Anda di halaman 1dari 39

COMIMSA

Module 8

Module 8 Welding Metallurgy for the Welding Inspector

COMIMSA

Module 8

1. Introduction
Metallurgy Is the science that deals with the internal structure of metals and the relationship between those structures and the properties exhibited by metals.

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures Solids vs Liquids Solids Liquids

Energy (-) Atoms in a fixed position Each atom has a specific home held in place by the attracting and repelling forces The atomic configuration determines their physical, mechanical, and electrical properties

Energy (+) Free to move

COMIMSA

Module 8

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures

The atoms are not however stationary in this positions. In reality they tend to vibrate about an equilibrium position to maintain a balanced spacing.

Any attempt to force to force the atoms closer together will be counteracted by repulsive forces which increase as the atoms are pushed closer together.

Similary, any attempt to pull the atoms further apart will result in a counteracting attractive force. These attractive forces, however, tend to decrease as the atoms are pulled further apart

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures The atoms exhibit a very specific spacing at given temperture. The internal energy of a metal is increased when its temperature is raised. The atoms to vibrate more which increases their interatomic spacing

The metal to expand,,, if heat is elevated the vibration and spacing continue increase,, the solid metal then transforms into a liquid

COMIMSA

Module 8

The portion heated expands and is restrained by the portion no heated, the bar tend to bend

Begins to cool and shrink

Residual stresses

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures Crystal Structures The smallest number of atoms that can completely describe their orderly arrangement is referred as a unit celd When a metal solidifies, it always does so in a crystalline pattern. The most common crystal structures, or phases are:

1)

Body Centered Cubic (bcc) iron, carbon steels, Cr, Mo, W Face Centered Cubic (fcc) Al, Cu, Ni, austenitic SS. Hexagonal close packed (hcp) Zn, Cd, Mg -

2)

3)

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures Solidification of metals

COMIMSA

Module 8

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures Alloying The proprieties of metallic elements can be altered by the addition of other elements, wich may be or not metallic Example; metallic zinc + metal cooper = the alloy brass Nonmetal carbon is one of the alloying elements added to iron to form the alloy steel

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures Alloying

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures Microestructural Constituents of Carbon Steel

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures Microestructural Constituents of Carbon Steel Welds Under the Microscope Steel exist in several phases, typically Austenite, ferrite, perlite, bainite, and martensite. See, Figures 7.5 7.7.

COMIMSA

Module 8

Basic Metal Structures Microestructural Constituents of Carbon Steel

Welds Under the Microscope

By altering the cooling rate

from the austenite range

we can affect the phases

of steel

COMIMSA

Module 8

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

The

critical

cooling

rate is governed by the carbon content, and for their alloy steels, by

additional

chemical composition.

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Heat treatments

Furnace Anneal (-)

Normalize

Oil Quench

Water Quench

Brine Quench (+)

Cooling Rate from austenizing temperature

Quenching the steel results in a martensitic structure. Slow cooling forms Ferrite and Perlite. Faster cooling forms Bainite

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Heat treatments Steels quenched to form martensite usually require a tempering heat treatment to lower their hardness and strength, and improve ductility and toughness.

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Heat treatments Cooling Rate Slow Hardness Strength Ductility Toughness Susceptibility to crack (+) (+) (-) (-) (+) Fast

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

Welding Chemistry of Specific Base Metals When the carbon content increases, weldability decreases 0.15 to 0.30 %C - Easily Weldable About above 0.30 %C - More difficult to weld and may require: Weldability also decreases with alloying elements such as Cr, Mo, Ni, may require the use of: Preheat Interpass temperature control PWHT

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

Carbon Equivalent Calculations (CE)

CE= %C + %Mn + %Si + %Cr + %Mo + %Ni +%Cu 6 5 15 CE >0.40 Preheat 200 400 F (93 204 C) Low Hydrogen Electrodes CE >0.60 Preheat 400 700 F (204 - 370 C) Low Hydrogen Electrodes

There are many different CE formulas

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Factors that affect the HAZ properties: Preheat (Figure 8.15) Heat Input Heat Input is the amount of energy supplied by the welding arc to heat the base metal

Heat Input, Joules/in = Welding current x Welding Voltage x 60 travel speed, in/min As the heat input increase the cooling rate decreases.

COMIMSA

Module 8

Carbono equivalente

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion It is often necessary to remove these residual stresses by a PWHT referred to as stress relief

There are three methods of removing weld stresses: 1) 2) 3) Thermal Treatment Peening Vibratory Stress Relief Approved by Code

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion 1) Thermal Stress Relief The part is heated uniformly Temperature below its transformation temperature Held for a prescribed time period Slow uniform cooling to room temperature Relax residual stress because the materials strength is reduced

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion 2) Peening

Mechanical distortion of the weld bead trough mechanical means Usually when the metal is still hot Only on the intermediate layers Should not be done on the root pass (crack) nor final pass of a weld (interfere with later VI)

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion 3) Vibratory Stress Relief Imparts high vibratory vibrational energy into the part

Prevents the buildup of stresses in the weldment while welding or

Removes the stresses after welding

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion Preheat One technique that may be used to reduce the need for PWHT is preheat Slows cooling rate May eliminate the need for PWHT More ductile structure with lower residual stresses Reduce or eliminate hot cracking Aids in removing moisture Helps to remove Hydrogen Retards the formation of Martensite

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Diffusion Under certain conditions, even atoms in the solid state can change positions.These changes of atom position in the solid position in the solid state are referred as diffusion.

Example Pb and Au Example Hydrogen - underbead or delayed cracking

COMIMSA

Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

COMIMSA

Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials


Stainless Steel In severe corrosion environments, many of the SS corrode at very high rates SS are defined as having at least 12% Cr. The four main classes of SS are: Ferritic Martensitic Austenitic Precipitation Hardening (PH)

COMIMSA

Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials


Stainless Steel Austenitic Grades Very Weldable with available filler metal composition. Very Weldable with available filler metal composition.Can be subject to short cracking which occurs when metal is very hot this problem is solved by controlling the composition of the base and filler metal to promote the formation of delta ferrite phase. Typically cracking will be avoided by selecting filler metals with a delta ferrite percent of 4 10%. This percentage is often referred as ferrite number and can be measured using the magnetic gauge.

COMIMSA

Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials


Stainless Steel Austenitic Grades One of the common problems to be encountered when welding austenitic grades is referred to as carbide precipitation, or sensitization. 800 1600 F (427 870 C) form Chromium carbides. Most severe temperature for their formation is about 1250 F (677 C) This carbides are typically found along the grain boundaries of the structure

COMIMSA

Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials


Stainless Steel Austenitic Grades Reduction of Chromium content within the grain Chromium depletion . In certain corrosive enviroments, the edges of the grain corrode at a high rate Intergranular attack .

COMIMSA

Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials


Stainless Steel Austenitic Grades Sensitization can be attacked by several methods: Reheat Treating Addition of stabilizers to the base and filler metals Ti (321) and Nb (347). Reduction of carbon content in the base and filler metals - L %C as less as 0.03.

COMIMSA

Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials


Stainless Steel Ferritic Grades Weldable with the proper filler metals

Martensitic Grades More difficult to weld and often require special preheating and PWHT.

PH Stainless Steels Weldable, but attention must be given to the changes in mechanical properties caused by welding.

COMIMSA

Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials


Welding Chemistry of Aluminum Alloys Very tenacious oxide film on their surfaces protect against corrosion.

The same oxide interfere with the joining process.

Alternating current is used. Reformation of oxide film is avoided by shielding with He, or Ar gas.

COMIMSA

Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials


Welding Chemistry of Cooper Alloys Unlike steel, pure cooper and many of its alloys can not be hardened by quench and temper by heat treatment. Usually hardened by cold work

Welding softens the cold worked material One of the major problems when welding cooper and its alloys is due to their relative low melt point and very high metal conductivity. Considerable heat must be applied to the metal to overcome its loss through conductivity, and the relatively low melting point often results in the metal melting earlier than expected and flowing out of the weld joint.