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MINI-GRAMMAR

ndice
ndice ............................................................................................................................................. 1 Personal pronons ...................................................................................................................... 2 Verb to be.................................................................................................................................. 2 Possessive adjectives ................................................................................................................ 3 Possessives (caso possessivo) .................................................................................................. 3 Verb have got ............................................................................................................................ 3 Indefinite article a/an ................................................................................................................ 4 Definite article the .................................................................................................................... 4 This/these and that/those......................................................................................................... 4 Plurals ........................................................................................................................................ 4 There is/ there are..................................................................................................................... 5 Prepositions of place ................................................................................................................. 5 Prepositions of time .................................................................................................................. 5 Quantifiers some/any ............................................................................................................. 6 Present continuous ................................................................................................................... 6 Question words ......................................................................................................................... 6 Connectors-and,but,or,because................................................................................................ 7 Present simple ........................................................................................................................... 7 Adverbs of frequency ................................................................................................................ 7

MINI-GRAMMAR

Personal pronons
I You He She It We You They Eu Tu Ele Ela Ele/Ela (coisas e animais) Ns Vs Eles Usamos pronomes em vez do nome por exemplo, Maria=ela (she). Em ingls a mesma coisa.

Verb to be
I am You are He is She is It is We are You are They are Eu sou/ estou Tu s/ ests Ele / est Ela / est Ele/ela /est Ns somos/estamos Vocs so/ esto Eles/elas so/esto

O verbo to be em portugus significa ser ou estar

INTERROGATIVE You are from Portugal.

Quando fazemos uma pergunta, alteramos o seguinte: em vez de I am dizemos Am I ? Olha para o exemplo: vs como o verbo to be muda de lugar?

Are you from Portugal?

NEGATIVE I am not from Portugal.

Para escrever uma frase na forma negativa, muito simples: colocamos a palavra not depois do verbo to be.

Abaixo podes ver as vrias formas de escrever o verbo to be.

MINI-GRAMMAR Affirmative Am I Are You Is He Is She Is It Are We Are You They Are Negative I Am not You Are not He Is not She Is not It Is not We Are not You Are not They Are not Am Are Is Is Is Are Are Are Interrogative I? You? He? She? It? We? You? They?

Possessive adjectives
Quando algo pertence a algum podemos usar os possessive adjectives. Personal pronoums I You He,she,it We You they Possessive adjectives My Your His/her/its Our Your Their

meu teu dela/dele nosso vosso deles/delas

This is my book. Is this your bag? Quando algo pertence a algum, podemos mostrar os facto em ingls com um s.

Possessives (caso possessivo)


That is Johns cat. Aquele o gato do joo

Jonhs cat. The boys car.

Repara que quando a palavra termina em s no plural apenas se acrescenta .

Verb have got


Em portugus o verbo have got significa TER Have+not=havent Has+not=hasent

MINI-GRAMMAR

affirmative Have got I Have got You Has got He Has got She Has got It Have got We Have got You They Have got

I You He She It We You They

Negative Havent got Havent got Hasnt got Hasnt got Hasnt got Havent got Havent got Havent got

Have Have Has Has Has Have Have Have

Interrogative I Got? You Got? He Got? She Got? It Got? We Got? You Got? They Got?

Indefinite article a/an


a an A book, a house an egg, an elephant A e an so usados no singular. O artigo a usado antes de palavras que se iniciam com som de consoante. O artigo an usado antes de palavras que se iniciam com som de vogal. O artigo indefinido no se usa no plural ( article ).

Definite article the


The English teacher is great The door is closed. The windows are open. (O professor de ingls fantastico.) (A porta est fechada.) (As janelas esto abertas.)

This/these and that/those


Perto de ns Singular This This is a chair. Plural These These are my parents. Longe de ns Singular That That is a chair. Plural Those Those are sofas.

Plurals
A maioria dos plurais em ingls formada acrescentando um S. Quando os nomes terminam em ay,-ey,-oy,-uy, acrescentamos S.

MINI-GRAMMAR

Quando os nomes terminam em by,-dy,fy,-gy, o Y passa a i e acrescentamos es.

Quando os nomes terminam em, -s,-sh,-ch,x, acrescentamos es.

Quando os nomes terminam em f,-fe, substitumos -f ou fe por ves INRREGULAR PLURALS cat-cats dog-dogs day-days key-keys bus-buses fox-foxes Mouse-mice; Fish-fish; Foot-feet; Tooth-teeth; Child-children; Man-men; Woman-women; Sheep-sheep; Ox-oxen.

There is/ there are


There is a lion in the zoo. (singular) There are four lions in the zoo. (plural)

There is e there are so utilizados para dizemos que existe alguma coisa em determinado stio-h

Prepositions of place
In dentro de On em cima de Under debaixo de Next to ao lado de

As preposies de lugar usam-se para dizer onde est

Prepositions of time
As preposies de tempo usam-se para dizer quando algo acontece. Usa-se com: Meses do ano Estaes do ano Anos Dias da semana Datas Horas Momentos do dia 5

In On At

MINI-GRAMMAR Festividades Momentos do dia antes de Momentos do dia depois de Momentos do dia durante

Before After during

Quantifiers some/any
Question Yes No Is there any milk? Yes, there is some milk. No, there isnt any milk. Are there any oranges? Yes, there are some oranges. No, there arent any oranges. Some e any correspondem aos nossos determinantes indefinidos. Usa-se some com frases afirmativas e any com frases negativas e interrogativas

Present continuous
To be + (verb) ing

A regra simples: usamos o verbo to be e o verbo principal terminado em ING

Affirmative Am playing I Are playing You Is playing He Is playing She Is playing It Are playing We Are playing You They Are playing

VERB PLAY Negative I m not playing You Arent playing He Isnt playing She Isnt playing It Isnt playing We Arent playing You Arent playing They Arent playing

Interrogative Am I Are You Is He Is She Is It Are We Are You Are They

Playing? Playing? Playing? Playing? Playing? Playing? Playing? Playing?

Usamos o present continuous para falar de coisas que esto a acontecer neste momento. What is he doing? Hes reading a book.

Question words
What? How? Where? When? Why? How many? How much? O qu? Qual? Como? Onde? Quando? Porqu? Quantos/as? Quanto? Estas palavras ajudam-te a fazer perguntas.

MINI-GRAMMAR

Connectors-and,but,or,because
And But Or Because E Mas Ou Porque Estas palavras servem para ligar ideias diferentes na frase

Present simple
I get up at 7 oclock ever day. He plays football on Saturdays. I am a student. I live in Madeira. Usamos o presente simple para falar das nossas rotinas, das coisas que fazemos todos os dias. Tambm usamos para falar de quem somos. Na interrogativa usa-se: Do ou does + Sujeito + Verbo no infinitivo Interrogative Do I Play? Do You Play? Does He Play? Does She Play? Does It Play? Do We Play? Do You Play? Do They Play?

As regras que precisas saber so simples: Na afirmativa formas so todas iguais ao infinito, exceto na 3 pessoa do singular, em que se acrescenta um S ou es. Affirmative Play I Paly You Plays He Plays She Plays It Paly We Play You They Play Na negativa usa-se: Dont ou doesnt + Verbo no infinito

I You He She It We You They

Negative Dont play Dont play Doesnt play Doesnt play Doesnt play Dont play Dont play Dont play

Adverbs of frequency

MINI-GRAMMAR

ADEVERBS OF FREQUENCY Always-sempre Usually-normalmente Often-frequentemente Sometimes- s vezes Never-nunca

Podemos usar os adverbs of frequency juntamente com o Present Simple para dizer quantas vezes algo acontece. Se acontece muitas ou poucas vezes, se acontece sempre ou no acontece nada. V o exemplo: I always start school at 9 oclock.

We Nota: temos de ter cuidado com a posio do adverb of frequency. Ele fica ANTES do We verbo ou DEPOIS do verbo to be.

We are always late for school. The teacher is never late for school.