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Relay logic

Relay logic is a method of controlling industrial electronic circuits by using relays and contacts. Applications A major application of relay logic is the control of routing and signalling on railways. This safety critical application uses interlocking to ensure conflicting routes can never be selected and helps reduce accidents. Elevators are also another common application. Ladder logic Ladder logic is a programming language that represents a program by a graphical diagram based on the circuit diagrams of relay logic hardware. It is primarily used to develop software for programmable ogic controllers (PLCs) used in industrial control applications. The name is based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical rails and a series of horizontal rungs between them. The schematic diagrams for relay logic circuits are often called line diagrams, because the inputs and outputs are essentially drawn in a series of lines.It is an electrical network consisting of lines, or rungs, in which each line or rung must have continuity to enable the output device. This output is controlled by a combination of input or output conditions,such as input switches and control relays. The conditions that represent the inputs are connected in series, parallel, or series-parallel to obtain the logic required to drive the output. The relay logic circuit forms an electrical schematic diagram for the control of input and output devices. Relay logic diagrams represent the physical interconnection of devices. The basic format for relay logic diagrams is as follows: 1. The two vertical lines that connect all devices on the relay logic diagram are labeled L1 and L2. The space between L1 and L2 represents the voltage of the control circuit.

2. Output devices are always connected to L2. Any electrical overloads that are to be included must be shown between the output device and L2; otherwise, the output device must be the last component before L2. 3. Control devices are always shown between L1 and the output device. Control devices may be connected either in series or in parallel with each other. 4. Devices which perform a STOP function are usually connected in series, while devices that perform a START function are connected in parallel. 5. Electrical devices are shown in their normal conditions. An NC contact would be shown as normally closed, and an NO contact would appear as a normally open device. All contacts associated with a device will change state when the device is energized.

In this circuit, a STOP/START station is used to control two pilot lights. When the START button is pressed, the control relay energizes and its associated contacts change state. The green pilot light is now ON and the red lamp is OFF. When the STOP button is pressed, the contacts return to their resting state, the red pilot light is ON, and the green switches OFF.

Relay ladder logic

The term ladder is used because the overall outline of the diagram looks like a wooden ladder. Each line of the circuit looks like a rung of the ladder. Relay ladder logic (RLL) is used quite extensively in industrial electronic circuits. .

The logic used in the circuit is called relay logic because it uses a relay and its contacts to provide logic functions.


Pneumatic cylinders
Pneumatic cylinders (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices which utilize the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion. Like hydraulic cylinders, pneumatic cylinders use the stored potential energy of a fluid, in this case compressed air, and convert it into kinetic energy as the air expands in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. This air expansion forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to be moved.


Logic circuits

Electronic circuits which process information encoded as one of a limited set of voltage or current levels. Logic circuits are the basic building blocks used to realize consumer and industrial products that incorporate digital electronics. Such products include digital computers, video games, voice synthesizers, pocket calculators, and robot controls.

Solid state relay

A solid state relay (SSR) is an electronic switching device in which a small control signal controls a larger load current or voltage. It comprises a voltage or current sensor which responds to an appropriate input (control signal), a solid-state electronic switching device of some kind which switches power to the load circuitry either on or off, and some coupling mechanism to enable the control signal to activate this switch without mechanical parts. The relay may be designed to switch either AC or DC to the load. It serves the same function as an electromechanical relay, but has no moving parts.

An SSR based on a single MOSFET, or multiple MOSFETs in a paralleled array, works well for DC loads. There is an inherent substrate diode in all MOSFETs that conducts in the reverse direction. This means that a single MOSFET cannot block current in both directions. For AC (bi-directional) operation two MOSFETs are arranged back to back with their source pins tied together. Their drain pins are connected to either side of the output. The substrate diodes are alternately reverse biased in order to block current when the relay is off. When the relay is on, the common source is always riding on the instantaneous signal level and both gates are biased positive relative to the source by the photo-diode.

Advantages over mechanical relays

SSRs are faster than electromechanical relays; their switching time is dependent on the time needed to power the LED on and off, of the order of microseconds to milliseconds Lower minimum output current (latching current) required Increased lifetime, particularly if activated many times, as there are no moving parts to wear o Output resistance remains constant regardless of amount of use Clean, bounceless operation Decreased electrical noise when switching No sparking, allowing use in explosive environments where it is critical that no spark is generated during switching Totally silent operation Inherently smaller than a mechanical relay of similar specification (if desired may have the same "casing" form factor for interchangeability). Much less sensitive to storage and operating environment factors such as mechanical shock, vibration, humidity, and external magnetic fields.


Voltage/current characteristic of semiconductor rather than mechanical contacts: o When closed, higher resistance (generating heat), and increased electrical noise o When open, lower resistance, and reverse leakage current (typically A range) o Voltage/current characteristic is not linear (not purely resistive), distorting switched waveforms to some extent. An electromechanical relay has the low ohmic (linear) resistance of the associated mechanical switch when activated, and the exceedingly high resistance of the air gap and insulating materials when open. o DC load must observe polarity (- and + not interchangeable) to avoid an undesirable "always conducting" state that does not

depend on switching input. Electromechanical relays do not depend on polarity. Possibility of spurious switching due to voltage transients (due to much faster switching than mechanical relay) Isolated bias supply required for gate charge circuit Higher Transient Reverse Recovery time (Trr) due to the presence of Body diode

Applications of solid state relays

Controlling the Heater Elements in a Plastic Moulding Machine The temperature of the injection conduits and nozzles in plastic moulding machines is measured using probes and the heater elements in the equipment are controlled by solid-state relays via a digital system depending on the parameters read. Controlling the Lamps for Warehouse Lighting To save energy, the lighting of each lamp is activated by computer or presence detectors. The solid-state relays are used to switch these lamps. Controlling the Motor in an Electric Hoist Electric hoists are widely used in industry where the motors switch frequently between "Run" and "Stop". Use the solid-state relay to drive the motor's direction of rotation, and guarantee the dependability of the installation through the extended service life and power

switching it brings you. Bagging Machines Solid-state relays provide for flexible and comfortable, silent use of industrial bagging machines.

Traffic Lights The solid-state relays can be used in traffic lights : like all solid-state relays, they have a very long service life, guaranteeing optimal operation of the lights. They can be used with 110V DC. Industrial Ovens They regulate the power supply to the heater elements, thus improving oven efficiency.

Vending Machines Solid-state relays do not shy from difficult environments and operate perfectly in all types of vending machines. They control the motor operation in silence and have a long service life, which is not affected by the frequency with which the vending machine is used.