a group of invariance transformations for

H . From the fundamental significance of this

group we conclude that it must apply to the com-

plete structure of the Lagrangian operator. The

kinematical term is invariant under the linear

88 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

transformation k 3s. If

imply that

equivalence of the variables x and k ax to be

a

a

the particular operator variation Sx C*

. But

duced,

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 89

and of the Hamiltonian operator.

properties of the Hamiltonian read

so that

directly from the commutation properties of the

variations <Sx ct ,

istics of the <Sx , we obtain

90 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

b

b that can be connected by the linear transforma-

with the different classes distinguished by speci-

the matrices k^

a must maintain the decomposition

partitioning of the dynamical variables produced

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 91

various classes. According to (3.47) / these

numbers obey

two distinct classes of dynamical variables»

since the identity transformation must appear in

the group of k-transformations, we have

variables as variables of the first kind, z, ,

.K

and variables of the second kind, £K , the

operator properties of the variations <Sz.JC ,

6 ?; , summarized in

92 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

tator

ables of the second kind, but no restriction ap-

first kind.

ting the two classes of variables must be zero.

Hence A reduces completely into two submatrices

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 93

and hence real,

implies a corresponding additive decomposition of

the generator G

«K.

»

with

and

form assumed by the kinematical term in the

Lagrangian,

94 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

variables are

and

bilinear structures referring to variables of the

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 95

we obtain

F (x) = xh can be presented as

we conclude from the other that

mutation properties of the two classes of dynami-

cal variables now appear explicitly as

96 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

reproduces that of the matrices, with the antisyra-

the antisymrrtetrical, imaginary matrix (l/i)a ,

addition, the matrix a must be positive-definite

K.

second kind, we find that

and

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 97

variables of the first kind, the remark that

kind cannot be odd. We shall designate this num-

of a , and on writing

98 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

matrix p such that

dimensional submatrices, as

matrix forms

z,:

K

and z,,K , k - l,...,n,X . According to

(3.75), these variables obey the commutation rela-

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 99

tions

matical term and the infinitesimal generator, re-

quire the forms

and

z(2) of h&z^ and %6z(2) , respectively.

Now let us exploit the freedom to add a time deri-

manner of (3.13) and (3.16). With the choice

100 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

tical term

%*

generates the transformation in which the operators

z are unaltered and the z are changed by

6z . The converse interpretation applies to

G ...

k

. Thus we have divided the variables of

z'

tary, each set comprising the generators of infini-

tesimal variations of the other set. The interpre-

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 101

Z £i

expressed by

(3.86), and derive the equations of motion for

the complementary variables,

principle.

A real, symmetrical positive-definite matrix

can always be reduced to the unit matrix by a real

transformation, which, applied to a. , places the

description by complementary variables in a canon-

ical form. The required transformation is pro-

duced by introducing the canonical variables

102 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

aspects of the canonical variables are: the

equations of motion,

variables,

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 103

mical theory, which has been developed in terms of

Let us define

also be written as

and y replacing z and z , respectively.

The latter form also persists under arbitrary com-

to the non-Hermitian variables now leads, for ex-

104 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

sults that would be obtained by combining the com-

mutation relations for the Hermitian variables, in

accordance with the definitions of the non-Hermi-

tian variables, together with

respect to the non-Hermitian variables, these

equations imply that

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 105

Thus the formal theory employing non-Hermitian

variables produces correct equations of motion

and commutation relations. In particular, the

canonical version is applicable, although the

canonical variables q,iC and p,JC are not self-

adjoint but rather

and commutation relations can be written

and

relation.

106 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and the possibility of dividing them into two com-

plementary sets also appears for variables of the

second kind. Let us observe that the real, symme-

trical, positive-definite matrix a can be reduced

to the unit matrix by an appropriate real trans-

formation of the variables, which is effectively

produced on introducing

anticoimnute, and that the square of each £ is

a common numerical multiple of the unit operator.

The accompanying canonical form of the equations

of motion is

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 107

by variables of the second kind, the requirement

that the complete measurement algebra be derived

from the fundamental dynamical variables, which is

the assumption that accompanies the introduction

of such variables. The linearly independent oper-

ators that can be constructed from the £;-variables

are enumerated as follows; the unit operator;

the v operators £ ; the 'sv(v-l) operators

Is

C 5,5 , tc<X<y ; and so forth, culminating in the

K A \i

ber of independent operators so obtained, the

dimensionality of the £-algebra, is

the measurement algebra, which equals the square

of the integer N representing the total number

108 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

only if v is an even integer,

into two sets of equal number, £ and 5 ,

the kinematical term for the variables of the

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPiLE 109

the forms

or p ,

variations <$q and 6p . Thus, for the variables

110 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

significance of these generators are

together with

obtained directly from (3.113), the commutation

properties of the Hermitian dynamical variables.

As applications of the general commutation

relations, we regain the canonical equations of

motion, and derive the commutation properties of

the canonical non-Hermitian variables of the

second kind,

THE DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLE 111

canonical variables,

can also be presented as

and

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CHAPTER FOUR

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP

4.1 Differential Operators H5

4.2 Schrodinger Equations H^

4.3 The q p Transformation Function 120

4.4 Differential Statements of 122

Completeness

4.5 Non-Herroitian Canonical Variables 125

4.6 Some Transformation Functions 126

4.7 Physical Interpretation 130

4.8 Composition by Contour Integration 133

4.9 Measurements of Optimum Compatibility 1^0

II. VARIABLES OF THE SECOND KIND I43

4.10 Rotation Group 143

i45

4.11 External Algebra

4.12 Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues 148

i52

III. UNIFICATION OF THE VARIABLES

4.13 Constructive Use of the Special I52

Canonical Group

4.14 Transformation Functions 156

4.15 Integration 166

4.16 Differential Realizations 170

imal operator variations that are employed in the

fundamental dynamical principle are such as to

113

114 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

dynamical variables. Accordingly, these special

variations possess a transformation group aspect,

which we now proceed to examine.

5z commute with all operators and thus appear as

arbitrary infinitesimal real numbers. If one con-

imal variations

generator significance of either operator,

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 115

of a group, which we call the special canonical

group.

operators provided by the n, canonical variables

consider the interpretation of the transformation

description, and similarly for the p -description,

as indicated by (2.58),

116 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

of the operators q - <Sq with the eigenvalues

q1 . But, since the <$q are numerical multiples

of the unit operator, the varied, vector is des-

cribed equivalently as an eigenvector of the oper-

ators q with the eigenvalues q 1 -f 5q . This

shows that the spectra of the Bermitian operators

q, form a continuum, extending from -« to « ,

and that the variation <$• <q't can be ascribed

q

to a change of the eigenvalues q' by Sq . A

similar argument applies to the complementary vari-

ables p . Accordingly,

and

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 117

T

where the symbol 3 is used to indicate that the

conventional sense of differentiation is reversed.

that

and

118 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

tions derived by algebraic construction from the

and

by phase factors, but without distinction between

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 119

specified eigenvalues can be transformed into one

with any other set of eigenvalues, and multiplied

with an arbitrary phase factor.

erates the group of time translations, whereby a

description at any one time is transformed into

Thus, for the infinitesimal transformation from

the q - description at time t to the q -des-

realization (4.8), for a system described by vari-

ables of the first kind,

120 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

equations

equation

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 121

properties contained in (4.10) and (4.11). Hence

and then

composition property

trary constant which can be altered freely by

common phase factor transformations of the q

states relative to the p states. Hence, with

a conventional choice of phase, we have

122 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

function, eigenvectors in the q and. p repre-

sentations are related by the reciprocal Fourier

transformations

tor can be exhibited, not only in terms of the

complete set of q , or p states,

rather than integration, can be given to these

latter expressions of completeness, either by di-

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 123

4>(q't) as (suppressing the reference to time)

procedure, we find

evaluated as

124 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

or

results become

properties

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 125

this type occur in the differential composition

and <p'Iq'> ,

and

by

126 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

erators

operators y and y

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 127

tion <q't y't> , which obeys the differential

equation

and

values ,

128 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

is

j

.i

tors |y't> and <y t| exist for all complex

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 129

i t*

function <q't|y t> gives

i t'

and no vector jy t> , or any linear combination

of these vectors, possesses a finite length. This

trast with the situation for Hermitian canonical

formally preserving the commutation relation, con-

positive operator -yyt , Thus, unlike |y't>

130 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

not exist. Yet we shall find it possible to define

vectors which, in a limited sense, are right

eigenvectors of y and left eigenvectors of y

|y't> requires some comment. Since these vectors

are not normalized to unity, in general, we must

express the expectation value for such states as

Now

and, on writing

we infer that

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 131

and

tween the complementary aspects of the two incom-

(4.47) reads

Y

+

<y t , and jy't> , respectively, is quite the

same as for the Hermitian variables, which the

132 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and generally,

Schrodinger equations

and

4. I

The transformations generated, by G on <y tj

and by Go. on |y't> are given by

y

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 133

vector with specified complex eigenvalues into one

multiplied by arbitrary complex numerical factors.

t'

The transformation function <y t|y"t>

sence of the powers of 2 IT, and therefore obeys

134 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

We infer that

be computed as

complex eigenvalues a contour integral form (in

Thus,

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 135

4, I

wave functions of the type $(y t) and $(y't)

where

of the point at infinity. The integrations in

136 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

of regularity of the two factors, with the enclosed

region containing all singularities of <j> (y+' t) ,

j.»

or tfi(y't) » but no singularity of ty (y t) , or

cHy't) .

4. I

If the wave functions ty(y't) and $(y t)

axe related to the vector bases <y't| and

4-1

jy t> / given symbolically by

and

the completeness properties

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 137

and

<Hy") . Indeed,

138 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

the point at infinity where the function i{i(y"t)

vanishes. A similar discussion applies to the

properties of the transformation function

explicit on writing

along any path that implies convergence of this,

and subsequent integrals. Thus

and

<y't| and |yi t 1 t> are left eigenvector of y(t) ,

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 139

Now

(4.68)

ties of the integrand. The adjoint statement is

+

y and y would lead us to anticipate, <y't|

+ 1

and y t> are not true eigenvectors , although

1

The use of complex eigenvalues has been developed

in a more formal way by P.A.M. Dirac, Cornm. Dub,

Inst. for Adv. Studies, Ser. A, No. 1 (1943),

without initial recognition of the asymmetry be-

140 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

simple form. The consistency of the theory, in

which the action of y on its left eigenvectors

eigenvector,

give

itdtian variables. With this procedure, the alter-

native evaluations of <y*|y[y"> lead to results

differing by unity and, generally, one is forced

to assume that two <|»(y') functions differing

by an arbitrary non-negative power series in y 1 ™

describe the same state.

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 141

as

variables y' and yt" are to be integrated along

orthogonal paths. If we write

are integrated independently from -« to » through

the domain of real values. This produces the form

implied by this expression of completeness,

142 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

certainly not linearly independent or the transfor-

does not produce an essentially different state.

struct the linearly independent vectors that describe

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 143

performed with optimum compatibility on the state

f at the time t , will yield values q' and p1

lying in the intervals dq 1 and dp 1 , respectively.

II VA^^BLE^^j^Hj^ECONjp^KIMD

kind. The requirement that the variations Si,

antieommute with each variable of this type is

expressed most simply with the aid of the canonical

Hermitian variables £ . The enumeration of the

^K

2 =4 distinct operators of the algebra shows

that there is only one operator with the property

of anticommuting with every £ • This is the

product

144 QUANTUM KINEMATICS JVND DYNAMICS

square. Thus the operator properties of the C

&.U * J» K

C2n+1 , say

we obtain

where the

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 145

operators obeying

be constructed from the operator basis provided by -the

n(2n+l) Hermitian operators £ , , where K and

KA

X range from 1 to 2n-fl . This basis is com-

plete according to the commutation property

group, which possesses the structure of the (proper)

rotation group in 2n+l dimensions [compare (2.80)] .

But this is not what we shall call the special

canonical group for variables of the second kind.

the elements of the algebra, that maintain all

algebraic relations and Hermitian properties. It

146 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

that the only operators anticommutative with every

| , K = l,...,2n , are numerical multiples of

(C

£

? , , and two variations formed in this way are

commutative. Hence the generator of one variation

does not commute with a second such variation and

6 ' ' £ roust anticommute, and this is impossible for

with the aid of a suitably defined external algebra.

Is

commutative operators,

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 147

are completely anticommutative among themselves,

Hence variations <SE 1C defined as numerical multi-

pies of e^an-n wil1 obey

and

1

permits the commutator of two generators,3C

and G , to be evaluated aenerallv as

the second kind, 6 'x. A 5^2'x is linearly related

to the products e e.. , and these combinations

K A

commute with all operators of the physical algebra

148 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

variations together with their commutators form the

q or p=iq , Let us observe first that only the

algebraic properties of the operators and variations

are involved in the infinitesimal transformation

equations

and

I 4. I

Furthermore, if q K, and qK are quantities

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 149

and

eigenvalues q + 6q and q 4- <Sq , respectively,

We shall see that that the eigenvectors associated

with zero eigenvalues certainly exist, which implies

that eigenvectors of the type |q t> and <q tj

150 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

eigenvectors are not in adjoint-relationship, since

I 4. I

there is no such connection between q and q

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 151

+

the spectrum of each operator QKqK q contains only

the values 0 and 1 , Hence there is a state for

=

which all operators qIN qK, possess the value zero

and the state is also described by a right eigenvector

of the non-Hermitian operators q , or the adjoint

+

left eigenvector of the q , belonging to the set

of zero eigenvalues. We should observe here that,

unlike the situation with non-Hermitian variables

of the first kind, there is complete symmetry between

+

the operators q and q . In particular, the

+

operators qK,q1C possess zero eigenvalues, which

are equivalent to the unit eigenvalues of q q ,

and the zero eigenvalue, right eigenvector of the

+

q and left eigenvector of the q also exist.

The possibility of defining the eigenvectors |q t>

and <q't] is then indicated by the differential

equations

152 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

of (4.1095.

GROUP

the eigenvectors of the canonical variables, rather

with all type of variables, the zero eigenvalue,

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 153

is

non-Hermitian variables of the second kind permit,

in addition, the construction of the vectors

canonical variables of the first kind stems front the

unitary nature of the operator group for those vari-

ables, which deprives the zero eigenvalues of any

distinguished position. The significance of the

operations of the special canonical group on the

eigenvectors of the canonical variables is indicated

generally by

154 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and

factors.

and

anticommutes with every C 1C , or eguivalently, with

+

the totality of operators q1C and q(C . The

canonical variables presents the anticommutative

operators as

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 155

being a function of the commuting operators q q

K ** t

states,

Accordingly, in considering

by the number (~l)n and the result expressed by

i

where the final q is entirely an element of the

external algebra. In a similar way

and

156 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

appears in the latter equation lacks the numerical

factor (-l)n and therefore differs in sign from

that of (4.126) if n is odd. Hence it is only

for even n that complete symmetry between left

and right eigenvectors exists, which invites the

aesthetic judgment that no system described by an

odd number (of pairs) of dynamical variables of the

second kind exists in nature.

must eliminate explicit reference to the operators

of the physical system and express the transformation

function in terms of the eigenvalues which, for

variables of the second kind, are the elements of

the external algebra. The replacement of eigenvalues

that anticommute with the dynamical variables by

purely external quantities is accomplished generally

by equations of the type

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 157

<

The transformation function p'j«l l> is character-

ized for all variables by the differential expression

tions for the particular type of variable. To

achieve the universal form

for Hermitian variables of the first kind. This

will be done if all integrations are performed with

the differentials

function can be expressed more specifically as

158 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

<p'|q'> transformation function possesses the gen-

product of two vectors can be computed from the

by

THE SPECIAL CANONCIAL GROUP 159

function

the wave functions

160 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

<q'|q"> and <p'|p"> are meaningful without quali-

combined with

value differences that vanishes on multiplication

would read

-1

which is solved by <y'|y"> = ty'-y"5 .) With

Herraitian variables of the first kind these properties

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 161

ing function referring to the second class of variable,

is arranged in some standard order, say 1,.. , ,n , as

read from left to right. For the similar transfor-

mation function referring to the variables q we

write

consistency of these definitions follows from the

composition property

162 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

products permits their combination without the inter-

vention of the sign changes that accompany the anti-

4. I f"

The transformation function <q |q > pro~

t'

^Cq't) and i/i(q t) * ^e composition property

yields

and similarly

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 163

We also have

and

that

functions that are commutative with the eigenvalues,

or, if n is even, the scalar product evaluation

can be presented as

164 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and has no significance apart from its differential

and

and

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 165

appears as

and similarly

tho variables of the second kind is not without

justification. Another related example of formulae

that are applicable to both Hermitian variables of

the first kind and the variables of the second kind

is obtained_from (4.153), written as

inserting the integral representation (4.164) this

166 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

becomes

(4.22) .

4 .15 INTEGRATION

significance of differentiation for variables of the

transformation , q' -*• Xq' . For the Hermitian

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 167

kind is defined as a product of anticommutative

<5[g'] is an even function of the Hermitian variables,

but it possesses this property for variables of the

second kind only if n~ is even. An interesting

formal difference also appears on considering the

evaluation, by integration, of the trace of an oper-

ator. From the expression of completeness for

derive the integral formulae

168 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

terms of the matrix representation <p'|x|q'> ,

and

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 169

classes for it is the unit operator, commuting with

all variables, that plays the role of p for varia-

bles of the first kind. Since the trace is unaltered

on replacing X with pXp , one can aso write

pX in place of Xp , which is to say that odd

functions of the variables have vanishing trace.

The simplest example of a trace evaluation is

dynamical variables for'its description, the trace

operations referring to the two classes must be

superimposed. A formula of suitable generality for

170 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

(4.166) , is

and

THE SPECIAL CANONICAL GROUP 171

general assertions, for, in addition to the asymmetry

characteristic of the non-Hermitian variables of the

first kind, we must distinguish between the two

classes of variables in the differential operator

realizations

kind. This sign distinction originates from the

necessary change of multiplication order in the

differential expression

as contrasted with

172 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

cable to Hermitian variables of the first kind and

to the variables of the second kind,

CHAPTER FIVE

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS

Variables

5.2 Infinitesimal Canonical Transformations 178

5.3 Rotations. Angular Momentum 182

5.4 Translations. Linear Momentum 185

5.5 Transformation Parameters 187

5.6 Hamilton-Jacobi Transformation 190

5.7 Path Dependence 191

5.8 Path Independence 194

5.9 Linear Transformations 195

gian operator, such as

generator describing infinitesimal transformations

at a specified time t ,

173

174 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and equations of motion. From a given generator

dance with

H (qpt) . Such new variables would then obey

transformation. The differential form

equations

CWQMIC&L TRANSFORMATIONS 175

implicit operator equations possess a solution for

q and p

action operator that describes the transformation

inverse to qp -*• qp is

qp ~** QP "* QP » ^ne generating action operator of

the composite transformation is

fluous variable. If the individual operators

w(q t g) and w(q , q) contain just the indicated

variables, the sum (5.7) involves q, q and q .

176 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

canonical transformations,

always desirable, however, to eliminate the super-

mation, one can deiive the desired transformation

tion that interchanges the roles of the complementary

where

177

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS

Since

q -* p and its inverse p •*• q = q , we obtain the

mation ,

To eliminate the latter we must impose the transfor-

A given canonical transformation can be derived

operator W(qqt) , obeying the differential equations

178 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

{5.5}, we obtain

action operator - p q .

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 179

dicated variables that should have an even depen-,

the explicit equations of an infinitesimal canonical

transformation,

with

to even functions of the variables of the second

kind, we have

180 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

Hence

mations that preserve the Hermiticity of dynamical

transformations. Without reference to Hermitian

whence

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 181

finitesimal canonical transformations. The tran-

translation. The special operator variations, which

properties, appear as the canonical transformations

182 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and

between the general infinitesimal canonical trans-

formations and those of the special canonical group.

For variables of the second kind, the consideration

of the special canonical group within the framework

of general canonical transformations implies a for-

mal extension of the latter through the introduc-

tion of the elements of the external algebra.

rotation of the spatial coordinate system is a

canonical transformation, with the infinitesimal

generator

yet known. Differently oriented coordinate systems

are intrinsically equivalent and we should expect

that the kinematical term in the Lagrangian operator

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 183

bles appropriate to any coordinate system. This

comment also applies to the dynamical term - the

Hamiltonian operator - of a physically isolated

system, for which the total angular momentum, opera-

tor J , as the generator of a transformation

that leaves the form of H invariant, is a constant

of the motion. In view of the bilinear structure

of the kinematical term, p f -T*. , the change in-

volved in an arbitrary rotation of the spatial

coordinate system will be a linear transformation

among suitably chosen q variables, combined with

the contragredient transformation of the complemen-

tary variables. For an infinitesimal rotation,

then,

matrices. For Hermitain variables j is an imag-

inary matrix, while with non Hermitian variables

in the relation p = iq , the matrix j is

184 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

lar momentum operator is thus obtained as

generated by G^

w

to the operator J we find

we also have

and therefore

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 185

of the matrix j into irreducible submatrices pro-

integer, the dimensionality of the corresponding

necessarily has the rotational transformation proper-

equally to coordinate system translations, which

186 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

addition of constants to suitably chosen canonical

and different generators of this type do commute,

in accordance with

have the rotational transformation properties of

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 187

tive eigenvalue scales will guarantee that

and therefore

vectors r,

188 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

s

infinitesimal generator has the form

parameters. This interpretation of the transforma-

tion is expressed by

or

of motion,

formation. By repeated application of such infini-

tesimal transformations, a finite transformation is

generated in which the parameters t are altered

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 189

action operator characterizing the finite transfor-

finitesimal transformations

Hence

W,„ must be independent of these intermediate

variables, it is stationary with respect to infini-

tesimal special variations of all dynamical quanti-

190 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

Now

given parameter path (61 = 0) , again yields the

differential equations (5.44), and

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 191

the analogous one referring to another time

tfl (=t?) . With t_ held fixed, the action opera-

tor W (=W,2) obeys

or

ilton-Jacobi transformation is such that 5=0 ,

which expresses the lack of dependence on t of

Hamiltonian at time t thus differs from H eval-

of W upon the parameter t_ ,

several parameters, the last term of (5.49) displays

192 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

parameters evolve. According to the significance

of G,\s i, as a. generator, we have

and therefore

and s ,

of two independent path variations in the combinat-

ion

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 193

meter path,

identity (2.73), for

and

194 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

that

I A;

to (5.55) we see that the condition for path inde-

pendence can be presented as

transformation G,, v dX

I A; « Since this change is

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 195

endpoint. With the latter viewpoint, the superposi-

(A I

of the class of variations, without alteration of

by

196 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMIC:

a pure Hamilton-Jacob! transformation. But the X

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 197

esimal change of A , in

a linear transformation:

lack of invariance displayed by H under the A

action principle now properly yields (5.63) and

generator of the infinitesimal A transformation.

198 QUANT0M KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

of the linear Hamilton-Jacobi transformation,

Since

dicates the existence of algebraic relations between

more conveniently described with the aid of

the variables q , which is accomplished by the

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 199

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CHAPTER SIX

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS

6.2 Finite Matrix Representation 204

6.3 Subgroups 207

6.4 Differential Forms and Composition 209

Properties

6.5 Canonical Parameters 211

6.6 An Example, Special Canonical Group 216

6.7 Other Parameters, Rotation Group 219

6.8 Differential Operator Realizations 226

6.9 Group Volume 228

6.10 Compact Groups 231

6.11 Projection Operators and Invariants 233

6.12 Differential Operators and the 238

Rotation Group

6.13 Non-Compact Group Integration 243

6.14 Variables of the Second Kind 247

6.15 Reflection Operator 249

6.16 Finite Operator Basis 250

6.17 Addendum: Derivation of the Action 254

Principle

6.18 Addendum Concerning the Special 259

Canonical Group

6.19 Addendum: Quantum Variables and the 275

Action Principle

201

202 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

parameters if the operators RJL 5 are to be zero.

operators G, , (x , t) , assumed finite in number,

\ s}

as a linear combination of an equal number of

parameters,

\3.)

arly related to the same set. On writing

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 203

two indices, and they are imaginary if the operators

v3/

can be conveniently presented by introducing a ma-

trix notation for the array with fixed second index,

the form

correspondence maintains commutation properties

204 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

relations (6.2). A second set of matrices with

m

that property, -g , follows from the correspon-

dence

and the matrices g persists under a change of

a

operator basis, to within the freedom of matrix

induces

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 205

are Hermitian and possess a non-zero, linearly in-

where

this basis, which still has the freedom of orthogo-

rical,

206 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

matrix representation provided they are linearly

basis transformation. Then

appear in the expression for any commutator. This

that the group can be factored into an Abelian group,

and a non-commutative group with its structure

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 20?

6.3 SUBGROUPS

semi-simple, by which is meant that they possess no

terms can be given within the framework of infini-

divided into two sets, designated as 1 and 2 ,

subgroup:

invariant subgroup:

Abelian subgroup

208 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

b a

l lblC2

g, cannot be antisymmetrical. Alternatively, we

D

l

conclude from these attributes of an Abelian invar-

g constitute a finite-dimensional representation.

a

l

Evidently a group that contains an Abelian invariant

ferring to the commutation properties (2.80), we

recognize that translations form an Abelian invari-

a finite dimensional representation corresponds to

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 209

the total angular momentum, is of finite dimension-

ality,

mal changes dT of the parameters is produced by

the operator

The subscript A(eft) refers to the manner in which

this operator is combined with the operator U(T)

that produces the finite transformation from the

standard zero values of the parameters, namely

210 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

standard values of the parameters with the aid of

the transformation

of the group,

itesimal transformation U(T+dT) U(t) one can

consider U(T) —I u(t+dt) r and there must exist a

second set of inexact differentials, <5 XT Tct such

that

multiplication property induces a corresponding

change of t and,

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 211

or

within non-singular transformations, t -* T ' ,

212 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and thus

\a,l

be expressed by adding the initial condition

of parameters, termed canonical, is defined as

let a point in the T-parameter space move out from

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 213

a

in the t-space that is reached at X = 1 is deter-

ct

point reached for X = 1 is identical with the

the t-space as

or

214 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

mation characterized by dA is

property (6.37). Indeed,

becomes

we obtain

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 215

explicitly as

structure of 6 t can now be inferred from the

r

following property of the canonical parameters,

U(t+dt) U(t)"1 into U(t)~ U(t-t-dt) and therefore

216 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

property

linear combination

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 217

a

mensional Hermitian matrix representation, which is

related to the existence of the one-parameter in-

of the algebraic property (6.51), we have

sets)

initial condition t' = 0 : t = t" , and the

canonical parameter composition law of the group,

is

218 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

presented as

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 219

variables. Specializations analogous to (6.56) are

a

lations (2.81), can also be presented as a vector

operation:

Hence

220 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and

component of j are 1 , 0 , -1 , and therefore

of $£**/ as given in (6.45) , we obtain

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 221

is

it can largely be treated as such. This is indicated

J6 3T

222 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and

Euclidean space associated with every three-dimen-

sional rotation, and, to the composition of two three-

dimensional rotations there is associated a four-

dimensional rotation. The algebraic simplification

achieved by the u-parameters appears in the group

composition law. The invariance of the bilinear

form for the differentials 6X*e w, expressed by the

differential equations (6,26), implies a linear

relation between the parameters of the individual

transformations and those of the product transfor-

mation. One easily verifies that

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 223

£ , that have the structure of the Euclidean ro-

K

tation group in 2n + 1 dimensions. Hence, a

ar, of the operators

tics:

The generators of the three independent infinitesimal

224 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

(4.96) ,

and

angular momentum operator matrix representation

and (Pauli)

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 225

dular,

226 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

produces the same rotation, and successive unitary

transformations generate successive rotations. The

product

two sets of functions rj (-T) , t, (T) , according

as as

to

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 227

Thus

or, on writing

as

are commutative,

228 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

(6.88).

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 229

that volume element is invariant under the parameter

£*

The relation

tical if

for then all the g matrices are antisymmetrical

230 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

example of (6.50) indicates, this is by no means a

element, stated by

stance the explicit transformation is

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 231

a. formally Hermitian differential operator to repre-

(a)

study of a v-parameter group of unitary transforma-

complementary variables of the first kind which are

canonical variables.

compact, which is to say that any infinite sequence

matrices g for a compact group are necessarily

a

232 QUANTUM. KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

ized by canonical parameters t , and the corres-

symmetrical,

k

operators U , k = ± l , ± 2 , . . . , there corresponds

k

a sequence of matrices U , for which

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 233

with its associated finite U matrix. Hence the

matrix U roust be unimodular, and every gcLQ has a

vanishing trace. It may be noted here that a group

for which the g matrices supply a representation

of its infinitesimal Hermitian generators has a

bounded manifold. According to the explicit con-

struction of the volume element in terms of the

canonical parameters,

the weight factor in the element of volume vanishes.

The statement that the g matrices are Hermitian and

linearly independent implies that, for every t , gt

possesses non-zero, real eigenvalues. The numer-

ically largest of these eigenvalues equated to 2ir

then determines the finite points where the boundary

of the group manifold intercepts the ray, directed

from the origin of the parameter space, which is

specified by the relative values of the parameters

*a '

234 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 235

tent of (6.113) is

236 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

an algebraic function of the generating operators

tesimal generators of the group. Now

cl

iance requirement

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 237

a semi-simple group) f

of invariant functions can be constructed directly

matrix representation of the corresponding Hermitian

and

238 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 239

angular momentum commutation relations given in

(2.80). ) Of course, the group manifold is three-di-

the independent parameters u , the term contain-

mensional element of volume contains

240 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

from the relevant form of the differential equations

(6.102)

constancy of undet £ . Alternatively, an

employ the four variables u = u~ , u , and a

volume element proportional to (du) = duQ (du)

with the restriction on the variables u_ enforced

*7 O

by a delta function factor 6 (u^ 4- u -l) . On

|un which, in the previous method, is supplie

by |det C| • Thus, the group manifold is the

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 241

u-. SB ± (l-u ) . The advantage of the four-dimen-

2

sional form stems from the commutativity of 6(u -I)

with the differential operators J , which permits

the latter to be defined in the unbounded four-di-

mensional Euclidean space, thereby identifying the

four variables u with canonical variables of the

a

first kind. Thus the general properties of a three-

dimensional angular momentum can be studied in terms

of an equivalent system consisting of a particle

in a four-dimensional Euclidean space, with the

correspondence between its orbital angular momentum

and the general three-dimensional angular momentum

described by (6.126).

There is only one independent operator that

2

commutes with every component of J , namely, J ,

for there is only one independent rotationally in-

variant function of a three-dimensional vector. We

observe from (6.124-6) that

242 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

momentum vector is represented by the four-dimen-

are obtained from four-dimensional spherical har-

monics ~ solutions of the four-dimensional Laplace

equation that are homogeneous of integral degree

2

Another procedure uses complex combinations

of the parameters, as comprised in the pair of com-

plex numbers that form any row or column of the ma-

trix

with y 1 similarly designating a column vector.

The differential composition properties.

imply

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 243

the three-dimensional angular momentum spectrum can

be inferred from the structure of the fundamental

solution, of degree -2 , which refers to the

inhomogeneous equation

be effective for groups that are not compact. We

shall illustrate this with the special canonical

group referring to Herinitian variables of the first

kind. As the analogue of the operator appearing in

(6.112), we consider

of an angular momentum vector are:

as, for example,

244 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

canonical variables. As we can recognize directly

/%

tor X commutes with every unitary operator U(q'p')

Hence it commutes with both sets of canonical vari-

A

~ •

and any function of the y that is homogeneous

of integral degree n provides an eigenfunction,

which is associated with the eigenvalue

j(j+1) , j = n/2 . One recognizes that the differ-

ential operators refer to an equivalent system des-

cribed by two complementary pairs of non-Hermitian

variables of the first kind, and

ment of the theory of angular momentum in a paper

GROUPS OP TRANSFORMATIONS 245

rived through an explicit construction of the ma-

^

trix representing X in some canonical representa-

tion. We first observe that

and therefore

tor. If X is chosen as a Measurement symbol,

M(a') , this equation reads

It is now available in the collection "Quantum

Theory of Angular Momentum" edited by L.C. Biedenharn

and H. Van Dam, Academic Press, 1965.

246 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

sult into

is replaced by such a function, F(q , p) , that

formula becomes

be regarded as assertions of the completeness and

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 247

of traces, correctly suggests that the statements

are anticoiranutative with the variables of the sec-

external algebra. Incidentally, the general trace

<p'=0| q'=0> matrix element. It is also worth

248 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

from their non-Hermitian canonical versions to forms

appropriate for Hermitian canonical variables. This

will be accomplished by using the transformation

(3.116) for operators, together with the analogous

one for eigenvalues, which yields, for example,

or

Similarly

and

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 249

I in

symbol 5 (6 -O) with an eigenvalue of the

Ev Kl

Hermitian operator £

the X integration. Hence there is no state in-

tor

and

250 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

kind.

and correspondigly

larly produced by

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 251

is the generating function for the 2n distinct

more precisely as

is

K,

we have

252 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

a phase factor,

that contribute to the integrals are of the form

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 253

H»

p multiplying a{v} induces

completeness for the 4 dimensional operator basis

a{v}

from (6.154) on remarking that

254 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

t

6.17 ADDENDUM: DERIVATION OP THE ACTION PRINCIPLE

t

Reproduced from the Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences, Vol. 46, pp. 893 - 897 (1960).

VOL. 46, I960 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGEM 893

from infinitesimal ones for a physical system of n continuous degrees of freedom.

Thus, all operators are functions of the n pairs of complementary variables qk, pt,

which we deaote collectively by x. Let us consider a continuous set of unitary

operators labeled by a single parameter, U(r). The change from r to r + rfr is the

infinitesimal transformation

where

are the fundamental quantum variables of the system for the description produced

by the transformation V(r). The accompanying state transformations are indi-

cated by

function

894 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGEB PBOC. N. A. S.

which includes

the matrix of V(r) in the arbitrary ab representation. The relation between in-

finitesimally neighboring values of r is indicated by

The general discussion of transformation functions indicates that the most com-

pact characterization is a differential one. Accordingly, we replace this explicit

statement of the transformation function (a'-r + dr\b'r} by a differential descrip-

tion in which the guiding principle will be the maintenance of generality by avoiding

considerations that refer to specific choices of the states o' and &', We

note first that the transformation function depends upon the parameters T, T +

AT and upon the form of the generator 0(x, T), Infinitesimal changes in these

aspects [8*] induce the alteration

where the omission of the labels a', 6' emphasizes the absence of explicit reference

to these states. Yet some variation of the states must be introduced if a sufficiently

complete characterization of the transformation function is to be obtained. For

this purpose we use the infinitesimal transformations of the special canonical group,

performed independently on the states associated with parameters r and T + <J-r[S'l.

nnu,,^.

in which the infinitesimal generators are constructed from the operators appropriate

to the description employed for the corresponding vectors, namely x(r + dr) and

X(T). It is convenient to use the symmetrical generator <?,, „ which produces

changes of the variables x by '/jte. Then

wfoer**

and the Sx(r), &x(r -f dr) are independent arbitrary infinitesimal numbers upon

which we impose the requirement of continuity in r.

The infinitesimal unitary transformation that relates X(T) and x(r + dr) is ob-

tained from

You 46, 1960 PHYSICS: J, SCHWINGBR, 895

as

or

m which & is used here to describe the change of q, p by Sq and Sp, occurring inde-

pendently but continuously at r and r + dr. The two species of variation can

now be united: J = &' + &*, and

where

formation functions whereby, for a class of alterations, the infinitesimal operator

SW is derived as the variation of a single operator W. This is a quantum action

principle8 and W is the action operator associated with the transformation.

We can now proceed directly to the action principle that describes a finite unl-

tarv transformation.

tions is expressed by addition of the corresponding action operators

As written, this action operator depends upon all operators X(T) in the r interval

between r\ and r». But the transformations of the special canonical group, applied

to (n | ra), give

which is to say that d'Wi» does not contain operators referring to values of r in the

open interval between r\ and n, or that W-a, is stationary with respect to the special

variations of x(r) in that interval. Indeed, this principle of stationary action,

the condition that a finite unitary transformation emerge from the infinitesimal

ones, asserts of q(r), p(r) that

89« PHYSICS: J. SCMWINOBK PBOC. N, A. S.

The use of a single parameter in this discussion is not restrictive. We have only

to write

with each drK/dr given as an arbitrary function of T, and then regard the transforma-

tion as one with p parameters, conducted along a particular path in the parameter

space that is specified by the p functions of a path parameter, T>(T). Now

is the action operator lor a traasiormation referring to a prescribed path and gener-

ally depends upon that path. If we consider an infinitesimal path variation with

fixed end points we find that

where

independent of path. When the operators Gt(x, r) can be expressed as a linear com-

bination of an equal number of operators that are not explicit functions of the param-

eters, Oa(x)f the requirement of path independence yields the previously con-

sidered conditions for the formation of a group.

We now have the foundations for a general theory of quantum dynamics and

canonical transformations, at least for systems with continuous degrees of freedom.

The question is thus posed whether other types of quantum variables can also be

employed in a quantum action principle.

* Publication assisted by the Office of Scientific Besearch, United States Air Force, ynder con-

tract number AF49(638)-589.

« These PBOCBBMNGS, 45,1S42 (1959); 48, 257 (1960); and 46, 570 (1960),

* The group can be obtained directly as the limit of the finite order group associated with each

r. That group, of order »•*, is generated by U, ¥, and the »th root of unity given by WV~lU~l.

Some aspects of the latter group are worthy of note. There are »' + r — 1 classes, the commu-

tator subgroup is of order e, and the order of the corresponding quotient group, F', is the number

of inequivatent one-dimensional representations. The remaining » — 1 matrix representations

must be of dimensionality », «•' ~ »* + (» ~ I)"1) and differ only in the choice of the generating

»th root of unity. That choice is already made in the statement of operator properties for U and

F and there can be only one irreducible matrix representation of these operators, to within the

freedom of unitary transformation.

* In earlier work of the author, for example Phyt, Km., 91, 713 (1953), the quantum action

principle has been postulated rather than derived.

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 259

GROUP1"

t

Reproduced from the Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences, Vol. 46, pp. 1401-1415 (I960)

Reprinted from the Proceedings of the NATIONAL ACABEMTT op SCIENCES

Vol. 48, No. JO, pp. 1401-1416. October, IBM.

BY JULIAN SCHWINGER

HABVABD uNivxnuurr

operator group described ia a previous paper,' It is associated with the quantum

degree of freedom labeled v = » which is characterized by the complementary

pair of operators q, p with continuous spectra.8 The properties of such a degree

of freedom are obtained as the limit of one with a finite number of states, spe-

cifically given by a prime integer v. We recall that unitary operators U and

V obeying

and

For any prime v > 2 we can choose the integers k and I to range from —l/t(v — 1)

to l/t(v — I ) , rather than from 0 to v — J. An arbitrary state * can be represented

alternatively by the wave functions

where

where e = Ag' = Ap', the interval between adjacent eigenvalues. Then we have

1402 PHYSICS: J, SCHWINGSB Pmoc. N. A. S.

and

As v increases without limit the spectra of q and p become arbitrarily dense and

the eigenvalues of largest magnitude increase indefinitely. Accordingly we must

restrict all further considerations to that physical class of states, or physical sub-

space of vectors, for which the wave functions $(q') and ${p') are sufficiently well

behaved with regard to continuity and the approach of the variable to infinity

that a uniform transition to the limit v = » can be performed, with the result

and

We shall not attempt here to delimit more precisely the physical class of states.

Note however that the reciprocal relation between wave functions can be combined

into

which must be an identity for wave functions of the physical class when the

operations are performed as indicated. There will also be a class of functions

K(p', «), such that

and

We shall also use the notation that is modeled on the discrete situation, with

integrals reolacine summations, as in

with

Vou 46, I960 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGER 1403

There are other applications of the limit v —* <*>. The reciprocal property of the

operators U and F is expressed by

or

with an exception when q' or p' is the greatest eigenvalue, for then q' + t or p' + e

is identified with the least eigenvalue, —q' or —p'. We write these relations as

wave function statements, of the form

and

tinguished by such properties of continuity and behavior at infinity of the wave

functions that the left-hand limits. « -+• 0, exist as derivatives of the corresponding

wave function. We conclude, for the physical class of states, that

and

It will also be evident from this application of the limiting process to the unitary

operators exp(feg), exp(icp) that a restriction to a physical subspaee is needed for

the validity of the commutation relation

or v-^Uia'-D'), with

Thus, since »-' = Ag'Ap'/2-r, we have, for an.arbitrary function f(q'p') of the

discrete variables q', p',

1404 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGER PBOC. N. A. S.

In particular,

The completeness of the operator basis U(g'p') is expressed by

The properties of the U(g'p') basis are also described, with respect to an arbitra

discrete operator basis X(d), by

and

When X is given as F(q, p), the operations of the special canonical group can be

utilized to bring the completeness expression into the form

This operator relation implies a numerical one if it is possible to order F(q, p),

so that all g operators stand to the left, for example, of the operator p: F(§; p).

Then the evaluation of the (g' = 0 p' = 0} matrix element gives

understood that

As an example of this ordering process other than the one already given by

{r U(g'p'), we remark that

where

VOL. 46, I960 PHYSICS; J. SCSWINGER 1405

and thwefori

which reproduces

5 the well-known non-degenerate spectrum of the operator

w + p )-

Now we shall consider the construction of finite special canonical transformations

from a succession of infinitesimal ones, as represented by the variation of a pa-

rameter T. Let the generator of the transformation associated with r -*• r + dr be

where Q(T) and P(r) are arbitrary numerical functions of r. That is, the in-

finitesimal transformation is

or

and therefore

gives

with

1406 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINOEB PBOO, N. A, S.

or, alternatively

unitary operator, an element of the special canonical group, that produces the

complete transformation. That operator, incidentally, is

this will equal the trace of the associated unitary operator provided the otherwise

arbitrary representation is not an explicit function of r. Thus

where, in view of the delta function factors, f + (r — T') can be replaced by other

equivalent functions, such as q+ — ! /j = */»«, or */je(r ~ T'^ — (T — r')/Tt with

f = T, — Tj. The latter choice has the property of giving a zero value to the

double integral whenever Q(r) or P(r) is a constant. As an operator statement,

the trace formula is the known result

than any individual transformation function, also implies specific transformation

functions. Thus, let us make the substitutions

and then indicate the effect of the additional localized transformations by the

equivalent unitary operators, which gives

dp'/Zr, what emerges is {q'n \ q"Tt)gr, as we can verify directly.

You 46, I960 PHYSICS; J. SCHWINGSR 1407

formula. First note that

and similarly

which is a property of periodicity over the interval T — r\ — rt. Let us, therefore,

represent the operators g(r), J>(T) by the Fourier series

where the coefficients are so chosen that the action operator for an arbitrary special

canonical transformation

together with

The first of these results implies that the trace contains the factors &(Qo) and

J(Po). The dependence upon Qn, Pn, n 4= 0, is then given by the action principle as

1408 PHYSICS: J, 8CHWINOER PBOC. N. A. S.

Therefore

where the factor of 2-jr is supplied by reference to the elementary situation with

constant Q(r) and P(r). We note, for comparison with previous results, that

and

The new formula for the trace can be given a uniform integral expression by using

the representation

where

and W[q, pi is the numerical function formed in the same way as the action operator,

Alternatively, we can use the Fourier series to define the numerical functions

q(r), pM. Then

f T*

and d[q, p] appears as a measure in the quantum phase space of the functions

«W, P(T).

It is the great advantage of the special canonical group that these considerations

can be fully utilized in discussing arbitrary additional unitary transformations,

as described by the action operator

First, let us observe how an associated transformation function {n| r^)0^p depends

upon the arbitrary functions Q(r), P(r). The action principle asserts that

Vol. 46,1960 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGER 1409

where [ r') X (T' symbolizes the summation over a complete set of states, and

therefore

TJ to n. If T follows T' in sequence, the operator function of r stands to the left,

while if r precedes T' the associated operator appears on the right. This description

covers the two algebraic situations: n > r», where we call the ordering positive,

( )+, and n < TI, which produces negative ordering, ( )_. For the moment

take TI > rj and compare

with

p, and on the other to the "equation of motion" of the operator g(r). According

to the action principle

and therefore

1410 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGER PBOO, N. A. S.

Thus, through the application of the special 'canonical group, we obtain functional

differential operator representations for all the dynamical variables. The general

statement is

where F(q, p)a is an ordered function of the q(r), p(r) throughout the interval be-

tween TS and n, and, as the simple example of q(T)p(r) and p(r)q(r) indicates,

the particular order of multiplication for operators with a common value of t

must be reproduced by a suitable limiting process from different r values.

The connection with the previous considerations emerges on supplying G with

a variable factor X. For states at n and n that do not depend explicitly upon X

we use the Action principle to evaluate

The formal expression that gives the result of integrating this differential equation

from X = 0 to X = 1 is

where the latter transformation function is that for X = 0 and therefore refers

only to the special canonical group. An intermediate formula, corresponding to

0 = Gi + Gt, contains the functional differential operator constructed from G\

acting on the transformation function associated with (?j. The same structure

applies to the traces of the transformation functions. If we use the integral

representation for the trace of the special canonical transformation function, and

perform the differentiations under the integration sign, we obtain the general

integral formula'

which is formed in essentially the same way as the action operator PFM, the multi-

plication order of noncommutative operator factors in G being replaced by suitable

infinitesimal displacements of the parameter r. The Hermitian operator G can

always be constructed from symmetrized products of Hermitian functions of q

and of p, and the corresponding numerical function is real Thus the operator

Vtf/ifato, MvM] is represented by 'AC/jCfCr + «)) + /,(<?(r -t)))MpM),

for example. One will expect to find that this averaged limit, * -*• 0, implies no

more than the direct use of /I(#(T)/J(P(T)), although the same statement is certainly

not true of either term containing e. Incidentally, it is quite sufficient to construct

VOL. 46, 1960 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGER 1411

the action from pdq, for example, rather than the more symmetrical version, in

virtue of the periodicity,

As a specialization of this trace formula, we place Q — P = 0 and consider the

class of operators G that do not depend explicitly upon T, Now we are computing

provided by G = '/»(?* + <?*)» where

&nfL

This example also illustrates the class of Hermitian operators with spectra that

are bounded below and for which the trace of exp (iTG) continues to exist on giving

T a positive imaginary component, including the substitution T -*• iff, ft > 0.

The trace formula can be reatated for the latter situation on remarking that the

Fourier series depend only upon the variable (r — T$)/T = A, which varies from

0 to 1, and therefore

Another property of the example is that the contributions to the trace of all

Fourier coefficients except n = 0 tend to unity for sufficiently small T at ft. This

is also true for a class of operators of the form G = !/»pz + /(<?)• By a suitable

translation of the Fourier coefficients for p(X) we can write w[q, p] as

For sufficiently small B, the trem involing dq/dy to which all the Fourier coffi-

cients of q(y) contribute except q0, will effectively suppress these Fouier coefficient

Povides appropiate restric are imposed concering sigular pointes in the

neighborhood of which f(q) acquires arge negative values. Then f(q (y)f (q0))

and we can reduce the integrations to just the contribution of qo and po, as experssed

by

1412 PHYSICS: J. SCBWINGSR PEOC. N. A. S.

Comparison with the previously obtained trace formula involving the ordering of

operators shows that the noneommutativity of g and p is not significant in this limit,

Thus we have entered the classical domain, where the incompatibility of physical

properties at the microscopic level is ao longer detectible. Incidentally, a, first

correction to the classical trace evaluation, stated explicitly for one degree of

freedom, is

which gives the exact value when /(g) is a positive multiple of q2.

Another treatment of the general problem can be given on remarking that the

equations of motion implied by the stationary action principle,

These equations are valid for any such transformation function. The trace is

specifically distinguished by the property of periodicity,

which asserts that the trace depends upon Q(r), P(r) only through the Fourier

coefficients Qn, Pn, and that the functional derivatives can be interpreted by means

of ordinary derivatives:

Now introduce the functional differential operator that is derived from the

numerical action function W0[q, p] which refers only to the transformation

srcnerated bv G. namelv

VOL. 46, 1960 PHYSICS; J. SCHWINGER 1413

>r by

on noting that [Wo, Q(r)], for example, is constructed entirely from differential

operators and is commutative with the differential operator WG- Accordingly,

which asserts that exp(—iW0)(tr) vanishes when multiplied by any of the Fourier

coefficients Qn, Pn and therefore contains a delta function factor for each of these

variables. We conclude that

to the consideration of the special canonical transformations. In this procedure

we encounter the typical term

and

The result is just the known form of the transformation function trace

When integral representations are inserted for each of the delta function factors

in 8[Q, P], we obtain

signs is*

where the action function W[q, p] now includes the special canonical transformation

described by Q and P.

1414 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINOER PBOC. N. A, 8.

functional of Q(r), P(r) and exp(«fPG[g, p]) as a function of qn, pn or functional of

?(T), p(r). Indeed,

where

is such that

A verification of the reciprocal formula follows from the latter property on inserting

for the trace the formal differential operator construction involving 5[Q, F]. The

reality of Wg[q, p] now implies that

f d[Q, P]d[Q', F']eVTW(p-F')-«0-e')) (tr)0e* (&•)«'/•' = \

or, equivalently,

f d[Q, P](fr)x+*,*(fr)*+*i - «[Qi - Qt, Pi - Pt]

where X combines Q and P.

The trace possesses the composition property

The operation involved is the replacement of Q(r), P(r) in the respective factors

by Q(r) =F q'S(r — n), F(r) =F p'S(r — n) followed by integration with respect

to dq'dj>'/2ir. The 'explicit form of the left side is therefore

in view of the completeness of the operator basis formed from f(-ri), p(n),

No special relation has been assumed among TO, n and T». If n andS are T

equated, one transformation function in the product is the complex conjugate of

the other. We must do more than this, however, to get a useful result. The most

general procedure would be to choose the special canonical transformation in

ft" {raj Ti)e«p = tr (n\ Tt)g<>r* arbitrarily different from that in tr (n TJ)OW. The

calculations! advantages that appear in this way will be explored elsewhere.

VOL. 46, 1960 PHYSICS: /. SCHWINOER 1415

only at r». The corresponding theorem is

where

and similarly for Q"{r), P*(r). This statement follows immediately from the

orthonormality of the U(q'p') operator basis on evaluating the left-hand side as

1

These PBOOBBOIMGS, 46, 883 (1960).

' These PEOCBBDINOS, 46, 570 (1960),

' This formulation is closely related to the algorithms of Feynman, Pkys. Bee., 84, 108 (1951),

Res. Mod, Phys., 20, 36 (1948), It differs from the latter in the absence of ambiguity associated

with noncommutative factors, but primarily in the measure that is used. See Footnote 5.

4

These are directly useful as differential equations only when 0(fp) is a sufficiently simple

algebraic function of q and p. The kinematical, group foundation for the representation of

equations of motion by functional differential equations is to be contrasted with the dynamical

language used in these PmocmEDisas, 37, 4S2 (1851).

* In this procedure, q(r) and p(T) are continuous functions of the parameter r and the Fourier

coefficients that represent them are a denumerably infinite set of integration variables. An

alternative approach is the replacement of the continuous parameter r by a discrete index while

interpreting the derivative with respect to r as a finite difference and constructing S[Q, PI as s

product of delta functions for each discrete r value. With the latter, essentially the Peynman-

Wiener formulation, the measure d[q, p] is the product of dg(r)<ip(r)/2*r for each value of T,

periodicity is explicitly imposed at the boundaries, and the limit is eventually taken of an infinitely

fine partitioning of the interval T = n — TJ. The second method is doubtless more intuitive,

since it is also the result of directly compounding successive infinitesimal transformations but it ig

more awkward as a mathematical technique.

GROUPS OF TRANSFORMATIONS 275

PRINCIPLE

t

Reproduced from the Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences, Vol. 47, pp. 1075 -1083 (1961)

Hpprhited from the Proeeetlmgs of the NATSOKAZ, ACAOJKMY or SCIENCES

Vol. ff, No. 7, pp. 1078-1083, July, W6I.

BY JULIAN SCHWIJJGER

HiBVARD UNIVERSITY AND I'XIVEHSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT I,OH ANGBIJU5

prime integer v has been given,1 and a quantum action principle has been con-

structed2 for v=<*>. Can a quantum action principle be devised for other types of

quantum variables? We shall examine this question for the simplest quantum de-

gree of freedom, »• = 2.

Let us consider first a single degree of freedom of this type. The operator basis

is generated by the complementary pair of Hermitian operators

which obey

We have remarked1 upon the well-known connection between the 0%, k = 1,2, 3,

and three-dimensional rotations. In particular, the most general unitary operator

that differs inftnitesimally from unity is, apart from a phase factor, of the form

Accordingly, an infinitesimal transformation that varies £» and not & can only be a

rotation about the second axis,

Jimilarly,

is generated by

1,2)

1075

1078 PHYSICS: J. SCUWINOER PBOC. N. A. S.

three-dimensional rotation group. The transformation induced by 63 is

and

Thus, the concentration on the complementary pair of operators fi and fe does not

give a symmetrical expression to the underlying three-dimensional rotation group.

This is rectified somewhat by using, for those special transformations in which |j

and fe are changed independently, the generator of the variations VtSft, k =» 1,2,

n>

tion function

but continuously in r, on the states (r + dr\ and I r).

Here

or

where S', in its effect upon operators, refers to the special variations 8ft, k = 1, 2,

performed independently but continuously at r and r + dr.

It is only if the last term is zero that one obtains the quantum action principle

is = r + «1

with

Since the special variation is such that 8|i and Jfe are arbitrary multiples of &, it

VOL. 47, 1961 PHYSICS: J. SCMWINGKS 1077

is necessary that [6, |3] commute with & and fe. Hence this commutator must be

a multiple of the unit operator, which multiple can only be zero, since the trace of

the commutator vanishes or, alternately, as required by [G, Is2] = 0. For an action

principle formulation to be feasible, it is thus necessary and sufficient that

Terms in & and S-t are thereby excluded from G, which restriction is also conveyed

by the statement that a permissible <? must be an even function of the {», k = 1, 2.

Apart from multiples of the unit operator, generating phase transformations, the

only allowed generator is fife, which geometrically is a rotation about the third

axis.

It should be noted that the class of variations &' can be extended to include the

one generated by (?», without reference to the structure of G. Thus,

which refers to a fixed form of the operator G({(r), r), expresses the requirement

that a finite transformation emerge from the succession of infinitesimal transforma-

tions. It will be instructive to see how the properties of the quantum variables

are conversely implied by this principle. The discussion will be given without

explicit reference to the single pair of variables associated with one degree of free-

dom, since it is of greater generality.

The bilinear concomitant

1078 PHYSICS: J, PRoc. N. A. S.

shows that

and gives

The generator term G&T evidently restates the transformation significance of the

operator G, The effect upon operators is conveyed by the infinitesimal unitary

transformation

properties: (I) Each 8& anticommutes with every &,

(2) the &^(T) have no implicit T dependence; and (3) every Sft is an arbitrary in-

finitesimal numerical multiple of a common nonsingular operator, which does not

vary with r. The second basic property asserts that

of the special variations with each member of this set. Furthermore, the r deriva-

tives of the special variations are also antieommutative with the {», according to

property (3), and therefore,

Then, if we write

which defines the left and right derivatives of G with respect to the f»,- we get

Vol.. 47, 1981 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINOBR 1079

from the latter equation, and the arbitrary numerical factor in each SfctM implies

that

In the opposite signs of left and right derivatives, we recognize the even property of

the function G.

On comparing the two forms of the equation of motion for f* we see that

The left side is just the change induced in (? by (?{, the generator of the special vari-

ations, which also appears in {?», t, while the right side gives the result in terms of

changes of the {» by Vifi£». Since (? is an arbitrary even function of the f*, we accept

this as the general interpretation of the transformation generated by (?$, which

then asserts of any operator F that

and the particular choice F = f j gives the basic operator properties of these quantum

variables

In this way, we verify that the quantum action principle gives a consistent account

of all the characteristics of the given type of quantum variable.

The operator basis of a single degree of freedom is used in a different manner

when the object of study is the three-dimensional rotation group rather than trans-

foimations of the pair of complementary physical properties. The generator of

the infinitesimal rotation Sir = Su X e is

the transformation function (r 4- drl T). we encounter

The identity,

1080 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGIBR Pnoc. N. A, S.

combined with the equivalence of the two left-hand terms, both of which equal

then gives

where 8' describes the independent operator variations S«r(r) = &i(r) X a(r) at

r and T + dr. If we add the effect of independent variations of r, T + dr, and the

structure of (7 (8"], we obtain an action principle3 without restrictions on the form

of G.

The action operator for a finite transformation is

The most general form for G, describing phase transformations and rotations, is

We shall be content to verify that the principle of stationary action reproduces "the

equations of motion that also follow directly from the significance of G,

where the operator variations are arbitrary infinitesimal rotations, So- = fo X <r.

Hence the equations of motion are

which appear in the anticipated form on remarking that the left-hand side of the

latter equation equals

At first sight, the procedure would seem to be straightforward. Operators asso-

ciated with different degrees of freedom are commutative, and the infinitesimal

generators of independent transformations are additive, which implies an action

operator of the previous form with the summation extended over the n pairs of

complementary variables. But we should also conclude that G must be an even

Vol. 47, 1961 PHYSICS; J. SCHWINGSR 1081.

separately, and this is an unnecessarily strong restriction.

To loosen the stringency of the condition for the validity of the action principle,

we replace the relationship of commutativity between different degrees of freedom

by one of anticommutativity. Let {<a>i,»,i be the operators associated with the a

degree of freedom. We define

and ia

operators with squares equal to Vs. In particular this operator anticommutes

with every {*, k = 1 ... 2n.

An infinitesimal transformation that alters only f* must be such that

1082 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINOSR Pnoc. N. A. S.

The generators G( and their commutators can thus be constructed from the basis

provided by the n(2n + 1) operators {*;, with k and I ranging from 1 to 2n + 1.

And, since

these operators are the generators of a unitary transformation group, which has the

structure of the Euclidean rotation group in 2n + 1 dimensions. For n > 1, the

operators {«, k, I = 1 .. 2n + 1 can also be combined with the linearly independent

set

in 2n -f- 2 dimensions.

It should also be Doted that

The discussion of the change induced in a transformation function (r -j- dr\ T) by

the special vanations, applied independently but continuously at r and T + dr,

proceeds as in the special example n = 1, and leads to

for the condition that permits an action principle formulation. Each special varia-

tion is proportional to the single operator $s*+i. It is necessary, therefore, that

[G, £**+i] commute with every £*, k = 1 . . . 2«, or equivalently, with each comple-

mentary pair of operators fi, j(a>, a — I ... n. Such an operator can only be a mul-

tiple of the unit operator and that multiple must be zero. Hence the infinitesimal

generators of transformations that can be described by an action principle must

commute with f»«+i. Considered as a function of the anticomrnutative operator

set Jt, k = 1 . . . In which generates the 22" dimensional operator basis, an admis-

sible operator (?({) must be even. This single condition replaces the set of n condi-

tions that appear when commutativity is the relationship between different degrees

of fieedom. Of course, if the class of transformations under consideration is such

that Q is also an even function of some even-dimensional subsets of the {*, one can

VOL. 47, 1961 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGER 1083

Incidentally, the eommutativity of G with &»+I(T) asserts that the latter operator

does not vary with T. Accordingly, the special variations S&(T) have no implicit

operator dependence upon T and one concludes that the special variations are anti-

commutative with the 2w fundamental variables {», without reference to the as-

sociated r values.

The action principle is also valid for the linear variations induced by (?„, without

regard to the structure of G. Thus,

which gives

The action operator associated with a finite transformation generalizes the form

already encountered for n = 1,

and the earlier discussion can be transferred intact. It may be useful, however, to

emphasize that the special variations anticommute, not only with each &>(r), but

also with dit/dr, since this property is independent of r. Then it follows directly

from the implication of the principle of stationary action,

The action principle is still severely restricted in a practical sense, foi the genera-

tors of the special variations cannot be included in G since the operators &fc»+i are

odd functions of the 2w fundamental variables. It is for the purpose of circum-

venting this difficulty, and thereby of converting the action principle into an ef-

fective computation device, that we shall extend the number system by adjoining

an exterior or Grassmann algebra,

1

These PROCBSDINGS, 46, 570 (1960),

'Ibid., 46, 883(1960).

* The possibility of using the components of an angular momentum vector as variables in an

action principle was pointed out to me by I), Volkov during the 1959 Conference on High Energy

Physics held at Kiev, U.8.S.R.

CHAPTER

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS

7.2 Infinitesimal Canonical Transformation 287

Functions

7.3 Finite Canonical Transformation 293

Functions

7.4 Ordered Operators. The Use of 297

Canonical Transformation Functions

7.5 An Example 299

7.6 Ordered Operators and Pertubation 302

Theory

7.7 Use of The Special Canonical Group 306

7.8 Variational Derivatives 309

7.9 Interaction of Two Sub-Systems 317

7.10 Addendum: Exterior Algebra and the 321

Action Principle

operator W(q , q , t) that defines a canonical

transformation at time t , infinitesimal altera-

tions of the eigenvalues and of t produce a change

in the canonical transformation function <q't|q't>

286 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

given by

where stand to the left of the q's . This ordered

6W(q ; q , t) and

their eigenvectors in (7.1) and this equation be-

comes

tegration yields

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 287

and, indeed, is not Hermitian, should W possess

whereas

FUNCTIONS

operator

288 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

for

required operation on the infinitesimal quantity

SG with the aid of the known commutation relations

between q = q and p . It is convenient to

supplement G with a numerical factor X so that

we obtain a one-parameter family of transformations

that includes the desired one (A = 1} and the

identity transformation (X=0) . Then

as well as to 5G . From the former we obtain an

equivalent operator which we call G(p ; q) and thus

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 289

the variation of G(p;g) and thus (A=l)

or

290 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and, in particular,

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 291

and

ient to move the origin of the p' variables to

the point defined by

Then

where

292 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

2

in which M(q") is the matrix inverse to 3 G/3p3p

function form (7.19) is obtained. Both results are

2

where rn is the matrix inverse to 3 H/3p3p and

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 293

in which pn is defined by

x

in which signifies the application of a method

employed. In the limit N -»• « the required path

transformations. With Hermitian variables of the

294

QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

and obtain

in which

transformation with a Hamiltonian that depends

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 295

infinitesimal transformation function (7.15) and we

obtain

296 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

values are

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 297

TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS

On writing

in which the states and canonical variables do not

depend on T . The result of composing successive

transformations then appears as the matrix of the

+ subscript refers to the manner of multiplication,

in which the positions of the operators correspond

to the path in parameter space as deformed into a

298 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

the left. We speak of negative rather than positive

so that

the path is a straight line, the ordering is no

longer significant and

generating an Abelian group, the exponential form

Hermitian operators. Then a G representation exists

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 299

can be exhibited as

states.

7.5 AN EXAMPLE

300 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

namely

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 301

*5 «t» | o

kind (q1) = (q ) =0 , and the summation in

(7.42) is reached more quickly, however, along the

is required to obtain

procedure is

302 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

G or G , respectively. The resulting finite

transformation function is

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 303

example of the Hamilton-Jacobi transformation we

havfi

.ceeds directly from the fundamental dynamical prin-

characteristics of the system. Thus, for a system

<t

transformation function ii't2> ' *ascri^e<^ ^y

304 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

in the two transformation functions <t,|t> and

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 305

0 i

with Barailtonian H = H + H (X=l) can be obtained

and is thus expressed in terms of properties of the

0

system with Hamiltonian H

306 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

(7.52) is the foundation of perturbation theory,

lated approximation procedures.

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 307

by

canonical variables that occur in a small time

a a

localized at a time t which means that

308 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

time tQ ,

convenient standard values, provided the compensat-

tx > t2

tiroes,

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 309

t23

cal group appears on considering arbitrary displace-

310 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

ct

i

the transformation function with respect to X (t)

is used here,

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 311

i

where the Xct are anticommuting exterior algebra

elements and p is the operator that anticommutes

as

and

312 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

where

plicitly from (7.74), that variational derivatives

are anticommutative.

whereas

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 313

second kind variables. The difference between the

of the fundamental dynamical variables

tonian

314 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

Hence

and

stricted only to be an even function of variables

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 315

If the Hamiltonian operator is an algebraic function

infinitesimal change in the parameter A ,

function, in its dependence upon the infinite num-

i

ber of variables X a (t) , t,L >

~ t >

~ t-e. , appearing

as the wave function, On integrating from A = 0

316 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

a process of differentiation from the elementary

special canonical transformations. A more general

necessarily even functions of the variables of the

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 317

a simpler one for Hamiltonian H by

differentiation.

cribed by

of the respective sub-systems. Correspondingly the

X~ . In the non-interacting system described by

the Hamiltonian H , the two sub-systems are

dynamically independent and, in accordance with

318 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

introduce an asymmetry in viewpoint whereby one

^l^xl' "*" ^12 ^xl ' ^o(t}) describes the first system

only, as influenced by the external disturbance

originating in the second system, with its variables

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 319

function can be obtained by replacing the prescribed

variables of the second system by differential

operators that act on the transformation function

referring to the second system without interaction,

the differentiations are performed, and will be

placed equal to zero throughout the interval

between t. and t_ . They will still be needed

at the terminal times if the transformation functions

refer to standard eigenvalues, but will be set equal

320 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

Considering the latter for simplicity of notation,

Hamiltonian H is obtained as

of such products, other forms can be given to (7.94) ,

such as

CANONICAL TRANSFORMATION FUNCTIONS 321

PRINCIPLE1"

t

Reproduced from the Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences, Vol. 48 pp. 603-611 (1962).

Reprinted from the Proceedings of the NATIONAL ACA&EM* OF SCIENCES

Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 803-611, April, 1962.

BY- JULIAN SCHWINOBB

HAKVABD UNIVEBSITY

The quantum action principle1 that has been devised for quantum variables of

type v = 2 lacks one decisive feature that would enable it to function as an instru-

ment of calculation. To overeome_ this difficulty we shall enlarge the number

system by adjoining an exterior or Grassmann algebra.2

An exterior algebra is generated by N elements «„ « = 1 • • .V, that obey

A basis for the exterior algebra is supplied by the unit element and the homo-

geneous products of degree d

linear transformations.

To suggest what can be achieved in this way, we consider a new class of special

604 PHYSICS: J. SCBWINGSR PBOC. N. A, 8.

linear combination of the exterior algebra generators,

The members of this class antieommute with the & variables, owing to the factor

f2«-f.!, and among themselves,

since they are linear combinations of the exterior algebra generators. Accordingly,

the generator of a special variation,

where the right-hand side is proportional to the unit operator, and to a bilinear

function of the exterior algebra generating elements,

The latter structure commutes with all operators and with, all exterior algebra

elements. The commutator therefore commutes with any generator 0(, and the

totality of the new special variations has a group structure which is isomorphic

to that of the special canonical group for the degrees of freedom of type » » = * » .

This, rather than the rotation groups previously discussed, is the special canonical

group for the v = 2 variables.

We are thus led to reconsider the action principle, now using the infinitesimal

variations of the special canonical group. The class of transformation generators

0 that obey

includes not only all even operator functions of the In variables {», but also even

functions of the f t that are multiplied by even functions of the N exterior algebra

generators e,, and odd functions of the J* multiplied by odd functions of the ««.

The generators of the special canonical transformations are included in the last

category.

The concept of a Hermitian operator requires generalization to accommodate

the noncommutative numerical elements. The reversal in sense of multiplication

that is associated with the adjoint operation now implies that

where X is a number, and we have continued to use the same notation and language

VOL. 48,1962 PHYSICS: J. SCMWINGSR 805

despite the enlargement of the aumber system. Complex conjugation thus has

the algebraic property

and we therefore regard complex conjugation in the exterior algebra as a linear

mapping of the JV-dimensional subspaee of generators,

exists,

obeys

which asserts that a basis can always be chosen with real generators. There still

remains the freedom of real nonsingular linear transformations.

This conclusion is not altered when R has the eigenvalue — 1. In. that circum-

stance, we can construct p(R), & polynomial in R that has the properties

The matrix

also obeys

while

since the contrary would imply the existence of a nontrivial vector » such that

or, equivaleatly,

and if we use the Cayley construction for R' in terms of a real matrix rft which is

a function of R with the property r'(—1) *= 0, we get

600 PHYSICS: J, SCHWINGER PBOC. N. A. S,

where the nonsingular matrices a and p* are commutative, and thereby proves

the reality of the generator set

When real generators are chosen, the other elements of a real basis are supplied

by the nonvanishing products

for

of conventional Hermitian operators multiplied by real elements of the exterior

algebra. The generators Gt are Hermitian, as are the commutators i[Cf^, (?'!*].

The transformation function (n | rz) associated with a generalized unitary trans-

formation is an element of the exterior algebra. It possesses the properties

and

where X symbolizes the summation over a complete set of states which, for the

moment at least, are to be understood in the conventional sense. These attributes

are consistent with the nature of complex conjugation, since

where 0 is Hermitian, which implies that its matrix array of exterior algebra

elements obeys

to the structure of the special variations, and the action principle thus acquires a

dual significance, depending upon the nature of the number system.

We shall need some properties of differentiation in an exterior algebra. Since

«x2 = 0, any given function of the generators can be displayed uniquely in the

alternative forms

where /a, /i, /, do not contain «x- By definition, /, and ft are the right and left

derivatives, respectively, of /(«) with respect to «x,

Vou 48, 1962 PBY8ICS: J. SCHWINGMR mi

d — I , and left and right derivatives are equal for odd d, but of opposite sign when

d is even. For the particular odd function «w we have

so that

Since a derivative is independent of the element involved, repetition of the opera-

tion annihilates any function,

where the coefficients are independent of sx and «„. The last term has the alterna-

tive forms

with

Then,

and

The definition of the derivative has been given in purely algebraic terms. We

now consider /(« + $«), where St\ signifies a linear combination of the exterior

algebra elements with arbitrary infinitesimal numerical coefficients, and conclude

that

property is used to identify dervatives, it must be supplemented by the require-

ment that the derivative be of lower degree than the function, for any numberical

multple of E1E2..EN can be added to a derivative without changing the differential

608 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGMR PBOC. N. A. S.

form. Let us also note the possibility of using arbitrary nonsingular linear combi-

nations of the «x in differentiation, as expressed by the matrix formula

We shall now apply the extended action principle to the superposition of two

transformations, one produced by a conventional Hermitian operator G, an even

function of the f t , while the other is a special canonical transformation performed

arbitrarily, but continuously in T, The effective generator is

where —Xt(r)dr is the special variation induced in |jt(r) during the interval dr.

The objects -3T*(r) are constructed by multiplying %in+i with a linear combination

of the «x containing real numerical coefficients that are arbitrary continuous func-

tions of r. To use the stationary action principle, we observe that each XI(T),

as a special variation, is commutative with a generator of special variations and

thus

where the If* are variations constructed from the exterior algebra elements. We

cannot entirely conclude that

since there remains an arbitrariness associated with multiples of «> • • ew> as in the

identification of derivatives from a differential form. No such term appears,

however, on evaluating

obvious requirement that the transformation function (n| r») be an ordinary number

when all Xt(r) vanish. Thus, the elements of the exterior algebra enter only

through the products of the X»(T) with &(r), as the latter are obtained by inte-

grating the equations of motion, and terms in these equations containing «!••«»

are completely without effect,

Let us examine how the transformation function (rijrj}cx depends upon the

X»(r). It is well to keep in mind the two distinct factors that compose XI,(T},

Here,

VOL, 48, 1962 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGER 809

while Xt'(r) is entirely an element of the exterior algebra. Thus, it is really the

JT'(r) upon which the transformation function depends. An infinitesimal change

of the latter induces

where the summation index k has been suppressed. The repetition of such varia-

tions gives the ordered products

applied to the exterior algebra elements in order to reverse the of multi-

plication. In arriving at the latter form, we have exploited the fact that special

canonical variations are not implicit functions of r and therefore anticommute

with the £* without regard to the r values. Thus, one can bring together the

1m quantities &X(rl), • -SX^™), and this product is a multiple of the unit operator

since pl =» 1. The multiple is the corresponding product of the exterior algebra

elements MT'Cr1), • •&Z'(r2at), which, as an even function, is completely commuta-

tive with all elements of the exterior algebra and therefore can be withdrawn from

the matrix element. The reversal in multiplication sense of the exterior algebra

elements gives a complete account of the sign factors associated with antieom-

mutativity.

The notation of functional differentiation can be used to express the result.

With left derivatives, we have

Here,

into the ordered sequence. This notation ignores one vital point, however. In

an exterior algebra with N generating elements, no derivative higher than the

Nth exists. If we wish to evaluate unlimited numbers of derivatives, in order to

construct correspondingly general functions of the dynamical variables, we must

choose N = <*>; the exterior algebra is of infinite dimensionality. Then we can

assert of arbitrary even ordered functions of the |»(T) that

In the alternative right derivative form, &T signifies that successive differentiations

are performed from left to right rather than in the conventional sense. We also

note that the particular order of multiplication for operator products at a common

time is to be produced by limiting processes from unequal r values. As an appliea-

610 PHYSICS: 3. SCHWISGER Pnoc, N. A. S,

tion to the transformation function (n \ Tt)gx, we supply the even operator function

0 with a variable factor X and compute

where the latter transformation function refers entirely to the special canonical

group.

The corresponding theorems for odd ordered functions of the f*(r) are

and

provided the states are conventional ones. Since the variations SX(r) have no

implicit T dependence, the factors pe can be referred to any r value. If this is

chosen as n or T% there will remain one p operator while the odd product of exterior

algebra elements can be withdrawn from the matrix element if, as we assume, the

product commutes with the states (n| and TJ). The sign difference between the

left and right derivative forms stems directly from the property {AST = —iXf.

As an example, let F(Q be the odd function that appears on the left-hand side

in the equation of motion

since the X(r) are special canonical displacements, and this yields the functional

differential equations obeyed by a transformation function {n | Tt)0x, namely,

and

Some properties that distinguish the trace of the transformation function can

also be derived from the statement about odd functions. Thus,

YOL. 48, 1962 PHYSICS: J. SCHWINGMB 611

Accordingly,

and, in particular,

which shows that the trace is an even function of the X'(r). The nature of the

trace is involved again in the statement

which is an assertion of effective antiperiodicity for the operators {(T) over the

interval T = n — T*. The equivalent restriction on the trace of the transforma-

tion function is

or

» These PBQCBKBINQS, 47, 1075 (1961).

* A brief mathematical description can be found in the publication The Construction, and Study

o/ Certain Important Algebras, by C. Cfaevalley (1955, the Mathematical Society of Japan).

Although such an extension of the number system has long been employed in quantum field

theory (see, for example, these PROCEEDINGS, 37, 482 (1951)}, there has been an obvious need

for an exposition of the general algebraic and group theoretical basis of the device.

CHAPTER EIGHT

GREEN'S FUNCTIONS

8.2 Conservative Systems. Transforms 335

8.3 Operator Function of a Complex 337

Variable

8.4 Singularities 340

8.5 An Example 341

8.6 Partial Green's Function 343

tion of canonical transformation functions associat-

ed with parameterized transformations is the direct

solution of the differential equations that govern

the dependence upon the parameters. For time de-

velopment these are the Schrodinger equations

332 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

t or t0 , which depend upon the particular

J~ <&

GREEN'S FUNCTIONS 333

*

where

334 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

md

are expressed in differential form by

equations (8.5) and the initial conditions (8.6)

both the retarded and advanced green,s operator

solutions of these equations that by

GREENS'S FUNCTIONS 335

tion

operator is constructed as

not appear in the Hamiltonian operator, the time

appear as

336 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

operators

intervals these operators exist for complex values

transformation to the differential equations (8.16)

yields

GREEN'S FUNCTIONS 337

domains of regularity indicated in (8.17). Corres-

pondingly the adjoint connection now appears as

the real axis, is drawn in the domain of regularity

tion.

338 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

of the motion y , shows that the singularities of

functions for the energy states. For a system with

+

the Hamiltonian H(q , q) , for example, the

+

Green's function G(q , q' , E) could be obtained

GREEN'S FUNCTIONS 339

and wavefunctions is disclosed. We should also

ential equation reads

sented in the further specialized Green's function

O

where the coefficients |<E'Y*|O>| obey

energy states in a measurement on the zero eigen-

340 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

8.4 SINGULARITIES

tian part of G (E) for real E ,

any point on the real axis that does not belong to

GREEN'S FUNCTIONS 341

uity for E > EO is

variable.

8.5 AN EXAMPLE

equation

342 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

The solution

J«

involves the double-valued function E of the

complex energy parameter, which must be interpreted

as +i|E|k for E < 0 in order that the Green's

function remain bounded as |r-r'| -> «• . Accor-

ie i-

dingly, for E > 0 we must have E = -f-|E| 2 on

the upper half of the real axis and E = -|E|

on the lower half. Hence there is a discontinuity

across the real axis for E > 0 which constitutes

the entire energy spectrum, since the Green's func-

tion is always bounded as a function of E . The

discontinuity is given by

GREEN'S FPNCTIONS 343

over all directions of the vector p = p n . On

of a given energy can be labelled by the unit vector

n , specified within an infinitesimal solid angle

dw . The corresponding wave functions of the r

representation are

construction appears in two general situations,

of the motion may be apparent from symmetry conside-

rations and it is desired to investigate only states

with specific values of these quantities, or, one

may be interested for classification purposes in

constructing the states of a perturbed system which

correspond most closely to certain states of a re-

344 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

symbolized by

operators, obey

M, ,

one obtains

and

GREEN'S FUNCTIONS 345

which we write as

subspace ML , by

where

constants of the motion for the complete Hamiltonian,

there will be no matrix elements connecting the sub-

fundamental form of the Green's operator equation,

346 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

CHAPTER NINE

SOME APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS

9.2 Coulomb Green's Function 374

t

Reproduced from the Journal of Mathematical

Physics, Vol. 2, pp. 407 -432 (1961).

347

Reprinted from the JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL Pavsicss Vol. 2, Mo. 3, 407-432, J lay-June, 1961

tinted S» V- S, A,

JCUAS SdffiWIUQES*

Elt&wfd Uniserstfy, Csm^fi4ge9 Massachuseiis

(Received November 28,I960)

Aa action principle tec&nkjue for the direct coasputatioR of esEp^etatioti values is described aad illustrated

m detail by a special physical example, tfe« effect on an oscillator of another physics! system. This simple

problem has the advaatage of orobiaiiisg immediate physical applicability (e,f,, resistive damping or

maser amplification of a single electromagnetic cavity mode) with a slgniieaat idealisation of the complex

problems encountered in many-particle and relativiatic fieM titeory. Successive sections eemtain discussions

of the oscillator subjected to external forces, the oscillator loosely coupled io the external systemt aa

improved treatment of this problem and, finally, there is a brief account of a general fonrnsktkta.

physical example that we shall as© to illustrate,

at some length, a solution of the loHowimg methodological But now, imagine that the positive and negative senses

problem, The quantum action principle1 is a differential of time development are governed by differtot dy-

characterization of transformation functions, (o'fc 1 &%}» namics. Then the transformation function for the closed

and thus is ideally suited to the practical computation circuit will be described by the action principle

of transition probabilities (which includes the deter-

mination o£ stationary states). Many physical questions

do not pertain to individual transition probabilities,

however^ btit rather to expectation vaiyes of a physical

property for a specified initial state,

in which abbreviated notation the multiplication sign

symbolizes the composition of transformation functions

by summation over a complete set of states, Ilf in

or, more generally, a mixture of states. Can one devise particular, the Lagraagiaa operators Z± contain the

ais aciiSoa principle technique that is adapted to the dynamical term X±(<)^T(<), we have

direct computation of such expeefcati&B values, without

requiring knowledge of the individual transformation

functions?

The action principle asserts that {^^ 1}> and, therefore^

ami

where Xj. can BOW be identified. Accordingly, if a

system is suitably perturbed2 in a manner that depends

upon the time sense, a knowledge of the transformation

in which we shall take ^>la. These mutually complex- function referring to a dosed time path determines the

conjugate forms correspond to the two viewpoints expectation value of any desired physical quantity for

whereby states at different times can be compared, a specified initial state or state mixture.

either by progressing forward from the earlier time* or

backward from the later time. The relation between OSCILLATOR

the pair of transformation functions is such that To illustrate this remark we first consider an oscillator

subjected to an arbitrary external force, as described by

the Lagrangian operator

* Supported by the Mi Force Office of Scientific Research

(ARDCV

1 a

Some reierenees are: Julias Scfewinger, Fhys. Rev. ^, 9M ESespite this dynamical language, a change in the Hamiltoroan

(!»51}j 91, ?J3 (!9»)j Phil Mag. 44, H?J (WSJ). The first two

papers also appear io Selected Papers OK Quantum Ele£tf®dyn®mfo$

(Dover Pttbffcallons, New fork, »S8), A recent discussion is

r atot of a system can be kineiratical in character, arising from

consideration of another transformation along with (lie

dynamical aw generated by the Hamiltonkn. See Use last paper

contained in Julian Scbwinger, Proc. JMatl. Acad. Sd. U. S. 46, quoted in footnote I, sod Julias Schwinger, Proc Natl Acad.

883 (I960). Sd. U. S. «, 1401 (1«0).

407

408 J. SCHWINGER

in which the complementary pair of nor*-Hermiiian The choice of initial state implies effective boundary

operators y, iy>, are constructed from Hermitian conditions that supplement the equations of motion,

operatorss q,p, by

Hence in effect we have

The equations of motion implied by the action principle

are

and

together with the adjoint equation. Since we now

distinguish between the forces encountered, in the interchanging the ± labels. For convenience, step

positive time sense, K+(t), K+*(i), and in the reverse functions have been introduced:

time direction, K~.(t), K~*{t), the Integral must be

taken along the appropriate path. Thus, when I is

reached first in the time evolution from 4, we have

We shall also havcasion to use the odd function

expression for log(ot2/ ot2)k is given by

Note

function referring to the lowest energy state of the and

unperturbed oscillator, (GfelQfe)-**, This state can be

characterized by

or, equivalently, by the eigenvector equations The requirement that the transformation function

reduce to unity on identifying X+ with £_, K+* with

K~.*, is satisfied by the null sum of all elements of Ge,

Since the transformation function simply equals as assured by the property %.+>!_= 1.

unity if K+***K~ and K+*~K-*, we must examine the An operator interpretation of Gt is given by the

effect of independent changes in K+ and JC_, and of second variation

JC+* and K-", as described by tie action principle

structure of L that refer to parameters upon which

BROWN1AN MOTION OF A QUANTUM OSCILLATOR 409

dependent, we have

variables are complete and have an intrinsic physical

in which the multiplication order follows the sense of Interpretation in terms of g and p measurements of

time development. Accordingly* optimum compalibility.3 For otir immediate purposes.,

however, we are roore interested in the unperturbed

oscillator energy states. The connection between the two

descriptions can be obtained by considering the

unperturbed oscillator transformation function

where the expectation values and operators refer to the

lowest state and the dynamical variables of the un~ Now

perturbed oscillator. The property of Go that the sum

of rows and columns vanishes is here a consequence of

the algebraic property

since

The choice ol oscillator ground state Is no essential Whch Yielsds

restriction since we eas now derive the analogous

results for any initial oscillator state. Consider, for

this purpose, the impulse forces

the effects of which are described by We infer She norincgative integer spectrum o! yry( and

the corresponding wave functions

iims, unaer the influence oi these lorces, me states Accordingly^ a non-Hermitian canonical variable trans-

|%) and (0^1 become, at the time fe-f-O, the states formation function can serve as a generator for the

iy%) &&d (y f %], which are right an<l left eigenvectors! transformation (unction referring to unperturbed

respectively, of the operators y(fe) and yf(J»). OH takiag oscillator energy statesr

into account arbitrary additional forces* the transforma-

tion function for the closed time path can be expressed

as

supplies all expectation values referring to the initial

state nt we myst extract the coefficient of (3t*'y'l)*/nl

from aa exponential of the form

s

A discussion of non-Hermitjan representations is given m

Lectures on Quantum Mec&snies (Les HoycheSj 1955)^ unpublished.

410 J. SCHWINGER

are contained m Thus

where the latter version is obtained from

perturbed oscillator thermal expectation values

and

the designation {n}$ is consistent with its identification

as (yW*

The thermal forms can also be derived directly by

solving the equations of motion, in the manner used to

find (0^ I Qi%}K*. On replacing the single diagonal element

duced on observing that

One obtains a much neater form, however, from which instead of the effective initial condition ^{^^O. This

these results can be recovered, on considering an is obtained by combining

Initial mixture of oscillator energy states for which

the nth state is assigned the probability

s*ith the property of the trace

and

We also hav;

can be interpreted as a temperature. Then, since

we obtain

Hence, to the previously determined y^(t) is to be

added the term

with

and correspondingly

and in which

B R O W N 1 A N M O T I O N OF A Q U A N T U M O S C I L L A T O R 411

expectation value of the oscillator energy at time t\

tot a system that was in thermal equilibrium at time (5

and is subsequently disturbed by an arbitrarily time-

varying force. This can be computed as

results, that the attention to expectation values does

The derivative i/SK+*(k) supplies the factor * j • * .1 ».•!• .,. ,, ,

not (Jepnve uj of ti,e ability to compute individual

probabilities. Indeed, if probabilities for specific oscil-

lator energy states are of interest, we have only to

exhibit, as functions of y and y1, the projection operators

for these states, the expectation values of which are the

the subsequent variation with respect to K.(h) gives required probabaitics. frow

u{n)0+u

of y((.) and y«(fc) are known from that of

exp{ - i[X/{h)+MyOi)]}, n whicl, we ^vs jntro<iuced a notation to indicate this

and this quantity is obtained on supplementing K+ ordered multiplication of operators. A convenient

and K-t* by the impulsive forces (note that in this use generating function for these projection operators is

of the formalism a literal eoraplex-conjugat© relationship

is not required)

Then

Accordingly,

K^.*(t)"iit{l—lt+0), nth energy state after an arbitrary time-varying force

412 j. SCHW1NGER

has acted, il it was initially m a thermal mixture of rhls ferai; and the implied transition probabilities, have

states, ilready been derived in another connection,4 and we

To evaIlia If? shall only state the general resell here;

in which ra> and ^< represent the larger and smaller of

the two integers n and nf.

Another kind of probability is also easily identified,

that referring to the continuous spectrum erf the

Mermitian operator

abd obtain

with

or

Here with respect to p'/ln: from — « to «, we obtain the

expectation value of ^Qf {**) ""* $1 which is the probability

of realizing a value of q(t\) in a unit interval about (/i

as one shows with a similar procedure^ or by direct Still another derivation ojf the lormuk giving thermal

series expari&iors, Tfeeref&re., expectation values merits attention. Now we let the

return path terminate al a different time l/=4~"^»

and on regarding the resulting transformation function

as a matrix, compute the traces or rather the trace

rattn

whrer

which reduces to unity in the absence of external

forces. The action principle again describes the dqsend-

and <m referring 10 the previously used Lagiier: enee upon JC±*(/}, K±(t) through the opera-tore y±0)»

polynomial sum formula, we obtain y^(f) which are related to the forces by the solutions

of the equations of motion, and, is particular*

initial thermal equiliibrisimt this result provides a

generating function for the Individual transition

probabilities between oscillator energy states,

Next we recognize that the structure ol the trace implies

the effective boundary condition

B R O W N I A N MOTION OF A Q U A N T U M OSCILLATOR 413

Q(i) is a Hermltlan operator of that system.

ixW\y-(t*')\ti-Z« <aVb-(V)k%), We begin our treatment with a discussion of the

where we require of the a representation only that it transformation function {(»1*^*9*** that refers initially

have no explicit time dependence. Then to a thermal mixture at temperature $ lor the external

system, and to an Independent thermal mixture at

temperature$9 for the oscillator. The latter temperature

a&e can be interpreted literally, or as a convenient para-

metric device lor obtaining expectation values referring

to oscillator energy states. To study the effect of the

which is the slated result. coupling between the oscillator and the external

T%e ffffrfiw? initial rnrtHitmn nnw aranp&rs asi system we supply the coupling term with a variable

parameter \ and compute

tion of the trace ratio: where the distinction between the forward and return

paths arises only from the application of different

external forces &&(!} OR the two segments of the closed

time contour. The characterization of the external

system as essentially macroscopic now enters through

the assumption that this large system is only slightly

affected by the coupling to the oscillator. In a corre-

sponding first approximation, we would replace the

where the time variable in K+ and £„ ranges from o|>erat0rs Q&(t) by the effective aumerical quantity

£g to It and from I/ to l\t respectively. To solve the given (CCO)*- The phenomena that appear in this order of

physical problem we require that &.({) vanish le the accuracy are comparatively trivial, however^ and we

interval between // and t$ so that all time integrations shall suppose that

3l"P *ixt**nrfw'! HpfWfPfTi to anH f.t TThj^n einff

wfaat has been evaluated equals A second differentiation with respect to X gives

exist on making the complex substitution

the desire<l formula emerges as

slight disturbance at the macroscopic system converts

this into

EXraRHAt SYSTEM

This concludes our preliminary survey of the oscil-

lator and we turn to the specific physical problem &i

interest: An oscillator subjected to prescribed external

forces and loosely coupled to an essentially macroscopic

external system. All oscillator interactions are linear

in the oscillator variables, as described by the Lagran- whre

glan operator

414 J. SCHWINGER

y(l)y(t') and /(«}/(<')• The latter approximation

refers to the assumed weakness of the coupling of the

oscillator to the external system, for, durmg the many

periods that are needed tor the effect of the coupling to

accumulate, quantities with the time dependence

e±«0e(H-i'> ^rjj} Ijecome suppressed in comparison with and

those varying as g^***"™1'). At this point we ask what

effective term in an action operator that refers to the

dosed time path of the oscillator would reproduce this The nonlocal character of these equations is not very

approximate value of s\t,}aA=>0.The (9/dX)*(f marked if, for example, the correlation between Q(t)

complete action that satisfies this requirement, with and Q(f} in the macroscopic system disappears when

Xs set equal to unity, is gives by \t—lf\ is still small compared with the period of the

oscillator, Then, since the behavior of y(t) over a short

time interval is given approximately by «"**', the matrix

A (<—;') is effectively replaced by

to this action operator yields equations of motion that

are nonlocal in time, namely, *

ana

Kjsitive Quantities since

together with

and

One consequence

The latter set is also obtained by combitning the formal

adjomt operation with the interchange of the + and

~ labels attached to the operators and K{t). Another It also follows from

significant form is conveyed by the pair of equations

that

and

is real. Furthermore

where

B R O W N I A N M O T I O N OF A Q U A N T U M O S C I L L A T O R 415

so that which supplites the initial conditiron for the s

equation of motion

and the required solution is given by

of the expectation value for the macroscopic system,

which is now taken as the thermal average;

The implication for the structure of the expectation

values is contained in

which employs the formal property The corresponding solutions for y^(tj are obtained by

interchanging the ± labels in the formal adjoint

equation.

The differential dependence of the transformation

On introducing the "time Fourier transforms, howevi function (fe \ ti)»t>tK* upon the external forces is described

this becomes the explicit relation by these results, and the explicit formula obtained on

integration is

and we conclude that

we have

remove al! explicit reference to the external system as

a dynamical entity. We are given elective equations of

motion for y+ and y^ that contain the prescribed

external forces and three parameters, the angular

frequency »(£»»»), 7, and <t, the latter pair being

related by the temperature of the macroscopic system. Another way of pereaenting this results is

The accompanying boundary conditions are

416 J. SCHWINGER

and is expressed by

(where f indicates differentiation to the left) h The previously employed technique of impulsive force;

conjunction with the initial value applied at the time t\ gives the more general result

A more symmetrical version of this differential equatio! expectation values can be obtained.

is given by The latter calculation Illustrates a general character-

istic of the matrix G(t,(), which is implied by the

lack of dependence on the time ti. Indeed, such a

terminal time need not appear explicitly in the structure

of the transformation function {k\i%)K* and all time

integrations can range from it to +<*>. Then ti is

implicit as the time beyond which K+ and K~ are

identified, and the structure of G must be such as to

remove any reference to a time greater than t\. In the

present situation, the use of an impulsive force at h

produces, for example, the term

We note the vanishing sum of ail G elements, and that

the rote of complex conjugation in exchanging the two

segments of the dosed time path is expressed by

in which K+ and K~ are set equal. Hence it is necessary

that

md similarly that

which says that adding the columns of G(/,f) gives

retarded functions of/ £—/, while the sum of rows

is Gfg»(<—ft, f—1%) independent of k and a function of supplies a vector that is an advanced function of

(—('. This dearly refers to the initial physical situation t—t'. In each instance, the two components must have a

of thermal equilibrium between the oscillator and the sero sum- These statements are immediately verified for

external system at the common temperature <>»=$> 0, the explicitly calculated C?^Q>?(£—la, ?—t%) and follow

which equilibrium persists ia the absence of external more generally from the operator construction

forces. If the initial circumstances do not constitute

thermal equilibrium, that will be established in the

course of time at the macroscopic temperature tf>0.

Thus, all reference to the initial oscillator temperature for, as we have already noted in connection with Q

disappears from G»e>(t— Is, (—fe) when, for fixed t—t. products,

B R O W N I A H MOTION OF A Q U A N T U M O S C I L L A T O R 417

tion values of general functions of y(t) and yfO). A less

explicit but simpler result can also be givesi by means of

expectation values for functions of the operators

Our results show^ incidentally, that

Another general property can be illustrated by our

calculation, the posttlveness of -~iG(t/)+~t

and therefore that the fluctuations of y(t)t yr(/) can be

ascribed to the effect of: the forces Kft jf/, which appear

as the qtiantam analogs of the random forces In the

classical l.angevin approach to the theory of the

Brownian motion. The change in viewpoint is accom-

plished by introducing

w(l), ?(/} vanish at the time boundaries* Then, partial

and it is clearly necessary that each term obey sep- time integrations will replace the operators % y* with

arately the positiveness requirement. The first term is Kt, K,t.

To carry this out, however, we need the following

lemma on time-ordered products:

rom the formula

vanishes at the time terminals; and the hypothesis that

[X(0,#(0] and [dB(t}/dt, B(tYj are commutative

with all the other operators. The proof is obtained by

All the information that has been obtained about replacing B(t) with XJS(0 aad diiferentlatJBg with

the oscillator is displayed on considering the forces respect to X,

equivalent time-ordered operators:

418 j. SCHWINGER

according to the hypothesis, and the stated result Such expectation values are to be understood as effective

fellows &n integrating this differential equation, evaluations that serve to describe the properties of the

Tbe structure of the lemma Is given; by the rearrange- oscillator under the circumstances that validate the

ment various approximations that have bees used,

It will be observed that when » is sufficiently large

to permit the neglect of all other terms,

multiple of the unit operator.

and the seEse ol operator multiplication is no longer

significant. This is the classical limit, for which

ine last term involves aiscaromg a touu time oenvauve

that will not contribute to the final result. To evaluate

[4 3] we must refer to the mean-teg of K/ and K/ that

is supplied by the actual equations of motion.

for then introducing real components of the raadom force

Kfiri^+iKd, ir/'-z-Htfi-flCt),

the classical limiting result reads

which is also proportional to the unit operator. Ac-

cordingly,

we consider time-averaged forces,

and complex conjugation yields the analogous result for we find by Fourier transformation that

negatively time^-ordered products.

With the aid of the differential equation obeyed by

G, we now get

that the force averaged over a time interval &£ will

have a vatae within a small neighborhood of the point

K'. In this classical limit the fluctuation constant a is

related to the damping or dissipation constant 7 and

the macroscopic temperature $ by

situations io which the external, system is not at thermal

equilibrium. To see this possibility let us return to the

real positive functions A,+(ta)t A+~(<a) that describe the

The elements of this matrix are also expressed b; external system arscl remark that, generally,

B R O W H 1 A H M O T I O N OF & Q U A H T 0 M OSCILLATOR 419

and, on defining

— «* to 4" °°. When only one value of « is of interest^

all conceivable situations for the external system can be

described by the single parameter & the reciprocal of

which appears as an effective temperature of the

macroscopic system. A new physical domain that

appears m this way is characterised by negative we obtain the time"-mQepeadent result

temperatarej $<G. Since & is an iatrmsicaJly positive

constant, it is y that will reverse sign

-exp[- ««>.,+ (l-«-i«i")->)wJ

which Implies that

aad the effect of the external system on the oscillator

changes from damping to amplification,

We shall discuss the following physical sequence. At

time Ig the oscillator, in a thermal mixture of states at

temperature $#, is acted on by external forces which

are present lor a time, short in comparison with 1/J7J, Thus, the oscillator coordinate y(l) is the amplified

Altar a sufficiently extended interval "-(/i—fc) such superposition of two harmonic terms, one of definite

that the amplification factor or gain is very large, amplitude and phase (signal), the other with random,

amplitude and phase (noise), governed by a two-

dimensional Gaussian probability distribution.

measurements are made in the neighborhood of time These considerations with regard to amplification can

t\. A prediction of all such measurements is contained IB be viewed as a primitive model of a ntaser device,6

the general expectation value formula. Approximations with the oscillator corresponding to a slogte mode of a

that convey the physical situation under consideration resonant electromagnetic cavity, aod the external

are given by system to an atomic ensemble wherein, for a selected

pair of levels, the thermal population inequality is

reversed by some meaas such as physical separation or

electromagnetic pumping,

m IMFEO?E0 TEEA1MEHT

In this section we seek to remove some of the limita-

tions ot the preceding discussion. To aid in dealing

successfully with the Ronlocal time behavior of the

oscillator, it is conveaient to replace the non-Hermitian

operator description with one employing Hermitlan

and operatois. Accordingly^ we begin the development

again, now using the Lagrangian operator

One could also include a& external prescribed ferce that

js coupled to p* We repeat the previous approximate

constructioii of the transformation function (lsifeVfl*JF*

which proceeds by the introduction of an effective

From the appearance of the combinations #,f—/*_**/*, action operator that retains only the simplest correlation

Xf.~-)u™X only, we recognize that noaoesmmtitativity of aspects of the external system^ as comprised in

operator multiplication Is no longer significant, aad

thus the motion of the oscillator has been amplified to

the classical level. To express the consequences most

simply, we write

s

A sinsilar nwtei has been discussed recently by R. Ser!>er

and C. E, TOWMS, Symposium an Qusntum Ele&sfmm (Columbia

Umwts&y Press, New York, I960).

420 J. SCH W! M G E R

The action operator, with no other approximations, is The accompanying boundary conditions are

&nd

and the implied equations of motion,, presented as or> more conveniently expressed,

second-order differentia! equations after eliminating

are

appears here since the initial condition refers to a

anc thermal raisture oi unperturbed oscillator states,

The required solution of the equation lor q~~~g-$,

eats be written as

to the interchange of the ±labels.

We define

arm

and

equals zero. The initial conditions Cor the second

equation, which this solytiou supplies, are

together witl

and

which enables us to present the integro-differenlial

equations as

and

The Green's function that is appropriate lor the

equation obeyed by q.++•§-- is defined by

B R O W N I A N M O T I O H OF A Q U A N T U M O S C I L L A T O R 421

and the two real factions are related by The latter obeys

is

and its elements are given by

where

We note the identifications

proportional to (*>(£—/)? while the sum of the tows

contains only <?«(*--0-

We shall suppose that Gr(t~~^} can have iw> more than

exponential growth, ^g«^~^^ as |—|r--» «?. Thee the

complex Fourier transform

is a real symmetrical mnctioa ol its two arguments.

The differential description of the transformatikm

function that these solutions imply is indicated by

Here

and the result oi integration is

'bb can also be displayed m the matrix form sr, since (A~,+-~A^~)(&) is an odd function ol <&}

with

We have already remarked on the generality of the

representation

422 J. S C H W I N G E R

raonotordcaliy decreasing function of 1"*=^ that begins

at -I- * for £= — <» and will therefore have no zero on

the negative real axis if it is still positive at a;=0,

Since IMS is art even function of f, it also represents The corresponding condition is

the Fourier transform of Ga in the lower half-plane

Im£<-«.

If the effective temperature is positive and finite

at all frequencies, $(&?)>0, <?(!*} can have no complex

poles as a function of the variable £*. A complex pole tinder these circumstances a—0, for G(%), qua- function

at ft^x+iy, y+0, is a zero of G(f)~l and requires that of f!, has no singularity other than the branch line on

the positive real axis, and the f singularities are therefore

confined entirely to the real axis. This is indicated by

exceeds unity. On letting y approach zero, we see that

a pole of G(£) can occur at a point £=w'2>Q only if

s(t/)~0. If the external system responds through the

oscillator coupling to any impressed frequency, <j(a»)>G

for all a and no pole can appear on the positive real *nd B(t*>2) is the positive quantity

comparison of asymptotic forms. Thus

and

and

The integral relations mentioned previously can be

expressed in terms of these Green's functions. Thus,

while, in the limit of small positive r,

The Green's functions are recovered on using thi which indicates the initial effect of the coupling to the

inverse Fourier transformation external system.

The function S(u*} is bounded, and the Green's

functions mast therefore approach sero as 11~~ t1 \ ~~t «s.

Accordingly, all reference to the initial oscillator condi-

tion and to the time k must eventually disappear.

where the path of integration is drawn in the half-plane For sufficiently large t—It, f—h, the function »(«— />,

B R O W N I A N M O T I O N OF A Q U A N T U M O S C I L L A T O R 423

and, therefore,

G(t~(t, t'—tt) is given by

»(»)- («M«">-!)->, rium as an initial condition would be desirable,

The required derivation is produced by the device of

which describes the oscillator in equilibrium at each computing the trace of the transformation function

frequency with the external system. When the tempera- (fe'Ha)^ in which the return path terminates at the

ture is frequency independent, this is thermal equilib- different time t,'**f,~T, and the external force F_{»)

rium. Note also that at zero temperature »(w)~0, and is zero in the interval between (j and It. The particular

G(t~ <%+ is characterized by the temporal outgoing significance of the trace appears on varying the param-

wave boundary condition—positive (negative) fre- eter \ that measures the coupling between oscillator

quencies (or positive (negative) time difference. The and external system:

situation is similar for G(t~~t'}~~ as a function of £'—t,

It can no longer be maintained that placing ft>=tf

removes all reference to the initial time. An interval

must elapse before thermal equilibrium is established

at the common temperature. This can be seen by

evaluating the fe derivative of w(<~fe, t'—t^j:

transformations of the individual states at the corre-

sponding times, if these states are defined by physical

quantities that depend upon X, such as the total energy.

Th^re is no analogous contribution to the trace,

however, for the trace is independent of the representa-

tion, which is understood to be defined similarly at t>

and tj, and one could use a complete set that does not

refer to X, More generally, we observe that G\{lt)

bears the satn« relation to the (VI states as does 6n(<j)

to the states at time % and therefore

operator can proceed as before, with appropriately

modified ranges of time integration, and, for the

external system, with

for if this is to vanish, the integrals involving Gn say,

must be expressible as linear combinations of Gf(t—t$)

and its time derivative, which returns us to the approx-

imate treatment of the preceding section, including the

approximate identification of o^ with the elective

Ms trace structure implies that

oscillator frequency. Hence $s»$ does not represent

the initial condition of thermal equilibrium between

oscillator and external system. While it is perfectly

clear that the latter situation is described by the matrix or, since these correlation functions depend only on

424 J, S C H W I N G E R

time pjiiereiKesi that WMCB nas seen written tor external torees tftat are

aero until the m&m&nt t% has passed.

Perhaps the simplest procedure at this point is to

ivhicfa if -"'so expressed by ask for the dependence o£ the latter solution upon t$,

for fixed T, We find that

Therefore,

These are supplemented by the eciuation lor f_(/) in

the interval from I/ to fe:

smce, with positive time argument;

the Green's functions to sera with Increasing magnitude

and the effective bcnmaary condition ol the time argume&t, which is assured, after making the

substitution r -* ijff, under the circumstances we have

indicated. Then we can let *,-+ — » and obtain

The equation lor $-—#$. is selved as before.

whereas

wit!

as anticipated.

Our results determiae the trace ratio

Systran, and the substitution T~~»-i$ yidds the trans-

formation ftiEtction

B R O W H I A N MOTION OF A Q U A N T U M OSCILLATOR 425

thermal average transformation function {414}sF*

with its attendant physical information, it is possible

to compute the trace

thereby the thermostatic properties of the oscillator in

equilibrium with the external system. For tMs purpose

we set F ± —0 lor i">t% and apply an arbitrary external

We can also write force F-{%) in the interval from £/ to 4. Moreover, the

coupling term between oscillator and external system

"m the effective action operator is supplied with the

variable factor X (formerly Xs). Then we have

where

presence of ari external field F($ becomes explicit on

writing where ?-(£) obeys the equation of motion

ordered operators,

with the accompanying boundary condition

T«l/—Ig, The solution of this equation is

Thin

and the properties of $~~{g}$F, which are mdeperideat F~_™0 is the differential equation for the tracef and

of PS are given by setting F—0 m the geaeral result. obtain

In particular, we recover the matrix identity

series

The relation between w and <?.—G? can then be

displayed as a connection between symmetrical prodact

and commutator expectation values

with

426 J. SCHWINGER

and vanishes at infinity in this cat plane. Hence

where, it is to be recalled, •ecogmse, on relating the two forms,

Now we have

that

The positive value of the right-hand side as i*? —* 0

shows that <f(a) approaches the zero frequency limiting

value o! ?r from below, and the assumption that a(&s)>0

for all w implies

yields

where the lower limit is approached as &; —* ^.

A comparison of asymptotic forms for G~l{$) shows

that

and examined some of its properties for real and performed directly in the structure &i G~~l({),

positive jl_j,(w}, A+-(a), This situation is recovered

on makine the substitution T—*i8, and thus

G^l($) remain positive at every value comprised in

j"*— — (2rn/ft)1, which is to say the entire negative f

axis including the origin. The condition

We now have the representation

the summation over » most conveniently we shall give

an alternative construction for the function lag(G~l(()/

—I1), which, as a function of f l , has all its singularities

located on the branch line extending from 0 to <* arid

B R O W N 1 A N MOTION OF A Q U A N T U M OSCILLATOR 427

aaa the summation tormula derived worn the pnxtuci That the function in question, ReG^^-HD), has a

form of the hyperbolic sine function, zero, follows from its positive value at w^O and its

ssyraptotic approach to — <# with indefinitely inereasmg

frequency. Under1 the conditions we have described.,

with the major contribution to the integral coming

from high frequencies^ the gero point is given approxi-

gives us the desired result mately as

The second factor can be ascribed to the oscillator, ind somewhat more accurately by

with its properties modified by interaction with the

external system, The average energy of the oscillator

at temperature $~0rl is therefore gives by

where

As we shall see, B Is less than, unity, but only slightly

^(w) is not to be overlooked. In an extreme faigh-

so under the circumstances assumed,

temperatyre limit, such that &i$<sCl for all significant

In the neighborhood of the frequency w ( , the equation

frecitiencks, we have

that determines ^(<y) can be approximated by

{Q% is proportional to $„ The oscillator energy al with the definition

xero temperature is given by

abruptly from a value close to w to one near zero. The

subsequent variations of the phase are comparatively

and the osctllaior coEtrtbution to the specific heat

vanishes. gradual, and <p eventually approaches aero as <y —* *>.

A simple evaluation of the average oscillator energy

The following physical situation has consequences

that resemble the simple model of the previous section. can be given when the frequency range «>wi over

For values o? to<w0J a(«) tanh(|t^)4Cw«Si and *(w) which e(w) is appreciable in magnitude is such that

differs significantly from zero until one attains fre- j3w^j, Ttiere will be n& significant temperature varia-

tion in the latter domain a&d in particular &n should

quencies that are large in comparison with &j». The

be essentially temperature independent Thes, since

magnitudes that a{&?) can assume at frequencies greater

than &}g is limited only by the assumed absence of rapid — (I/-$}(&%>/$&} in the neighborhood of on closely

variations and by the requirement of stability. The re^mblesft(w—wi),we haw approxiisately

latter is generally assured if

comfortably satisfied, so that the right-hand side of

the equation for eot$>(&t} is an appreciable fraction of which describes a simple oscillator of frequency wj,

we2 at sufficiently low frequencies. Then tan^u is very with a displaced origin of eaergy,

small at such frequencies, or ?(iu}"v*v and this persists Note that with $>(«} wry small at a frequency

until we teach the immediate neighborhood o! the slightly greater than w and zero at infinite frequency,

frequency &Ji<wt such that eye have

428 J . SCH W I N G E R

of &fi, 1 &f—^i j -^^ gives

and

which clearly identifies B<1 with the contribution to

the integral J"AaiJS(in'') that comes from the vicinity of

The latter result confirms that B< i. A somewhat more thisresonanceof width t at frequency «i, although the

accurate formula lor ,8 fa same result is obtained without the last approximation.

The remainder of the integral, t—B, arises from fre-

quencies considerably higher than an according to our

assumptions.

There is a similar decomposition of the expressions

If the major contributions to all these integrals come for the Green's functions. Thus, with Of,

from the general vicinity of a frequency «»««, we

can mate toe crude estimates

factor B from unity are particularly significant effects. The second high-frequency term will decrease very

The approximation of Re<3{aj-HQ} as B™1^!*"™^} quickly on the time scale set by I/MI,. Accordingly, in

evidently holds from zero frequency up to a frequency using this Green's function, say in the evaluation of

considerably in excess of &n. Throughout this frequency

rartere we }IK\TP

relation to &si, the contribution of the high-frequency

wito term is essentially given by

tion are in the classical domain and 7 is the frequency

independent constant

But

To regard j as constant for a quantum oscillator requires

a suitable frequency restriction to the vicinity of on,

The function B(ws) can be computed from

described by the low-frequency part of the Green's

function. We can represent this situation by an equi-

valent differential equation

lions are classical but implies a restriction to a frequency

interval within which y is constant, for quantum oscilla-

tions. We note the reduction in the effectiveness of the

external force by the factor B. Under the circumstances

B R O W N I A N MOTION OF A O U A H T U M OSCILLATOR 429

mtlined this effect is not important an4 we shall place which here asserts that

5 equal to unity.

One can ntafee a general replacement of the Green's

unctions by their low "frequency parts:

that only time averages of q{t) are of physical Interest.

This is represented in the expectation value formula by

considering only functions f±{t) that do not vary too

aukklv. The corresmwirfin? replacement iotwit—i*} is

with

ofsevs the. differential ^filiation

where s^o^Wi),

The simplest presentation of results is again to be

found m the Laogevin. viewpoint, which directs the

emphasis fom the coordinate operator g(t) to the

and

fluctuating force defined by

If a comparison is made with the similar results o! the

previous section it cars be appreciated that the f reqtsency

range has been extended and the jrestriction «tscs&j»

removed.

which Is to say We return from these extended considerations on

thermal equilibrium and consider am extreme example

of negative temperature for the external system, itiis

is described by

and

and the necessary partial integrations involve the

previously established Jemima oa tiffie-ordered operatorsj

430 J. SCHWINGER

Its a function of £*t G(£) now has complex poles if where g» and «? ate the amplitude and phase of f,(i).

Despite rather different assumptions about the external

system, these are the same conclusions as before, apart

We shall suppose, for simplicity, that wt^wa and from a factor of f in the formula (or the gain.

sfXsat. Then the poles of

6IHERAL THE0M

The whole of the preceding discussion assumes an

are located at and external system that is only slightly influenced by the

Acoordingly is regulat outside a stirip of wich presence of the oscillator. Now we must attempt to

The associated Greeen's Futcation are given by place this simplification within the framework ol a

general formulation, A more thorough treatment is

also a practical necessity in situations such as those

producing amplification of the oscillator motion, for a

and the function compoued fior sizeable reaction in the external system must eventually

appear, unless a counter mechanism is provided,

It is useful to supplement the previous Lagrangian

operator with the term f'('X?, in which q'{i) is an

arbitrary numerical function of time, and also, to

imagine the coupling term gQ supplied with a variable

factor X. Then

we have

with

mptification factor

the oscillator is described by the classical coordins

function refers do not depend upon the coupling

between the systems, or that the trace of the trans-

Here formation functisn is being evaluated. A similar

statement would apply to a transformation fusctiois

with different terminal times. This differential equation

implies an integrated form, in which the transformation

and function for the fully coupled system (X= 1) is expressed

in terms of the transformation function for the un-

where g-t and ^ are characterised by the expectation coupled system (X=0), The tatter is the product of

value formula transformation functions for the independent escalator

and external system. The relation is

in which

B E O W N I A H M O T I O N OF A Q U A N T U M OSCILLATOR 431

zero If we are eonceraed OBly with nseasarements on

the oscillator.

Let us consider for the moment just the exteraal

system with the perturbation gfQ, the effect 0! which Is

indicated by8

Bui

and farthermore,

We shall define

and similarly equation lor the transformation function (lali^*, in

which a knowledge is assumed of the external systems

reaction to the perturbation ?±'(Q:

Throughout this discussion, one must distinguish

between the ± signs attached to particular compoHeaf s

which is the expectation value ol Q{$ in the presence of aud those involved in the listing of complete sets of

the perturbation described by ?'(^). This is assumed to variables.

be aero for §'00—0 and depends generally upon the The differential equations for time development are

history of /(/} between % and the given time. supplemented by boundary conditions which assert, at

The operators §&(!} are produced withlm the trans- a time h beyond which F^(I)~F_(0, that

formation function by the functional differential

operators (±1/0 V^±(*)» &n^ ^nce the equation of

motion for the uncoupled oscillator is

(4f4Ve^*» ^e have the initial conditions

we have

a

Such positive and negative time-ordered products occur in a

recent paper bv it. Svnmnak Q, Math. Phys* 1, 249 (1960)1

which appeared after this paper had beem written and its contents

ssed as a basis for lectures delivered at the Brandos Summer

Sefeaol, July, I960. fhe previous treatment caa sow be identified as the

432 J. S C H W I M G E R

approximation of the Q±(ttq±) oy linear functions of converts the functional differential equations into

%&>

and

wherein the linear equations tor the operators q±(t) ana

their meaning in terms of variations of the P& have

been united in one pair of functional differential

enuafJons. This relation becomes clearer if one writes

and, with the defiuition When the Q$, are linear functions of g±( the functional

differential operators disappear7 amcl we regam the

linear eolations for q±(t)t which in turn imply the

quadratic form of $T{F&) that characterizes the

preceding discussion,

T

The degeneration of th« lunctioriml ^jtiation? iato or^nafy

Eliffeiwitial equations a^e» oeeurs when the RHJ!ion of the oscillator

is classical aad free of Iuct«atioR.

374 QUANTUM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS

+

9.2 COULOMB GREEN'S FUNCTION

t

Reproduced from the Journal of Mathematical Physics,

Vol. 5, pp. 1606-1608 (1964).

Reprinted liom Printed in VSA.

JOUKKAL OF M A T H E M A T I C A L PHYSICS VOLOKB 5, N U M B E R 11 NOVEMBER I96<

JyiaAN ScHwxKasit

ffarmrd £/nwers%, Cambridge, MasmekmeM*

(Beceirad 19 June 1964)

A one-parameter istegml Eeprestutation is given for tlis momestucft 8[>a«e Green's fuoctioa

he nasrelativistie Coulomb problem.

rproblem

r has long been known that the degenwasy of

the bound states in the nonrektrristio Coulomb

can be described by a four-dimensional

Sreen's function a (ft = 1)

representation is most eonvenient for realizing the

connection. It seems not to have been recofpiraed,

however, that the same approach cat* b§ used to We shall solve this equation by assuming, at first,

obtain an exploit construction for the Green's that

function of this problem. The derivation1 is given

here. ia real and negative. The general result is inferred

The momentum representation equation for the by analytic continuation.

* It was wolfed cm$ to preseat at a Harvard quaatum The parameters

mechanics eourae give® in ttte late 1940*8. I h&ve been

stimulated to rescue it from tfa® quiet d«ath oj lectee aotes

by recent publications is this Jouro&l, which give alternative

forms of the Green's faaetwm: B. H. Wielimaaa aad C. H.

Woo, J. Mutt. Phys. Z, 178 (1W1): JU Ho«tter, iW. S, S91

(J964). define the surface of a unit four-dimensional By-

COBLOMB GEBBN'S FUNCTION 1607

with the momentum spaee. The element of are whei

on the sphere is

if one keeps JB mind that p ^. Pa corresponds to the surface harmonies. One can verify that D has the

two semispheres Is » ^(1 — £*)** As another form of radial discontinuity implied by the delta function

this relation, we write the delta function connect- inhomogeneity of the differential equation,

ing two points on the uait sphere as

Next, observe thi F with p « = / » ' • » 1. The equation is solved by

Then, if we define give the expected negative energy eigenvalues.

The residues of Q at the corresponding poles in

the B plane provide the normalized wavefune-

tions, whieh are

that function obeys a four-dimensional auelideaE

surface integral equation,

where form with the end of the expansion for D. We use

the following version of this expansion:

and

out the Euclidean space is the Green's funetioc

where { and £' are of unit length and 0 < p < I.

of the four-dimensional Poisson equation, Note, incidentally, that if we set { ** J* and inte-

grate over the unit sphere, of area 2ir3, we get

It can be constructed in terms of a eomplete set

of four-dimensional solid harmonics. In the spherical

coordinates indicated by />, Q, these are where m* is the multiplicity of the quantum number

n. This eoRfirms that m* *= ns,

where the quantum numbers J, m provide a three- The identity

dimensional harmonic classification of the four-

dimensional harmonics. The largest vslue of i con-

tained in the EQisogeneous polynomial fli>~tY*tm($l)

is the degree of the polynomial, n — 1. Thus, together with the integral representation

value of n. ?alid for » < 1, gives

1608 JUtlAN SCBWINGER

the complex E plane with the exception of the

physical energy spectrum. This consists of the

U> negative-energy eigenvalues already identified and

the positive-energy eontitmam. The integral repre-

Equivalent forms, produced by partial integra- sentations (!'), ('2'), &sd (30 are not completely

tions, are general sinee it is required that

C2) moved. It is not necessary to do 80, however, if

am one is interested in the limit of real k. Tliese repre-

sentations can therefore be applied directly to the

physical scattering problem.

The asymptotie conditions that characterise finite

which uses the limiting relatio angle deflections are

Note that i is a function of a single variable, convenient here. The asymptotic behavior is domi-

nated by small f values, and one immediately

The restrietion p < 1 ean be removed by re- obtains

placing the real integrals with contour integrals,

where

of p is Bero and terminates at p « 1 — Gi, after and

encircling the origin within the unit circle,

The Green's function expressions implied by (1),

f2>. and C31 are

for any potential that decreases more rapidly thaa

the Coulomb potential at large distances, but with

<J*(p) = (g - I*)"*. The factors GV) and G°(p)

describe the propagation of the particle before and

after the collision, respectively, and / is identified

as the scattering amplitude. The same interprets-

where "tion is applicable here since the modified 6° just

incorporates the long-range effect of the Coulomb

potential. This is most evident from the asymptotic

behavior of the corresponding spatial function,

which is a distorted spherical wave.

anil

coincides with the known result,

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