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TEXTBOOK - L. V.

Ahlfors; Complex Analysis Assignment; Date-21/10/2010 Exercises from page 108 and 109 Chapter 4; Complex Integration - Section I

1. Compute

xdz where is the directed line segment from 0 to 1 + i.

Sol. xdz
(1,1)

=
(0,0) 1

x(dx + idy) x(dx + idx)


0 1

= (1 + i)
0

xdx x2 2
1

= (1 + i)

=
0

1+i 2

2. Compute the integral


|z|=r

xdz for the positive sense of the circle, in two ways. 1st r2 z+z =z+ on the circle |z| = r 2 z

by use of a parameter and 2nd by observing that x = Sol. Method I-Parametrisation xdz
|z|=r 2

=
0

r cos irei d
2

= ir2
0 2

cos2 + i cos sin d 1 (cos 2 + 1)d r2 2


2 0

= ir2
0

1 sin2d 2

= ir

Method II xdz
|z|=r

|z|=r

z+z dz 2 z r2 + 2 2z z dz + 2 dz r2 dz 2z
1 2i r2 |z|=r z

|z|=r

|z|=r

|z|=r

Since f (z) = z is analytic throughout the disc, the rst integral is 0 by Cauchys theorem. For the second integral: We know by Cauchys integral formula for a circle: r . Therefore the second integral is
2 r2 dz |z|=r 2z

= ir .

3. Compute
|z|=2

dz for the positive sense of the circle. z2 1

Sol. The function z21 doesnt have an anti-derivative on the disk |z| 2. So we can not 1 directly apply the result from section 3.3. We cant use Cauchys theorem. Therefore we parametrise: dz 21 |z|=2 z

2iei d (using substitution z = 2ei ) 4e2i 1 2iei (4e2i 1) d (4e2i 1)(4e2i 1) 8iei 2iei d 17 8 cos 2 6i cos + 10 sin d 17 8 cos 2 6i cos d + 17 8 cos 2

10 sin d 17 8 cos 2

6i cos d (The integrand in the second integral is an odd function of theta. 17 8 cos 2 Hence the second integral is zero.) =

6i cos d (by the evenness of the cosine function) 0 17 8 cos 2 cos = 12i d 0 17 8 cos 2 =2
/2

= 12i
0 /2

cos d + 17 8 cos 2 cos d + 17 8 cos 2 cos d 17 8 cos 2

/2 0 /2

cos d 17 8 cos 2 cos( ) d 17 8 cos 2( ) cos d 17 8 cos 2 =0

= 12i
0 /2

/2 0

= 12i
0

4. Compute
|z|=1

|z 1||dz|

Sol. On |z| = 1, we have z = ei (0 < 2) and dz = iei d so that |z 1|2 = 1+12 cos = 4 sin2 2 , |dz| = d. Thus,
|z|=1 2

|z 1||dz| 2 sin d 2 2
2

=
0

= 4 cos

=8
0

5. Suppose that f (z) is analytic on a closed curve (i.e., f is analytic in a region that contains ). Show that

f (z)f (z)dz is purely imaginary. (The continuity of f (z) is taken

for granted). Sol. Let w = f (z). So, dw = f (z)dz. Also, let Need to show wdw is purely imaginary. Let the closed curve be given by the equation w = w(t) = u(t) + iv(t)(a t b). Since is a closed curve, w(a) = w(b) i.e., u(a) = u(b) and v(a) = v(b). Now by denition, Re

f (z)f (z)dz

= Re

wdw (u(t) iv(t))(u (t) + iv (t))dt


b

= Re = Re
a b

(u(t) iv(t))(u (t) + iv (t))dt (u(t)u (t) + v(t)v (t))dt

=
a

1 b d ((u(t))2 + (v(t))2 )dt 2 a dt 1 = (u(b)2 + v(b)2 u(a)2 v(a)2 ) = 0 (because the curve is closed) 2 Hence the integral is purely imaginary.

Assume that f (z) is analytic and satises the inequality |f (z) 1| < 1 in a region f (z) . Show that dz = 0 for every closed curve in . Here the continuity of f (z) is f (z) taken for granted. 6. Sol. I assume that f should have antiderivative log f provided log f is well-dened. Suppose f then that |f (z) 1| < 1z . We know that log z is a single-valued analytic function 1 C (, 0] with antiderivative . the values of f here avoid (, 0] it follows that, log f z is well-dened and analytic, with derivative f . Hence the integrand is the derivative of an f analytic function on and hence by result on page 107 the integral around any closed curve is 0. [The integral f dz with continuous f , depends only on the end points of f is the derivative of an analytic function on )

7. If P (z) is a polynomial and C denotes the circle |z a| = R, what is the value of P dz. C Sol. Put z = a + Rei , 0 < 2. So z = a + Rei . Hence dz = iRei d. P dz
C

=
C

P (a + Rei )(iRei )d 4

= R2
0

P (a + Rei )(iRei ) d (Rei )2

= R2 n! 2i

P (z)dz = 2iR2 P (a) (by Cauchys integral formula (generalised) i.e., (z a)2 C f (z)dz = f (n) (a), here n = 1) n+1 (z a)

8.

Describe the circumstances under which the formula

log zdz = 0 is meaningful

and true. Sol. In order that

log zdz = 0 is meaningful and true we require that lies in a region

where log z is well-dened and single-valued (otherwise the integration is not well-dened). We know that = C(, 0] is such a region (infact, so is the only connected containing 0 and ). Now I hope to nd that
d dz

log zdz = 0 for any closed curve in by proving that log z is


1 on . z d (z log z dz

the derivative of an analytic function in . We know that log z = Now, it is easy to check, z) = log z there.

Hence a suitable condition is that is a closed curve in . Chennai Mathematical Institute Sipcot IT Park Siruseri, Kanchipuram District TN-603103, INDIA ramen@cmi.ac.in