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HISTOLOGY OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Matheus Components: Testes produces the male gametes; secretes testosterone Penis organ

gan of copulation Genital ducts collects, stores & conducts spermatozoa from testes Accessory glands secretes seminal fluid

SPERMATOCYTE PRIMARY Spermatocyte >largest spermatogenic cell >copious cytoplasm >large nucleus w/ chromatin strands

SECONDARY Spermatocyte >spherical/polygonal >small dark sstaining nucleus w/ fine granular chromatin >few are seen in section nd >rapidly undergo 2 meiotic division

SERTOLI CELLS supporting cells junctional complex b/w sertoli cell & adjacent germ cell o zona adherens o site of blood testis barriers o divides the seminiferous tubule into basal & luminal compartments o provides nourishment to the developing spermatogenic cells FACTORS AFFECTING SPERMATOGENESIS 1. dietary deficiencies 2. infection 3. elevated testicular temperature 4. steroid hormones 5. toxic agents 6. radiation HORMONAL REGULATION OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND/ Adenohypophysis FSH stimulates spermatogenesis LH/ ICSH stimulates Leydigs cells to secretes testosterone TESTICULAR DUCTS 1. Tubuli recti LE: Simple cuboidal epithelium 2. Rete testis LE: Simple cuboidal epithelium 3. Ductuli efferentis a. LE: alternating simple tall columnar ciliated cells & low columnar non ciliated cells b. Lumen is irregular & described as FESTOONED appearance c. Cilia help in transporting spermatozoa to epididymis

TESTIS
paired ovoid organs, lie within the scrotum covered by a capsule made up of 3 layers: o T. Vaginalis outer; lower expanded part of processus vaginalis o T. albuginea middle; made of dense fibrous tissue *divider b/w lobules = septuli testis o T. vasculosa inner; with blood vessels Each lobule of the testis is consists of: o 1-4 seminiferous tubules o Connective tissue stroma (+) interstitial tissue containing LEYDIG CELLS Large, polygonal, eosinophilic cells producing testosterone SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM o Thin basement membrane stratified epithelium o 2 basic cell types Spermatogenic cells (round nucleus) Sertoli cells or Sustentacular cells (pyramidal lobules) o Spermatogenic cells Spermatogonia Primary spermatocyte Secondary spermatocyte Spermatid Sperm cell o Sertoli Cells Columnar cells SPERMATOGONIA o Location: beneath basement membrane of seminiferous tubule TYPE A spermatogonia TYPE B spermatogonia >large oval nucleus w/ fine >spherical nucleus w/ chromatin granules dispersed heavy stained >homogenous pale staining chromatin masses cytoplasm >central nucleoli >peripheral nucleoli >give rise to primary >give rise to either Type A/B spermatocyte spermatogonia SPERMATOGENESIS 1. Golgi apparatus elaborates the acrosomal vesicle 2. Acrosomal vesicle becomes applied to one pole of the elongating nucleus; forming the acrosomal head cap 3. Centrioles migrate to the opposite pole; elongates to form a flagellum st 4. cytoplasm migrates to surround 1 part of flagellum SPERM CELLS a mature sperm cell actively matolie, free swimming consists of: o head o middle piece o body o tail Quiescent in the seminifeous tubule & ducts of the testes o Become active by the secretion of the accessory glands Production begins at puberty SPERMATOGENESIS process by which spermatogonium develop into a spermatozoa (approx. 74 days) has 3 phases: o SPERMATOGONIAL PHASE Stem cells divide to replace themselves & provide a population of committed spermatogonia (mitosis) o SPERMATOCYTE PHASE Primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis to reduce both the chromosomes & amount of DNA o SPERMATID PHASE (Spermiogenesis) Spermatids are transformed directly into spermatozoa SPERMATOGENIC CELLS Spermatogonia stem cell, diploid chromosomes (46 chromosomes or 44 XY) PRIMARY spermatocyte 44XY SECONDARY spermatocyte 22x/22y or haploid/ 23 chromosome SPERMATID 22x/ 22y SPERM cell 22x/ 22y

EPIDIDYMIS
crescent-shaped structure divided into: head, body & tail site of storage & mature sperm cell LE: Pseudostratified columnar epithelium w/ stereocilia 3 cells: o Principal cells o Basal cells o Halo cells small cells w/ pale staining cytoplasm & dark staining nuclei An intraepithelial lymphocyte Spermatozoa undergo additional physiological maturation (capacitation) & gain fertilizing capacity & motility

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VAS DEFERENS
direct continuation of the tail of the epididymis LE: pseudostratified columnar epithelium Tunica muscularis gives the vas deferens firm consistency & the thickest layer o Inner longitudinal o Middle circular o Outer longitudinal Tunica adventitia o Loose fibroelastic connective tissue that blend with the tissue of spermatic cord o CORD enclosed by cremaster muscle

PENIS
formed primarily of 3 cylindrical masses of erectile tissue note the paired corpora cavernosa & the ventrally placed corpus spongiosum containing the urethra a dense fibroelastic tissue, the Tunica albuginea, binds the 3 together & forms a caplsule around each corpus spongiosum, like cavernosa, spaces are lined by endothelium w/c is continuous with arteries & veins

.Prostate .Membranous .Fossa Navivularis

transitional pseudostratified columnar SSNKE

EJACULATORY DUCT
formed by the union of the ampulla of vas deferens & excretory ducts of the seminal vesicle opens into the prostatic utricle LE: pseudostratified columnar epithelium

SEMEN from testis & secretory products, from epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, seminal vesicles & bulbourethral gland alkaline pH to neutralize the acid environment of vagina Average ejaculation has volume of about 3ml & normally contains up to 100 million sperm/ ml.

SEMINAL VESICLE
paired, elongated & highly folded tubular glands LE: pseudostratified columnar epithelium Mucosa is thrown into numerous primary, secondary & tertiary folds to increase surface area for secretion Tunica muscularis o Inner circular o Outer longitudinal Tunica adventitia dense connective tissue Secretes whitish yellow, viscous material containing fructose & prostaglandin

PROSTATE GLAND
largest accessory gland consists of 30-50 tubuloalveolar gland LE: pseudostratified columnar epithelium Secretes acid phosphatase, citric acid & amylase Calcified secretions prostatic concretions/ corpora amylacea o It neutralize the acidity of the vagina

BULBOURETHRAL (COWPERs) GLAND


pair of small compound, tubulo alveolar glands embedded in the urobulbourethral gland LE: either psudostratified columnar or cuboidal epithelium Secretes alkaline fluid & mucous o Neutralize urine in the penile urethra o Act as lubricant

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