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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Quick Quizzes

1. 2. (a) (c). The blood pressure measured at the calf would be larger than that measured at the arm. If we imagine the vascular system of the body to be a vessel containing a liquid (blood), the pressure in the liquid will increase with depth. The blood at the calf is deeper in the liquid than that at the arm and is at a higher pressure. Blood pressures are normally taken at the arm because that is approximately the same height as the heart. If blood pressures at the calf were used as a standard, adjustments would need to be made for the height of the person, and the blood pressure would be different if the person were lying down. 3. (c). The level of the ice is unaffected by the motion. The acceleration of the elevator is equivalent to a change in the gravitational field. If the elevator accelerates downward, you might be tempted to say that the effect is the same as if gravity decreasesthe weight of the ice cube decreases, causing it to float higher in the liquid. Recall, however, that the magnitude of the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the ice cube. The weight of the liquid also decreases with the effectively decreased gravity. Because both the weight of the ice cube and the buoyant force decrease by the same factor, the level of the ice cube in the liquid is unaffected. (c). The level of floating of a ship is unaffected by the atmospheric pressure. The buoyant force results from the pressure differential in the fluid. On a high-pressure day, the pressure at all points in the water is higher than on a low-pressure day. Because water is almost incompressible, however, the rate of change of pressure with depth is the same, resulting in no change in the buoyant force. (b). The level of the pond falls. This is because the anchor displaces more water while in the boat. A floating object displaces a volume of water whose weight is equal to the weight of the object. A submerged object displaces a volume of water equal to the volume of the object. Because the density of the anchor is greater than that of water, a volume of water that weighs the same as the anchor will be greater than the volume of the anchor. (c). (a).

4.

5.

6. 7.

279

C H A P T E R

Problem Solutions

9.1 If wires of diameter 1 mm are wrapped together so that all support nearly equal stress, the number if wires in the cable should be

N=

4A 4 ( 0.785 cm 2 )

= 1.00 cm .

9.2

(a)

(b) The area over which the shear occurs is equal to the circumference of the hole times the thickness of the plate. Thus,

So,

9.3

Stress =

0.30 ( 480 N )

3

Thus, Stress =

( 5.0 10 m )

= 1.8 106 Pa

280

C H A P T E R

9.4

Consider the pressure change required to squeeze ice back into the volume it occupied as liquid water.

9.5

Using Y =

9.6

From Y =

30 F F

30

Y A ( L) Y ( d ) ( L) = F= L0 4 L0

2

(18 10 =

10

2

4 ( 3.1 10-2 m )

= 22 N

The tension in the wire exerts a force of magnitude F on the tooth in each direction along the length of the wire as shown in the above sketch. The resultant force exerted on the tooth has an x-component of Rx = Fx = Fcos 30 + Fcos 30 = 0 , and a y-component of Ry = Fy = Fsin 30 Fsin 30 = F = 22 N . Thus, the resultant force is R = 22 N directed down the page in the diagram .

9.7

L =

( stress ) ( L0 )

Y

(160 10

Pa )( 0.50 m )

18 10 9 Pa

= 4.4 10 3 m = 4.4 mm .

281

C H A P T E R

9.8

9.9 From the defining equation for the shear modulus, we find the displacement, x , as

x =

h( F A ) S

= 2.4 10 5 m = 0.024 mm

9.10

(a) When at rest, the tension in the cable equals the weight of the 800-kg mass, FL0 7.84 103 N . Thus, from Y = , the initial elongation of the cable is A ( L )

(b) When the load is accelerating upward, Newtons second law gives

F mg = may , or F = m ( g + ay )

(1)

2 F L0 ( 800 kg )( 9.80 + 3.0 ) m s ( 25.0 m ) = = 3.2 103 m=3.2 mm 2 10 4 A Y ( 4.00 10 m )( 20 10 Pa )

L =

282

C H A P T E R

(c) From the definition of the tensile stress, stress = F A , the maximum tension the cable can withstand is

Fmax = A ( stress )max = ( 4.00 10 4 m 2 )( 2.2 108 Pa ) = 8.8 10 4 N

Then, equation (1) above gives the mass of the maximum load as

mmax = Fmax 8.8 10 4 N = = 6.9 10 3 kg . 2 g + a ( 9.8+3.0 ) m s

9.11

FA , the deformation is x h

9.12 Choosing an axis perpendicular to the page and passing through point O [see Fig (a)], = 0 gives

Point O

R

5.0 cm Fig. (a) 800 N 14 cm

F( 5.0 cm ) + ( 800 N )( 19 cm ) = 0 ,

or

F = 3.04 103 N

Fig. (b)

From Fig. (b), the cross-sectional area of the material in the tibia is

A = (R2 r2 )

(a)

st ress =

stress 9.0 106 Pa = = 5.0 10 4 1.80 1010 Pa Y

strain =

L L = L0 ( strain ) L0

283

C H A P T E R

9.13

F mg = ma ,

or

F m

F = m ( g + a)

where F is the normal force exerted on the dancer by the floor, and a is the upward acceleration (if any) the dancer is given.

(a) When a = 0 , then F = m g = ( 50.0 kg ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 490 N , and the pressure is

mg

P=

F = ( 50.0 kg ) ( 13.8 m s 2 ) = 690 N and P =

9.14

P=

F W = . A 4A

9.15

The density is =

9.16

The total downward force is the combined weight of the man and chair. This force is distributed over an area equal to 2 times the cross-sectional area of a leg. Hence, the pressure is

2 F ( mman + mchair ) g ( 75 kg )( 9.80 m s ) P= = = = 1.2 106 Pa 2 2 A 2( r 2 ) 2 ( 1.0 10 m )

284

C H A P T E R

9.17

The volume of concrete in a pillar of height h and cross-sectional area A is V = A h , and its weight is Fg = ( A h )( 5.0 10 4 N m 3 ) . The pressure at the base of the pillar is then

P= Fg A =

( A h )( 5.0 104

A

N m3)

= h ( 5.0 10 4 N m 3 )

Thus, if the maximum acceptable pressure is, Pmax = 1.7 107 Pa , the maximum allowable height is

hmax = Pmax 1.7 107 Pa = = 3.4 10 2 m 5.0 10 4 N m 3 5.0 10 4 N m 3

9.18

Pgauge = P P0 = gh

9.19 The density of the solution is = 1.02 water = 1.02 10 3 kg m 3 . The gauge pressure of the fluid at the level of the needle must equal the gauge pressure in the vein, so Pgauge = gh = 1.33 104 Pa , and

h=

Pgauge

9.20

(a) Suppose the vacuum cleaner functions as a highvacuum pump and produces zero pressure inside the hose. The air below the brick will then exert a net upward force of

2 2 F = PA = P ( rhose ) = ( 1.013 10 5 Pa ) ( 1.43 10 2 m ) = 65.1 N

285

C H A P T E R

(b) The octopus can pull the bottom away from the top shell with a force that could be no larger than

F = PA = ( P0 + gh ) A

2 kg m = 1.013 10 5 Pa + 1 030 3 9.80 2 ( 32.3 m ) ( 1.43 10 2 m ) m s

or F = 275 N 9.21 The excess water pressure (over air pressure) acting on the wall is

Hence, the net inward, horizontal force exerted on the wall by the water is

F = Pgauge A = ( 1.18 10 4 Pa ) ( 9.60 m )( 2.40 m ) = 2.71 10 5 N = 271 kN

9.22

If we assume a vacuum exists inside the tube above the wine column, the pressure at the base of the tube (i.e., at the level of the wine in the open container) is Patmo = 0 + gh = gh . Thus,

h=

Some alcohol and water will evaporate, degrading the vacuum above the column. 9.23 We first find the absolute pressure at the interface between oil and water.

P1 = P0 + oil ghoil = 1.013 10 5 Pa + ( 700 kg m 3 )( 9.80 m s 2 )( 0.300 m ) = 1.03 105 Pa

This is the pressure at the top of the water. To find the absolute pressure at the bottom, we use P2 = P1 + water ghwater , or

5 P2 = 1.03 10 5 Pa + ( 10 3 kg m 3 )( 9.80 m s 2 )( 0.200 m ) = 1.05 10 Pa

286

C H A P T E R

9.24

First, use Pascals principle, F A1 = F2 A 2 , to find the 1 force piston 1 will exert on the handle when a 500-lb force pushes downward on piston 2.

d2 4 A d2 F1 = 1 F2 = 1 F2 = 1 F2 2 2 A2 d2 d2 4

H

2.0 in V F1

10 in

Now, consider an axis perpendicular to the page, passing through the left end of the jack handle. = 0 yields

+ ( 14 lb )( 2.0 in ) F ( 12 in ) = 0 , or F = 2.3 lb

9.25

This is the normal force exerted on the brake shoe. The frictional force is

f = k n = 0.50 ( 12.4 N ) = 6.2 N ,

and the torque is = f rtire = ( 6.2 N )( 0.34 m ) = 2.1 N m 9.26 Since the frog floats, the buoyant force must equal the weight of the frog. Then, from Archimedes principle, the weight of the displaced fluid equals the weight of the frog. Hence, fluid V g = m frog g , or

3 g 1 4 ( 6.00 cm ) = fluid V = 1.35 = 611 g = 0.611 kg cm 3 2 3

m frog

287

C H A P T E R

9.27

The boat sinks until the weight of the additional water displaced equals the weight of the truck. Thus,

Wtruck = water ( V ) g kg m 4.00 m )( 6.00 m )( 4.00 102 m ) 9.80 2 , = 103 3 ( m s

or 9.28

When the iceberg floats, the weight of the displaced water must equal the weight of the ice. Thus,

The volume of the displaced water equals the volume of ice submerged, so the volume of ice exposed is Vexposed = Vice Vsubmerged = Vice Vwater and the fraction of the ice exposed is

Vexposed Vice =1 920 kg m 3 Vwater = 1 ice = 1 = 0.107 , or 10.7% Vice water 1030 kg m 3

9.29

The difference between the weight in air and the apparent weight when submerged is the buoyancy force (weight of the displaced water). Since the kidney is fully submerged, the volume of water displaced equals the volume of the kidney. Thus,

B = water Vkidney g = Win air Wsubmerged = 5.7 N 1.6 N = 4.1 N .

kidney =

m kidney Vkidney

kidney water

288

C H A P T E R

9.30

Note: We deliberately violate the rules of significant figures in this problem to illustrate a point. (a) The absolute pressure at the level of the top of the block is

Ptop = P0 + water ghtop kg m 9.80 2 ( 5.00 102 m ) = 1.0130 105 Pa + 103 3 m s 5 = 1.0179 10 Pa

and that at the level of the bottom of the block is

Pbottom = P0 + water ghbottom kg m 9.80 2 ( 17.0 102 m ) = 1.0130 105 Pa + 103 3 m s 5 = 1.0297 10 Pa

Thus, the downward force exerted on the top by the water is

2 Ftop = Ptop A = ( 1.0179 10 5 Pa )( 0.100 m ) = 1017.9 N

and the upward force the water exerts on the bottom of the block is

2 Fbot = Pbot A = ( 1.0297 10 5 Pa )( 0.100 m ) = 1029.7 N

(b) The scale reading equals the tension, T, in the cord supporting the block. Since the block is in equilibrium, Fy = T + F F mg = 0 , or bot top

T = ( 10.0 kg ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( 1029.7 1017.9 ) N = 86.2 N

(c) From Archimedess principle, the buoyant force on the block equals the weight of the displaced water. Thus,

B = ( water Vblock ) g

2 = ( 103 kg m 3 ) ( 0.100 m ) ( 0.120 m ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 11.8 N

From part (a), Fbot Ftop = ( 1029.7 1017.9 ) N =11.8 N , which is the same as the buoyant force found above.

289

C H A P T E R

9.31

Constant velocity means that the submersible is in equilibrium under the gravitational force, the upward buoyant force, and the upward resistance force:

Fy = may = 0

( 1.20 10 4 kg + m ) g + sea water gV + 1100 N = 0

where m is the mass of the added sea water and V is the spheres volume.

kg 4 1100 N 3 Thus, m = 1.03 10 3 1.20 10 4 kg ( 1.50 m ) + 3 2 m 3 9.80 m s

or 9.32

m = 2.67 10 3 kg

By Archimedess principle, the weight of the fifty planes is equal to the weight of a horizontal slice of water 11.0 cm thick and circumscribed by the water line, or

50 m plane g = B = water g ( V ) = ( 1030 k m 3 ) g ( 11.0 102 m ) A

Thus, A =

(1030 k

50 ( 29000 kg ) g m

3

) g(11.0 10

m)

= 1.28 10 4 m 2

Note that the acceleration of gravity cancels in this calculation and does not affect the answer. 9.33 The balloon is in equilibrium under the action of three forces. These are the buoyant force, B, the total weight, W, of the balloon and the helium, and the tension T in the string. Hence,

The buoyant force is

B = ( air Vballoon ) g and mhelium = helium Vballoon , where Vballoon =

4 r 3 3

290

C H A P T E R

Thus, T = ( air

r3 helium ) g mballoon g 3

( 0.0120 kg ) ( 9.80 m s 2 )

or 9.34

T = 5.57 N

where Vblock =

wood

Thus, Fspring = ( 103 kg m 3 )( 7.69 10-3 m 3 ) 5.00 kg ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 26.4 N The elongation of the spring is then

x = Fspring k = 26.4 N = 0.165 m = 16.5 cm 160 N m

9.35

(a) The buoyant force is the difference between the weight in air and the apparent weight when immersed in the alcohol, or B = 300 N 200 N = 100 N . But, from Archimedess principle, this is also the weight of the displaced alcohol, so B = ( alcohol V ) g . Since the sample is fully submerged, the volume of the displaced alcohol is the same as the volume of the sample. This volume is

V=

alcohol g

291

C H A P T E R

9.36

The difference between the weight in air and the apparent weight when immersed is the buoyant force exerted on the object by the fluid. (a) The mass of the object is m =

weight in air 300 N = = 30.6 kg . The buoyant force 9.80 m s 2 g when immersed in water is the weight of a volume of water equal to the volume of the object, or Bw = ( w V ) g . Thus, the volume of the object is

V= Bw 300 N 265 N = = 3.57 103 m 3 , 3 w g ( 10 kg m 3 )( 9.80 m s 2 )

30.6 kg m = = 8.57 10 3 kg m 3 V 3.57 10 3 m 3

(b) The buoyant force when immersed in oil is equal to the weight of a volume V = 3.57 103 m 3 of oil. Hence, Boil = ( oil V ) g , or the density of the oil is

oil =

9.37

3

The buoyant force exerted on the shell by the water is

B = ( water V ) g = ( 10 3 kg m 3 )( 4.19 10 3 m 3 )( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 41.1 N ,

ay = Fy m = B mg B 41.1 N = g= 9.80 m s 2 = 1.07 m s 2 m m 3.78 kg

292

C H A P T E R

9.38

When the mattress is fully submerged, the buoyant force exerted by the water (and hence the total weight that can be supported) is

Thus, the total mass that can be supported is

mtotal = B 7.8 102 N = = 80 kg g 9.80 m s 2

9.39 The volume of the iron block is

V=

miron

iron

B = ( oil V ) g = ( 916 kg m 3 )( 2.54 10 4 m 3 )( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 2.28 N

Applying Fy = 0 to the iron block gives the support force exerted by the upper scale (and hence the reading on that scale) as

From Newtons third law, the iron exerts force B downward on the oil (and hence the beaker). Applying Fy = 0 to the system consisting of the beaker and the oil gives

Flower B ( m oil + mbeaker ) g = 0

The support force exerted by the lower scale (and the lower scale reading) is then

Flower = B + ( m oil + mbeaker ) g = 2.28 N + ( 2.00 + 1.00 ) kg ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 31.7 N

293

C H A P T E R

9.40

d2

4

t=

1 min 13 min s = 60 s

9.41

(a) The volume flow rate is Av , and the mass flow rate is

A v = ( 1.0 g cm 3 )( 2.0 cm 2 )( 40 cm s ) = 80 g s

(b) From the equation of continuity, the speed in the capillaries is

or v capiliaries = 2.7 102 cm s = 0.27 mm s 9.42 (a) From the equation of continuity, the flow speed in the second pipe is

(b) Using Bernoullis equation and choosing y = 0 along the centerline of the pipes gives

1 2 2 P2 = P1 + ( v1 v 2 ) 2 = 1.20 105 Pa +

or P2 = 2.64 10 4 Pa

294

C H A P T E R

9.43

From Bernoullis equation, choosing y = 0 at the level of the syringe and needle, 1 2 1 2 P2 + v 2 = P1 + v1 , 2 2

2 so the flow speed in the needle is v 2 = v1 +

2 ( P1 P2 )

In this situation,

P1 P2 = P1 Patmo = ( P1 ) gauge =

2 ( 8.00 10 4 Pa ) 1.00 10 3 kg m 3

Thus, assuming v 1 0 ,

v2 = 0 +

= 12.6 m s

9.44

We apply Bernoullis equation, ignoring the very small change in vertical position, to 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 obtain P1 P2 = ( v 2 v1 ) = ( 2 v1 ) v1 = v1 , or 2 2 2

P =

9.45

First, consider the path from the viewpoint of projectile motion to find the speed at 1 which the water emerges from the tank. From y = v iy t + ay t 2 with v iy = 0 , we find the 2 time of flight as

t= 2 ( y ) ay = 2 ( 1.00 m ) = 0.452 s 9.80 m s 2

From the horizontal motion, the speed of the water coming out the hole is

v 2 = v ix =

295

C H A P T E R

We now use Bernoullis equation, with point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the level of the hole. With P1 = P2 = Patmo and v 1 0 , this gives

2 gy1 = v 2 + g y 2 , or

1 2

h = y1 y 2 =

9.46

(a) Apply Bernoullis equation with point 1 at the open top of the tank and point 2 at the opening of the hole. Then, P1 = P2 = Patmo and we assume v 1 0 . This gives 1 2 v 2 + gy 2 = g y1 , or 2

(b) The area of the hole is found from

A2 =

4 A2 4 ( 2.35 106 m 2 ) = 1.73 103 m = 1.73 mm

d2 =

9.47

First, determine the flow speed inside the larger portions from

v1 = flow rate 1.80 10 m 3 s = = 0.367 m s 2 A1 ( 2.50 102 m ) 4

4

The absolute pressure inside the large section on the left is P1 = P0 + gh1 , where h1 is the height of the water in the leftmost standpipe. The absolute pressure in the constriction is P2 = P0 + gh2 , so

P1 P2 = g ( h1 h2 ) = g ( 5.00 cm )

296

C H A P T E R

The flow speed inside the constriction is found from Bernoullis equation with y1 = y 2 . 2 2 2 2 This gives v 2 = v 1 + ( P1 P2 ) = v 1 + 2 g ( h1 h2 ) , or

v2 =

( 0.367

2

and the diameter is

4 A2 4 ( 1.71 104 m 2 ) = 1.47 102 m = 1.47 cm

d2 =

9.48

(a) For minimum pressure, we assume the flow is very slow. Then, Bernoullis equation gives

1 2 1 2 P + v + gy = P + v + gy 2 2 river rim

kg m 9.80 2 ( 2096 m 564 m ) . or, ( Priver )min = 1.013 105 Pa + 103 3 m s

Pa = 15.1 MPa

d2 (b) The volume flow rate is flow rate = Av = v . Thus, the velocity in 4

the pipe is v =

4 ( flow rate) 4( 4500 m 3 d ) 1 d = = 2.95 m s 2 ( 0.150 m ) 86 400 s

d2

297

C H A P T E R

(c) We imagine the pressure being applied to stationary water at river level, so Bernoullis equation becomes

Priver = ( Priver )min + kg 1 2 1 m v rim = ( Priver )min + 103 2.95 2 2 m 3 s

2

P = 4.34 kPa

9.49

(a) For upward flight of a waterdrop projectile from geyser vent to fountaintop, 2 2 v yf = v yi + 2 ay ( y ) gives

(b) Because of the low density of air and the small change in altitude, atmospheric pressure at the fountain top will be considered equal to that at the geyser vent. Bernoullis equation, with v top = 0 , then gives

v vent = 2 g y top y vent =

(c) Between the chamber and the geyser vent, Bernoullis equation with v chamber 0 yields

( P + 0 + gy )chamber = Patm +

1 2 v vent + gy vent , or 2

2 kg ( 28.0 m s ) m = 103 + 9.80 2 ( 175 m ) = 2.11 MPa 3 m 2 s

or

298

C H A P T E R

9.50

The assumption of incompressibility is surely unrealistic, but allows an estimate of the 1 2 1 2 speed. From P1 + v1 + gy1 = P2 + v 2 + g y 2 , with y i = y 2 = 0 and v 0 inside the 2 2 passenger compartment, we have

0.287 atm +

or

v2 =

9.51

(a) Choosing point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the exit from the tube, Bernoullis equation with v 1 0 gives

1 2 v 2 = ( P1 P2 ) + g( y1 y 2 ) 2

But, P1 = P2 = 1 atm , and y1 y 2 = h . Thus, v 2 =

2 gh

(b) Use Bernoullis equation with point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the highest point in the tube. This gives

2 2 g( y 2 y1 ) = ( Patm P2 ) + ( v1 v 2 )

1 2

When the siphon ceases to work, the fluid will be at rest at point 2, so v 2 = v 1 = 0 and y 2 y1 = y max . Thus, Patm = P2 + gy max . Since the minimum value of P2 is 0, y max =

Patm P = 0 g g

9.52

Because there are two edges (the inside and outside of the ring) we have,

F Ltotal

F 2(circumference)

299

C H A P T E R

9.53

From Fy = T mg Fy = 0 , the balance reading is found to be T = mg + Fy where Fy is the vertical component of the surface tension force. Since this is a two-sided surface, the surface tension force is F = ( 2 L ) and its vertical component is Fy = ( 2 L )cos where is the contact angle. Thus, T = mg + 2 Lcos .

Subtracting equation (2) from (1) gives

mg + 2 L= 0.40 N mg 2 L= 0.39 N

(1) (2)

9.54

h=

9.55

From h =

h gr 2cos

2

( 2.1 10 =

From h =

= 5.6 10 2 N m

9.56

2 ( 0.088 N m ) cos 0 2 cos = = 3.47 104 m gh 1035 kg m 3 )( 9.80 m s 2 )( 5.00 102 m ) (

r=

d = 2 r = 2 ( 3.47 10 4 m ) = 6.94 10 4 m = 0.694 mm

300

C H A P T E R

9.57

F=

Av

L

(1.79 10

9.58

F=

Av

L

(1500 10

9.59

P1 Patm =

( P1 P2 ) R 4

8 L

8 L( flow rate)

R4

( 0.50 102 m )

or 9.60

flow rate =

( P ) R 4

8 L

= 3.2 105 m 3 s

v=

301

C H A P T E R

9.61

If a particle is still in suspension after 1 hour, its terminal velocity must be less than

( v t )max = 5.0

Thus, from v t =

rmax =

9 ( v t )max 2g f

)

2 3

9.62

3 0.50 L 1 min 1 m -7 3 flow rate = 3 = 2.1 10 m s 40 min 60 s 10 L

Then, assuming the pressure inside the vein is P2 Patm , Poiseuilles law gives the needed gauge pressure at the entrance to the needle as

P1 Patm =

8 L( flow rate)

R4

8( 2.7 103 N s m 2 )( 3.5 102 m )( 2.1 107 m 3 s ) = 6.2 103 Pa

( 0.30 10 m )

3

When the surface of the blood in the bag is height h above the entrance to the needle, the gauge pressure as the blood enters the needle is P1 Patm = gh . The needed height is then

h=

302

C H A P T E R

9.63

3 0.50 L 1 min 1 m -7 3 flow rate = = 2.1 10 m s 40 min 60 s 103 L

Then, assuming the pressure inside the vein is P2 Patm , Poiseuilles law gives the needed gauge pressure at the entrance to the needle as

P1 Patm =

8 L( flow rate)

R4

8( 2.25 103 N s m 2 )( 3.0 102 m )( 2.1 107 m 3 s ) = 9.2 103 Pa

( 0.25 10 m )

3

When the surface of the glucose in the bag is height h above the entrance to the needle, the gauge pressure as the glucose enters the needle is P1 Patm = gh . Thus, the needed height is

h=

9.64

Poiseuilles law gives the flow rate through a tube with circular cross-section and radius R as:

Q = flow rate =

( P ) R 4

8 L

If the radius is changed to R with all other factors unchanged, the ratio of the new flow rate to the original one is

Q ( R) R = 4 = . Q R R

4 4

(a) If the diameter (and hence the radius) of an artery is reduced by 10%, then Q 4 R = 0.90 R and = ( 0.90 ) = 0.66 . Thus, the flow rate through the reduced artery is Q only 66% of the original rate, or there has been a 34% reduction in the flow.

303

C H A P T E R

(b) With a 20% reduction in the diameter of the artery, R = 0.80 R and we find Q 4 = ( 0.80 ) = 0.41 . The new flow rate is 41% of the original rate, or a 20% reduction Q in artery diameter causes a 59% reduction in the flow. 9.65 The Reynolds number is

RN =

In this region (RN > 3000), the flow is turbulent . 9.66 From the definition of the Reynolds number, the maximum flow speed for streamlined (or laminar) flow in this pipe is

v max

3 2

9.67

8.0 1014 kg = 5.3 1015 kg s . Then, from Ficks law, the 15 s difference in concentration levels is found to be

C2 C1 =

( Diffusion rate) L

DA

( 5.0 10

( 5.3 10

10

15 2

m s )( 6.0 104 m 2 )

kg s )( 0.10 m )

= 1.8 10 3 kg m 3

9.68

5.7 1015 kg s

= 9.5 10 10 m 2 s

304

C H A P T E R

9.69

9.70

Using v t =

r=

d = 0.500 10 3 m and v t = 1.10 102 m s when falling through 20 C water 2 ( = 1.00 103 N s m 2 ) , the density of the oil is

3 2 2 kg 9( 1.00 10 N s m )( 1.10 10 m s ) = 1000 3 + = 1.02 10 3 kg m 3 2 4 2 m 2 ( 5.00 10 m ) ( 9.80 m s )

9.71

The pressure at depth h below a reference level, where the pressure is P0 , in a fluid of density is given by P = P0 + gh . Thus, choosing the reference level at the surface of the ocean, where P0 = Patm , the pressure at a depth of 3000 feet is

9.72 (a) Starting with P = P0 + gh , we choose the reference level at the level of the heart, so

P0 = PH . The pressure at the feet, a depth hH below the reference level in the pool of blood in the body is PF = PH + ghH . The pressure difference between feet and heart

4 PF PH = ( 1.06 10 3 kg m 3 )( 9.80 m s 2 )( 1.20 m ) = 1.25 10 Pa

9.73

2 The cross-sectional area of the aorta is A 1 = d1 4 and that of a single capillary is 2 A c = d2 4 . If the circulatory system has N such capillaries, the total cross-sectional area

A 2 = NA c =

2 N d2 4

305

C H A P T E R

2 2 v N d2 v1 d1 = A 2 = 1 A 1 , or , 4 v2 v2 4

which gives

v d 1.0 m s 0.50 102 m 7 N = 1 1 = = 2.5 10 v 2 d2 1.0 102 m s 10 106 m

2 2

9.74

From Pascals principle, the increase in pressure exerted on the large piston is the same as the increase in pressure at the small piston. Thus, the force exerted on the large piston is F2 = Plarge A 2 , where Plarge = Psmall =

F 1 A1

Therefore,

9.75

(a)

P = 160 mm of H 2 O = H 2 O g ( 160 mm )

1 atm 1.55 102 atm P = ( 1.57 103 Pa ) = 1.013 105 Pa

The pressure is P = H 2 O ghH 2 O = H g ghH g , so

H O hHg = 2 Hg

(b) The fluid level in the tap should rise. (c) Blockage of flow of the cerebrospinal fluid.

306

C H A P T E R

9.76

When the rod floats, the weight of the displaced fluid equals the weight of the rod, or f gVdisplaced = 0 gVrod . But, assuming a cylindrical rod, Vrod = r 2 L . The volume of fluid displaced is the same as the volume of the rod that is submerged, or Vdisplaced = r 2 ( L h ) .

9.77 When the balloon floats, the weight of the displaced air equals the combined weights of the filled balloon and its load. Thus,

or

Vballoon =

9.78

When the balloon comes into equilibrium, the weight of the displaced air equals the weight of the filled balloon plus the weight of string that is above ground level. If ms and L are the total mass and length of the string, the mass of string that is above ground h level is ms . Thus, L

( helium )Vballoon mballoon which reduces to h = air L. ms

This yields

h L

h=

(1.29 kg

307

C H A P T E R

9.79

2 2 First, we use v y = v yi + 2 ay ( y ) to find the speed of the sphere when it reaches the

v y = 0 + 2 ( 9.80 m s 2 )( 10 m ) = 14 m s

We neglect energy loss due to water resistance and impact with the surface. The density of the sphere is = 0.60 water , so the buoyant force acting on the sphere while submerged is

where ms is the mass of the sphere. Continuing to take downward as positive, the acceleration of the sphere once it enters the water is

ay = Fy ms = ms g B 1 = 1 g 0.60 ms

2 2 Thus, v y = v yi + 2 ay ( y ) gives the distance the sphere sinks through the water before

y =

2 2 v y v yi

2 ay

0 ( 14 m s ) = = 15 m 1 1 9.80 m s 2 2 ) ( 0.60

2

308

C H A P T E R

9.80

v A H h L L A B C D shield B

(b)

(c)

(a) Consider the pressure at points A and B in part (b) of the figure by applying P = P0 + f gh . Looking at the left tube gives PA = Patm + water g ( L h ) , and looking at the tube on the right, PB = Patm + oil gL . Pascals principle says that PB = PA . Therefore,

h= 1- oil water 750 kg m 3 5.00 cm ) = 1.25 cm L = 1 3 ( 1000 kg m

(b) Consider part (c) of the diagram showing the situation when the air flow over the left tube equalizes the fluid levels in the two tubes. First, apply Bernoullis equation to points A and B. This gives

Since y A = y B , v A = v , and v B = 0 , this reduces to

1 PB PA = air v 2 2

(1)

309

C H A P T E R

Now use P = P0 + f gh to find the pressure at points C and D, both at the level of the oilwater interface in the right tube. From the left tube, PC = PA + water gL , and from the right tube, PD = PB + oil gL . Pascals principle says that PD = PC , and equating these two gives

Combining equations (1) and (2) yields

v=

(2)

2 ( water oil ) gL

air

2 ( 1000 750 )( 9.80 m s 2 )( 5.00 102 m ) 1.29

= 13.8 m s

9.81

Consider the diagram and apply Bernoullis equation to points A and B, taking y = 0 at the level of point B, and recognizing that v A 0 . This gives

h L Valve B

PA + 0 + w g( h L sin ) 1 2 = PB + w v B + 0 2

Recognize that PA = PB = Patm since both points are open to the atmosphere. Thus, we obtain

Now the problem reduces to one of projectile motion with

At the top of the arc, v y = 0, and y = y max .

2 2 Then, v y = v yi + 2 ay ( y ) gives 0 = ( 6.64 m s ) + 2 ( 9.80 m s 2 )( y max 0 ) ,

2

or

310

C H A P T E R

9.82

The increase in pressure as the ball sinks is P = w gh , where h is the depth at the ocean bottom. From the definition of bulk modulus, B =

may be written as

4 3 3 rf ri 3

( gh ) D f = 2 rf = 2 ri 1 w B

13

( gh ) = Di 1 w B

13

13 ( w gh ) D = Di D f = Di 1 1 B

13 3 2 3 ( 1030 kg m )( 9.80 m s )( 10.0 10 m ) = ( 3.00 m ) 1 1 14 1010 Pa

D = 0.72 mm

While the ball is submerged, the buoyant force acting on it is B = ( w V ) g . The upward acceleration of the ball while under water is

9.83

ay =

Fy m

B mg w 4 3 = r 1 g m m 3

311

C H A P T E R

Thus, when the ball reaches the surface, the square of its speed is

v 2 = v i2 + 2 ay ( y ) = 0 + 2( 31 m s 2 )( 2.0 m ) = 125 m 2 s 2

When the ball leaves the water, it becomes a projectile with initial upward speed of v = 125 m s and acceleration of ay = g = 9.80 m s 2 . Then, v 2 = v i2 + 2 ay ( y ) gives the maximum height above the surface as

y max =

2 ( -9.80 m s 2 )

0 125 m 2 s 2

= 6.4 m

9.84

(a) The gauge pressure on the surface of one of the hemispheres is the same at all points, and the inward force exerted on each small element of surface is directed along the radius of the hemisphere. To separate the hemispheres, the force applied along the axis must overcome the vector sum of all these small elements of force. This sum is equal to the force the gauge pressure exerts on a circular area, A = R 2 , which is the projection of the hemispherical surface onto a plane perpendicular the axis. Therefore, the required force is

F = Pgauge A = ( Po P ) R 2

(b)

F = ( P0 0.10 P0 ) R 2

2 = 0.90( 1.013 10 5 Pa ) ( 0.30 m ) = 2.6 10 4 N = 26 kN

9.85

The weight of the soap bar is equal to the buoyant force when it floats in water alone, or

Bwater x 2.0 cm x

wbar = w A ( 1.5 cm ) g ,

where A is the surface area of either the top or bottom of the rectangular bar.

312

C H A P T E R

When both oil and water are present, the weight of the floating bar equals the total buoyant force, Btotal = Boil + Bwater . Thus,

which reduces to

9.86 Let s = 20.0 mm be the length of one edge of the ice cube. Then, the area of one face of the cube is s2 and its volume is s3 . We shall ignore any buoyant force exerted by the air in comparison to those exerted by the more dense fluids in all cases.

air s

ice xa

water

(a) Since the ice cube is floating, the weight of the displaced water must equal the weight of the cube. Thus, w ( s2 x a ) g = ice s3 g , or

(b) Here, the sum of the buoyant forces exerted by the alcohol and the water must equal the weight of the floating ice cube. This gives

air s water 5.00 mm ice

alcohol

al s2 ( 5.00 m m ) g + w s2 x b g = ice s3 g ,

or x b =

xb

ice s al ( 5.00 mm ) w

1000

= 14.3 mm

313

C H A P T E R

(c) Again the sum of the buoyant forces exerted by the alcohol and the water must equal the weight of the floating ice cube, so

al s2 x c g + w s2 ( s x c ) g = ice s3 g .

ice 1000 917 This gives x c = w s = ( 20.0 mm ) = 8.56 mm w al 1000 806

9.87 A water droplet emerging from one of the holes becomes a projectile with v iy = 0 and v ix = v . The time for this droplet to fall distance h to the 1 floor is found from y = v iy t + ay t 2 to be 2 2h t= . g

2

h3 h2 h1

If the two streams hit the floor at the same spot, it is necessary that R1 = R 2 , or

R1 = R2

v1

2 h1 2 h2 = v2 g g

v1 = v 2

(1)

Apply Bernoullis equation to points 1 (the lower hole) and 3 (the surface of the water). The pressure is atmospheric pressure at both points and, if the tank is large in comparison to the size of the holes, v 3 0 . Thus, we obtain

Similarly, applying Bernoullis equation to point 2 (the upper hole) and point 3 gives

(2)

314

(3)

C H A P T E R

Square equation (1) and substitute from equations (2) and (3) to obtain

2 g( h3 h1 ) = 2.40 2 g( h3 h2 )

Solving for h3 yields

h3 =

so the surface of the water in the tank is 17.0 cm above floor level . 9.88 Since the block is floating, the total buoyant force must equal the weight of the block. Thus,

oil

4.00 cm x 4.00 cm x

= wood A ( 4.00 cm ) g

where A is the surface area of the top or bottom of the rectangular block. Solving for the distance x gives

water

oil 960 930 x = wood ( 4.00 cm ) = ( 4.00 cm ) = 1.71 cm 1000 930 water oil

9.89 In order for the object to float fully submerged in the fluid, its average density must be the same as that of the fluid. Therefore, we must add ethanol to the water until the density of the mixture is 900 kg m 3 = 0.900 g cm 3 . The mass of the mixture will be

M = V = ( 0.900 g cm 3 ) V , where V is the total volume of the mixture.

315

C H A P T E R

m w = w V w = ( 1.00 g cm 3 )( 500 cm 3 ) = 500 g ,

m e = eV e = ( 0.806 g cm 3 ) V e

M = m w + m e = 500 g+ ( 0.806 g cm 3 ) V e

and the total volume is V = Vw + Ve = 500 cm 3 +Ve Substituting these into M = ( 0.900 g cm 3 ) V from above gives

500 g+ ( 0.806 g cm 3 ) V e = ( 0.900 g cm 3 )( 500 cm 3 + V e )

Ve =

( 0.900 0.806 ) g cm 3

= 532 cm 3

316

C H A P T E R

2. Because of the altitude, the density of the air is lower in Denver than at the location of other major league ballparks. Thus, a fly ball leaving the bat with a given speed experiences less air resistance and travels farther in Denver than it would in other locations, making the park a favorite for homerun hitters. Curveball pitchers give the ball a significant rotation rate and rely on the Bernoulli effect to make the ball curve. The deflecting force produced by the Bernoulli effect is smaller in Denver than it would be in ballparks where the air is more dense. Hence, a curveball does not break as well in Denver as it does elsewhere. Both must have the same strength. The force on the back of each dam is the average pressure of the water times the area of the dam. If both reservoirs are equally deep, the force is the same. The external pressure exerted on the chest by the water makes it difficult to expand the chest cavity and take a breath while under water. Thus, a snorkel will not work in deep water. A fan driven by the motor removes air and hence decreases the pressure inside the cleaner. The greater air pressure outside the cleaner pushes air in through the nozzle toward this region of lower pressure. This inward rush of air pushes or carries the dirt along with it. The larger the density of a fluid, the higher does an object float in it. Thus, an object will float lower in low density alcohol. The water level on the side of the glass stays the same. The floating ice cube displaces its own weight of liquid water, and so does the liquid water into which it melts. A breeze from any direction speeds up to go over the mound, and the air pressure drops at this opening. Air then flows through the burrow from the lower to the upper entrance. No. The somewhat lighter barge will float higher in the water.

4.

6.

8.

317

C H A P T E R

2. 4. 6. 8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 20. 22. 24. 26. 28. 30. 32. 34. 36. 38. 40. 42. 44. (a)

3.14 10 4 N

(b)

6.28 10 4 N

1.80 108 Pa

7.5 106 Pa

(a) (a)

2.5 mm

9.0 106 Pa

(b) (b)

0.75 mm

5.0 104

(c) (c)

6.9 10 3 kg

0.18 mm

(a)

65.1 N

(b)

275 N

10.5 m; no, some alcohol and water evaporate. 2.3 lb 0.611 kg 10.7% of the volume is exposed (a) 1017.9 N, 1029.7 N (b) 86.2 N (c) 11.8 N for both

1.28 10 4 m 2

16.5 cm (a)

8.57 10 3 kg m 3

(b)

714 kg m 3

78 kg 13 min (a)

11.0 m s

(b)

2.64 10 4 Pa

4.4 102 Pa

318

C H A P T E R

(a) (a)

17.7 m s

15.1 MPa

(b) (b)

1.73 mm

2.95 m s

(c)

4.34 kPa

347 m s

7.32 102 N m

1.5 m s

60 cm (a) 34% reduction in flow (b) 59% reduction in flow

62. 64. 66. 68. 70. 72. 74. 78. 80. 82. 84. 86. 88.

8.0 cm s

9.5 10 10 m 2 s 1.02 10 3 kg m 3

1.25 10 4 Pa

13.8 m s

1.71 cm

319

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