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PIAGET & INHELDER Kognitif n geometry: 2-4 th pro kontekstual : belum dpapat membezakan 2d, 3d 4-7 th pra operasi

si : mula dapat membezakan 2d, 3d 7-11 th konkrit : mula memahami unsur logik, nombor, berat dan susunan. Formula luas dan isipadu boleh diterapkan The authors' investigations have been concerned with the order and manner in which children begin to imagine or visualize the various spatial entities and spatial characteristics of objects. They report that the child first recognizes various objects by sense of touch alone and is followed by building up and using certain primitive relationships. Contrary to the historical development of geometry which began with treatment of straight lines, angles, distances, and plane figures. Piaget and Inhelder find that the child begins by noting the topological as opposed to the metric properties of objects. He begins by ignoring straight lines, angles, parallels, and the regular forms thereby constituted and considers only qualities such as closure, proximity, separation and continuity. From such beginnings he is finally able to deal with metric properties such as conservation of direction, distance and relative operation. The child is thus able to establish a spatial "schema" or network of dimensions in which the spatial properties of objects can be organized. The authors develop the theories advanced in previous works to indicate the nature of the psychological mechanisms required to mediate spatial properties and endeavor to show the interrelationships between logical and psychological systems laid down.

VAN HIELES Level 1: Recognition. The student identifies, names, compares and operates on geometric figures (e.g., triangles, angles, or intersecting) according to their appearance Level 2: Analysis. The student analyzes figures in terms of their components and relationship among components and discovers properties/rules of a class of shapes empirically (e.g. by folding, measuring, using grid or diagram). Level 3: Ordering. The student logically interrelates previously discovered properties / rules by giving or following informal arguments. Level 4: Deduction. The student proves theorems deductively and established interrelationships among networks of theorems.

Level 5: Rigor/accurate. The students establishes theorems in different postulation systems and analyzes/compares these systems

HOFFER Hoffer invented a two dimensional matrix to represent geometrical thinking: the first dimension consists of five geometrical skills (Visual, Descriptive, Drawing, Logical and Applied). The second one deals with the levels of geometric thinking (Recognition, Observation, Analysis, Ordering, Deduction and Abstraction). (Hoffer, 1981, p15).

The three geometric skills (Visual, Descriptive and Logical) and three levels of geometrical thinking (Recognition, Analysis and Deduction). Table (1): the levels of geometric thinking distributed according to geometric skills. Level Recognition Skill Recognize geometric Visual shapes by its' picture without knowing the shapes prosperities Naming a geometric shape. Explain Descriptive statements that describe geometric shape Recognize the relationship between different kinds of geometric shapes Describes the relationships between geometric shapes. Defines geometric concepts clearly. Understand the meaning Logical of shape reservation in different situations. Uses the properties of geometric shapes to identify the subset relation Uses logic to prove and being able to deduce new knowledge from given facts Uses information about a geometric shape to deduce more information Understand the difference between the definition, postulate and theorem Analysis Deduction