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The role of the remote sensing in resource exploration

Application to Oil Exploration

Resource Exploration Process Flow

Remote-sensing for Oil Exploration


Geology Source rock: Formation containing elements of oil sources. Reservoir rock: Porous strata for oil deposits. Cap rock: Formations preventing oil displacement. Anticline/fault structure: Structures for oil deposits. Strata continuity: Oil migration/accumulation paths. Oil seepage points from the ocean oor: Identication of oil elds.
Strike and dip derived from ASTER DEM

Geological structure
Provided by JAPEX Provided by JAPEX

Preliminary Survey
Assessment of exploration target areas
Remote-sensing oers geology

High-level/Detailed Survey
Geological and geophysical surveys for the selected area
Remote-sensing provides

Pilot Drilling/Reserves evaluation


Pilot drilling and reserve estimation of the target area
Providing topography,

Development/Production
Plant construction and production roll-out
Remote-sensing data is used

Oil slick

Application to Onshore Exploration


ASTER VNIR images are powerful data sources for photo-geological analyses. In addition to the interpretation of geological structures to identify folds and faults, ASTER provides with data for estimating the geological composition (e. g. source rock, reservoir rock, cap rock) and for satellite-based mineral mapping. ASTER Digital Elevation Model is used to produce geologic cross sections. The cross section shown in this page reveals an anticlinal structure, a convex fold, which suggests likely oil entrapment. Space-born remote-sensing provides essential information for oil exploration.

and geological structure information over a wide area, which is crucial for selection of mining areas.

high-level geological information and detailed topographic data for survey planning (e. g. selection of specic survey locations).

vegetation and land use information, remote-sensing is useful for site selection of test and evaluation wells and equipment transport logistics planning.

for evaluation of the production site, pipeline routing and monitoring of environmental impact.

Strike and dip on the geologic map

ASTER VNIR image

5km

Remote-sensing data
Resource exploration primarily uses data from optical (multispectral, hyperspectral) sensors and synthetic aperture radar.

Legend
Quaternary NeogenePaleogene

ASTER

ASTER data from its visible, near-, shortwave and thermal infrared sensors are useful for topographical/geological analyses and mineral mapping.

PALSAR

PALSAR s microwave scattering intensity data is useful for topographical analyses and studies of mineral distribution and geological structures. Ground deformation assessment uses PALSAR s microwave radar phase data.

Upper Cretaceous

ASTER spectral bands


0.52 0.60m 0.63 0.69m 0.76 0.86m 1.60 0 1.700m

2.145 2.185m 2.185 2.225m 2.235 2.285m 2.295 2.365m 2.360 2.430m

8.125 8.475m 8.475 8.825m 8.925 9.275m 10.25 10.95m 10.95 11.65m 23.6cm

PALSAR spectral region (L-band)

Fault Fault (inferred)

Band

1 2 3N 3B

5 6 78 9

10 11121314

HH
Ge

HV VH VV
Wavelength in log (cm)

Anticlinal structure
0 5km

ol og ica ro lc s ss
Satellite-based geological map Central Syria
rre fe

Synclinal structure Geological boundary

Wavelength (m)

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

2.0

2.4

8.0

12.0

1.0

10

100

t ul Fa (in

ec tio

n( in

VNIR
Visible and near-infrared

SWIR
Shortwave infrared

TIR
Thermal infrared

Microwave

r fe re d)

False-color and 3D visualization of topographic and geological information

Clay mineral classication by spectral analysis

Igneous rock classication by silicate mineral content analysis

Topographic feature interpretation based on backscatter intensity distribution The folding structure in a tropical rain forest

Ground deformation analysis using phase data Ground deformation attributable to a large earthquake

Application to Offshore Exploration


Multi-temporal SAR images are used to pin-point the origin of the surface oil lm ( oil slick ). It can be assumed that the oil seeped from the ocean oor within an area where multiple origins of oil slicks are concentrated (the circle in the image indicates an estimated leakage point). Oil samples are collected from the oil slicks to determine if they are indeed seepage from an oil eld under the sea oor. As shown in this example, oil slicks were detected using PALSAR data to estimate the existence of an oil eld. ASTER-provided land geological data and geophysical exploration information are used for comprehensive analyses of sea and land areas.

(Red: alunite, Green: kaolinite, Blue: illite)

(Lavender: acidic rock, White: mac rock)

Geological structures in tropical rain forests

Ground deformation associated with a large earthquake

For geological faults, lineaments, local and regional geology, and geo-morphological analysis

Mineral mapping

Igneous rock mapping

Geological structure of tropical rain forests

Ground deformation

Oshore of Refugio Island, Negros, Philippines