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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATIONS

REVIEW

MANUSCRIPT NO: 130-06

TITLE: CCl4 decomposition by gliding arc plasma: role of C2 compounds on products distribution

AUTHORS: A. Indarto, J-W Choi, H.Lee, H.K. Song

COMMENTS:
The paper submitted by A. Indarto et al. for consideration for publication in C.E.C. deals with the
gliding arc plasma decomposition of Carbon tetrachloride. The paper thus completes the existing and still
scanty literature relevant to the use of a gliding arc plasma. It develops our understanding of the chemical
properties of the considered discharge. The selected example, i.e., the decomposition of CCl4 , is an interesting
illustration of using new techniques to solve environmental problems.
The title of the paper is concise, clear and reflects the body of the paper.
It must then be considered for publication in C.E.C.

However reading the manuscript suggests some remarks and questions.

General:
1°- The authors use a discharge in air (dry air or wet air is not specified). They then consider that the
main active species responsible for the oxidation of chlorine from Cl(-I) to zero or higher oxidation state is
the oxygen radical O°, which is reasonable due to the high oxidizing character of the species. Surprisingly no
occurrence of any nitrogen compound is considered, although N+ forms at the minimum electrode gap and
molecular species N2 + and N2 * in the plasma plume additionally to NO. The formation of nitrogen oxohalides
such as NOCl or others might then be expected. This point must be seriously examined.
2°- The hypothetical formation of ozone is not considered at all, although it might also be a suitable
oxidizing agent.
3°- The oxidizing power of O° is known (E°[Ogas/OH-] = 1.6 V/NHE and E°[O gas/ H2O] = 2.42 V/NHE)
but these potential values are reported in aqueous medium only. Particular information in CCl4 medium are
welcome, since changing from the potential scale in water to the potential scale in any other medium requires
some extra-thermodynamic assumption that must be explicated.
4°- The considered reactions involve only neutral species, i.e., molecules, atoms and neutral radicals, and
no charged species (except eqn (3)), although anions and radical anions are probably also formed in the
discharge. Have the authors specific arguments in favor of disregarding these charged species and the relevant
reactions in the proposed mechanisms ?

Formal:
P3 Using C1 and C2 symbols may be confusing in the present case where chlorine in
involved. I suggest changing C1 into <C1> (and similarly C2 into <C2>) for organic compounds, which let
Cl unambiguously refer to chlorine.
P3;L28. The authors state that a gliding discharge "can achieve higher flame temperature and
power…. ". What reference temperature do the authors consider ? A development of this assertion is
welcome: the macroscopic temperature strongly depends on the position where it is measured (and on the
working conditions). For example measurements performed at long distance show no thermal effect although
the discharge remains efficient for bacteria inactivation and for the usual (D. Moussa et al., Europ. Phys J.-
AP (2005) 189) chemical effects.
P5; LL25,27. Although the meaning of the acronyms are known (i.e., FID or TCD), they must be
explicated for their first use in a text.
P8. The chemical reactions (1) to (5) (Page 4) are considered as complete reactions (a
single arrow, i.e., ? , is more explicit). The symbol is modified later, i.e., = , for eqns (15-21 and 24-28). Do
this means that equilibriums are involved in the latter case and in Table 1 ?
P9; L9. Should we read : "…when O2 existed" or, better, "…in the presence of O 2 " ?
P9; L14. The difference between O atom and O° is puzzling for me since both species have 6
electrons on the L level: 2s 2 2p4 . It might be clearer to identify the species as O( 3P) and O(1 D). It should
enlighten eqs (22) and (23) are not clearly illustrative of the above sentence.
P9; L 25 Should we read: "….to collide with <C1> " ?
P10; L16. Examples of formed <C2> chlorinated compounds are C2H4 aso, and illustrated in
Fig4a. Fig 4 involves no hydrogenated compound; only C2 Cl4 , C2 Cl5 and C2 Cl5 are present and can be
considered as <C2> species (Fig 4b).
P12; L21 Read " CO2 "
P.13 The literature is scanty on using gliding arc discharges. The following references
might be added:
T. Opalinska et al. on CFC decomposition by gliding arc in ISPC-16 Proc. (Taormina, It, 2003)
J. Fanmoe et al. on the treatment of 111-trichloroethane (Phys Chem. News, 2003 14, 1)
Also :
K.A. Fogkein et al. on the products of CCl2 XY decomposition in thermal plasma [ISPC-17th Proc. Toronto,
Can.2005]
and eventually: F.T. Mak et al. (Wat Res. 1997, 31 ,219) on the e-beam degradation modeling of CCl4

RECOMMENDATION (PLEASE CHECK)

1. I recommend that this paper be published without change. _______.

2. I recommend that this paper be published with changes indicated. _xxx_.

3. I recommend that this paper is marginal. _______.

4. I recommend that this paper not be published. _______.