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UNIV.

of

TOROHTO

BULLETIN
OF

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


VOLUME
4

PUBLISHED FOR THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY AT

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS


12

(H. M. MCKECHNIE, Secretary) LIME GROVE, OXFORD ROAD, MANCHESTER

LONGMANS, GREEN & COMPANY LONDON 39 PATERNOSTER ROW


:

NEW YORK

443-449 FOURTH AVENUE, AND THIRTIETH STREET CHICAGO PRAIRIE AVENUE AND TWENTY-FIFTH STREET BOMBAY: HORNBY ROAD CALCUTTA: 6 OLD COURT HOUSE STREET MADRAS 167 MOUNT ROAD
:

BULLETIN
OF

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


MANCHESTER

EDITED BY

THE LIBRARIAN

VOLUME
APRIL, 1917

4
/*
\

JULY, 1918

<&

MANCHESTER:

LONDON,

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS LONGMANS, GREEN & COMPANY NEW YORK, CHICAGO, BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, MADRAS
1917-1918

CONTENTS.
PAGE

Library Notes and

News

1,

179, 361

Steps towards the Reconstruction of the Library of the University . . .124 of Louvain
.

Classified List of Additions to the Library

....
.

318,467
312

Buckle (D.

P.).

Biblical References in a Sahidic

MS.

in

the John

Ry lands Library
Coptic Literature
in

the John

Ry lands Library
of

.119
.

Conway
Herford

(R. S.).
(C. H.).

The Venetian Point

View

in

Roman

History

369

The Poetry

of Lucretius
in

263
the

Some Early Judaic-Christian Documents Mingana (A.). John Rylands Library


Moulton (W. R) and Peake
(A. S.).

59
10

James Hope Moulton: 1863-1917


of Paulinism

Peake

(A. S.).
J.).

The Quintessence

....
.

285
411

Perry (W.

War

and

Civilisation.

Maps
. .

Poel (W.). A Chronological Table shewing what is proved and what is not proved about Shakespeare's Life and Works

465

Powicke (F. J.). Love Story


Rivers (W. H. R.).

Puritan

Idyll,

or the Rev. Richard Baxter's

434

Dreams and

Primitive Culture
Illustrated Illustrated

Smith (G.

Elliot).

Incense and Libations.

Tout

(T. F.).

Mediaeval

Town

Planning.

...

.387 .191
26

THE TRUSTEES, GOVERNORS, AND PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY.
TRUSTEES. WILLIAM CARNELLEY. The RIGHT HON. LORD COZENS-HARDY OF LETHERINGSETT,
P.C.

GERARD N. FORD, J.P. SIR ALFRED HOPKINSON,


WILLIAM
SIR SIR
A.

K.C., B.C.L., LL.D., etc.

LINNELL.
LL.D.

GEORGE WATSON MACALPINE, J.P., THOMAS THORNHILL SHANN, J.P.


EVAN SPICER, J.P. ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD,
Lirr.D.,

SIR SIR

LL.D.

WILLIAM CARNELLEY.

REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNORS.* SIR HENRY A. MIERS,


etc.

D.Sc., F.RS.,

GERARD N. FORD, J.P. CHARLES HAROLD HERFORD,


Lirr.D.

HENRY PLUMMER, J.P. THOMAS T. SHANN, J.P. L. E. KASTNER, M.A. THOMAS F. TOUT, M.A., F.B.A. SIR GEORGE WATSON MACALPINE, CHARLES E. VAUGHAN, M.A., LiTT.D.
M.A.
SIR
J.P.,

LL.D.

CO-OPTATIVE GOVERNORS.*
The REV. C. L. BEDALE, M.A. SIR ALEXANDER PORTER, J.P. The REV. ROBERT MACKINTOSH, M.A., The REV. F. J. POWICKE, M.A., PH.D. D.D. The REV. J. E. ROBERTS, M.A., B.D. The REV. J. T. MARSHALL, M.A., D.D. The RT. REV. BISHOP J. E. WELLDON,
A. S.

PEAKE,

M.A., D.D.

D.D.

HONORARY GOVERNORS.t
The RIGHT HON.

LORD COZENS-HARDY CANON H. D. RAWNSLEY, M.A. OF LETHERINGSETT, P.C. SIR A. W. WARD, Lirr.D., LL.D. The RT. REV. The BISHOP OF LIN- The LORD MAYOR OF MANCHESTER. The MAYOR OF SALFORD. COLN, D.D. SIR ALFRED HOPKINSON, K.C., LL.D., SIR WILLIAM VAUDREY, J.P.
etc.

CHAIRMAN OF COUNCIL
VICE-CHAIRMAN HON. TREASURER HON. SECRETARY LIBRARIAN SUB-LIBRARIAN CURATOR OF MANUSCRIPTS ASSISTANT-LIBRARIAN ... ASSISTANT-SECRETARY
*

...

SIR

GEORGE WATSON MACALPINE,


J.P.

J.P.,

LL.D.

...
...

WILLIAM CARNELLEY. SIR THOMAS T. SHANN,

...
...

GERARD N. FORD, J.P. HENRY GUPPY, M.A.


GUTHRIE VINE, M.A. RENDEL HARRIS, M.A.,
JULIAN PEACOCK. JAMES JONES.
of the Council.

...
...

D.LiTT., etc.

The Representative and Co-optative Governors constitute the Council.


f

Honorary Governors are not Members

RULES AND REGULATIONS OF

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY.


1.

The use

of the Library

is

restricted to purposes of research

and

re-

ference, and under no pretence whatever must any Book, Manuscript, or Map be removed from the building.
2.

The Library is open to holders of Readers' Tickets daily, as follows Mondays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Tuesdays and Fridays, from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. Saturdays, from 10
:

a.m. to 2 p.m.

The Library

will

New
3.

Year's Day,

be closed on Sundays, Good Friday, Christmas Day, Bank Holidays, and the whole of Whit-week.

in the Library must apply the Librarian, specifying their profession or business, their place of abode, and the particular purpose for which they seek admission.*

Persons desirous of being admitted to read


in writing to

4.

Every such application must be made at least two clear days before admission is required, and must bear the signature and full address of a person of recognised position, whose address can be identified from the ordinary sources of reference, certifying from personal knowledge of the applicant that he or she will

make proper use of the

Library.

5.

If

such application or recommendation be unsatisfactory, the Librarian shall withhold admission and submit the case to the Council of
for their decision.

Governors
6.

The Tickets

of Admission, which are available for twelve months, are not transferable, and must be produced when required.

7.

No

special order
8.

person under eighteen years of age is admissible, except under a from the Council of Governors.

Readers may not write upon, damage, turn down the leaves, or make any mark upon any Book, Manuscript, or Map belonging to the Library nor may they lay the paper on which they are writing upon
;

any Book, Manuscript, or Map.


9.

The erasure
is strictly

of any

mark or

writing on any Book, Manuscript, or

Map

prohibited.

10.

No

tracing shall be allowed to be the Librarian.


in the

made without

express permission of

11.

Books

Open Reference Shelves may be consulted without any but after use they are to be left on the tables instead of formality, being replaced on the shelves.

12.

Other books may be obtained by presenting to the Assistant at the counter one of the printed application filled slips
properly
up.
*

Forms

of Application for Reader's Ticket

may

be had on application to the

Librarian.

RULES AND REGULATIONS


13.

given they held responsible for such Books, Manuscripts, or tickets remain uncancelled.
14.

Readers before leaving the Library are required to return to the Assistant at the counter all Books, Manuscripts, or Maps for which Readers are have tickets, and must reclaim their tickets.

Maps

so long as the

Books of great value and rarity may be consulted only of the Librarian or one of his Assistants.
Readers before entering the Library must deposit
umbrellas, parcels, etc., at the Porter's
receive a check for same.

in

the presence

15.

Lodge

in

all wraps, canes, the Vestibule, and

16.

Conversation, loud talking, and smoking are strictly prohibited in every part of the building.

17.

Readers are not allowed in any other part of the building save the Library without a special permit.
Readers and visitors to the Library are strictly forbidden to offer any fee or gratuity to any attendant or servant.

18.

19.

Any
The

infringement of these Rules will render the privilege of admission

liable to forfeiture.

20.

privilege of admission is
(a)
(b)

granted upon the following conditions

That That

it

may at any time be suspended by the Librarian. it may at any time be withdrawn by the Council

of

Governors.
21.

Complaints about the service of the Library should be made to the Librarian immediately after the occurrence of the cause for complaint, and if written must be signed with the writer's name and address.

22. All

communications respecting the use of the Library must be addressed to the Librarian.

HENRY GUPPY.
N.B.
earnestly requested that any Reader observing a defect damage to any Book, Manuscript, or Map will point out the same to the Librarian.
It is

in or

ADMISSION OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC AND VISITORS.


The general public are admitted to view the Library on Tuesday and Friday afternoons between the hours of two and six, and on the second Wednesday of each month between the hours of seven and nine in the evening. Visitors to Manchester from a distance, at any other time when the Library is open, will be admitted for the same purpose upon application to
the Librarian.

JAMES HOPE MOULTON


1863-1917

BULLETIN OF THE JOHN RYLANDS -LIBRARY

MANCHESTER
VOL. 4

MAY-AUGUST,

1917

No.

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS.

SINCE

the publication of the last issue of the BULLETIN, the library, in common with the whole world of scholar- PROFESSOR
ship,

has

sustained

loss

regarded as irreparable, in the death,


cumstances, of Professor James
the
pitiless barbarity of the

which can only be HOPE under grievous cir- MOULTON.

against
in
it,

which

his

Moulton, who fell a victim to on the 7th of April, in a war Germans, whole being revolted, though he gave to it, and lost

Hope

a son of great promise,

who was

killed in action.

Elsewhere

in the present issue,

through the kindness of the re-

take this opportunity of expressing our grateful thanks for their ready response to our request for help,
spective contributors, to

whom we

Biographical Professor Moulton], with some account of his literary legacies," from the pen of his brother, the Rev. W. Fiddian Moulton ;

we

are able to offer to our readers an authoritative


[of

"

Sketch

followed by

"A
its
;

Record

of Professor

Explanation of

Significance,"

by

his friend

Moulton's Work, with some and colleague, Professor


of a recent portrait

A.

S.

Peake

and accompanied by a reproduction

of the Professor.

We also
news

to reprint his letter

have the permission of Dr. Rendel Harris to the Rev. W. F. Moulton, in which was comto reach this country, apart

municated the

first

from the

tele-

gram, of the tragic death of his friend.


It

may appear
add any

attempt to
pens, but

further

almost like presumption on the part of the editor to words to these tributes from other and abler

we

claim the privilege of adding our

the halo of appreciation which already surrounds the


scholar, saint,

own modest tribute to name of the great


it

proud

privilege to

When

and gentleman, with whom for many years be on terms of the closest intimacy.
in those pathetic lines
is

was our

Milton

sang

For Lycidas

dead

dead ere
I

his

prime
peer

Young

Lycidas, and hath not

left his

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


for

and again when Tennyson poured out


tion

the sweetest soul that ever looked through human eyes," there were those who deemed such words the fantasy and extravagance
seen closely and felt intimately well beloved, especially if that soul be exceptionally pure, and lofty, and gifted, as was our friend, can appreciate the deep underlying significance of such splenjdid
of grief.

"

his passionate yearning

lamenta-

Yet, those of us

who have
is

the occult charm of a soul that

recognition.

Of James Hope Moulton


a
spirit

it is

the simple truth to say, that he

was
into

so exceptional that everything with

which he was brought

relation during his passage through this world,

came

to be, through that

contact, glorified

by a touch

of the ideal.

Whether he poscontemporaries he stood supreme. sessed the greatest genius we have ever known, is a question we will

Among

his

not undertake to determine.


genius of
itself

It is

of the

man we

desire to speak,

and

does not make the man.

When we

deal with

men

genius and character must be jointly taken into consideration, and the relation between the two, together with the effect upon the aggregate,
is infinitely

variable.

Dr. Moulton was endowed with a capacity for tenacious, loyal,

warm-hearted, and tender friendship, such as is rarely met with, and it is an interesting fact of human psychology, that there could be so
genuine an attachment of hearts where the mental powers lay severed from the first by a distance really immeasurable. Perhaps it was, as
in the case of sleep

occasionally to

and food, which within certain limits are supposed replace one another, that an unusual wealth in sympathy

may be made

to abate certain

demands

of intellect for correspondence

which would otherwise be inexorable.

What was said of Bishop Selwyn may be said with equal force of Dr. Moulton, that he was a man whose character is summed up from " Alpha to Omega in the single word noble ". His temper was as sweet as his manners were winsome, whilst his conduct was spotless. " Anima Indeed, he was that rare and beautiful and blessed personality
naturaliter Christiana ".

From

the time of his coming to Manchester Dr. Moulton took an

active interest in the affairs of the Library, being at once appointed to

a seat on the Council of Governors, in succession to the Rev. Dr.

Randies.
writer,

were constantly sought by the and never without advantage to the institution and its readers.

His advice and

assistance

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS


As

a lecturer he was ever ready to place his stores of learning at the service of the public, in a form at once attractive and illuminating,

and

for

many

years in succession he

was a valued

contributor to the

library series of lectures,

and always attracted large and appreciative

audiences.

a meeting of the Council of Governors, held at the library " The on the 23rd of April, the following resolution was passed
:

At

governors desire to place on record the profound sorrow with which they learned of the tragic death of their beloved colleague, Dr. James

Hope

Moulton.

The brilliant

scholarship of Dr. Moulton,

which had

him more than European fame, was placed unreservedly at won the service of the Library, and his loss can only be regarded as irrefor

parable.
distinction

Associated with that scholarship was a personality of rare

and

attractiveness, in

which strength and gentleness, courage


of
its

and modesty were amongst the most conspicuous governors mourn his loss, not only as a colleague
but also as one,

attributes.

The

of outstanding ability,
their highest

who by
to Dr.

his qualities of heart

had won

personal esteem and affectionate regard.

The

deepest sympathy

Moulton' s only brother, the Rev.

governors extend their W. Fiddian

and Helen, who thus


father."

Moulton, and to the son and daughter of their late colleague, Harold in twenty months have lost mother, brother and

cannot refrain from adding a word of congratulation to Dr. Rendel Harris upon his escape from the dreadful death

We

DR

exposure to which Dr. Moulton succumbed. RENDEL Twice within the space of a few months were the vessels, upon which Dr. Harris travelled, torpedoed and sunk, by the " self-constituted apostles of culture," and on each occasion he was

from

snatched, as

it

were, from the very jaws of death.

Dr. Harris was


first

on

his

way

to India to join his friend,

when he

suffered the
".

shock,

through the sinking of the

"

City of

Birmingham

His health

suffered

in consequence of exposure in

an open boat, and he decided not to continue his journey, but to remain in Egypt, there to await the return of Dr. Moulton, so as to make the journey back to England in com-

pany with him.


the

"

City of Paris,"

fated vessel,

Together they sailed for home from Port Said on and the few days preceding the sinking of the illwhich they spent together, were for them days of pure,

unalloyed happiness, during which there was an uninterrupted com-

4
munion
of

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


spirit,

and flow

of soul.

We

must

refer readers to

Dr.

Harris's letter for the sequel of events, during which these

two

scholars

the one to survive, whilst the other succumbed. together faced death, are profoundly grateful for the life that has been spared, and we are glad to be able to announce that Dr. Harris, who has recovered

We

back again at work, has promised to come to Manchester on Tuesday, the 23rd of October, to resume his " The lectures on the origin of the Greek cults, when he will deal with
from
this series of

shocks,

and

is

Origin and Meaning of Apple Cults ". It may not be out of place to add that during his stay in Egypt

Dr. Harris was actively engaged

in

hunting for papyri for this Library,

making what may prove to be some very Fortunately he did not attempt to bring these finds important finds. but left them in safe custody in Egypt, until such time as with him,

and that he succeeded

in

they can be transported to England without

risk.

is the sixth volume Amongst " the work entitled Mythology of all Races," the somewhat ambitious aim of which is a complete mythology of

the recent accessions to the library

of

the world in thirteen volumes.

The

present volume,

MYTHOOfY
I

dealing with Indian and Iranian mythologies, is furnished with a fairly full bibliography, a profusion of excellent plates, but no
index.

The
J.

Indian section

is

dealt with

by Professor Keith, a recogin the exiled University of

nized authority, whilst the Iranian section has been entrusted to Dr.

Albert

Carnoy, the Professor of Zend,

Louvain.

This reference to Iranian mythology reminds us that Professor

J.

H. Moulton,

just

before leaving India, completed the

PROFESSOR

8 manuscript of what unfortunately proved to be his last contribution to the studies he loved so well, which is to OF THE " The Treasure of the be published under the title Magi ". Dr. Moulton very wisely, as events have proved, took the

yS^^RF

precaution of having three typed copies of his manuscript made, one


of

which he

left

behind him

in India, the

second was sent

home

to his

brother the Rev.

Fiddian Moulton, whilst the third copy went down with many other papers in the ill-fated " City of Paris ". Sir Rabindranath Tagore's books continue to fall, as one of our
contemporaries describe them, like the leaves of Vallombrosa, and

W.

whatever

may be

said of

him otherwise, no one can dispute

his in-

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS


dustry.
tains

One

of the latest

volumes

entitled

"

My Reminiscences" conRABIN DRAREMINIS-

an account

of the author's early life written in his

fiftieth

year, before
in

he started on

his trip to

Europe and

America

1912.

The book

presents an interesting pic-

ture of a boy's life in a large household before European It permits one to customs had encroached on the native manner.

understand the

sort of intellectual

the budding poet.

Some

of Tagore's

and moral atmosphere that enveloped comments on the influence of

English literature are particularly enlightening.


the young

The

literary

gods of
it

Hindu were Shakespeare,

Milton, and Byron, and

was

Readers will be the passion of these authors that most stirred him. to know that a complete set, at least, of this author's latest works glad
are to be found on the shelves of the library.
It

may

interest our readers to

know

that the war, according to a

statement of Sir Alfred

between thirty and

Mond, has produced a library of LITERA The war has TURE OF thousand volumes. forty already lasted nearly three years, and it seems difficult to realize that on an average between thirty and forty volumes relating
have been published every day, including Sundays, throughout that The National War Museum, which is now in course of period.
to
it

formation, will require a vast

amount

of space to
It is

accommodate the books

alone, to say nothing of engravings.


least eighty

thousand portraits of

computed that there are at Napoleon and engravings illustrating

his career, but the pictorial chronicles of this

war seem likely to run into millions by the time peace is signed. We do not profess to make anylike an exhaustive collection of this material, indeed much of it is of thing a purely ephemeral character, and one or two collections in the country will serve all purposes, but we are careful to add to our shelves the works
of outstanding importance,

which are

likely to

be

of service to students

of the future,

who

undertake research upon

In a recent issue of

"The

period of upheaval. " Manchester Guardian (June 16th)


this

there appeared an illuminating and timely article from " the pen of our colleague, Dr. Mingana, on the Aims of

THE AIMS OF TURKEY.

deep and subtle methods employed by the perfidious Young Turks, not only to debar Christians of all denominations in the Ottoman Empire from acquiring landed and in case they already held any to dispossess them of it property,
Turkey,"
in
for us the
;

which he has described

but to

make Constantinople

the nerve centre of a vastly extended

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

'cloak should be spread over all races and empire, in which the Islamic The significance of this Pancreeds within its extended borders.

Islamic policy will be. better understood when it is realized that the empire assigned to the Turks is most un-Turkish, in other words that

the vast majority of the inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire are not Turks, and that in some districts they are outnumbered by at least

twenty to one.

One
so
if it

barrier in the

way

to the realization of this plan


little

was Armenia,
the map, and

was decided

to eliminate that

country from

we do

not already

know how

ruthlessly they set to


in their

work

to

" Mingana has given from the Holy War" proclamation, circulated by the Turks, will at once dispel any doubts we may have had in our minds upon the subject.

remove not only that obstacle but any other that stood

way, the extracts which Dr.

We cannot
How

do

better than reproduce the translated passages of the

proclamation for the benefit of those of our readers who may not have " Manchester Guardian ". access to the " often have the savage Russians, the traitorous English, the

Frenchmen, born
planted their

impure parentage, yet proud of their baseness, How unclean flags upon your pure and holy mountains ?
of

often have they seized

you by your

lifeless, spiritless

feet

and hands

and

you in the mire ? Oh, you poor, helpless people of India Oh, Bokhara Oxus, and you wretched tribes of Turkey Go and Turkistan, dying under the bloody hand of Russia
rolled

and

of the

forth,

ye Moslems,

into the places of

blood and groans


.
.

there see the


history
!

ruined countries of Islam, and learn a lesson.

Read your

Look

at the despised graves of

your kings
all

If

you

desire honour

and

glory, houris

and damsels, behold

are waiting for you.

Eternal

joys, the shade of green trees, houris, angels are in the grasp of your

sword.

. '

Cause the minarets and mountains


!

to resound once

more

the cry,

Allah

Allah
"
!

Holy War

'

Oh, Moslems, blow the

trumpet everywhere " " This religious document written by the religious
speaks for itself.

Young

Turks,

An appeal was made a few weeks ago by a correspondent of the New York " Nation " on behalf of the Societe de Lin- LA SOCIT
guistique
its

de Paris, a body which has always had amongst GUISTIQUE members a number of scholars of real eminence. In DE PARISit

spite of the war,

has bravely kept up the publications of

"
its

Me-

LIBRARY NOTES AND. NEWS

moires," a collection of original investigations in nearly every field of " but, owing Bulletin/' or record of proceedings linguistics, and its
;

to military necessities, the treasury of this little


is

devoted band of scholars

studies is well-nigh depleted, whereas an abundance of excellent pass on this appeal in case there may be clamouring for print. amongst those of our readers who are interested in the scientific study

We

of

language,

some who

will regard

it

as a privilege to assist this

struggling society to keep alight the


ship.
surer,

fire

upon the

altar of scholar-

annual subscription is twenty francs, payable to the TreaThe Monsieur Le Mertz, 16 Rue de Birague, Paris, IVe

The

publications of the Society


In

may be

America a National Board

seen in the John Rylands Library. of Historical Service has been

formed, composed of Gaillard Hunt, Charles D. Hazen, Victor S. James, T. Shotwell, F. J. Turner, and others,
for the purpose of directing historical energies
in

THE MOBI

^^STO

the

RIANS FOR
be needed

sanest directions.

Professor

A. C. McLaughlin,

writing

on behalf
to
is

of the board, points out that historical writers will

keep the people informed and to aid in creating what they believe a sound and wholesome public opinion to satisfy the demand for
;

correct interpretative information

upon

special

to help historians of the future to understand the activity

European problems, and and psy-

There are those chology of the American nation during these days. who believe that a similar board possessing plenary powers might render
useful service in this country.

In the present issue


articles

we commence

the publication of a series of

dealing with the Judaeo-Christian documents in

the John Rylands Library, to be continued, from time


to
T-I

time,

as the

demands upon our space

Ihese documents comprise importance, dealing with history,

..,.,, medited

texts or

-iii THE JOHN considerable


RYLANDS RARY
]
-

will allow.

ME NTS

IN

theology, mysticism,

and patrology of early Christianity and contemporary Judaism. The texts will be edited by Dr. Mingana, and will be furnished with a
translation

and

critical

apparatus.
of

document on Clement
followed by a

Rome,

present instalment contains a sheds new light on the comwhich


first

The

plicated Clementine literature of the

centuries of our era.

This

is

new

apocryphal writing,
of

attributed to
in

Shem, the son of


document
is

Noah, the main interest which is ascribed to this

which centres

an agricultural horoscope,

Biblical patriarch.

The

third

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

quotation from Andronicus, the philosopher (circa \ 00 B.C.) and Asaph, the historian of the Hebrews, which gives first-hand information of the

nomenclature of the twelve signs of the zodiac, and their supposed


fluence on the destinies of mankind.

in-

The
will

ensuing session.
the second
case.

following series of public lectures has been arranged for the It should be noticed that the first lecture FORTH-

be given towards the end of September, and not on SERIES^F Wednesday in October, -as is usually the LECTURES

EVENING LECTURES

(7.30 p.m.).
"

The Work of Professor Wednesday, 26th September, 1917. James Hope Moulton." By A. S. Peake, M.A., D.D., Professor
of Biblical Exegesis in the Victoria University of

Manchester.

Wednesday, 10th October, 1917.

"The

Venetian

point

of

View

in

Roman
1

History."

By

R. S.

Con way,
"

Litt.D.,

Hulme

Professor of Latin in the Victoria University of Manchester.

Wednesday,
(Illustrated

4th November, 1917.

The

Birth of Aphrodite."
Elliot Smith,

with Lantern Pictures.)


of

By G.
in

M.A.,

M.D., F.R.S., Professor


Manchester.

Anatomy

the Victoria University of

Wednesday, 12th December, 1917.


Warfare."

"

Mediaeval and

Modern

(Illustrated with Lantern Pictures.) By T. F. Tout, M.A., F.B.A., Bishop Fraser Professor of Mediaeval and Ecclesi-

astical

History in the Victoria University of Manchester. "Shakespearean Stage Wednesday, 9th January, 1918. with Lantern Pictures.) Costumes." By William (Illustrated
Poel,

Founder and Director

of the

Elizabethan Stage Society.


1918.
J.

Wednesday, 13th February,


(Illustrated

"War
Perry,

and

Civilization."

with Diagrams.)
13th

By W.
by
1918.

B.A.

On

this

occasion the chair will be taken

Professor Elliot Smith.


in English Professor of English D.Litt.,

Wednesday,
Poetry."

March,

"Norse Myth

By

C.

H. Herford, M.A.,

Literature in the Victoria University of Manchester.

to give the

April Professor Richard G. Moulton has promised " lectures Lear a Moral Problem Shakespeare's " Fiction as the Experimental Side of Human Dramatized," and
in

Sometime

two

'

Philosophy," which were unavoidably postponed

last

year,

if

con-

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS


ditions of transatlantic travel render the crossing

9
possible.

from America

The

dates of the lectures will

be announced

later.

AFTERNOON LECTURE

(3 p.m.).

"The Origin and Meaning of Tuesday, 23rd October, 1917. Apple Cults." By J. Rendel Harris, M.A., Litt.D., D.Theol., etc.,
Hon. Fellow
Clare College, Cambridge. Evidence of the unabated interest in our scheme of reconstruction
of
is

of the library of the exiled University of Louvain,

to

LOU VAIN
Y RECON! STRUCTION.

be found

in the sixth

list

of contributions,
1

which

we

print

Even this elsewhere in the present issue (pp. 24- 1 78). list does not by any means complete the record of gifts to date, but

we

are again compelled, for considerations of space, to hold over a list of much greater length of the most recent contributions until our next
issue.

As we
Dixon, of
purchase

have pointed

out,

more

at length,

siderable impetus

was given

to the progress of the

on another page, conscheme by Miss


in the

Cambridge, through her advocacy


in the market.

press

of

the

of certain sections of the library of the late Professor

Gwatkin,

which was

In thanking the various donors for their generous co-operation,

we

take the opportunity of renewing and emphasizing our appeal for offers
of suitable books, or contributions of

money,

to assist us in this en.

deavour to

restore, at

least in

some measure, the resources

of the

crippled University.

From considerations of space we have been compelled to hold " over the customary List of Recent Accessions to the NEXT " ISSUE for publication in our next issue, which will Library also include an illustrated amplification of Professor Elliot Smith's " The Relationship of the Egyptian practice of Mummificalecture,
-

tion to the

Development

of

Civilization,

Incense and Libations"; Professor C.

H.

with special reference to Herford's lecture, "The


"

Poetry

of

Lucretius"; and Professor Peake's lecture,

The Quint-

essence of Paulinism"

JAMES HOPE MOULTON.


1863-1917.
1.

A BIOGRAPHICAL

SKETCH, WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF HIS LITERARY LEGACIES.

BY THE REV. W. FIDDIAN

MOULTON,

M.A.

THE

sad tragedy of 7th April has appealed with force to very many, very varied, and very scattered communities. Even those

who are most disposed to condone anything that is German cannot escape the feeling that there is something here which it is not easy " witness Deissmann's plea concerning to defend crossing the for"

bidden zone
nationality the

while to those

who

are English in

spirit

as well as in
criminal,

whole proceeding stands out as conspicuously

and

pathetically wasteful.

Scholarship, religion, politics, friendship


;

these

and other spheres are left sadly poorer and from all parts of the world and from all classes of the community have poured in expressions of affection and esteem.
It is

doubtless because of Dr.

J.

H. Moulton's

close connection

with the mission of the John Rylands Library that Mr.


sired to place

Guppy

de-

to

him

on the permanent records of the Library some reference and I suppose it was because I had known him longest that
to
I

Mr. Guppy turned


any reluctance,
brother's heart.
for

me

take

up the melancholy

service without

know

full

well
it

; frequented and it was probably because he was the former that he took so seriously his duties and privileges as the latter. To him it would seem no ex-

He

how near the Library was to my both as reader and as Governor

aggeration or misuse of terms to speak of the mission of the John

Rylands Library for to him the Library was a personality clearly marked, and entrusted with no ordinary responsibilities and oppor;

tunities in respect of the

world

of scholarship.

There are

certain legends current that


10

my

gifted

brother lisped

JAMES HOPE MOULTON


Greek
:

and passed from accidence to syntax before he was and although no one is asked to accept these as sober statements five He was no infant of fact, they are at any rate suggestive of the truth.
at three

prodigy, but the instinct for studiousness

and the

acquisition of learning

manifested

itself

unusually early, and

became

richly fruitful at

an age

the majority of boys have found no time to be serious, except At sixteen he took high Honours in the London concerning sport.

when

Matriculation Examination

at eighteen

he took an Entrance Scholar-

70 in Classics at King's ship of was twenty-three he had taken a


Tripos and
in

College,
First

Cambridge
I

and before he
of the Classical

both in Part

E of

Part

II,

that field of philological study

which

after-

wards he made

so conspicuously his

own.

All these were achieve-

ments which would have been


lightly

impossible for

anyone

who viewed

life

He only accomplished these things by and took things easily. and therein he laid the only strenuous and unremitting application
;

There possible foundation for the abounding service of later years. comes to my mind a striking indication of the trend of his disposition,
all

the

more

significant

because

it

was

so largely unconscious.

When

he was

fifteen

he sent

his first contributions to the


It

"

Leys Fortnightly,"

the magazine of his school.

does not matter

much

was

"

Milton's

first effort

in print

rather an unusual type of subject Minor Poems but what does matter is that they, like all his
:

"

that the subject


for

later

contributions to that magazine, bore the signature

AFAN.
life

At

that

early

age when

to

most the world

is

a playground and

a game, he

intuitively
effort
:

dropped upon a nom-de-phtme betokening strenuousness of and he remained AFAN to the end. On the football field
fast, very fast with a curious action which
;

and on the track he ran

on the

cricket field

he bowled

made him very awkward on a very fast, bad wicket and with a hostile umpire at La Crosse, of which he was very fond, he could race round most of the men in the field, and perhaps used his speed sometimes when it would have been better to But wherever he was and whatever he was doing he pass the ball.
;

he played many things very it all indeed that was going but he never played at anymany, anything and this note remained with him to the very end. Indeed, one thing, kind and appreciative friend, a seasoned Anglo-Indian, who entertained
intense
:

was

and strenuous about

him

several times in India,

considers that,

had there been

less

pace,

and more deference

to the trying nature of the Indian climate,

he might

12

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


lived through the strain of

have

one more day

in that

open boat, and

have landed at Calvi with his dearly-loved friend, so much his senior. There had never been any doubt in his mind from the first as to

what

direction

he would look to

for his life-work.

The

son, grand-

Wesleyan preachers it son, great-grandson, great- great- grandson was natural that he should have that bias within his nature and he was still a boy at school when he preached his first sermon one
;

of

Sunday afternoon
village

which

will

Spurgeon's

first

Wesleyan Chapel at Waterbeach, the always be remembered as the sphere of C. H. He was accepted as a candidate for the pastorate.
in
1

in the little

Wesleyan Methodist ministry

886, and succeeded the Rev. EdLeys, and ministerial assistant to

ward

Brentnall as Chaplain at

The

Dr. Moulton.
quasi-academic

This

ministerial, educational, and composite post was a magnificent opening for him and, it may be
;

"

"

added,

for others as well, seeing that

James

Hope Moulton always


he might
give, of the

gave what he

got,

and only got

in order that

riches of learning.

The sixteen years thus spent were value from the point of view of his later service. They were the
life
;

of the highest

formative period of his

and

if

there

were drawbacks

found the disciplinary and administrative side of what irksome there were abundant compensations.

he always a master's life some-

He

was

in

Cambridge
there.

and no one who knows the two ancient University


something unique about life close touch with the life of the
is

centres will need to be told that there

During those years he was in University and particularly of his own

college, of

which he was made

a Fellow, at a time, moreover,


in the college life

when two

of the

most outstanding

men

were Professor Westcott and Professor H. E. Ryle.

Further,

it is

boration with his

not probably claiming a whit too much to say that collaown father was in itself a liberal education. It is

easy to
sions

see that his

yearning for

Christian service,

his

interest in

Greek Testament
and many other

study, his convictions as to Foreign


factors in his spiritual

deepening Mis-

these

and mental make-

up

are distinctly traceable to the fact of his having enjoyed peculiarly

close association with his father at just the


tive period of
fields,
life.

Sometimes he looked out a

most susceptible and formalittle wistfully at wider

ing at

wondering whether he was doing his best with his life by stayThe Leys. " Here I am," he once said to me, " nearly forty,
!

and have not done a thing

Why,

father

was on

the

New

Testa-

JAMES HOPE MOULTON


ment Revision Company before he was especially so for him easy to see now
"
thirty-six
!

13

Yes, but

it

is

that that formative period

was

of priceless value,

and

that the rich


it.

and

brilliant usefulness of

his
of

later career

was conditioned by

And

mention must be

made

which belong to that period. two One was Professor E. B. Cowell, with whom he came into close contact when working for Part II of the Classical Tripos, and who gave him his introduction to Sanskrit lore, and cognate studies, which, together
acquisitions in the sphere of friendship

with Hellenistic Greek, have been the

field

in

which he made
little

his

mark

as a scholar.

The

other

was one about which


Suffice
it

must be

said because so

much might be

said.

to say that during his

time of residence at Kings the Rev. G. R. Osborn, son of Dr. George Osborn, who was colleague of Dr. Moulton's in the old Richmond
days,

came

as Superintendent Minister to
brilliant

between the
ripened into

Cambridge. The friendship and Mr. Osborn's elder daughter young a union of uninterrupted blessedness and joy shadowed
classic

yet sanctified

years
to

by bereavements which lasted for close on twenty-five and Dr. Rendel Harris was probably right when he referred
"
spiritual

wife and two children having as lessening his power of resistance at the last. passed over in front Manchester gave my brother his chance, for it gave him the call While at The Leys to one field without having to give up the other.
superior
attractions

"

Dr. Welldon had pressed him to take a Mastership at Harrow, which was an offer full of attractiveness. But it would have involved his
surrendering the

was concerned

Wesleyan Ministry, so far as any active participation and that he could not and would not do, for all the

" " the to educational prizes of the country Apostolic Succession which he was proud to belong, forbade that. Manchester gave him
the chance of association with the rapidly developing activities of a

modern University while making his contribution to the educational and pastoral work of his own Church. And he took it with joy and
thankfulness.

How

he took

it,

needs not to be told here, for in the


is sufficiently

constituency of the

John Rylands Library he


fields

well known.

But

it

may be

pointed out that the different sides of his nature found


of

adequate and congenial


all

expression in

Manchester.

His
they

scholarly instincts, his evangelistic passion, his social sympathies

play through the University, Didsbury College, the Manchester and Sal ford Mission, the pulpits of the city, the platforms of
free

had

14

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


"

the neighbourhood and the columns of the These many activities made his life a very

Manchester Guardian
one
:

*'.

full

and there were

some who
his

maintained that he ought to give up his outside public work,


political

temperance and

scholarship.

They

did not

know

advocacy, and give himself entirely to him, or they would never have sug-

what would have been a negation of his very personality. He " could not take his citizenship lying down," any more than he could Both were extremely practical and serious things with his religion.
gested

him

practical

because serious

and

it

was needful

for

him

to

be

in

the fight.

While he was thus engaged honours poured upon him. Five Universities conferred upon him various Doctorates London, Durham, and Groningen and had he been a member of Edinburgh, Berlin,
the
suit

Church
;

of

but the

fact of his being a

England doubtless Cambridge would have followed Nonconformist constituted a statutory

bar to his receiving a Divinity Degree from his

own

University

disability recently removed, in the teeth of much bitter clerical opposi" He gave the Hibbert Lectures on " Early Zoroastrianism tion. the invitation to give the Schweich Lectures was forwarded to him so
;

as to reach
11

him on

his

way home

Religion and Religions" in numberless Summer Schools, Conferences,

he gave the Fernley Lecture on connection with his own Church and
:

etc., in

England, Ireland,

and America secured

his services for lectures

top of his normal work. as when pouring out his stores of learning in the interests of those fortunately situated than himself.

and speeches all on the But he loved work, and was never so happy
less

When
was

his great

sorrow came

in

June, 1915,

we

could not help


the

feeling that the call to India,

which reached him within a few days,


to see the Mission field
;

providential.

He

had longed

the Parsi comparticular sphere he was asked to visit particularly munities was one in which he had long-standing interest, and a

unique chance, as being a recognized authority on their religion

the

depletion of the Colleges made it easy for him to be spared ; and the void in his own heart called for work and, if possible, work on new

ground

condition of well-being. So he went, in 1915: and the rest is only two well known. October, Three characteristics seem to have struck those who came in contact with him and with a brief mention of them I must bring my
as a necessary
;

JAMES HOPE MOULTON


tribute to a close.
ship,
Firstly,

15

he had the rare


in

gift of

popularizing scholar-

and

of presenting

profound things

such a

way

that people lost


' *

in the interest of the subject. His Prolegomena sight of the profundity was a noticeable example. Secondly, his scholarship sat so lightly

"

upon him

that in ordinary intercourse the

man

took precedence of the

Thirdly, he was people heard him gladly ". whether towards a downtrodden nationality, the very soul of chivalry or a weak country church, or men and women fallen on evil days

scholar, and

"

common

and the
while

life

of the study never cut

him

off

from the

street.

And

his reputation

down
Be

here

is

to

than possible that Another

may be
it

be traced to the study, it is more praising him most for what He


his career gives

saw

in the street.

that as

may,

some clue

to

the problem as to

how

classical learning

came

to

be

styled

Humanity.

has

The widespread dismay and sympathy evoked by his tragic death been accompanied by much inquiry and speculation as to his
;

literary

commitments, and the chance of salving, at any rate, a part of the cargo of his life's work and, in view of various rumours and

reports

about,

it

which are going partly incomplete and partly inaccurate may be interesting to readers of the BULLETIN of the John

Rylands Library
Firstly, as to

know how the matter stands. " Grammar of New Testament Greek ". the
to
first

It

will

be remembered that the


several years ago,

volume, the
its

"

Prolegomena," was

issued

and has reached


left

fourth edition.

When

Dr.

Moulton

left for

India he

behind him the second volume, on Ac-

cidence, practically complete,

and secure

in

the publisher's safe at

Edinburgh.

The

last chapter, gathering

yet to be written, as also an

up Appendix on Semitisms which


to write.
left,

the main issues, remained

Professor

Bedale had

kindly consented
after

The
require

introductory chapter,

which came to hand

he

may

some

additions,

and

there are about a dozen paragraphs, dotted about the work, which are not forthcoming. They may be found among the piles of papers, as unsorted, at Didsbury yet possibly the numbering of the sections was
;

done

at different times,

and there may prove

to

be no

real

gap

in sub-

ject matter,

but only in numbers.

At any

rate, the gaps in the

are not serious.

But, on the other hand,

it

will not

work be an easy book

to see through the press.

The mere
it

proof-reading and verification of


is

references will

be no

light task,

and then there


keep
in

the obligation resting

upon the one who

sees

through to

close

and sympathetic

16
touch with
elucidate,

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


all

the

new

"
light

from the East," which

will illustrate,

and

in

some

details possibly correct the exegesis

which

it

has

Dr. George Milligan had collaborated so largely called into being. with Dr. Moulton in that branch of study, just as their fathers collathe interpretation of the Fourth Gospel thirty years ago ; but other private work rendered it impossible to look to him to do more

borated

in

than

assist in

this

matter as adviser and referee.

It

was, therefore,

thought best to turn to one of Dr. Moulton's


to his
to

own

students,

accustomed

do

memory, as being the most likely this particular piece of work. The Rev. Wilbert F. Howard,

methods and devoted

to his

B.D., was a post-graduate student of Dr. Moulton's in Hellenistic Greek at Manchester University, as well as being a student of his at
Didsbury, and those who are interested in the perpetuation of Dr. Moulton's work will be very thankful that one so capable should have
consented to shoulder the burden, with the kindly and learned Scottish Mr. Howard has three points of contact with scholar as colleague.
the

work before

starting

upon

his task,

although the decision to ask for

his aid
is

was

arrived at in absolute ignorance of all three of

them.

He

Mr. Bedale, who already has his share in the book. Dr. Moulton left for India he stored his papyri and Further, when which we knew in order that apparatus in Mr. Bedale's house
brother-in-law to

Mr. Howard might have access to the books which we did not know. Thirdly, Mr. Howard's thesis for his B.D. Degree was upon
papyri topic," and the examiner was Dr. Milligan, who was so favourably impressed with it that he wrote to Mr. Howard suggesting
a "

but then completely forgot the name in the intervening years, and did not recognize who it was that was suggested as his Of course This really suggests Providential guidance colleague
publication,
! !

it

will

be impossible to proceed with the work

at once,

shortage of skilled

men

in the printing trade at present,

owing to the and also the

shortage of paper.

A work with such


it
;

an infinitude of detail would

make
firm

great

demands upon
at

printers at the best of times,


its

and to-day no
large supply of

would look

while

size

would demand a

paper

of a quality suitable for taking the impression of the minutiae of

Greek

characters.
is

Nothing has been

finally

decided upon, but Sir

in four parts,

disposed to consider the feasibility of issuing the book will spread out over a longer period both the task of setting-up and the consumption of paper.

John Clark

which

JAMES HOPE MOULTON


With
which
is

17

reference to the

"

Vocabulary

of

New

Testament Greek,"

contributions entirely concerned with the

made

to exegesis

by

the papyri and other non-literary sources, this had from the first been a joint enterprise of the two friends, and Dr. Milligan will have now to plough his lonely furrow, with whatever assistance he can obtain at Glasgow, and are thankhis who have from

any

caught

inspiration

ful thus to

repay some portion

of their debt.

A pathetic
"
legacies,

interest attaches to the last of

Dr. Moulton's literary


it

The

Treasure of the Magi,"

in that

was written

entirely

There seems to have in India, and completed just before he sailed. been in his mind some haunting sense of uncertainty as to his future ;
did he have three copies of the book typed and sent on different courses ? One remained in India in the hands of Dr. Griswold,
else

why

<

of the series in which with Dr. Farquhar of Oxford one reached Derby just before the news of the the book appears

the joint editor

at the bottom of the Mediterranean. Here, again, tragedy ; the task of preparation for the press was one that demanded expert knowledge of the very highest order in a field of learning greatly

and one

is

neglected in this country.


said to fulfil the conditions,

Indeed, probably only two men could be and one of them was out of the question

owing to his advanced age, but the other, when approached replied at To the. once that it would be a privilege to be allowed to do it. Right Rev. Dr. Casartelli, Bishop of Salford, we owe a great debt of
gratitude.

The Oxford

Press

is

publishing.

Will there be any Memoir of Dr. Moulton ? That is a question which has been repeatedly asked of late, and the answer is both Yes and No. If by a Memoir is meant a set Biography, laid out chrono-

No, partly because the his life did not centre in incident, but in influence, and partly because certain material which would be indispensable for
logically
is

and

in great detail,

the answer

interest of

such a purpose cannot be found anywhere, probably because it is " with the third copy of The Treasure of the Magi" But certainly some account of Dr. Moulton's career will be forthcoming before next
!

spring, all

being well, and some attempt will be

made

to outline the

activities, to focus the interests, to estimate the influence of

one concernadmiration

ing

whom
all

so

many have

written with

warm and

grateful

from

But, everything is done that can be done with the printed page, the only adequate memoir is that which

over the world.

when

18
is

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


many whom he
taught,

enshrined in the collective experience of the

and cheered, and strengthened.

2.

A RECORD OF PROFESSOR J. H. MOULTON'S WORK, WITH SOME EXPLANATION OF ITS SIGNIFICANCE.


BY PROFESSOR A.
S.

PEAKE,

M.A., D.D.
touches the

The

tragic

death of Professor James

Hope Moulton
been

John Rylands Library very nearly.


greatly valued fitting that one

He had

for several years a

member of the Council and Book Committee, and it is who was closely associated with him in this work, who
Manchester and had the
privi-

was

his colleague at the University of

lege of long

and intimate

friendship, should give some estimate of his

work

in the pages of our BULLETIN. Dr. Moulton was chiefly famous for his contributions to the study of New Testament Greek, but he gained distinction also as an expon-

ent of Zoroastrianism.

The two

fields of research

seem remote from

each other, but

it is

common starting-point. he won the Gold Medal


received from
it

easy to see how he reached them both from a He took the Classical Tripos at Cambridge,
in Classics at the University of

London and

his

Doctorate of Literature.

He

took a First Class at

Cambridge with distinction in Philology. His study of Comparative Philology led him from Latin and Greek to Sanscrit and Iranian. From the Iranian language he was naturally led to the literature and
the religion, and thus he
astrianism.

became one

of our very

few experts
of the

in

ZoroTesta-

His preoccupation with the language

New

ment was due


ject.

in part to his father's conspicuous services to this sub-

He
"

had

translated Winer's

"

Grammar

of

New

Testament

Greek
regret

and improvements, and English, making many was expressed that so much labour should have been spent on
into

additions

the* work of

another man by one


of his

better

book

own.

who had it in his power to write a much " " The Grammar by no means exhausted

Dr.

W.

F. Moulton's contribution to the interpretation of the

New

Testament.

He

was one of the

New

Testament Revisers and he

undertook very heavy labours for the edition of the Revised New Testament with fuller references. In this connection it may be added
that

he co-operated with Hort and Westcott

in

the revision of the

JAMES HOPE MOULTON


Book
of

19
for the

Wisdom and

the

Second Book

of

Maccabees

Revised

important concordance to the Greek Testament, known as Moulton and Geden, owes most to the latter scholar, since Dr. Moulton through pressure of other duties was un-

Version of the Apocrypha.

The

able to participate to any great extent in the task.


collaboration with

It

was

his

hope

in

his son to prepare a thoroughly revised edition of

Grammar," but his death forbade the realization was accordingly natural that Dr. James Moulton father's death, take up the project which had been
the
It

"

of this scheme.

should, on his
left

unfulfilled.

But this would have been impossible if his equipment had not eminHis classical training had given him the ently qualified him for it.
indispensable preparation, 'and his expert knowledge of the
tive

Compara-

Philology of the
It is

value.

Indo-European language proved of especial regrettable that he published very little on Comparative
"

Philology.

Apart from

volume

entitled

Two

articles I can only refer to an admirable little Lectures on the Science of Language ". They

are popular lectures, the former of them dealing strictly with


parative Philology, the latter with the evidence afforded
of language for the reconstruction of primitive, history.

Com-

by a study

should have had a right to expect from him would have been a Grammar of the New Testament, accurate and complete, a

What we

monument

of finished scholarship

and

lucid exposition.

That would

have been of great value, but its publication, while it would have won wide and deserved recognition, would not have attracted " the attention that was at once directed to the first volume of
for the author

Grammar
ing the

of

New

Testament Greek," published


".

in

1906 and containbrought


century

"

Prolegomena
a revolution.
their

with

it

The discovery of new material had The great scholars of the nineteenth

had written

grammars and commentaries from a standpoint which the new discoveries did much to antiquate. The New Testament

was approached from

Classical Greek,

were supposed to apply in one as in the words in the New Testament were fixed by
sical writing.

and the same grammatical rules other, and the senses of


their significance in clas-

A great number of papyri had, however, been discovered


of these
of

in

Egypt.

Some
works

were valuable

to the

Greek scholar as
with

re-

storing lost

Greek

literature or supplying us

new

texts

of

works which

we

already possessed.

But along with these there


to
literary

were very many papyri with no pretention

character.

20

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


letters,

Business documents, leases, wills, and in particular private

came to light in great numbers. The credit for realizing the bearing of these documents on the study of New Testament Greek does not
It was a indeed belong to Dr. Moulton. young German scholar, Dr. Deissmann, who first saw the bearing of the new discoveries on " " In his the Greek of the New Testament. Bible Studies he stated

and defended the


posed to
first

thesis that a large

number

of

words

hitherto sup-

be Biblical were really current in the spoken Greek of the Deissmann's researches were chiefly occupied with the century.

vocabulary, though of course the

grammar received

occasional notice.

Dr. Moulton was quite convinced by Deissmann's arguments, and his

own

researches into the vocabulary gave independent confirmation. But the new thesis had to be thoroughly tested in the domain of

grammar, and the very extended researches which Dr. Moulton carried through convinced him that alike in vocabulary and grammar Biblical
Greek, except where
cular of daily
life.
it

was

translation Greek,

language of the
in the

The language of the common people. The theory met


It

was simply the vernaHoly Ghost was just the


of course with

hostile criticism, in particular this centred

on the question of Semitism

New
case

had long been held that the Greek of the Testament was Hebraic Greek, and this position seemed to be
Testament.

New

established

by

the presence of Semitic constructions in

it.

But the

was

altered

when

these constructions

were found

in

papyri written

Gentiles. It was contended in reply that the constructions might But have come into the colloquial Greek under Jewish influence. this seemed improbable, inasmuch as examples were found in districts

by

where Jewish influence could hardly


excluded the hypothesis of Semitic
In spite, however, of dissent the

if

at all

be traced.

Dr. Moulton

also considered that survival of such constructions in


origin.

modern Greek

book was recognized as inaugurating


its

new epoch

in the

study of

New

Testament Greek on

grammatical

side.

Deissmann was

of course delighted that a scholar so magnifi-

cently equipped should

range himself at his side and do for the

grammar what he had done for the vocabulary. Harnack spoke of " him as the foremost expert in New Testament Greek ". All who
are familiar with grammatical and exegetical literature on the

New
on the

Testament

will be well

aware how deep an impress


last

it

has

left

books published within the

ten years.

It

was

translated into

JAMES HOPE MOULTON


German from
translation

21

the third edition with considerable additions,


to

and the

was dedicated by Professor Moulton


which had given him
its

the University

of Berlin,

his

Doctorate in Theology on the

occasion of
It is

centenary.

deplorable that the author's untimely death has left his task The second volume was largely finished before he left incomplete.

volume, which, as containing the syntax, would have been the largest and most important, I fear little, if any,
for

India, but for the third

material has been

left.

A cognate work will also suffer seriously.


"

In

The collaboration with Professor George Milligan he wrote for " These form the a series of lexical notes on the papyri. Expositor
basis of

an elaborate work entitled


Illustrated
I

"

The Vocabulary
and
other

of the

Greek

Testament
Sources
".

from

the

Papyri

Non-literary
its

hope

that the original intention will

be carried to

completion

in

spite of Dr.

Moulton's death.

Of

the six parts of


;

which

it

was designed
I

to consist
I

amount
third
;

of material has,

a large understand, been already collected for the

two have already appeared

and

trust that

Dr. Milligan

may

find

it

possible to bring the

great enterprise to a triumphant close.


I

must touch but

briefly

on other sides of

his

work.

He

published an

"

Introduction to the Study of

New Testament New Testa-

ment Greek," which serves its purpose as a beginner's book admirably. He developed, defended, and popularized his views on this subject in
numerous
articles.

A series of popular lectures delivered at Northfield


in

was published while he was


Rubbish Heaps
and
lighting
".
It
is

India

entitled

"

From Egyptian
Alongside

full of

interesting facts, brightly presented,

up many

passages in the

New

Testament.
of

of the facts there are several suggestions,


in

them too speculative character, I fear, to secure acceptance from New Testament scholars. I turn now to speak with diffidence of his work on Zoroastrianism.

some

" Apart from important articles of which I mention that entitled It is " " his Angel in The Journal of Theological Studies," and that on "
"
cations consist at present of his

Dictionary of the Bible," his publi" Cambridge manual Early Religious " Hibbert Lectures". I believe that a Poetry of Persia" and his
in Hastings'

Zoroastrianism

"

volume
of

of lectures to the Parsees has

been published
"
in

in India,

and

understand that the volume on

"

Parsism
press.

"

The
little

Religious Quest

India"

series

is

ready for the

The

volume

in the

22
series

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


of

subject

Cambridge manuals forms an excellent introduction to the " The Hibbert Lectures," on the other hand, presuppose

groundwork and are occupied examination of selected features of the religion, and those the with an The work is marked not only by great erudition most important.
the student's acquaintance with the
I am afraid that it would take far too much but by much originality. The paradoxical space even to sketch briefly the questions at issue.

view put forward by Darmsteter that Zarathushtra never existed and that the Gathas are no earlier than the first century of our era is convincingly refuted.
It

but the question is As to the date of Zarathushtra he regards him as certainly length. not later than 660-583 B.C., to which tradition assigns him, but he is

has found practically no favour among experts, so vital that Professor Moult on deals with it at

impressed by the strength of the argument for regarding him as some But for several centuries he supposes that the generations earlier.

more

esoteric elements in his teaching did not pass

beyond Bactria

in its

where the prophet had taught. The doctrine moved westward, not His view of pure form but in the form given it by the Magi.

the

Magi and
the

their relation to Zoroastrianism

is

fundamental
work.

for the

whole discussion and the most


that

original part of his


priestly

He

believes

Magi were non- Aryans, a

tribe,

with

primitive
of

practices,

who

claimed, though wrongly, that the prophet

was one

themselves and, adapting such elements of his teaching as they could It is important then to accept, popularized it as thus transformed. " " detect the elements in the Avesta which are due to them, and

he uses as

a comparison between Magianism and Parsism. Such elements of Magianism as are absent from Parsism he regards as non-Zoroastrian and with this clue seeks to determine the Magian
his test

He argues against Eduard Meyer that Avesta ". was not a Zoroastrian, Darius being the first of the AchaeCyrus menian kings who was a true Zoroastrian, though the religion as he knew it had lost its original purity. Most students no doubt will feel
element in the
that the subject lies outside their beat, but not a

"

few may be glad

to

know

deals with problems of interest to points " Biblical scholars, notably in the chapter entitled Zarathushtra and
that at

several

it

Israel ".

But Professor Moulton was not simply a great


deeply interested
in

scholar.

He

was

practical

problems, especially

those of

social

JAMES HOPE MOULTON


amelioration.

23

Religion always claimed the

first

place.

He

was

an*

enthusiast for missions.

and

his expert familiarity

His wide acquaintance with other religions, with some of them, in no way shook his conof his

viction as to the

supremacy

own.

He

saw

in

it

the satisfaction
in other

of all those lofty aspirations


religions.

which found imperfect expression

To these

sympathy.
thusiasm,

lower forms of faith he desired to give the fullest For Zoroastrianism, in particular, he had a genuine enit

regarding
it

as

the purest form of

non- Biblical

religion.

Hence when

fell

to his lot to deliver the Fernley

Lecture in the

centenary year of the Wesley an Missionary Society he chose as his " subject Religions and Religion ". In this work I call special attention to the discussions in the second and third chapters. In the latter of
these he works out the thesis that Christianity
ligions,
it

is

the

crown

of all re-

takes the better elements in


I

them and
volume

carries
in the

them

to

a higher

his

power. "

do not

of course place this

Grammar," his Greek Testament ".


scientific
it

"

Hibbert Lectures" or the

The

quality of his

Vocabulary of the work rose the more rigidly

"

same category as

was, but the selection of such a theme for his Fernley Lecture and the sympathetic temper in which it was handled are very

significant indications of the principles

and convictions which dominated

a man is irreparable. Had he been spared to complete his grammar and the vocabulary his friends would still have grieved deeply for one whom no one can replace in their affections and learning would have been impoverished by his
his attitude to
life.

The

loss of such

inability to accomplish other tasks for

which he was singularly qualified. But he has been taken from us with great tasks only partially accomplished and leaving no one with his peculiar combination of
qualities.

And

none

of us

can miss the tragic irony in his death that

it, who had desired friendand whose work was appreciated by none more Germany highly than by German scholars, should have been sent to his prema-

he

who

loved peace and had laboured for

ship with

ture death

by an enemy submarine.

24
3

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


LETTER FROM DR. RENDEL HARRIS TO THE REV. W. FIDDIAN MOULTON.
Grand Hotel,
Ajaccio Corsica.

Uth

April, 1917.

MY

DEAR FRIEND, You will have

received the sad

news

of

my

first

telegram,

and will have been waiting and watching

for the further information

with regard to the passing over of your beloved. I am not able to write a great deal and much of what

would

say must wait until I return, first of all because we were strongly advised not to communicate any details as to the passage of our unfortunate vessel,

and second because


dimmish

it is

too painful to recall in detail


collapse.
I

the horrors of the days of exposure

and

think that

what

operated

of power all, physical weakness, which had shown itself on the way home from India in a violent outbreak of boils on the face and neck causing him
his
first

in

his case to

of resistance was,

much

pain and inconvenience,

but on the other side he succumbed

to superior spiritual attractions

which he
his

ship

was

struck.

He

talked about

guage as going over to prepare places for


tension

felt a long time before the dear ones in Johannine lanone another, and the spiritual

was

evidently stronger than even strong language expressed.


side stood

Those on the other


words and doing
another.

Christ's

him Christ-wise, saying Christ's deeds to him as they had done to one
to
it is

Under

these circumstances

not strange that he should

have collapsed, but he played a hero's part in the boat. He toiled at the oar till sickness overcame him he
:

assisted to

bale out the boat and to bury


those

(is that the right

word

?) the bodies of

who

fell.

He

said

words

of prayer over poor Indian sailors,

and never never complained or lost heart for a moment through the whole of the three days and more of his patience, though the waves were often breaking over him and the water must have often been up
to his middle.

He passed away very rapidly at the end and was could get to him. His body was lying on the edge of the boat, and I kissed him for you all and said some words of love
gone before
I

which he was past hearing outwardly.

There was no opportunity to take from his body anything except his gold watch, and one or two trifles which are in my I could not search him for papers, keeping. I doubt if he had indeed brought any with him from the ship.

JAMES HOPE MOULTON


During the whole
of the

25

voyage his mind was marvellously alert He talked, and read and wrote incessantly, and and active. on the Sundays. On the way home he had read the whole preached " " of the Odyssey in the small Pickering edition and amongst his first remarks to me was his opinion as to the disparity of the 23rd book
;

with the

rest of the

One
Major
England.
did

poem. and beautiful experience strange


of

the Abyssinian
literary

we shared Embassy who was

together with
returning
to

We developed
"

sympathies, and one day the con-

versation turned on

H. and when
J.

The Major knew it by heart so Lycidas ". I was a bad third in the recitation, or almost by heart. M., we halted for a passage J. H. M. ran to his cabin and

brought his pocket copy of Milton to verify doubtful words with. little we suspected what was the meaning of our exercise.

How

They laughed
to explain that

at
it

my

delight over the sounding sentences


tingle
:

and

had
that

made my blood

but

we

did not

know

the

amber flow

of that

mental and that


"

we

Elysian speech had become once more sacrawere really reciting the liturgy of the dead, that
is

Lycidas, your sorrow


floor ".

ocean

He

"
society
It is

not dead, sunk though he be beneath the " " " had his own solemn troop and his own sweet

to

make him welcome.

shall

be

one of our Lord's sayings that one shall be taken and another left, and the words lie dormant in meaning long spaces of
rise

time,

then

up and smite us

in the face.
fatal, that
it

and the other

left ?

criminate between the

Why "

did that

"

Why

was one taken


"
dis-

perfidious bark

sacred head that

sunk low

"

and the one


like

which was so much whiter to the harvest


these there
this is all
I

But

for questions
if
I

is

no answer

yet.

would

tell

you more

could, but

can say at

this present.

With deep sympathy, Your friend and


p.p.

his,

RENDEL HARRIS,
G. O. INNES.
have been with him these

P.S.

Manu mea
Pauline.

am

so glad to

days

to

have had him

to myself, at his very best.

So Johannine,
;

and
to

have become, he said to me and twice over he quoted some great lines from Myers' "St. Paul,'*
Pauline

so

How

we

add

to the ordinary Corinthian quotations.

MEDI/EVAL
BY
T. F.

TOWN

PLANNING.

TOUT,

M.A., F.B.A.

BISHOP FRASER PROFESSOR OF MEDI/EVAL AND ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER.

NOWADAYS
concentrate

the phrase

into our ears.

town planning
great
cities,
is

is

dinned repeatedly
to

generation,

tending more and more

itself

into
for

constantly told that


evils of

town planning

is

the

remedy

many

of the

most obvious

existence in the towns

we

are familiar with.

An

eminent architect

told a Manchester audience

some

five years ago, that

means
which

"

town planning

the application to a
habitually apply
to

town

of that process of

we

to individual buildings

*V

ordered forethought It is because we

have neglected
ahead, which

self-interest

apply to our towns as wholes that process of looking imposes on us when we build a house for
rabbit

ourselves, that our cities

cases

become mere
towns
of

have grown up anyhow, and have in too many warrens of disorderly alleys and overthis state of

crowded houses.
torical

And

things, barely tolerable in his-

size, becomes absolutely unendurable in the overgrown cities which are the special feature of our modern civilization. It cannot be denied that our town planning enthusiasts have much

moderate

reason on their side.

reprobate the haphazard

They way

are never
in

more

right than

when they
have

which our modern

British cities

grown up. We of the north have very special reasons for lamenting the want of imagination shown by the builders of the great towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire. Perhaps it would be truer to say that there have been few builders of towns, but an infinite number of
builders of individual houses
is

and

streets.

What we

most

suffer

from

the lack of adequate control on the part of some general authority, so


1

An

elaboration of the lecture delivered in the John Rylands Library,

13 December, 1916. 2 Paul Waterhouse,


lecture for

Old Towns and New Needs, the Warburton 1912 (Manchester University Press, 1912), pp. 1-2.
26

MEDI/EVAL
that each individual has

TOWN PLANNING
left to

27
wherever

been

pursue his

own

interest

he conceived

it

to

lie.

The

reasons for this neglect are written large in

we might also perhaps have been more numerous exceptions to this rule than modern architects and up-to-date social reformers sometimes imagine.
the political and social history of Britain, though

plead that there

But neither
they seldom

architects nor social reformers are as a rule historians,

and
have

know accurately either the historical conditions, which made


so difficult, or the extent to

town planning
been overcome.

which these

difficulties

nineteenth centuries
the
best
is

Even the dark days of the late eighteenth and early show notable schemes of town planning, of which " " doubtless the new town of Edinburgh. But faint

suggestions of similar motives can surely be seen in the regular align-

ments and straight-cut streets which mark the early procession of modern Manchester southward from the original nucleus, and the first
climbings of

modern Liverpool eastward up the


mediaeval town.
as the

hillside outside the

narrow

limits of the

Again old

new

quarters of
its

London, such
straight streets

Duke

of Bedford's

Bloomsbury Estate, with

tion

by a

leafy squares, are distinct evidences of the applicagreat landlord of prudent forethought in directing the

and

development of a town quarter springing up on the soil which he Gower Street, which to Ruskin was the abomination of owns.
aesthetic desolation, the

reductio

ad absurdum

of the hideous pro-

cess that

began with the Renascence, suggests


I

to the

town planner the

bright promise of a future of well- ordered cities in


live in

comfort and health.

would not

like to

which men may say that either Ruskin


I

town planner were wholly right or wholly wrong. indicate in passing two rather different points of view.
or the

simply

We
real

must refuse to traverse insidious bypaths, and get back to business. My task to-night is not with the town of the future,

or even with the

town
of

of the present, or the

town

of the recent past-

Dryasdust, as

is

well known,

minimum amount
in

is content to pursue his hobbies with a concern for the world he lives in, or for the world

which

his

descendants
in

may
men

live in.

some pleasure

approaching

his

Yet even Dryasdust may find remote studies with some reference to
to those
is

the fashion in which the

of the period

have overcome problems not dissimilar of his own age. When all the world
the historic aspects of that problem

which he delights to study which vex the souls

may

talking of town planning, well occupy the attention of

28

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


It
is

the historian.

natural

nowadays
I

for a mediaevalist

to interest

himself in mediaeval
I

town planning.

cannot

flatter

myself that

what

have to

tell

you

to-night will give

much

practical guidance

to those

who

are anxious to

make

the Manchester of the future better ordered


of the past.

and more wisely planned than the Manchester


with the same problems as those which
meet, and

But

it is

not altogether unpractical to realize that remote ages had to grapple we ourselves are trying to

it is eminently practical, if we are able, as I think we shall be able, to draw the moral that the methodical organization of town construction can only be attained when the impulses of the individual

are adequately controlled

by the corporate

will of the
is

community, and

when

the immediate advantage of the

moment

subordinated to the

ultimate -welfare of the future.

Normal mediaeval
town
planning.

conditions

were not

particularly favourable to

Both the small


control

size of the ordinary

mediaeval state

and the limited

which mediaeval man had over material resources


those days to plan out a great

made it more
power

difficult in

for the great nations of the

modern world with

their

town than it is almost unbounded

of harnessing nature to their service.

proach modern conditions more nearly if period, and particularly if we go back to the great days whole civilized west was ruled by the Roman Empire, or if
to the
still

some ways we apwe go back to a more remote


In

when

the

we

revert

the kingdoms of Alexander and his successors compelled the near east to submit to a veneer of western

more

distant time

when

civilization,

What
some

and by so doing made the Roman Empire possible. history teaches us as to ancient town planning is admirably set
book which Prof. Haverfield
1

forth in a little

of

Oxford published

four years ago.

who would

wish to go back even farther than


lucid

cannot do better than refer those of you, I can do to-night, to


of the facts of this

Mr. Haverfield's

and orderly marshalling

subject so far as illustrated

by the Graeco- Roman world.

Into the origins of town planning we have no need to follow Yet it is him, for they have no conceivable relation to later times. interesting to know that scholars have seen suggestions of town

planning in the remote antiquity of the bronze age, and that Babylon
1

F. Haverfield, Ancient

Town Planning

(Oxford University Press,

1913).

MEDI/EVAL
as described, perhaps

TOWN PLANNING

29

with straight
other.

streets

wrongly described, by Herodotus, was laid out running parallel to or at right angles with each

cenplanning of a more modern sort begins in the fifth laid out Piraeus, the port tury B.C., when Hippodamus of Miletus as rectangular as the irregularity of the ground of Athens, in a form

Town

allowed.
itself

But the ordinary Greek city had no plan


in striking contrast to
its its

at all,

and Athens
wonder-

was

port.
its

Its

glory was
;

in its
its

ful

public buildings,

temples,

and

colonnades

shame was

rude hovels, separated by tortuous lanes, in its which rivalled the squalor and disorder of a modern oriental city. But the cities of Greece grew and were not made. It was only when
fortuitous congestion of

colonies
that the

were founded, or cities, like Piraeus, were made town planner has his chance.
planner's opportunity

all of

a piece,

The town
successors

came when Alexander and


with
Alexandrias,

his

plastered

the

near

east

Antiochs,

Seleucias and Pergamons, destined from their foundation to be leading cities of a great empire, capitals of highly centralized despotisms.

Yet the

cities of

the Hellenistic and


still

Macedonian ages have no

lesson

for us, since such as are

great cities

now

represent not the regular

proportions of their founders' designs but the picturesque confusion of a modern Turkish town, which has forgotten its origin under the long
pressure of
It

its fierce

barbarian masters.

was otherwise when the Roman Empire began to follow the example of the Macedonians by setting up, first in Italy, and afterwards in the conquered provinces of the west, colonies and municipalities whose
sites

Their rectangular proportions,

have often been continuously inhabited ever since by civilized man. their straight, narrow streets, their regular

blocks of building testify to the symmetry and method of their designers, and approach the simplicity of the Roman camp from which many of

them arose. What Roman town planning was like can perhaps best be realized by him who wanders through the straight and narrow streets of the excavated portions of Pompeii, the more so when he realizes that exceptional circumstances made Pompeii one of the more
irregular of the

towns

of ancient Italy.

But what Vesuvius did


effectively for

for

Pompeii, the Teutonic invasions did


cities of

more

most of the

the old

Roman world.
that

broke

down

the continuity of

The barbarians from the north utterly Roman town life. Very few scholars
was any
organic connexion between

nowadays believe

there

30

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


municipal institutions and those of the middle ages and modern It is almost the same with sites as with institutions. Prof.

Roman
times.

Haverfield demonstrates to us that in our island of Britain the well-

thought-out

Roman

scheme which made

little

Silchester, not only a

vive the coming of the Angles and Saxons.

well-planned town but a garden city on a small scale, did not surEven when the barbarian

conquerors crouched for shelter behind the old Roman walls of a derelict city, they reconstructed the interior of the town after their own fashion.
Prof.

Haverfield will not even allow that the apparently

Roman

plan of Chester

from four chief


about
it.

and Gloucester, where four straight streets, running gates, meet together at a centre, has anything Roman
streets of

The main

Chester and Gloucester, London and


in their direction

Colchester are mediaeval, not

Roman,

At
in

Colchester

this is particularly clear,

and alignment. not only in the town area, but

settlers

To the west, as Mr. Round tells us, the English approaches. out the open fields of the urban agricultural community mapped which replaced the Roman city, and covered up with their crops the
its

great

Roman
its

while to
iaeval

cemetery and the abandoned Roman road to London, north a new highway led direct to the gates of the med1

town.

Though

from the north, the


of
it,

Roman gate still affords access to Lincoln survival of a Roman line of road in continuation
a
itself, is

through the city


limitations

as likely to
hill

be the
site

result of the topoit

graphical
survival.

of

narrow

as

is

of

historical to Britain,

Whatever town planning

the

Romans brought

none of it has survived to afford any lesson to us. Its very existence has only been revealed by modern archaeological research. The case is the same, Mr. Haverfield tells us, in the great Roman

towns

of

Southern France.

Buildings have survived, but never the

It is only in Italy that our authority can see any plan of the town. continuous survivals of Roman town planning in such instances as the

Roman quarter of Turin. Yet


the historical

even here the modern historian

is

tempted

to ascribe the admirable regularity of the plan of that best planned of


cities of the peninsula not so much to the Romans as to the fostering care of the house of Savoy, ever anxious to embellish its

See Mr. J. H. Round's remarkable inaugural presidential address to the Essex Archaeological Society, the Sphere of an Archaeological Society," reprinted from the Transactions of that Society, XIV. 4, and especially the map and the remarks on p. 11.

"On

MEDI/EVAL
that whatever

TOWN PLANNING
Be
this as
it

31
it

recent times. capital in comparatively

may,

remains

planning has survived has come to us the middle ages. through the long centuries of have at last got to our real subject, but it was necessary for

Roman town

We

our purpose to appreciate the deep gulf that history has dug between
the

town planning
have to

of antiquity

and

later ages.

With

the middle ages

we

start afresh,

and

for

many

centuries

we

see conditions very

inimical to

town

life in all its

forms.

While

the

Greek and Roman

thought that the happy


civilization of the

life

could only be

lived in the city, the nascent

Its middle ages was of the country not of the town. the homesteads unit was the court and manor of the feudal landlord, and farm buildings of his humbler tenants. There was neither the

good government necessary for ordered town life, nor the commerce which made it economically possible for great hordes of men to dwell
together in an urban area.

When men

still

town communities,
for civic life,

it

was not by reason


side

of

gathered together in little any sentimental preference

but because the needs of protection and defence forced

them

to dwell side

by

on some

fortified hilltop,

where they might


for that

save themselves from pirates and plunderers.

But

every

man

would have dwelt hard by


his subsistence.
It

the fields

and meadows which assured him

follows that as there were few towns there

in those

dark ages which lay between the


In those ages

fall of

was no town planning the Roman world and

the development of that well-marked type of civilization which


call mediaeval.

we

the east

if

we would

seek for

we must go to the great monarchies of new examples of town planning, as for

instance at

Baghdad, planned so well by one of the greatest of the Khalifs that it became the greatest commercial centre of the world of

even more improbable that these oriental town planners were imitated by westerns in later ages than that mediaeval statesmen
Islam.
is

But it

and

town plans of Roman days. By the eleventh century the dark ages were drawing to a close. Strong kings and princes arose who ruled roughly but effectively over
architects consciously followed the
1

on

"

See on this subject a summary of Prof. Un win's interesting lecture Eastern Factors in the Growth of Modern Cities Baghdad and Saint
;

Nicholas," in Journal of the Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society, I 1915-16, pp. 13-17. appreciate the learning and admire the ingenuity and imagination of my colleague, but I cannot feel quite convinced as to the

soundness of his general

thesis.

32

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


With comparatively settled order a The result was well-being was insured.
relatively high the wonderful

large dominions.

standard of
progress
of

and prosperity of the twelfth century. And with this revival The strong rule came two results that boded well for towns.
duke wished
to hold

successful emperor, king, or

down

his

conquered

enemies, and promote among them his own ideals of civilization. The improved material prosperity gave once more a chance for trade and And from conquest and commerce alike, there necessarily industry.
arose a

new need for towns. Some towns, including most

of the great cities of history,

grow

others on the other


is

hand are made.

And

the process of town making


Prof.

as legitimate as the process of constitution making.

Pollard

in

a paradoxical

moment

has lately told us that constitutions that

develop are better than constitutions that spring from the brain of the 1 The answer is that it all depends on the constitutions. legislator.

This

is

the case with towns as well as constitutions.

conditions both alike must be made, or


at
all.

Under certain they do not come into existence

We have now

got to one of those periods of history in which,

as in the
scale
for

Macedonian age, the conscious creation of towns on a large " was both a political and economic necessity. With the fever " founding towns that marked the twelfth and thirteenth centuries
golden
in.
It

age of mediaeval town planning set period that we have chiefly to address ourselves.
the

is

to this

The

political

necessity
In the

for

town making arose


of the

earlier

than the
of the

economic need.

humble beginnings

new towns

middle ages military considerations were always paramount. strong ruler conquered a district adjacent to his old dominions, or

wished

to

defend

his frontier against

a neighbouring enemy.

He

built

rude fortresses and encouraged his subjects to live in them, so that they Thus might undertake the responsibility of their permanent defence.
arose the "boroughs" which the successors of Alfred the Great " " timbered along the boundary line between their West Saxon inherit-

the towns which the Carolingian and, later on, the fortresses of the same type conquerors up Saxony, which were erected by the Saxon emperors beyond the Elbe in the

ance and the Danelaw.


set

Thus began

in

in History, I. 29 et seq., and the criticisms on it in the same periodical by Prof. Ramsay Muir and Mr. D. O. Malcolm, ibid. I. 193-214.

See

his

"

Growth

of

an Imperial Parliament

"

MEDI/EVAL
Slavonic
districts

TOWN PLANNING

33

which they were initiating into the priceless blessings nach Osten of an early form of German Kultur. This primitive Drang it had not only teutoncame to a head in the thirteenth century, when ized the lands between the Elbe and the Oder, but planted German the East Baltic lands, through Poland and its subcolonies all
through
ject states.

For us the

military outposts of the


to

was the setting up of new towns, Teutonic power, whose soldier-burgesses were
chief result

In the new Teutonic keep the Slavs and Letts in their places. towns in Slavonic lands, we have one great group of artificially- made

towns, which, as the impulse

beyond mere

fortresses.

stronger, grew into something and monks dragooned the rude Their clergy

became

natives into adopting the teachings of the church.

The

traders,

who
in

followed the soldiers

and

priests,

found a

profitable occupation

exploiting their economic necessities.


sort of

The result was towns

of sufficient

size to demand some planning on the part of their founders. Particulars of this process are very little known, or at any rate are But little accessible to a lecturer writing in war-time in Manchester,
it is

certain that not only

were the older

cities

of

Prussia, of Silesia

5>

of

Poland, and

of Lithuania the result of such

methods, but that the

laying out of the oldest parts of


this

many

of these

towns bears witness to


of

day

of the rectilineal alignments

and the rectangular blocks

allotments

common

to the

now

for centuries a

town planners of every age. Thus thoroughly Germanized town, was in its

Breslau.,
origin

Teutonic outpost among the Slavs of Silesia, and shows in its plan the marks of its origin. It is the same with the towns of Prussia,
Livonia, and Poland.

We

see

it,

for instance, in the disposition of

Breslau, and repeated in Cracow, the old capital of Poland. These influences perhaps went even farther east. Lithuania long resisted all

Teutonic and Christian influences, and at

last

only took them filtered

Yet in Vilna, the chief city of Lithuania, through Polish channels. the orderly ground plan of the central parts, stands in such contrast to the oriental disorder of its suburbs, that I feel constrained to show
it to you along with the plan of Breslau. It is fair to add that both the Breslau and Vilna plans come from a seventeenth century

book
the

which may owe something to the imagination of map maker, who gave more and more flight to his fancy the farther he got eastwards. When he arrived as far east as Russia
of

town

plans,

exhausted

itself

imagination with Moscow, and his plans of other Russian towns


3

34
are

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


more or
less pretty pictures

which give no guidance

to the topo-

grapher.

Let us turn to other aspects of our subject which are easier to trace and which have more direct relation to ourselves and our own
history.

the

which pushed forward the Teutonic cause from the Oder to the Vistula and Dvina, was repeated whenever a conqueror came to a new country
process,

The

Elbe to

the

Oder and from

with followers eager for land -grabbing.


the

We

see

it

in

England

after

Norman Conquest when


set

the French-speaking king and his French

up numerous little towns in their demesne lands and attracted settlers to them by the promise of liberties, such as towns in
barons

beyond the Channel had long enjoyed. Such new towns were specially numerous in the north and west, where the Celts
their

own

lands

of

Wales and Cumbria had


Germany.

as

little

power
that

of resistance to the mail-

clad knights as the Slavs of Silesia or the Letts of Livonia had to the
chivalry of

Thus

it

was

called into being to receive the laws of

numerous boroughs were Breteuil, an obscure town on

the

Norman- French

border, just as the outposts of

had been granted the laws of Magdeburg. oldest Welsh towns, and many Irish towns arose
few
of the

Germany in the east The western towns, the


in this

manner.

But

Noi man foundations


I

of this type attained


of mediaeval

much success, and

none, so far as

know, give evidence

town planning.

We
land,

must wait

for the thirteenth

century before

we

get that in England.

But before

we

deal with thirteenth century examples in our

own

let us turn to France, the one continental country that

was

in intimate

connexion with ourselves

both as friend
history.

and

foe,

through the middle ages, and which, profoundly modified the course of our national
all

During the twelfth century the French monarchy became as powerful as the German kingdom under the Saxons and Salian rulers

had ever been.


lords

It

remained surrounded by a ring of vassal

states,

whose

of Aquitaine or the

were powerful magnates, like the Duke of Normandy, the Duke Count of Toulouse. Each of these was as com-

petent, within his sphere, to maintain order

and uphold good-peace

as

Between the overlord and the great feudathe King of Paris himself. tories there was natural enmity and a constant struggle for supremacy.
In the long run the

Crown

prevailed,

and even

in the south,

where

men spoke

a different tongue and thought different thoughts from the

MEDI/EVAL
Frenchmen
of the north,

TOWN PLANNING
Crown
the northern kings

35

the

ultimately acquired ascendancy.

The

conquest of the south

by

was

facilitated

by

the fact that the south, especially the district of which Toulouse was the capital, had adopted the outspoken heresies of the Albigensians.
.

This enabled a crusade to be preached against the Languedocian heretics, and the conquest of the south was made possible by the
crusaders from the north
for themselves.
it

who came

to fight, alike for the faith


after

and

When

the south

was subdued

a bloody struggle,

lay open to northern exploitation.


old, a land

Thus, ere the thirteenth century

was very
sources,

depopulated and exhausted by war, rich in re-

and

sullenly hostile to its conquerors,

was ready

for the victor

to

work his will on. There were towns

of great antiquity,
for

conquered south, but these had a municipal independence which

populous and wealthy, in the the most part won for themselves
survived the conquest and

still

made
resist

them as

hostile as,

and more

effective than, the

beaten nobles to

the newcomers.
after the

Here we have

the conditions of the Slavonic lands

German Conquest,

or of Britain after the

Norman Conquest

essentially repeated, save only that here the conqueror was not only stronger but ruder than his victims, and that the vanquished land was

and populous cities. The remedy was the same as on the eastern marches of Germany. From the wholesale and long-confull of flourishing

tinued application of this

remedy arose the villeneuves and bastides of Southern France, the best examples of town planning known to the
middle ages.
b astide, which in Northern France takes the form of means simply a fortress. Here, as in the far east and in the north, the primary motive for the new foundation was military.

The word

bastille,
*ar

Some

bastides

were

set

upon the

frontiers

as

barrier fortresses.
to give

Others were erected over against an old town new lords trouble. All were possible refuges

likely
to the

the

countryside,

when
to his

invasion or civil
first.

war came.
It

But the economic motive loomed


settlers

large from the

paid a lord to attract


divert

and traders

own

town, and

to

commerce from the towns which

were self-governing or subject


strewn
so thickly over the

to his rivals.

Though

bastides were

map

that
of

came

real towns, yet the rarity

success

only a small proportion bemattered the less since

36

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


and the
risks

the profits of success were great,


siderable.

of failure

were inconin the

The

origin of the bastides of

Languedoc

is

to

be found

monasteries, possessing large days before the northern conquest tracts of lands and no tenants to till them, attracted settlers to their
estates

when

by

setting

up

little fortresses for

them

to live in

and

investing

the inhabitants with modest immunities.


south, the Counts of Toulouse, followed

The

greatest princes of the

and thus everything was easy when


brother Alfonse,

St.

on a larger scale, Louis, King of France and his


this policy

Count

of Poitiers, the inheritors of the results of the

northern conquest of
conscious
spoils of

Languedoc, became the pioneers of a more


plantation.

movement towards town


Languedoc which fell of his own. The
and

On

that part of the

to the king himself, St. Louis set


rest of the

new towns
to

country of

up Toulouse went
lines as

Alfonse of

Poitiers, the son-in-law

and successor

of the last native

Count

of Toulouse,

in this region

he worked on the same


If

his brother as a

founder of bastides.

the great king's bastides

were the more enduring and important, those of Alfonse were by far the more numerous. In a later generation, subsequent kings of France
inherited both brothers* work, and carried on their policy of

town

making.

Their example was followed by all the remaining feudal potentates of the south, notably by our Edward I, who in early man-

hood received from Henry III the Duchy of Gascony to support his state, and who, even before he was King of England, stepped into the
vacant by Alfonse's death in founder of bastides of his age.
place
left

1270, as the most active

Whoever was the builder, the bastides were devised after the same fashion. A site was procured, either on the founder's own lands, or
by arrangement with some local lord or prelate, who would gladly surrender some of his nominal rights over an unprofitmore
often

able estate on the chance of

its

being protected and developed by co-

operation between him and his powerful suzerain.

When

the

site

was

got, a

name was
1

chosen.

Sometimes
liberties
3

it

suggested the novelty

of the experiment,

sometimes the
it

sometimes the security


1

offered,

promised to the colonists," sometimes a special feature of its


2

Villeneuve.
Sauveterre, Salvatierra,

Villefranche.
Salvetat,

La Sauve, Le

Monsegur, La Garde.

t.

-.-.' T

=
l

1j

^_-

-.

MEDI/EVAL
1

TOWN PLANNING

37

2 name of its founder, sometimes a famous town of a distant region that made some special appeal to the projector/ always something either rather conventional or slightly bizarre. Then

site,

sometimes the

the founder or his agent set

up a pale

to

mark the

central

point of

the

new settlement. Then the town


this

planning began.

When

the ground allowed

it,

rectangular or square

though

site was was the normal shape, we have bastides

selected as the easiest to arrange/'

But

of all sorts of

eccentric outlines, as for example the exceedingly irregular Sauveterre 6 In any case the new town de Guienne, shaped almost like a pear.

was protected always by a wall and


castle in addition.

Any such defensive


The

by a citadel or works were commonly erected at


ditch, rarely

the charge of the founder.

fortifications

and the

site

were

in fact

the chief contributions of the founder to the making

of

the town.

Whatever the general outline of the 7 were always on the same principles.
in squares or oblongs,

bastide, the internal dispositions

Each new town was

plotted out

by straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, the main thoroughfares leading direct from the chief gates to the centre of the town. Here the important arteries of traffic, the
or carriage ways, met together in a central square, the themselves being often carried across each side of the square under arcades formed by a projection of the first floors of the surroundy

carneres
streets

ing houses, though in other cases the covered arcades


1

which were a

Miranda, Miranda, Beaumont, Mirabel, Miramont, Montjoie, Aigues Mortes. J Li bourne (Roger of Ley bourne), Nicole (Henry of Lacy, Earl of Lincoln), La Bastide de Baa (Bishop Burnell of iBath), Beaumarches (Eustace of Beaumarchais, seneschal of Philip III). * Cordes, Grenade, Hastingues, Pampelonne, Cologne, Plaisance,
Fleurance, Barcelonne, Boulogne. " 4 Hence the " new town of Pau (le pal) which
of

became

later the capital

Beam.
5

This is best illustrated at Montpazier, see the plan and description in See also plate Didron, Annales Arckeologiques, reproduced in plate HI.

IV

Ancient Town Planning, p. 144. well seen in the plan of Beaumont in Perigord (Dep. Dordogne), figured in Didron, Annales Archeologiques, VI. 78, where the restricted dimensions of the low plateau on which the little bastide was erected compelled all the blocks of houses to be arranged askew. For
7

of Cadillac (Gironde). b See its plan in Haverfield,

This

is

other analogous irregularities see the plan of Ste.

Foy

in ibid. X. 270.

38

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

general feature of the central piazza were of more restrained proporIn the area of the square the chief public building, the town tions.
hall,

was commonly placed, the ground


place,

floor,

open

at the sides, being

used as a covered market

while business was transacted in


is still

rooms

raised

above

it

on

pillars.

This plan
of

to

be seen

in

the

few surviving ancient town halls


country, notably
in

smaller boroughs in our

own

the west of England.

Round about

the square

the principal inhabitants erected their houses in the most convenient Hard by the chief square was a and open sites available for them.
smaller square wherein the parish church was placed. Lesser churches and minor public buildings were scattered through the town

according to accident.

Each
dwelling.

settler

received
it

block

of land,

wherein to
for

erect

his

Behind

was

generally

ample space

garden.
the chief
In

The
new

obligation to build a

house

at his

own

expense was
the

pledge of the good faith and


societies,

financial
little

stability of

settler.

where there was


But
looks as

social disparity,

each houseelse

allotment
in the

was

of similar size, as rectilineal in


it
if

shape as everything

bostide.

important people often got several


certainly the case in the English
It

allotments assigned to them, as

was

and Welsh towns formed


lated

after this model.


settlers*

was

carefully stipu-

by the founder that the

reasonable period. Thus of the house was to be finished within the


thirds within the second year.
If this

houses should be run up within a 1 in one group of has tide charters one- third
first

year,

and

two-

be completed

at the proprietor's

were done, the structure could But every householder discretion.


street-front of his allotment,

was bound
to garden,

to build over the

whole

and

sometimes also a minimum breadth of the house, backwards from

street
still

was

also

stipulated.

As

the normal

townsman was

primarily a cultivator, every settler received a grant of arable and pasture land, sometimes too an orchard or vineyard, in the neighbourhood of

These had been waste lands in many cases, and were now to be brought into cultivation by the labour of the new population thus attracted to the soil. As an inducement towards cutting down woodthe town.

land and turning


1

it

into agricultural land, bastide builders

were allowed

See the Charter of Saint Osbert in the diocese of Bazas in Roles Gascons, \\. 13 (1276). This clause was repeated in the Charter of Sauveterre, Gironde, ibid. \\. 200.

.'
-x

,-

-v'

li
3 s

3
'.>

>

JO

* i C

MEDI/EVAL
to take

TOWN PLANNING

39

from the

lord's forest the


1

timber from which their houses were

mainly constructed. The whole scheme was on a small

scale.

The main

roads are

to us excessively narrow, but the middle ages seldom used carts and carriages, and there was no problem of traffic congestion to be faced.

Moreover

in

a southern climate narrow streets shaded the burgesses

from the sun and protected them from the icy winds which are the The side streets were least pleasant form of the southern winter.

mere

lanes, accessible at the best to a

pack-horse or mule

at the

worst only traversable by the pedestrian. The bastide, even nowadays, is a picturesque place with a local
colour and atmosphere of
its

own.

It is

nearly always small

partly

made large towns almost impossible, and partly because bastide-[Q\m&ng was so easy that so many were set up as to make it out of the question for as many as one in ten to become even a modest success. Some bastides have disappeared altobecause mediaeval conditions
gether.

We

are ignorant even of the sites of several of the ring of


of

bastides, of

which the bastide

Bath was one, which surrounded


and rebellious

Bordeaux, doubtless with the object of destroying the commerce and

humbling the pride


it

of the self-governing

capital.

When

has continued

its

existence

till

now, the ordinary

successful bastide

remains a sleepy little place for all its old-world charm. You can bicycle or motor along the excellent roads of South- Western France, and see them by the score but when you have sampled half a dozen or so, you
;

have no

real

need

to pursue

your travels any


bastide
is

farther, since all are

much

alike.

The typical modern


little

at the best

"

very

chef lieu dc

canton," a
inhabitants.
is

The
to

market town of perhaps a couple of thousand or less larger agglomeration which has sprung from bastides
"

chef lieu d'arrondissement," a place running a population of ten thousand. Such is Edward I's perhaps up foundation of Libourne, a flourishing borough owing its prosperity to

represented

by the

its

the confluence of the Isle with the Dordogne, up which the small ships of the middle ages came, laden with corn or wool

magnificent

site of

from England, to receive their return cargo of wine


1

for the island

A convenient general treatise on bastides


les

is

Essai sur
to date

Bastides (Toulouse: Privat, 1880).


article

by the excellent

on bastides

A. Curie- Seimbres, may be brought up by A. Giry in La Grande


that of
It

Encyclopedic.

40
market.

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


Such too
is

Alfonse of

Poitiers'

most successful b as tide,

Villefranche de Rouergue.

Of
little

the

two

great foundations of St. Louis

Aigues Mortes

is

a bustling

place enough,

much more

active than

the sleepy bastides farther west, but it never succeeded in being the great Mediterranean port that its founder designed it to be, and therefore
its

main

to this day, the finest


its

massive walls and magnificent castle have been suffered to respecimen of a mediaeval walled town in

meadow and

beauty enhanced by the dreary waste of sand, marsh, flat more prosperous stagnant waters that encompass it. " " of Carcassonne, which St. new town history has attended the " Louis also established as a commercial borough, leaving the old city"
the world,

of

Carcassonne on

its fortified its

height

beyond the Aude

as the

abode

of

the clergy serving


of

churches and the soldiers guarding the noble ring

fortifications that
cities set

make
on

the cite of Carcassonne as unique


as

among

the fortified

hills

established in the plain.

Aigues Mortes is among the towns Yet from the thirteenth to the twentieth
itself all
its
is

century the
cite.

"

In the
its

middle ages the


cloth

ville" of Carcassonne attracted to " "

the

life of

the

perity to

industry

in

new town owed our own days it


But it
still

size

and

pros-

the flourishing

capital of the

department
it

of the

Aude.

retains the
first

town plan
measured

designed for
out
its

by the officers of St. Louis


off its

when they

streets

and staked

building lots in the years immediately

succeeding 1248. I have mentioned

Edward

as an active founder of bastides in

France, and it would seem natural now to turn from foreign instances and ask how far town planning was extended by him or others into
the England which he

was soon

called

upon

to rule.

have already

shown

Norman Conquest there was a good deal of town and probably town planning, on a modest scale in Britain. founding, But with the establishment of the strong centralized monarchy, which
that after the

resulted

from

the Conquest, the chief need

for this passed


it

away.

The

unnecessary for the cultivator to seek, like his foreign counterpart, for a home within the walls of a privileged borough, and there were no wildernesses, desolated
reign of
real

law was

enough

to

make

till

crying aloud for new towns to protect the farmers enticed to the neighbouring lands. There were few frontiers to defend or invaders to drive out. There were, moreover, no English towns, not even London, with privileges so strong that, like the cities of

by war,

Glad ere

Place de
Hotel deVille

V. AlGUES

MORTES (GARD) (WESTERN HALF)


".

(From Didron

".Annales arch^ologiques

X.

Paris, 1856)

J
>

MEDI/EVAL

TOWN PLANNING

41

Gascony and Languedoc, they could tempt kings and princes to set up rivals over against them. It was enough then for England that from
time to time villages should receive the modest privileges of a country But neither the borough from the king or their immediate lords.
process which in our

neighbourhood gave charters to Salford, Manchester, and Stockport, nor the extension by charter of wider priv-

own

ileges to the greater cities involved

any town Newtowns," as they were often called, were set planning. Towns, as up, and one of these was Liverpool, which started on its career

much town founding

or

"

a foundation of King John, who,

when

still

only Count of Mortain,

set

it up as a port for the lands between the Ribble and Mersey of which But there is no evidence of town planning, he was then the lord.

and

it is

unlikely that

any systematic laying out was attempted.

It

required something exceptional for mediaeval

England

to witness a

town

Such exceptions occurred now and then in the deliberately planned. case of an individual town they once arose in relation to a great
;

district.

We

can,

therefore,

illustrate the accidental

foundation of

an exceptional town from the case of the foundation of new Salisbury early in the reign of Henry III, and the comparatively wholesale foundation of
fall

towns by the

real b as tides in

North Wales,

set

up when the

of the last native

Welsh
I,

dominions by
to establish in

Edward

prince secured direct possession of his under circumstances that tempted the monarch
less lavish

Wales bastides with a hand only

than that

which had scattered new towns over Gascony. Edward also set up two new towns in England
thirteenth century examples,
all

Later in his reign


itself.

From

these

involving

town foundation, we can

illustrate the extent

town planning as well as which our own land took


during our period.
of

part in the systematic laying out of

new towns

New

Salisbury, the bastides of

Hull and

New

North Wales, the English bastides Winchelsea must now engage our attention.
or

Old
typical

Salisbury,

Old Sarum,
castle,

as

it

is

generally called,

was a
flat

hill

town, wherein a

a cathedral, and the houses of the


of

inhabitants were

crowded within the narrow compass


mount.
its

the

summit

of a steep

By

the thirteenth century the cramped

site

was

motley population, which complained, moreover, that there was no water and too much wind on its bleak height.

too small for

Two

miles to the south the bishops possessed a rich stretch of

meadow

land watered by the Avon.

Already many

citizens

had sought more

42

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


1

commodious quarters in the plain, when in 220 Bishop Richard le Poer resolved to transfer his cathedral there. The first stone of the new church was laid, and ample space was left round it for the green
close

which

is

still

one of the

glories of the

new

Salisbury of the

To the south the bishop's palace was also set in great gardens plain. while to the north the bishop planned a new city, big enough to entice the

men

of

Old Sarum
to

to desert their

attractive

enough

tempt traders

and

settlers

overcrowded upland, and from every side, and in

particular to take

away

the trade of the flourishing borough of Wilton

some three miles

to the west.

The same

large ideas that inspired the


to lay out

erection of cathedral, close,


his

and palace, induced the bishop


Its straight-cut
1

new

city

on an ample

scale.

roads and chess-board


the bastide type

plan of allotments
pose conscious

showed

that as early as

220
or

was
In-

quite well recognized

and willingly adopted, though we must not supeither

imitation of

ancient

foreign models.

streets were wider than most ancient or mediaeval towns, more spacious than the lower town of Carcassonne, built thirty notably But in England years later, and its nearest continental counterpart. " there was no great need for fortifications. "deep and strong

deed the

ditch, diverted

the north

and

from the Avon, afforded such sufficient protection on east sides that the citizens never troubled themselves to

On other sides build the wall they were authorized to construct. the "fair streets" the Avon itself was a sufficient bulwark. Within,
excited the admiration of the traveller

Leland

when he

visited

the

place over three centuries later " " the little streamlets running
frequent feature of

he was pleased at down every street, which are still a Leland admired too the market the modern city.
;

and

in particular

place, set out after the bastide fashion in the centre of the city,
fair

"

very

large and well watered with a running streamlet," having in " " and in another one corner the town hall strongly builded of stone the chief parish church. By 1 227 new Salisbury had arisen so far that a

and

royal charter gave all the liberties of Winchester and the privileges of " " a Ere long Old Sarum was free city to the bishop's new venture.

deserted save

by the

castle garrison,

and Edward

III

allowed the

dean and canons to use the Norman cathedral on the height as a quarry for stones to repair the most homogeneous and best planned of
English cathedrals, which lay beyond the greatest triumph of
1

town

Leland, Itinerary,

I.

258-9, ed. L. T. Smith.

. .

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^Sf^6f5

^r

VII. SALISBURY

(MODERN)

(From "The Ordnance Survey of England and Wales")

if

'

'

"

VIII. FLINT

(SEVENTEENTH CENTURY)
,

(From Speed: "Theatre of

Great Britaine

".

London, 1676)

MEDI/EVAL

TOWN PLANNING

43

Before long the great western planning that mediaeval England saw. road was diverted from its steep course up and down Old Sarum

and conducted through the bishop's new city. This drove away traffic from Wilton and soon transferred the commerce of the eponyhill,

mous borough
trict

of the

Wilsaetas to

its

modern

rival.

Irritated at the

loss of customers, the

men

of

Wilton

strove to force traders of the dis-

to attend

their

markets and

there,

and there

only, expose their

But beating and bullying merchants is not in the long goods for sale. In a few generations Wilton run a good way of attracting trade. became the tiny townlet that it still remains, its life blood having
been almost as much absorbed into Salisbury as that of
itself.

Old Sarum

The
tical

foundation of

new

Salisbury
It

and economic motives.


and traders
in

was based on purely ecclesiaswas necessary to find room and com-

The a well -planned city of the plain. It was otherwise unimportant castle could safely remain on the hill. with the new towns which Edward I established in North Wales after
fort for clergy

the

fall

of

Llewelyn ap Gruffydd.

In each case alike continental


If

parallels force themselves

upon our attention.

Salisbury anticipates

Carcassonne, the Edwardian towns in


conditions of the

Wales

exactly reproduce the


I

many

bastides that

Edward

had delighted

to set

Here, as in Aquitaine, the military motive was Gascony. and second to it was the economic motive emphasized by the supreme, " desire of the Englishman, already rather a superior person," to teach

up

in

"civility" to the

English soldiers,

"wild Welsh" by the stimulating example of the traders, and clergy whose business was to direct them,

not necessarily too gently, in the right way.


for burgess-ship of

No Welshman
for

need apply

towns which were meant

"

"

only.
lots,

These

latter

were attracted
till

into

good Englishmen exile just as in Gascony, by town

large grants of lands to


of the district,

outside the walls, a

monopoly
social

of the

commerce
as

and

as

many economic and

privileges

There was always a castle with a permanent garrison. The constable of this castle was ex officio mayor of the little borough to which it stood As there was nothing, either then or later, to make as its citadel.
of the borough.

were compatible with the military unity

such towns very large, the tourist can


castles,

much

as they

Let us begin at

still study their plan, walls, and were devised by their town planners. Flint, a place which had not even a name in

44
1

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


town
of the

1277, but which a few years later was a flourishing bastide, the
shire

new dependent
extension of

a sort of

Welsh

county of Flint, which became Edward's own Cheshire palatinate.


its

Though modern

industrialism has reared

hideous head

all

around,

we

can

still

make

out the line of the

streets,

drawn

at right angles

from each other and leading up to the


ruin.
is little

castle, majestic

even

in its

A few miles farther west, Rhuddlan shows


should transfer his see.

its castle,

but there

to

town planning now visible in the village that Edward wished make a real town, and to which he desired that the Bishop of St.
But

Asaph

we must
to

cross the

Conway
itself

to see
its

Edward's Welsh bas tides


glorious castle

at their best,

Conway

with

The triangular shape dominating both river and town. " " of the borough the form of a Welsh harp is the of deright way
has not prevented the geometrical planning of the streets and plots in rectilinear lines. Still better does the bastide plan come out in Carnarvon, a town that had more of a future before it, as the
scribing
it

capital of

successes of the

North Wales, than its eastern sisters. These are the Edwardian policy the failures as in Gascony were
;

even

more numerous.
at

Later than

1284 Edward

set

up a new
his son, as

castellated

others by the Black Prince. Then in town planning ceased by the middle of the England Gascony fourteenth century. The king was not the only town founder in
;

borough and prince and king


as in

Beaumaris, others
still

were made by

and Western Wales, the lords marcher continued the policy which had begun in Norman days. Llewelyn himself strove as late as 273 to set up at Abermule a castle, town
Wales.
In Southern
1

and market

in rivalry

to the castle,

town and market

of the king at

Montgomery.^

We are lucky in
these

having more details as to the process by which


their continental

Welsh towns were made than we have of many of

elder brethren.
as regards the

Nearly every point that I have mentioned already Gascon group was reproduced in the North Welsh

variety of the

same type. The similarity of plan applied not only to the general outline but to the detailed plots assigned to the individual " settlers. The " placeae of Gascony are reproduced, even in name,
G. Edwards, " The Name Historical Review, XXIX. 315 (1914). '
1

See

"
of Flint Castle
in

for this J.

English

Cal. Close Rolls, 1272-9, p. 51.

MEDI/EVAL
in the little

TOWN PLANNING
in

45

borough of Newborough
but they are

Anglesea, a foundation of

more generally known as "burgages". Edward II, at Carnarvon comparison between the two groups will show that, while " " and Criccieth the individual burgage was 80 x 60 feet, at Beaumaris
there

was

the

The

charters of a group of
is first,

same length but only half the breadth, namely 40 feet. Gascon towns of which that of Sauveterre
assigned the settlers
the

de Guienne
x 60.
2

"

places" of 24 x 72
either

feet,

while at Valence d'Agen


It is

places

were

24

60

or

not likely that a

"

foot" of exactly the same length

36 was

used in Gascony and England, but even allowing for this it is clear " " was a smaller allotment than the north that the Gascon place " Welsh burgage ". It naturally, therefore, paid a much lower rent. But the mass of the bastides were not likely to become more than
agricultural villages,

and the north Welsh towns were

to

be peopled

by a dominant race, drawn from a distance and needing more inducement to accept the painful, if sometimes profitable, role of posing as
pioneers of
person, serfs

an alien

civilization.

In the
in

included, were welcomed


to free

same way any reputable a bastide^ while the Welsh


like

borough was limited


forbidden
all

Englishmen, Jews,

Welshmen, being

entrance.

An
site

essential element in

town planning

is

the selection of a good


of attaining greatness.

on which a new foundation has a chance

The Gascon

bastides were scattered too thickly to

make their positions

anything but matters of accident, though sometimes, as in the case of Libourne, Edward or his agents showed a real eye for a site, marked
out by nature for an important town.
in

The

maturer work of

Edward

North Wales may well claim


or

to

in the selection of

"

good

localities for

have been distinguished by insight The nameless potential towns.


earliest

rock,

the Flint," where

Edward's

foundation arose,
the head of

commanded

the estuary of the lower Dee.

Rhuddlan was

the navigation of the


in the size of ships,

Clwyd.

It

prospered greatly until the increase

silting up of the river left the borough and dry, so that the suggestion that the deserted high village was ever a seaport seems to modern visitors ridiculous. The advantage of the site of Conway, dominating the passage of a broad river and providing access from the further bank to the mountain of Snowdonia, and the attractions of Carnarvon and Beaumaris, the two

and the

protecting
II.

Roles Gascon,

II.

13, 201.

Ibid.

209.

46

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


Straits, are

obvious on the face of things. And that Edward took pains with his choice of sites is clear from the trouble lavished and the misunderstandings faced when he chose as the site of

banks of the Menai

Con way

the hallowed Cistercian monastery which

was

the favourite

foundation of the
pelled to provide

Welsh princes, with the a new home for the monks

result that

he was com-

higher up the stream in a

position of less military

chosen, such as that

and economic importance. of Bere amidst a wilderness


into existence.

When a bad site was


of hills in Merioneth,

the
for

perhaps claim touch of that instinct in choosing town sites which is a rarer gift for the town planner that the mechanical measuring out of " " straight lines and right angles in plotting the roads and burgages within

town simply never came

We may

Edward a

the walls.
great

To

see this gift in perfection


of antiquity

town planners
insight

we must who have left


I's

go back to the two


their

names

in the

Egyptian Alexandria and

in Constantinople.

The same
when,
plan

marked Edward
of

after the conquest


in
his

work on the rare occasions Gwynedd, he had an opportunity to

new towns

own

English realm.

Among

his claims to

fame is his foundation of Hull, or to give it its full title the Kingstown on the Hull, with Liverpool one of the very few of the greater historic towns of England that can boast, or lament, a founder. Two events had

drawn Edward to the North. There was the Scottish trouble, which demanded his best efforts after 290 and brought him and the whole machinery of state to York for years on end. There was also the lapse
1

to the

Albemarle, whose great Now the old lordship of Holderness was thus made royal domain. of Holderness was Ravenser, now buried beneath the sea, and port
of the inheritance of the earls of

Crown

already dropping

by degrees

into the

muddy

H umber.

With

the view

of providing a successor to Ravenser,

York and
pours
the
its

the interior,

waters into

and a port more accessible from Edward chose a site where the little river Hull The angle between the two the Humber.

rivers, just

west of the Hull and north of the Humber, belonged to


of the

neighbouring monastery of Meaux, and its advantages had already brought a few houses, ships and traders to the spot. 1 But

monks

Col. Patent Rolls, 1281-92, pp. 270, 278, 354, and Cat. Close Rolls, 1288-96, pp. 9, 101, 261, show that there was some population and trade at Wyke before 1290 and that it was sometimes called Hull. In 1279 the

monks

of

Meaux had
II.

a charter permitting a weekly market at

Wyke

(Cal.

Charter Rolls,

214).

MEDI/EVAL
about February,
1

TOWN PLANNING
as
it

47

293,
it

Wyke,
1

was then

called,

was a humble
to negotiate

enough place,

and

was

therefore not hard for

Edward

Once secure of the coveted position, its exchange for other lands. Four months he immediately set forth to found a new town upon it. after the transfer, he gave Wyke the new name of the Kingstown on deviation the Hull, and proclaimed two weekly markets there.

of the

Hull

gave

it

water protection on

all

sides,

and provided

for

our
city.

own age
It

a complete ring of docks, round the nucleus of the modern was a new Libourne in a colder and flatter land. The site

was

laid out with

Aquitanian

regularity

and the vast

offices

and

warehouses that

in the

between the docks and the


Edward's great church
from the

modern town now take up the narrow space umber, and are still grouped round

of the

Holy

Trinity, cannot altogether conceal

historic tourist the fact that

town

still

the oldest part of the modern follows the lines of a normal bastide, with its chess-board
its

pattern,

and

central

A feature in the construction was that


which brick was the
all

market square on which abuts


it

its

chief church.

chief building

was the first English town in material, much of Trinity Church,


then or
later, built

the

town
3

gates,

and many
the time "

of the houses being,

of bricks."

By

299

" 4 free borough with extensive franchises. So thoroughly Kingston a did Edward provide for the needs of the new port that, like the bishops of Salisbury, he diverted and constructed high roads to give access to
5 it.

was ripe

for

a royal charter constituting

By

a master-stroke of policy he enticed the chief merchant of

Ravenser, William de la Pole, to throw his interest into Kingston by granting him the manor of Myton, included in the King's purchase

^Chron.
of view.
2

de Melsa,

II.

186-92,

tells

the story from the

Meaux

point

Cal. Close Rolls, \ 288-96, This order of 1 July, 1 293, to prop. 292. " claim throughout Yorkshire the holding of two markets a week in the King's " town of Kingston-on-Hull is the first evidence of the new name that I have

come
3

across.

I. 49-50, ed. L. T. Smith. Charter Rolls, II. 475-6, dated April, 1299. Ravenser was compensated by a duplicate charter, issued the same day (ibid. p.

Leland, Itinerary,
It is

in Cal.

See Cal. Patent^ Rolls, 1301-7, p. 191, instruction of 16 May, 1303, to royal officers, appointed to survey and arrange the roads to the new town of Kingston-on-Hull, to inquire where it will most benefit the town and merchants for roads to be made, and whether on the king's land or on that of
others.

48

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


There Pole erected a
stately

from Meaux.

their migration to

London

in the next generation,

mansion which, until became the head-

quarters of the

first

great house of merchant princes

known

to mediaeval

England. Pole's son, another William, became first Mayor of Hull in The identification of the Pole family with the royal foundation 1322.
secured the thorough exploitation of the King's favour and the natural
of

advantages

its

swallowed up by between Newcastle and Lynn.


In southern that

century later Ravenser was the sea, Hull stood without a rival among the ports
position.

When

England another famous port was already enduring was soon to be meted out to Ravenser. This was Winchelsea, or more precisely Old Winchelsea, a town then situated on a low cliff off the East Sussex coast, which had long been crumbling into the sea, and over whose site nowadays the German submarine
the fate

may
still

perchance have
efforts to

torpedoed

many

a
1

harmless

merchant- ship.
its

After vain

prop up the old town,

Edward encouraged
site of their

prosperous inhabitants to change bodily the

borough.

He

chose for their

new home

the

wooded

hill

of

Iham.

This emi-

nence rose steeply above the broad estuary then formed by the river

Brede so that the

site,

though raised above

all

danger of
It
1

flood,

was

ac-

cessible for sea-going craft

and

easily defensible.

lay

some three

miles north-west of

Old Winchelsea.
1

As
1

early as

rected his steward to obtain


suitable
chester,

by purchase or In 28 he nominated Stephen of Penfor the new town. I tier of Angouleme and Henry le Waleys to assess certain
1

280 Edward diexchange land at Iham

"places," that is "burgages" or building sites, and to let them for " " a of Winchelsea. barons and good men building at a fixed rent to the
4 more properly called Penshurst, was warden of the Cinque Ports, and it is significant that the second commissioner, I tier, was a Gascon of wide experience in has tide building, while the third, Henry le Waleys, was a great London merchant with close Gascon

Penchester,

connexions,
1

who had been mayor

of

Bordeaux

as well as of

London.

For instance, Cat. Pat. Rolls, 1272-81, p. 151. *Ibid. 1281-92, p. 3. P 144. 4 was called Penchester by contemporaries, but so was the Stephen place now called Penshurst in Kent, which gave him his name, where he lived and was buried. It is better therefore to call him by the modern form of the place name.
Ibid.
.

MEDI/EVAL
Yet
It

TOWN PLANNING
for

49
fruitless.

all

these
if

efforts

remained

two

or

three

years

looks as

of

Old

the king tried to drive too hard a bargain with the Winchelsea, and that they were too wary to accept his

men
first

offers.

Anyhow
and

in

284

fuller

commission was appointed with

greater powers

ing

and Waleys were associated with Gregory of Rokesley, the actual mayor of London, to " the king is orderplan and assess the new town of Iham which to be built there for the barons of Winchelsea, as that town is aldiscretion.

In this Penshurst

is in danger of total ready in great part submerged by the sea and " The commissioners were to plan and give directions submersion ". streets and lanes, for places suitable for a market, and for the
'

necessary

for

two churches
to assign

to

be dedicated to

St.

Thomas
barons

of

Canterbury and

St. Giles, the

were also
"
petent

patron saints of the two and deliver to the said


sites,

parishes in the old town. " "


of

They
1

Winchelsea com-

places," or building

these minute directions


scious

we
still

In according to their requirements. have the most detailed evidence of conthat the age

town planning by royal authority


also that the king
far

was

to witness.

Note
sion

kept the

site in his

own

hands.
"

How
is

Penshurst and the two Londoners discharged their mis-

not known.

But

it

looks as

if

the "barons

clung as long as

been afraid
lord of the

they could to their old abodes, the more so as they may still have of entrusting themselves to the absolute control of the royal

new borough. However in 1 287, when a mighty inundation threatened to sweep Gascony,
logged remnants of

Edward was
away

in

the water-

Old Winchelsea, and


of

after that

no more delay

was

John Kirkby, possible. Bishop of Ely, the treasurer, was, either now or earlier, assigned to the " " 2 But he seems to have thought that the of the new town. ordering
strongest ministers,

One

Edward's

best

way of getting the thing done was to let the persons chiefly concerned have a preponderating share in the management of the new venture. Accordingly in 1 288 the regency, of which Kirkby was perhaps " the leading spirit, handed over Iham hill to the barons of Winchelsea,"
save some ten acres reserved for the king's use. their taking up their abodes in the new town, they were to enjoy the same liberties that

On

they had had before at


1

Old Winchelsea. 3 The effect


2
.

of this

was that the


.

CaL Patent Rolls, 1281-92, PP 81-2. Ibid. 1301-7, P 185. *Cal. Fine Rolls, I. 249 (23 June, 1288). An earlier cancelled order of 21 June is in Cal. Close Rolls, 1279-88, pp. 509-10.
4

50

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

washed-out burgesses were to be secure of their old franchises and to From this point onwards the participate in the laying out of the town.
greater liberality of the administration

and the growing cruelty

of the sea

combined

to accelerate the progress of the

new

venture.

Iham,

now

New Winchelsea, was duly


after the fashion of

laid out into thirty-nine chequers or squares

Gascony and Gwynedd.

But

certain deviations

from the normal bastide plan, noted by local

historians,

may

perhaps

be due to the
gesses,

irregularity of the site

and the prejudices

of the bur-

out the

though they are more likely the result of the king's wish to lay new nest as much like the old one as possible, to tempt the
it.

timid fledglings to take up their quarters in


1

Power

to wall

the

town was given to the burgesses. Along the western and only exposed side a moat was drawn. Strong gates, soon to be supplemented by a
wall, barred access to the borough.
chelsea had so far
for the

Magnificent churches,

friaries,

and

public buildings arose under the king's

own
it

eye.

By 297 New Win1

come

into being that

could afford accommodation

embarkation of the great host which

harbour to Flanders.
active of the local

Edward led from its Edward made terms with the most Hull, The house of Alard, who stood to magnates.

As

in

Winchelsea as the Pole family stood to Hull, had already fought in his wars and soon had custody of the town for life. prosperous

seemed assured, but before very long the sea played almost as cruel a trick on New Winchelsea as it had played on its predecessor. The harbour silted up the waters retreated leaving the town high
future
;

and dry on

neighbour Rye over the marshes that now fill up the site of the harbour where ships had once sailed and anchored. New Winchelsea, therefore, ceased to be a
its hill,
its

and looking towards

port

and soon

also

it

ceased to be a town.
its

In the magnificent fragment


;

of St.

Thomas' Church, with

matchless series of Alard tombs

one standing forlorn in the fields far from human habitation, and above all in the signs of town plots that can the traveller still be discerned in land now given over to husbandry
in the remaining gates,

can

still

see suggestions of the sometime greatness of the most elaborate


of

scheme

There

town planning ever devised even by Edward I. is another town planning scheme of Edward
fully realized, but
in history.

I,

which
con-

was perhaps never


1

which nevertheless had some


first

permanent importance
Cat.

As

a result of Edward's
p.

Patent Rolls, 1292-1301,

147 (1295).

MEDI/EVAL
quest of Scotland in
1

TOWN PLANNING

51

296, Berwick- on-Tweed, up to that date the

chief commercial centre of southern Scotland, fell into his hands.

The

king had prescience enough to foresee future troubles with Scotland,

and we may

feel sure that


site

the peninsula

the strategic and commercial advantages of of Berwick, on the tongue of land between the

Tweed and

the sea,

made

Hull, and Winchelsea.

appeal to the founder of Libourne, Accordingly he resolved to make it an


its

English town and outpost of English influence.

This involved the

displacement of the Scottish population and the assignment of their homes to English settlers, to attract whom a new constitution for the

town was clearly


it

necessary.

For

all

these objects a wise king thought

prudent to take the best advice


his

he could procure.

Accordingly,

while on

way

south back from his recent conquest,

Edward
to

issued

writs ordering representatives of the chief

towns

in

England

meet

him at Bury St. Edmunds, to which place also a general parliament was summoned for 3 November, 296. Though many of the towns sent their citizens and burgesses to this assembly, Edward's con1

though meeting at the same time and place, was constituted by other persons than those sent to represent the same Constituencies in the Parliament. By a writ of privy seal of 21 " four wise men of the September, London was ordered to elect
sultative council,

most knowing and most


order and array a

sufficient

who know
most

best

how

to

devise,

new town

to the

profit of the king


St.

and

of

merchants".

These were

to attend at

Bury

Edmunds on
exactly

the

appointed date, and be ready to proceed elsewhere on wherever the king may enjoin them to go. knew

this business

We

how

There were summoned on 22 October the aldermen and four good men of each ward of the city, and these unanimously selected the four experts in new towns
planning

the Londoners carried out the order.

who were

to

help the king

in his

mysterious and unnamed new

venture in town making. 1

more normal

writs
to

and boroughs

Yet this was not all, for three days later " of summons were issued to twenty- three other cities send to Bury two representatives each, whose

its return are printed in Palgrave, Parliamentary 49 and in Munimenta Gildhalla Londoniensis. Liber Castumarum, II. i. 77-8 (Rolls Ser.). 2 See Par/. Writs, I. 49. These were letters close under the great

writ and
;

Writs,

I.

seal after the usual fashion.

52
qualifications

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


were described
in exactly the
writ.

London

We may

pause to

same language as in the marvel on the stir it would make


importance from London at a few weeks' notice fifty

nowadays to Dunwich, being called upon to produce experts in town planning to help the king
shows

for twenty-four towns, ranging in

to plan a

new town

It

how town

planning was in the

air,

though few of the persons


at

selected

had any personal experience

in the business save

two

citizens of

New

Salisbury,

who when

home

perhaps the had always before

them the great town planning experiment of their grandfathers* days. Unluckily little came of the deliberations at Bury St. Edmunds.

The experts doubtless

Further provisions On 1 5 Novemfor advising the king had consequently to be devised. ber Edward summoned from Bury a new assembly to meet him on 2
January,
to be.
1
1

met, but they settled nothing.

297, at whatsoever place in England he might then happen This time the king tore asunder the transparent veil of

secrecy which, then as now, seems to

almost for

its

own
list

sake.

The business for

be worshipped by statesmen this assembly was to advise

the king as to a certain ordinance for his

town
to

of

Ber wick- on-T weed.

send representatives, was upon very different, Winchelsea and eight fresh boroughs coming in while Also the selection of exSalisbury and twelve others dropped out. even perts by public meeting seems not to have been a success

Moreover the

of towns, called

On this occasion the king might be a risky method nominated the persons he wanted and addressed special writs to them.
nowadays
it
!

device he at least procured the services of some experts, for he summoned Henry le Waleys, the sometime joint-planner of Winchel-

By

this

sea,

now

again

Mayor

of

London, and Thomas Alard, Warden


leading citizen.

of

Winchelsea

for life,

and

its

by promising that he would not It was keep the assembly longer from its homes than he could help. now summoned to Harwich, whither the king had removed. But when

Edward made

the business easy

the

seem
later

town planners came on 2 January, if they did come, to Harwich, they to have soon shuffled out of their responsibilities, for a fortnight

Edward

issued a third set of

summonses

for another assembly, this

time to be held at Berwick


tatives of selected

itself in

April, to

which

specified represen-

towns on the north-east coast from Newcastle to


to

Lynn, with Oxford thrown in rather inexplicably, were


*Parl. Writs, 1.49-50.

be summoned

MEDI/EVAL
through the
the resettling of Berwick

TOWN PLANNING
1

53

sheriffs of their respective shires.

The

only outcome was


of
1

by Englishmen and the new charter


2

302

which made Berwick a free borough ". I cannot find that any real town planning was attempted, and there is little in the alignments of the m< dern town to suggest that it was. The important result was Its formal the permanent detachment of Berwick from Scotland.
inclusion in

"

a thing of our own day. After the conquest of Calais in 1347, Edward

England

is

III,

following his

grandfather's Berwick plans, displaced the French burgesses


settlers.

by English

planning, as the still abiding streets of the old town of Calais, between the rail way- station and the
there
real

Here

was

town

But we have now got at the very verge of the golden age of mediaeval town planning, whose extreme limits we may put roughly between 220 and 350. In the declining middle ages town
sea,

continue to

testify.

destruction

is

tradition lingered

more conspicuous than town making yet enough of the on to survive in some well -planned towns of the
;

sixteenth century, such as Leghorn,


at

and to inspire the Dutch to repeat Batavia in Java and the English Colonists to revive in North America the rectilineal plans of the middle ages. But, as experts tell
the
first

us,

boards in

European adventurers found towns planned like chessYou Mexico, as they had previously been found in China.

may

decide as you will as to

how

far there

was any

merit in their

which they were placed.


hoc," and, just as

doing the obvious thing for sensible men under the circumstances in " " " Post hoc is not necessarily propter

we must not affiliate the planned towns of the middle ages too meticulously to the planned towns of antiquity, so we must not lay excessive stress on the continuation of the mediaeval
tradition
in

modern

times.

But there
is

is

this

to

be

said for the

later case of continuity, that there

a continuous history between the


us,

mediaeval and the modern town which makes

whether

we

like

it

or not, the necessary children of the middle ages. Between the towns of the Romano- Greek world and ourselves, the barbarian invasions have

drawn a deep gulf. Such was mediaeval town


it

planning.

When we

have said about

all

Only
tions

in

we can, it remains the exception rather than the rule. a few special districts, and under specially favourable condidid the "new towns," artificially created, become important
that

Parl.

Writs,

I.

51.

Cal.

Charter Rolls,

III.

27-8.

54
enough

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


to bulk

town

"

large in history.

Even then

the successful

"

new

was generally something

that replaced a former

town

rather

than an entirely new creation, a new Carcassonne on the plain absorbing the business of the old Carcassonne on the hill, a new Winchelsea sedulously following the traditions
of the old Winchelsea, swallowed up by the sea, a Kingston-on-Hull carrying on the trade of Ravenser engulphed in the waters of the umber, an English Berwick

and an English Calais continuing the activities of the Scottish Berwick and French Calais. Perhaps we could claim more for the
mediaeval town planner if we extended our categories and included in our lists new quarters of old towns, planned after approved models,
the mediaeval equivalents,
let

us say, of the

new town

of

Edinburgh.

Boulogne- sur-mer, called the quartier des carreaux by reason of the mathematical regularity
of
its rectangular streets and building blocks, a regularity only departed " from when the prudent town planner introduced here and there a lying corner," a coin menteur, an artificially devised irregular twist to protect

Such were the older

parts of the lower

town

of

those using

its

streets

from the

full

force of the wind.

Such too was the

new

quarter of the city of Amiens, to the south of its great cathedral. This district was planned in the fifteenth century on the site of the ancient ramparts demolished at that period in order to extend the circumfer-

ence of the

city.

So well was the work done

that the chief street

of this quarter, the

chief artery of traffic in


retains substantial

des Trois Cailloux, remains to this day the Amiens, and with the neighbouring streets still traces of the town planning activity of its fifteenth

Rue

century founders.

Further examples could easily be given, but these

perhaps are enough to illustrate a subsidiary point.


reconstruction of an old

Perhaps

also the

town

after

its

destruction

by warfare

or

some

natural conversion

know
by

that after

Black Prince in
St. Louis.

may well have proceeded on similar lines. the burning of the lower city of Carcassonne by the 355, it was rebuilt exactly on the plan laid down
1

We

Whether

the same happened after

Milan was

rebuilt

when
1

laid

waste by Frederick Barbarossa,

we

have probably no data

For Boulogne and Amiens see C. Enlart,


II.
II.,

fran^aise,
section,

Manuel d? archeologie Architecture civile et militaire, pp. 238-40. M. Enlart's "fondation et plan de villes," etc., pp. 237-48, contains an
of the effects of mediaeval

excellent

summary

town planning with

interesting

illustrations.

MEDI/EVAL
to determine.

TOWN PLANNING
reconstruction
set

55
give a good

While any such

would
it

chance

for co-operative effort,

we must

against

the intense inineffec-

dividualism of the mediaeval


tiveness alike of a mediaeval

town owner and the comparative

army

to destroy a solidly built

structure
of

and

of a mediaeval political authority to

compel general acceptance

a prearranged plan.

Allowing

for

all

these things,

it

still,

think, remains the case

that the greater mediaeval towns

grew by a natural process rather than

were made by a town planner.

When

that admirable scholar

Miss

Mary Bateson told us that mediaeval towns did not grow but were made, she had in her mind not the urban agglomeration but the legal
corporation.

The
"

technical

houses and the population grew they only became " when they had received their charter of borough
;

liberties or incorporation.

For us whose concern

is

with the mass of

streets

and houses and not with the

legal relations of the inhabitants

to the state in
stricted

which they were included, the point has only a reand limited application to the new towns and quarters of
which

towns

of

we have

already spoken.
natural growth naturally extended

The towns which developed by


themselves in
all sorts of

different

ways.
:

We

have seen

this

even

in

the case of bastides

and

"new towns"
But,
if

their general

shape varied

according to local conditions.


mitted at
all, it

any
the

generalization

may be

lawful to say that the


in outline,

may be pertown which was made

town which grew tended to assume a circular or elliptical shape and to extend itself in successive portions which often assumed a concentric pattern. Now and been devised like this. But this type of then a made town may have seems to me more characteristic of the town which grew of expansion itself than of a town which owes its origin to an act of creation.

was normally

rectilineal

Prof. Unwin in the able lecture already referred to gives numerous instances of the concentric type of mediaeval city formation, and has performed a valuable service in calling attention to them. Baghdad, the eastern

prototype of the

class,

the centre of which

was originally planned as an almost perfect circle at was the Khalif's palace, round which were public offices

and open spaces,

residential district

Governmental quarter being enclosed by a thin on the inner side of the circular wall. The commercial quarters arose later by concentric rings outside the original enceinte. See the plan in G. Le Strange, Bagdad during the Abbasid Caliphate, and an adaptation from it published in the Manchester Guardian of 12 March,
all this

56 Even

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


the obvious military advantages of a shape approaching the circle

did not outweigh the comparative simplicity of the simpler rectangular And, however you plan your original town, the town planner
shape.

never can

tell

how

or

where

it

will grow.

Even

the mediaeval town

planner was

often baffled

by

the capricious and unexpected forces that

controlled the building activities of the next generations.

The town
capable

planner under the modern conditions


of indefinite expansion, will
still

of vast agglomerations,

find this rock

ahead

of him.
in the

We have seen
ages.
It

that

town planning was the exception


its

middle

was

also limited in

scope as well as in

its

extent.

Here

the

town planners of the ancient and the mediaeval worlds were both in the same predicament. They confined their efforts to devising straight
streets of

width adequate

for their purpose, to providing building sites,

squares and open places, similar in type and regular in outline, to planning the town defences on lines corresponding to its interior

The modern town planner does all these things, except arrangements. the last, and he has only desisted from this since modern military
science has
as those of a

made the town fortifications Vauban or of a St. Louis.

of a

Brialmont as obsolete

And
sources.

he does these things on a larger scale and with greater reHe is not hampered by the need of crowding his population

together within the smallest possible area so as to


practicable

make

its

defence

by

limited

armed

force.

If

he has to deal with


to deal with a score

hundreds of thousands while


of hundreds,

his predecessor

had

he has

infinitely

greater control over the material with

which he
there
self
is

Yet is working, and by far greater authority at his back. a tendency for even the modern town planner to limit himin practice to the same categories followed by his predecessors.
Lancastrian might well, before August, 1914, have

A simple-minded

come back from Diisseldorf or Berlin, thinking that in following the model of the broad avenues, the leafy gardens, and the vast and
monumental tenements
planned
dreariness
of

German
and

city,

even the poorest quarters of the modern he had found the remedy for all the
for
all

irregularity,

the

mean

streets

and

festering

slums of the British manufacturing town.

No

doubt

we

should have

I am not 1917. altogether convinced by Mr. Unwin's explanation of the type arising in the west by reason of the deliberate adoption of eastern models.

MEDI/EVAL

TOWN PLANNING

57

done well had we had a quarter of the method and training, the foretown sight and the imagination that have characterized the German
planner.

But the philanthropist should not

forget that the vast tene-

ments

of

Germany may
If

hide

away overcrowding more


and
air

hideous,

and

homes more
Tyne,
moters,

cut off from life

than
is

we

find

even on the Tees,


its

or Clyde.
it

town planning

to realize the ideal of

pro-

must have a wider vision than vouchsafed to the Germans

of to-day, or to the city builders of the thirteenth century.

For the

little

problems which most vex the soul of the British social reformer made appeal to the men of the middle ages. The mediaeval town planner

had a

If he provided access to sources of limited sanitary outlook. water supply and gutters to carry away the rain water, he gave his If, too, he made modest provision for burgesses all that he wanted.

the cleansing of

the streets and prohibited pigs from haunting the

public ways, he thought that everything necessary had been done to secure public health. The men of the middle ages were charitable to
excess, but they

were

so accustomed to dwell in squalor

and discomfort,

and

to witnessing the hideous sufferings of the


ills

poor surrounding them,


Piously regarding

that they accepted all the

of life as inevitable.

these horrors as the visitation of Providence, devised perhaps to punish

them

for their sins,

they never conceived

it

was within

their capacity to

remedy

existing conditions in

any

radical sense.

The

philanthropic or

far in the

humanitarian motive underlying much of modern town planning was The problem of overbackground of the mediaeval mind.

ever, present to him.

crowding, the need of housing under healthy conditions were seldom, if For these reasons alone the modern social re-

former cannot expect to find much practical guidance from the town For those less severely practical it should planner of the middle ages.
ever be interesting to see

how the same problems present themselves, under different conditions, throughout all the ages. though

NOTE ON THE ILLUSTRATIONS.


town.
impossible as a rule to reproduce the precise plan of a mediaeval can only study them in modern survivals or in maps which are For this sufficiently old to represent substantially mediaeval conditions.
It

is

We

purpose the great contributions to cartography made in the early seventeenth century mainly by Dutch map makers and their German and English imitators are of great value. Luckily the conditions of town life were so stable in

58

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries that there is every reason to believe that such maps in many cases reproduce essentially the plan of the mediaeval

Whether the map drawer always took the trouble to be accurate is town. of course another matter, but even his imaginations are instructive to those who are seeking the general type rather than the exact topographical features
town. Moreover, the planned towns of the middle ages were so seldom prosperous and growing in modern centuries that the modern maps, whose precision is beyond question, can often confirm the accuracy of the old maps or suggest criticisms of them. For this reason some modern town plans have been figured, either as in the case of Salisbury for purposes of comparison, or as in the case of Winchelsea, because no really early maps are accessible. In some of the French bastides the dispositions are so
of a given

well defined that a theoretical plan might almost be devised. illustrations with a few notes on them is now appended.
I.

list

of

Breslau in the Early Seventeenth Century. [From Braun and Cologne, 1612-17.] berg: Civitates orbis terrarum.

Hohen-

II.

Vilna

in the
:

Early Seventeenth Century.


Civitates orbis terrarum.

[From Braun and HohenCologne, 1612-17.]


:

berg
III.

Montpazier (Dordogne).
xii.

[From Didron

Annales Archdologiques*
:

(1852).]

IV. Cadillac (Gironde). [From Braun and Hohenberg Civitates orbis The early seventeenth century terrarum. Cologne, 1612-17.] ducal palace and the town enceinte of the same date take away
visit to the place part of the effect of the original plan. rather suggests the impression that the elaborate defences are

due

at least in part to the

cartographer's imagination.
:

V. Aigues Mortes (Western

[From Didron Annales half) (Card). Here the modern conditions reproArchcologiqnes, x. (1850). duce with absolute precision the line of the ancient walls and in

The fortifications probability those of the original streets. are of the reign of Philippe le Hardi (1270-85).]
all

VI. Salisbury
.
.
.

in the

Seventeenth Century.

Great Britaine.

[From Speed Fol. 25.] London, 1676.

Theatre of

VII.

Modern

Salisbury.

[From The Ordnance Survey of England and

Wales]
VIII.
Flint in the Seventeenth Century.

Great Britaine.
IX. Carnarvon
. . .

[From Speed Theatre of Fol. 122.] London, 1676.


:
:

in the

Seventeenth Century.

Great Britaine.

Theatre of [From Speed Fol. 123.] London, 1676.

X. Hull in the Seventeenth Century.


Hollar,
c.

[From an engraving by Wenceslaus

1665.]

XL Modern

Winchelsea.

and Wales]

[From The Ordnance Survey of England

SOME EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY.


EDITED WITH TRANSLATIONS BY
I.

IN

ALPHONSE MINGANA,

D.D.

A NEW

LIFE

OF CLEMENT OF ROME.
FOREWORD.

the above

title

we
in

present a

new
of

life

of

Clement

of

Rome, UNDER which


Za'faran, the

or
is

Clement the Doctor, the


the
library

original manuscript of

preserved ordinary residence of

the

monastery of

the

monophysite Patriarch of

Antioch.

It is

written on parchment

in Estrangelo characters

which

can hardly be

than the eleventh century, but being truncated at the end, the colophon which might have revealed something about its
later
is

provenance,

of hagiographical pieces,

It contains a precious collection consequently missing. under the general title of Book of Lives of

Saints.
has been carefully copied for me by Fr. Ephraim Barsom, the head of the West-Syrian press at Mardin. I examined myself the original, but was unable to fill the lacunae of the

The

text here printed

few words which here and there could not be deciphered. These words have almost completely faded away, and for their restoration

we

are reduced to a surmise.

In the text of the present edition

when

this restoration

word

did not lack probability, we have placed the restored between brackets but when such a restoration would, in our
;

judgment, have involved a mere conjecture,


to refer to
it

we have deemed

it

wiser

by the word

"

illegible," in the translation,

and by three
is

dots in the text.

Library, where it is placed at the end of some chapters of the works of Gregory of Cyprus (fourth In 1914 I published an English century) on Christian monachism.
translation of this

The copy transcribed from the now preserved in the John Ry lands

unique manuscript at Mardin

document (Expositor,
59

p.

227 sq) with a

short

60

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


containing the principal points of comparison with some
compositions.
in the

Foreword

early Christian

But

as

no serious judgment can be


its

formed of a writing
English translation
Burkitt has

absence of

original text,

present here

to the students of Christian antiquities the Syriac text

from which the


1

was
the

derived.

In his interesting Introduction to the

Acts

made

happy remark
If

that

Euphemia, F. C. the East has always been


of
is

famous

for the telling of tales.

this

remark
stories

given the

full

credit

which

it

deserves, very few apocryphal

would

afford insoluble

problems to hagiologists.
history of
saints

To

cast into the


is

mould

of a

mere

tale the

and

of

popular heroes

the favourite art of the


lives

Syrians,

who

count in their martyrologium scores of

of saints

which

in

later

Christendom.

generations have been made accessible to Western In this category are to be included the Acts of

of Edessene literature.

Judas Thomas, of Peter and Paul and of all the ancient productions So far as our knowledge goes this kind of
hagiology flourished from the third to the
fifth

century.

If

the psycho-

logical

mind

of the actual inhabitants of the country

be of any value

for our investigations of the early centuries

of our era,

and

if

the

present art of telling


its

a tale in Syria can have certain resemblance with


heroic age of
:

prototype

of the

Christianity,

the process of

its

evolution

would be

as follows

After the death of a hero,


father to son

his history

was

transmitted orally from

among

certain literary circles.

Several years later some


the hero on

other circles wished to


praise

know something about


by
his
first

whom

was

so skilfully lavished

enlightening such people and of writing


hero's exploits

admirers. The duty of down on parchment the

was

naturally incumbent on the persons belonging to

the

first

group of men, and preferably on a


intellectual proficiency

man who by
in

reason of

social standing or

was

a more favourable

position to perform the task.


this

The

accuracy of the history written in

way depended on the man who wrote it, on the distance which separated him from the hero, and on the personal authority of people who constituted the intermediary links separating him from the
hero.

This method proved very


the

successful

and was adopted


a
first

in

the

eighth recent

Muslim Syrians century by history of the founder of Islam and


1

as
his

basis

for

the

more
only

disciples.

The

Euphemia and

the Goth, p. 50.

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


difference

61

which distinguishes the Christian from the


is

Mohammedan

oral tradition,
tionists.

the mention,

in the latter, of

the intermediary tradi-

tians

This difference arose from the sceptical attitude of Chrisand Jews towards the new heroes of Southern and Central

Arabia.

The Muslim
and even

writers

were obliged

to give greater precision

and more
indifferent

actuality to their traditionists in face of people naturally


hostile.

The Muslim was

obliged to say
told

Peter

told Paul,

Paul told James, James told John, John

my

father,

and

my

father told

me

the Christian his predecessor, speaking to Chris:

tians,

could only say

it

has been

told, or

heard from some

friends,

or Paul said so,


ties

and could even sometimes dispense with all formaliand approach without compromise the subject he wanted to trans-

mit to posterity. In the development of this method certain bold writers could even
find their

way

for putting in the

mouth

of their hero

what post factum


of his
life,

they wanted him to have said in some circumstances making him tell his own story from beginning to end.
tine Homilies, Clement
770X1x779
aJj>,

or for

In the

Clemen-

'Eyw KX^/x^?, P&paiuv Recognitions the narrator wants him to begin with Ego Clemens in urbe Roma natus, ex prima cetate pudicitice studium gessi. All these methods of narration
is

made

to

say

and

in

the

are

simple ramifications of the art

of

story

telling,

and

constitute

an embellishment and an amplification of the fact that the narrator had not seen the hero whose life he was preserving for future
generations.

The

present
tales.

life

of

Clement

of

Rome
its

is

to

be classed

in this

category of

What
it

enhances

value are the similarities and

dissimilarities

which

offers

literature of the third century.

when compared with the Clementine Our document is more sober in detail

than both the Homilies and the Recognitions, lacking as it does scores of incidents which if not identical with the fantastic fairies of
the

Arabian Nights,
many

or the allegorical allusions

trees of animals of the

Acta Thomce,

yet

by

their curious
life

and genealogical mise en and adventures

scene, have
of the

points of resemblance with the

Twin of our Lord. The main points of difference between the already known Clemen1 .

tine literature

and our document may be summarized as follows Our document nowhere makes mention of Simon Magus who
:

62

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


l

Lipsius has since plays such an important role in Clement's life. 1872 believed that the magician Simon was to be regarded as a mythical person who has never existed, Simon being simply a pseudo-

nym

of the

Apostle Paul.
reasons.

Hort

with apparently good the theory of the absence of the magician's intercourse with Peter and

The document
story,

has tried to refute Lipsius' view here printed supports

Clement

in the original

form of the

and

this

induces us to suppose

that Simon's introduction in the scene might have been a late embellish-

ment
and

of the narrative.

2.

In

the

Clementine

literature

(Pair.

Gr&co-Lat.
;

I,

1359

the present docuII, 330) Clement's mother is called Mattidia ment calls her Mitrodora. Both names sound well, and it is impossible

by its would seem to be more likely. There MiOpas, is also a difference in the names of the other members of the family, for whereas the Homilies (ibid. II, 330) call his father Faustinus,
relation to /u'rpa or

to decide

which

of

them she

actually bore, although Mitrodora,

two brothers Faustinianus and Faustus, the Recognitions This (ibid. I, 1359) give Faustinianus as the name of the father. small variant might be due to a slip of the pen on the part of
and
his

the scribes, and

much must

not be built on
in

it,

but

it is

worth while

to

remark that our document


the Homilies.
3.

is

harmony with the Recognitions against


is

In the Clementine writings, the father


his youngest son,

said to

have

left at

home Clement,
and
his

two other

children.

when he set sail in search of his wife The present document informs us that he
his

took Clement with him.


4.

The manner

in

which Clement and

relations

became

acquainted with Simon Peter, and met with one another after their previous separation is told in a form very different from that with which we are familiar in the Clementine literature. Generally speaking the
details of the narrative of the

and explained, the elaborate incidents of the Greek Homilies and the Latin Recognitions. Our document might, therefore, have preserved a more ancient form of the tale.

new document and no resort is made to

are more naturally handled

Towards
1

the middle of the third century, a Syrian or a Palestinian

In his Quellen d. rb'm. Petrussage.


to

p.

Notes Introductory 27 sq.

the

Study of the Clementine Recognitions,

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


writer

63

would have brooded over a sober


of a

tradition

and
it

cast

it

into the

mould
an

detailed tale.
is

of a longer one,
oral

be an abridgment generally considered as a more primitive form of


sober story, unless
until
it

proved, through other channels, that our document is in facto an abridgment of both Homilies and Recognitions combined, which in view of the deep changes involved
tradition,
is

and

it

would be difficult to prove, we might safely assume that it preserves a more authentic exposition of facts than the corresponding GraecoLatin productions of the third or fourth century.
Another
interesting point of

Acta
These

E^lstachii (in
spurious Acts

Ada

comparison may be drawn from the Sanctorum, Vol. VI, pp. 123-135).

tell

us that a certain Placidus,

who

at his baptism

received the

name
his

of

Eustachius,

was martyred under the

reign of

Hadrian with
Theopistus.

The

wife Theopistis and his two sons Agapius and manner of losing his wife and his children and of

meeting them
of

again,

and the way the mother recognizes her children


unmistakable parallels with the adventures These coincidences, we have said in

after a long absence, offer

Clement and

his relatives.

our study referred to above, will perhaps establish the assumption that the tale of a man losing his wife and two children, and recovering

them afterwards through the good fortune of having adopted some Christian beliefs, was the outcome of a folk-lore which seems to have
formed the staple
the
first

of

the evening conversation of

many

a Christian in

centuries of our era.


of the

The epoch
termine.

As
it

far as the tale of

appearance of such a legend is difficult to deEustachius is concerned the Bollandists


"
:

who

edited

testimonium,
severos
".

remark naively Quamquam hoc anonymi scriptoris non magni ponderis esse posset apud criticos magis
ancient mention of the tale in the writings of according to the Bollandists, made by Joannes

The most
is,

Christian fathers,

1 This being the case, one is tempted to 08). believe that the final redaction of the Acts can scarcely go back to a time preceding the fifth century. In the case of a contrary assumption

Damascenus

(ibid. p.

one would have thought that the tale would have been represented in Syriac literature, either in a translation or in a modified form of new
recension.

Since, in the editor's opinion,

Palestine

is

given as the

country of the hero's adventures

and the Jordan

as the sacred river


to suppose that

where he

lost his children,

it

would be unreasonable

64

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


would have escaped the
attention of Syrian hagio-

the beautiful tale


logists.

The

question of the date of the Clementine literature seems, on

the other hand, to be more complicated.


referred to

Hort

(ibid. p.

24

sq.) has

Origen which seem to suggest that their writer was acquainted with an older form of the Recognitions. The
of
first

two passages
is

passage

important because

it

alludes to astrological computations


:

found
"

in both Recognitions and Origen, and Hort adds ingeniously a matter of fact these chapters coincide pretty closely with the Book of the Laws of Countries extant in Syriac and in part in Greek,

As

written

cognitions

that the Reborrowed from the Bardesanist Book, not vice versa". Here we are in the school of the Edessene Bardesanes. Hort's view

by an

early Bardesanist

and comparison shows

is

clearly

method

of telling

borne out by the close relation which exists between the a tale used in Acts of Judas Thomas^ and the

Clementine Recognitions and

Homilies.
of a pupil or

The Acts of Judas


grand pupil of Bardes-

Thomas
anes,
as

are certainly the


if

work

and

Hort

the astrological chapters found in the Recognitions are rightly asserts derived from Bardesanes, there should not be

the country of the Recognitions; nor the date of their composition. The country would be a town probable in North- Eastern Syria, and the probable date of their composition
difficulty in finding

much

225-245.

The
Clement

information given by Eusebius, in the chapter devoted to


(III,

38, 5),

is

also important.

After mentioning

his Epistles

he proceeds Nay, moreover, certain men have and quite lately (x^s /ecu irp^v) brought forward as yesterday written by him other verbose and lengthy writings, said to contain dialogues of Peter and Appion of which not the slightest mention is
to the Corinthians,
:

"

to

be found among the ancients, for they do not even preserve in purity the stamp of the apostolic orthodoxy". The expressions "yesterday " and quite lately used by Eusebius seem to corroborate the above
date 225-245.
those
age,

The

historian

had

chiefly in

view the

refutation of

who

ascribed the pseudo- Clementine writings to the apostolic

and the vehement

X^ s

K0^

Trp<*>f)v

are simply an accentuation

of this idea, without

Coming

to our

new

any attempt to determine the year or day. Syriac document, we notice that it certainly

belongs to the group of hagiographical pieces represented

by

the

Acts

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


of Judas Thomas, and by
finite

65

several other pious compositions.


I

A dethink
to the

date will probably never be given to these pieces, but

that

we

should not be

far

from truth

if

we

tried to ascribe

them

second half of the third century of our era. In the above lines we have taken into account only the older form of the romance, which, in the opinion of some critics, the Clementines
exhibited before they

came

to

be

fixed in

their present

order.

As

they

stand
2

in

Greek and

Latin

MSS.,

Waitz

and

Bohmer-

Romundt, have dated the Recognitions after 350, on the ground of Harnack z believes their Eunomian Arianism (cf. Recog. Ill, 2-11). that this Arianism may be explained by the Lucianic school, and
Quite recently consequently dates them between 290 and 360. 4 has dated as follows the different parts which compose the Chapman
Clementine Recognitions and Homilies "
(1)
edition of the completed
:

Dialogues of Peter and Appion


romance
later.
c.

c.

320.

(2)

The

first

330.

It

(3)

by and dislocated

its

author some years


in (4) the

One
c.

of these versions

was perhaps retouched was abridged


Another
version
;

Homilies

350-400.

was
this

(6),
c.

interpolated and altered (5) by a Eunomian c. 365-370 was abridged further (6) c. 370-390 the last two, (5) and" were known to Rufinus he translated the shorter of them (7)
; ;

400.

among was used by Maximus and

(8) was apparently current the Byzantines, according to the testimony of Nicephorus, and
others."

A somewhat expurgated edition


for ascribing the

whole of the Clementine literature grounds in their present form to such a late date are mainly
:

The
1.

occurrence in Recognitions, I, 73 of the piscopus which is unknown before the fourth century.
2.

The

word Archieof the

Some

striking parallels

between the doctrine

Recog-

nitions and that of Eunomius's

Liber Apolegeticiis

written about

362.
to the ground in the light of the new no suggestion of the doctrinal developments of the fourth century, and no intention on the of the writer part to dogmatize either in an orthodox or in an Arian sense.
fall
is
1

These two objections document, in which there

Die Pseudo-Clementinen, 1904, p. 371. Zeitschr. Wiss. Theol. 1903, p. 374. 4 Chron. II, 534-535. Zeitsch. Neut. Wiss. 1908, p. 32.
5

66

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


We
conclude
of the
this short

preface

the
less

number

remark that

Expositor this document

referred to
is

by the following lines taken from above Critics will doubt:

cast in a

the Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions


characteristic
historical
is

mould far more Jewish than and Homilies can claim. This
ascribing
In
this respect

a criterion not always to be despised in

lucubrations to a determined epoch.

the

reader will surely notice that Peter is always called Simon or Simon Syriac scholars who are Cephas, and never Peter or Simon Peter.

not accustomed to find very often in Syriac literature this old name applied to the head of the Apostles in such an exclusive manner will

no doubt bear a certain testimony


Its

to the

archaism of the narration.

illustrations are generally


it

drawn from the Old Testament, and


it

everything in
fourth century
of

suggests that

might have seen the

light before the

which saw the beginning of the


districts.
is

doctrinal hellenization

Edessa and the neighbouring

The

Syriac style of the

document
stiffness

pure,

and

free

from that ex-

uberance of incorrectness and


translations of
it

Greek

originals,

and the

which characterize some Syriac critic who would maintain that

has been originally written in Syriac will have powerful weapons in hand to defend his opinion.

TRANSLATION.
Again a
about
ized.

story about Clement, the disciple of

Simon Cephas, and

his parents

and

his brothers,

how

they also have been evangel-

There was
and the name
idols,
justly.

in the city of

Rome

a rich

man

called Faustinianus,

of his wife

was Mitrodora.
to

They openly worshipped

and though they did not know God, they served

Him

truly

and

They gave alms


was
fulfilled in

received the strangers and the poor like


Scripture

the poor from their riches, like Job, and Abraham. The word of the
:

" He who fears God them, which says behaves justly, and Abraham believed in God, when still pagan, and He gave him the reward of his justice 'V And this just Faus-

"

"

tinianus received the

reward

of his' justice at the

end

of his

life.

And

as

Abraham and Sarah have been


and
1

tested through Isaac, so (Faustiniheir,


;

anus

Mitrodora) were without an


Cf.

in order that justice


III.

Gen. XV. 6

Rom.

IV. 3

Gal.

6.

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


might be performed
them.
If
it

67

in

them, and righteousness might increase through

the hired

man

does not work, he cannot claim his salary, because

is

they

not written that just people received any reward except after had worked, and wicked people any chastisement till they had
If

sinned.

Adam

had not
;

transgressed,

he would not have been

and if Cain had not committed murder, driven out of Paradise and the robber did in his limbs trepidation would not have dwelt
;

not enter into Paradise

till

he confessed.
his wife,

So

is

the case with these

just people, Faustinianus

and
I

to their
will

toil

and since

whose rewards are according narrated the nature of their work, I have

now
of

relate their exploits.


love,
it.

He who

has the clean ears of the

words

let

him approach and hear a pleasant account and

delight in

These righteous people were deprived of posterity, and for a long After a certain time, God wished to comtime they were distressed. fort them and to show them that He had not kept back their reward
from them.
Mitrodora, then, had two babes in her

womb,

as

Rebecca

had Esau and Jacob. She gave them names, to the elder Faustinus and to the younger Faustus. She brought forth also another child, and she called him Clement.

Then

the Evil One, the


his craftiness,

enemy

of justice,

wished to make them

stumble by

and

to insinuate himself to these

good people.

The Lord promised to Eve and Adam the paradise of Eden, and the Evil One degraded them from their ranks, and God sent His Only Begotten, and saved them and made them go up to a place higher The Devil suggested to the brothers of Joseph to sell than the first. him, and God made him a redeemer to them, in the day of distress.
Mitrodora by a detestable adultery, and this motive distracted her, and she returned to. God. Faustinianus had a brother, and the Evil One insinuated to him

(The Devil) wished,

too,

to dishonour

to conceive a passion for the wife of his brother

and though he

re-

(woman) never wronged her husShe band, and she thought of a means to vanquish the Evil One. made a false pretence, as if she had dreamt it, to take her boys and to
peatedly solicited
her, the faithful

go away from her husband,


rounding that violent

in order that

by her absence the


to

fire

sur-

man might be

extinguished.
his custom,

Now, one day

Faustinianus

came home according

68
and

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


"

noticing that his wife was sad, he asked her : " " I am sad, She said to him of thy sadness ?
:

What

is

the cause
I

my
".

lord, because

shall

go

away from

thee and

far

from thy company


to
?

Then
"
:

Fausis

tinianus
it

became angry, and began


gods of all

threaten and to say


I

Who

that has designed to sever thee from thy spouse

swear by the

mighty

Rome

to

deliver to terrible punishment

him who

designed this against me, and that he may not speak behind the back of a

also to plunder his substance, in order

man

stronger than he."

Let thy wrath be not kindled, because he Mitrodora said to him who will separate us one from each other is stronger than thou. Listen
:

"

to

me,

my

lord,

and

shall tell thee the

dream
of
fire,

that

dreamt.

saw

man

of fire seizing in his

hand a sword
take thy
;

and

his lips sprinkling

dew.
ordered

He appeared to me
me To-morrow
*

like a furnace,

and

said to

me and

earnestly

two

boys, Faustinus and Faustus,

and go away from Rome leave thy youngest son and thy husband The in Rome, and do not come back to thy spouse till I warn thee '.

man
sons

that

saw told me
I

'

all these

things (and
I

added)

If

thou dost

not listen to everything

have told thee,


I

shall destroy thee

with thy

and thy husband

'.

explain to

me how
interpret

long
it

am very we shall

sorry that he

whom

saw did not


is

be separated.

Lo, the dream

unveiled

thyself, since thou art wise."

When
feared,

and

Faustinianus heard that, he "


said
:

This

is

hard

to

was amazed he wondered, be explained by wise men even


;
;

the mighty gods of

heard that there


perhaps
this

Rome do not know what was one God in the earth


.

this
.

vision means.

(illegible
of

word)
.
.

dream

(illegible

word)

is

by means

dreams

(illegible

word) showed
it is

himself this year.

Because those

science say that

the true

God who

created

who know heaven and earth who

wrought a wonderful miracle in every country, and that this is one of His disciples. Take then thy two boys, as He told thee, and go away
from Rome, so that
the earth will shake

He may
;

and the sea

cause

He
.

is
.

its

Lord.

angry dry up if He rebukes it, beLo, our fellow-kinsmen are in Athens, the
;

not be angry
will

because

if

He

is

Great

Take

word) to them, as the man of dreams told thee. one year or two, and slaves and maids will come afterwards and serve thee. Take care of thyself and of thy children ;
.

(illegible

provisions for

become
feeds

like

a mild dove which diligently attends to


of its

its

nestlings,

and

them by the pecking

mouth

become

like

a sparrow which

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


hides
its

69

and protects its nestlings from the become like a turtle-dove which loves its hunters by its shrewdness With such words male, and keeps jealously the love of its consort/*
nest from the spectators,
;

Faustinianus warned his wife, and both spoke to each other in the Faustinianus was very distressed, but Mitrogrief of their separation.

dora did not wish to disclose a hidden secret


to
this

God prompted them


might be revealed to

deed

in order that their righteousness

everybody.
Faustinianus agreed to send his wife, he endowed her with provisions, gold, slaves, and maids, and gave her her two children. " 1 When parting from her husband, she said to him Good-bye,
:

And when

man

my childhood and keeper of my youth. Who can know if we like a father see one another again (illegible word) my lord,
of
;

to the youngest son

She put

to sea with her

grew rough, days and began to roar as a (thirsty) lion for a well (of water),- and the waves began to be vehemently wild (illegible word), and from everywhere violent winds and tempests tosseth (it ?). Then Mitrodora
. .

in the sea, in the

word). two boys, and when the morning of the third day the
." (illegible

ship

moved two

sea

cried,

bewailed, and said


;

Mary

if

Thou

say that Thou art God, art God, come to our help and rescue us
:

"

They

O
if

Son

of

height,

and land are under Thy command, the slave obeys his master and does not revolt against him ". And she said with great distress
depth, sea
* :

Woe
lo,
is

is
I

and

me, wished to be drawn from a corrupted pond of sins, am sinking in a sea of water, and there is no one to rescue.
I
I

Woe
name

me,

proved an

evil

stumbling block to

my two

children."

And when
of

waves tossed her about on every side, she cried in the Jesus the Nazarene, and stretched her hands and embraced

her boys. And she began to complain (in the presence of) her beloved " ones (Cursed be) the hour in which I have separated my boys from
:

their father,
If

and

this

death which has surrounded

me

from every

side.
I

Thou

(Jesus) rescue
sacrifice

me

with

my

children,

Heaven

forbid that

worship or

When,

except to Thy name." in a prostration, she was praying before


it

God
;

with sobbing,

the waves struck the ship from every side and

who were
1

in

it

floated

upon water
-

like bits of grass

broke up, and those and mother and

Lit. remain in peace.

We

read bera instead of bra.

70
children

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


were hidden from one another on the
sea.

And God made


commanded
it

a sign to the sea not to destroy them, as

He

has

for

He, therefore, bade the sea to keep Jonas, and it listened to Him. and not to harm them without His order because God can them
;

keep (a man) under His command.

in the sea as

if

he were on land, since sea and land are


the night, salvation
that has

While they were

tossed in the sea during

all

dawned on them
help of

in

the morning.

The

right

hand

been

stretched to Simon,

and he was drawn up, has been stretched to the the woman and her sons and as God willed in His mercy,
;

them reach the port of Tripoli. Seamen went out in the morning and saw them weeping by the sea- shore. widow took them, honoured them, and brought them

He made

up with great honour. She gave them names she called the one Anicetus and the other Aquilas. As to their mother, God willed and made her reach the town of " Where shall I go Arad. She began to weep for her boys, saying
:
:

to seek

your corpses,
I

my

beloved sons

who

are

drowned

in the sea ?

Behold,

am
I

Woe
like

is

me,

was

deprived of my beloved and of my acquaintances. like a ship bearing riches, and the waves of the sea

scattered

my

riches

and threw

my

treasures to the wind,

and
I

lo, I

am

a vine whose beauty hail has destroyed.


like those of

Would

that

had

swift

wings

young

eagles, to
;

go and see thee,

Faustinianus,

when wandering
and these
(slaves)

after us

when

sending slaves
to thee, bearing

bearing provisions,

returning back
to the

bad news
us,

when

sending (letters)

inhabitants of
;

Athens about
the

and these
of
!

answering thee with

bitter letters
all

when caught by

day

"

weeping

and

grief, and encircled by While Mitrodora was

pains and severe tribulations afflicted by these and similar

things, the

chiefs of the
her,

town
"
:

of

Arad
is

saying
?

What
!

heard, and gathered round her and asked woman ? and which is thy thy story,

country
told

Behold

thy voice has shaken

all

our town."

And

she

them truly all her story. And they began to console her, but she afflicted herself with cries and lamentations.
"
I

Then a widow came to her, and began to comfort her, saying am a widow like thee, and deprived of husband and children.
to

Come

my
life

house, and

we

will live together in

bereavement and

spend our

in bitterness."

And

Mitrodora went to her, and was,

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS

71

When she noticed that her out of necessity, begging her bread. that strength was failing, she went and sat at the gate of the town, so
But where she most suffered, she might take alms from the people. there deliverance dawned on her through Simon, the head of the
disciples.

After

Mitrodora had spent two years

in

this

great

hardship,

them through his slaves. Faustinianus got together provisions, When the messengers reached Athens and asked the kinsmen of " We have not Faustinianus about Mitrodora, they answered them
and
sent
:

seen here this


sengers

woman and we have

not heard her story

".

The messorrow and

news
wrote

of anguish.

went back weeping and bearing When they called on Faustinianus and he read
letters full of

these letters, he
letters
all

was pained, and he wailed and wept


all

bitterly.

He

to

quarters,

countries,

and

villages.

Messengers

scoured
ing.

countries

and flew

to all quarters, but returned

wear deep youngest son, and went out wandering about and asking everybody " Have you seen my wife and her sons drowned, or roving along the " roads ? When he was walking and asking, he lost sight of the
Faustinianus began then
to
:

with weepmourning, took his

young boy, and from deep grief he did not notice that. When the boy Clement was straying, a seaman took him and got him into a ship, and in that very night they sailed for the country of

And when Simon was teaching by the seashore, in towns, the Syria. seaman took the boy, and gave him to Simon, and he became his He was the first disciple that Simon Cephas had. And disciple.
Simon took the boy Clement and went
gelize there.
to Tripoli, in order to evan-

brothers

While he was teaching, the woman who had brought up his came and gave them up to become the disciples of Simon
;

Cephas

brothers. together,

and the grace of God thus gathered together the three The head of the Apostles and they three ate and drank and they did not know one another.
;

for

Simon went away to Arad, to preach there the true faith the grace of God called him to comfort the weak woman by means
beloved ones.

And

of her three

When
Clement
me, and
:

Simon and Clement were


"

My

brother, behold

way, Simon said to thou hast been twenty years with


in their

did not ask thee what

was thy

country,

or

where thou

72

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


if

earnest from, or

men ".
said to

When
him
:

thou knewest whether thou hadst parents or kinsClement heard that he began to weep bitterly, and

"Listen,

my
;

lord,

and

shall

speak before thee

am
;

from a great family


of

of the city of

Faustinianus the great


besides, thy servant

and

Rome, from the royal family, the son name of my mother was Mitrodora had two brothers, the name of the elder was
the

Faustinas,

and

of the other Faustus.


of her

My
;

mother dreamt a dream,

which became the cause


on horses of
fire

death
'

she

saw a man
in

of fire riding

and he
'.

said to her,

Arise, take thy children and go

away from Rome

My

father

had kinsmen

Athens

he gave her
;

provisions and the brothers elder than I, and he sent her to Athens and since they left us we have not heard any news about her my
;

father sent messages to all countries,

and no one

said that

he had seen
asking

them

then

my

father took

me and went away wandering and

When walking, I and my father, on the seaeverybody about them. I have been out of his shore, sight, and through the pain of his heart,
he did not notice

me

in

that

moment.

noticed me, he took me, put such a pain, and such trials

me

As to me, when a seaman on board and brought me to thee


;

befell

me

Now God
God and

knows

if

my
in
if

parents survive or not.'*

And Simon

was amazed, and

glorified
:

began to cry
in

sorrow and to say to the child in grief "I have hope thy parents are alive, thou wilt soon see them ".

God,

that

Simon and Clement reached the gate of Arad, Simon saw " Mitrodora sitting, and said to her Woman thou art young in thy
:

When

a ge,

and thou chosest


.
. .

this

thou not to
to

Simon

"
:

? (illegible
if

ignominious business for thee word), and thou wilt live ".
;

why

likest

She

said

My lord,
that

and the pains

my

thou knewest the hardships that I have borne, eyes have seen, even if thou hadst a remedy of
it

death, thou wouldst have given be delivered from this pain ".

to me, so that

should drink

it

and

The
me, and

divine Apostle said to her


life

"
:

woman,

reveal thy story to


;

I have a remedy of be saved from thy pain ".

that

shall give thee

drink of

it

and

And
for
all

the

woman began
it,

to tell successively all her story.


his

When
God
telling

the divine Apostle heard

mind

rejoiced,

and he
the

glorified

having soon answered his prayers.


this,

When

woman was

Clement was

in

the

town with

his friends.

And

Simon

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


Cephas
is

73

said to her
I

"
:

great, but
".

have hope

Woman, thy pains are bitter, and in God that He will comfort
still

thy ailment thee in thy

pains

When

Simon was

turned back to him.


that thou toldest

speaking to her, the young Clement re" Tell me, my son, all Simon then said to him
:

And
Simon

the

me on the way ". young man began to tell


Mitrodora
"
:

all

that he
this

had endured.
is

And

said to

Listen to

what

young man

telling".

When

she listened, her heart glowed towards this young man, her son,

and she recognized him.

The young man, too, recognized his mother. " mother began to say to her son And the Come in peace thou who takest away my pains and wipest the tears off my eyes come in
: ;

peace, parents by his resurrection


to

slain

man who
confess

lived again,
!

dead man who comforted

his

worship the

see thee

Him, because

God who made me worthy those who trust in Him will

not be confounded.

He who
also as

I am Mitrodora, thy mother. I hope that has counted us as worthy to meet each other will count us

worthy

to see thy brothers/'

took Clement and his mother and went to the young men, his brothers. Before they reached them, they looked at Clement and his mother with him, and they began to grumble, saying " is this woman who speaks to Clement and walks with him ? Behold,
:

And Simon

Who

we
him
his

have been fellow-disciples


either speaking to a

for

twenty years, and

woman

mother

"

or looking at a

we have not seen woman can she be


;

When
knowing
is

that he

Clement reached them, his brothers asked him without " was their brother Tell us, our brother, who is this
:

woman who is
great

"

with thee

the Providence of
!

wonder

Who

will

not

What great marvel, my brothers God to whom be glory Who glorify God for His mercy and
! !

How
will not

for

His

1 Three beautiful branches great compassion towards His creature were cut off from their vine, and April came in its season and made

them blossom

in their vine

How

beautiful are three mild doves

which flew from

their

nest,

hawk, they gathered

at the voice of their

and when they escaped the sparrowmother How beautiful


!

are three young eagles

which grew up without


sufficiently strong,
1

their parents,

and
their

when

their

wings were

they came and caused

Lit. clay.

74
parents

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY A poor woman who during twenty to rejoice
!

years has

been deprived of her children, the grace of


hour, and they came
to her
!

God
"

gathered them in one


his brothers,
is

Then Clement answered


:

not knowing that they were his brothers

"

My
"

brothers, this

my
;

mother

His brothers began then to ask him behold we have lived together for twenty
thee where thou earnest from, and
tell

Tell

us,

our brother

years,

and we did not ask


;

us that now, and

we

will tell

what thy family was in the world And thee from whence we are ".
all

Clement began
there

to tell to his brothers,

brothers the one to the other.

none knowing that Their mother was standing


"

were
from

far

and hearing the words


I

of their mouths.

As

to

me,

my
their

brothers,
tinianus,

am

from the

city of

Rome
;

my

father

was

called

Faus-

and

my

mother Mitrodora

had two

brothers,

and
;

names,

for one,

was

through a dream that

and Faustinus, and for the other, Faustus my mother dreamt, we have been scattered
will
of

among

the nations

and now, by the

God,

have found

my

mother, and have recognized her." " Our brother, from His brothers said with tears in their eyes thy words, if they are true, thou art our brother, and we are thy
:

brothers

am

Faustinus,

and

this is

our brother Faustus.

When we
our ship

went out
broke up

(of

Rome) and
(illegible

sailed for

two days

in the sea,

...

word\

and we have been

scattered

among

the nations."

Their mother heard these

things,

and her arms were

restored, for
in

they had been for a long time withered.

She embraced them

weeping and
Mitrodora,

in saying to

who

sure that I am your mother with you, by your father". was sent to Athens

them

"Be

And

together they glorified

God who had

gathered them into His

sheepfold.

Then
their

the three brothers asked Simon, their master, to baptize

mother.
it

And when

they found a place

fit

for baptism, they


;

showed
sent the

to their

three brothers

holy master, and he baptized Mitrodora with their mother to Laodicea.


;

then he

And

he

stood up to pray, and then to follow them


said

when he

"

prayed, he

God,

in the

hands of

whom
Thy

all

the ends (of the earth)

are

God,

rich in mercy, as

Thou

hast gathered these


treasure
;

by Thy

mercy, answer

me my

prayer from

if

the husband of

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


Thy handmaid
and
his sons
;

75

Mitrodora be
if

alive,

make him

present to see his wife

present, in

he be kept in life may order that he may come and receive


vineyard
".

a sign from

Thee make him Thy yoke, and work

with us

heard quickly the voice of the Apostle, and a (divine) sign caught away Faustinianus from Rome
in

Thy

And God

and brought him to Simon, the Apostle. And when Simon was walking in the way, behold, an aged man stood before him, dressed in old patches and in worn-out clothes, and
with much dust on him,
a poor man. Simon asked him Art thou a art thou, man, that thou wanderest in the hills ?
like
:

"

Who
a

thief,

"

robber, or a shedder of men's blood ?

The
I

old

man answered Simon with


;

great grief,
is

and

"
said,
I

am

neither a thief nor a robber

but thy servant had a wife and three sons, and when she
it

from the

city of

Rome.

was

asleep she dreamt a

been scattered among the nations. This happened twenty years ago, and behold, I am wandering after and to-day when I was in the country them, and I cannot find them
;

bad dream, and through

we have

of

Rome, something
country.
I

like
I

a right hand caught

me and

flung

me

into

this

Behold,

am
I

since

do not know where


said
:

under some phantasms and agitated, am."

Simon
and thy
is

sons,

"If somebody comes now and shows thee thy wife " The old man said " God what wilt thou give him ?
:

witness that

have no other thing than that


to his

shall

become a

slave

before him for ever".

And

Simon took him and went


"
:

raised his voice saying


;

thy husband And all at once eagle he has crossed sea and land for thy sake ". she flew like a dove, and took her nestlings with her but when she saw
; ;

encampment and Simon Come, Mitrodora, and see Faustinianus, take thy beloved ones, and come to meet him like an
;

Faustinianus dressed in patches and surrounded by poverty, she asked " him with great grief Tell me, man, what is thy country ? It
:

seems to
see

me

that thy limbs

have borne many


I

pains.
is

craved long to

my

spouse, but the figure that

notice in thee
:

not his."

The

old man, then, said to her

"If thou

art

Mitrodora,

am
the

Faustinianus ".

And

Mitrodora said to him

"
:

Where

are the glory and

beauty that thou didst put on and the gorgeous raiment in which " thou wast dressed ?

76

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


The
old

man

said to her in grief

"
:

Since the day

when thou and


and wanderI

thy children were separated from me,


ing for your sake
;

have been
I

in pain
;

sea,

crossed
;

land,

scoured

height,

trod

and depth,

my

soul

sounded

thirst

me, bareness of feet

made me
;

overpowered me, hunger tormented suffer, heat burned me, and cold dried

and I did not find quietness till now ". me, so that I might find you And Mitrodora said to him " Come, tree, and see the branches which had been separated from thee they have become staves, and
:

behold, they are sustaining us


kissed his sons tenderly
;

".

The

old man, then, approached,


to

and

and began

were departed people


peace,

rising

weep upon them as if they " Come in (from the dead), and said
:

slain ones,

who have
!

returned (to

life)

O
my

departed ones,
I

who have been


you to-day
!

resuscitated

Blessed are

my

eyes, for
to

have seen
to sustain

glorify God, because

He

gave you

me

my
all,

old age, to take

away my

pains,

and

to console

affliction."
;

And
to the

Simon Cephas baptized also the old man, their father and mother, sons, and father, became pure sanctuaries and dwellings

Holy

Spirit,

reached a high rank, and were much renowned in


us glorify

sanctity.

And we

all, let

God who

comforts distressed people,

and takes away the pains of those who to Him for ever and ever. Amen.
II.

trust in

His name.

Glory be

THE BOOK OF SHEM SON OF NOAH.


FOREWORD.

The

curious treatise here printed will

add something

to our

know-

ledge of Biblical
productions
purports in
is

Apocrypha. The field of already very wide, but, if we

extension of these spurious

mistake not, none of them

a similar

way

to predict events dealing

with agriculture.

Our work
Noah.
of certain

is

In the

a kind of agricultural horoscopy ascribed to Shem son of Book of Jubilees X. 12; XXI. 70, mention is made
of

books

Noah.
;

"

And

he gave

all

that

he had written
all

to
his

Shem,
"
sons

his

eldest son

for

he loved him exceedingly above

Apocrypha and Pseudopigrapha, II, 28). (Abraham) have found it written in the books of my " forefathers, and in the words of Enoch, and in the words of Noah " for so For so my father Abraham commanded me (ibid. p. 44).
" (R.

H.
I

Charles'

For thus

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


he found
it

77

in the writing of the

Book of Noah
work

(Testament of Levi,
6-11; 54, 7 55, 2 (Adv. Hczr. XXVI.
;

ibid. p. 365).

" concerning the blood In the Book of Enoch there


attributed to

are also traces of a certain apocalyptic


;

him

(1

En.

65-69,

etc., of

Charles* edition).

Ephiphanius
sects a

1) tells us that

among some Gnostic


Noah's
it is

book

was

current bearing the

name

of Nuria,

wife.

In the text of Jubilees quoted

above

only said that


specified

Shem
is

transmitted to posterity his father's works,


directly attributed to him.

and no

book

From The Jewish Encyclopedia (xi. " that Shem is supposed by the Rabbis to have estab262) we learn lished a school in which the Torah was studied, and among the pupils Later Shem was joined by Eber, and the of which was Jacob.
school

was called

after

both of them.

Besides, the school

was the
in those

seat of a regular bet-din times.

which promulgated the laws current

The

bet -din of

Shem

proclaimed the prohibition of and the


last feature

punishment
of adultery.

for adultery."

This

must not be overlooked


is

in reading the present

apocryphon

in

which there

frequent mention

Many
described

public libraries contain physician Asaph's medical treatise


1

by Steinschneider (Hebr. Bibl. XIX. 35, 64, 84,

05).

introduction to this treatise registers a tradition to the effect that

The Shem

son of

Noah was

the inventor of medicine which had been revealed to

him by the Angels. This information would also tend to explain why a treatise on astromancy or horoscopy could have been written under
the

name

of

Shem.

In ancient times

no good physician was able to

dispense with astromancy, and after all the herbal drugs had failed, it was the handiest recipe to produce effects that no other medicine could

produce.

It

was on many occasions a

safe

panacea admitting of scarcely

any exceptions.

The Book of Shem,


cultivation,

son of Noah, has been mainly written for


It tells

people interested in agriculture.

which
in

is

the good year for


to sow.

and which

is

the best

month

which

Shem

draws
zodiac.

his

From

knowledge the same source he can

of these questions

from the twelve signs of the


the dearness or cheap-

foretell
:

ness of the most necessary articles of food


cereals, oil,

wheat, barley, watered

wine

and

is

able also to prognosticate the health of the

most useful domestic animals such as sheep and cattle. The country in which the Book of Shem was written

is

easy to

78
determine.

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


The
author lays stress continually on events dealing with

Egypt is concerned the inundation of the Nile takes a prominent place, and is mentioned in every section. Of the Egyptian towns Alexandria is the only one which has deserved Egypt and Palestine.
far as

As

special record.

As

far

as Palestine

is

concerned, the holy city has


his

no place

in

the

mind

of

Shem, and curiously enough,


are frequently mentioned
in the

mind was

not interested in any other Biblical town.


the district of
stituted

Probably Damascus and

Hauran which
it is

by name conof the treatise.

an integral part of Palestine


in
for

geography

From
or

these precise data,

safe to infer that the

work was written


Palestine,
in

somewhere

Egypt

people

Egypt. cannot be so categorical as to the question of On the one hand it does the epoch of the appearance of the work. not contain any precise historical details entitling us to fix on a deUnfortunately

somewhere

in Palestine for

who had great interest in people who had great interest

we

termined date, and on the other hand the frequent mention of the Romans and of their kings induces us to suppose that it saw the light
in

the period of the

Roman

domination of

Egypt and Palestine.

Further,

the writer seems to have certain interest in the matter of

Jewish emigration from Palestine, because he distinctly mentions the


propitious

and unpropitious years


this information,

for emigration.

If

any argument

can be built on
the treatise
this

we

should be tempted to say that

was written

in

a time of national distress in Palestine, and

would naturally suggest a time not very remote from the catastrophe which befell the Jewish nation under Vespasian and Hadrian. It is, however, precarious to make a categorical pronouncement on
this subject
;

we

shall presently see that the outer

form of the work

actually postulates a

much

later date.
is

Another puzzling question


matic Shem.
for his Christian tendencies,

the religious belief of the problein his

Having found nothing

work which would vouch

a Jew.

we have ventured to suppose that he was Indeed some details which characterize his work seem to
;

point to a Jewish authorship

such

is

Passover, continual distress, and persecution.


other channels,

the question of emigration, Strictly speaking the


if,

argument taken from the word Passover would vanish


it

through
;

in were proved that the document was Christian this case Passover would Easter. simply have to be changed into The same may be said of the topics of emigration, distress, and per-

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


secution.

79

disappeared from the manuscript would perhaps have solved the problem, but as the work stands, it has certainly more Jewish than Christian colour.

Some words which have

The
more

question of the original language of the

document

is

even

difficult to settle.

We

have before us

in

a relatively recent

manuscript a text with numerous lacunae and several corrupted pasUntil some other manuscripts are, therefore, found, or some sages.
exact quotations by subsequent writers are given,
it is

more prudent

to

The Syriac style, however, contains vocables suspend our judgment. which reflect a certain influence of the Arabic language. It is through
language that we understand some missing in the most recent dictionaries.
this

new Syriac words which are The argument must not be

considered as decisive, and

it is

even probable that such words might


century of the Christian era in

have been

in use before the ninth

which the Arabic could reasonably exercise an influence on the Syriac. Syriac dictionaries are still in somewhat embryonic state, and the reading of any book reveals words which are to be catalogued in
a
final

Thesaurus
future.

of the language,

which has

still

to see the light in

a contingent
In

begins in
If

the prognostication of the events which take place if the year Cancer the author uses the words Krayatha and rsa'a.
the deter-

we do not call to our help the Arabic language for mination of these words, the phrase will not give any As far as the first word is concerned the Arabic meaning. " " which means he had a backache suits best the context,
have supposed that the word
is

reasonable

verb akra

and so

we

a noun of action of a corresponding

As far as rsa'a is concerned we have also resorted, in Syriac akrl. order to find an appropriate sense, to the Arabic rasa' " soreness of the eyes ".
In the next section,
it is

said of locusts

wankhowzun.

No

mean-

ing given to this verb

So we
"

by the lexicographers can satisfy the context. have tried to explain it through the Arabic Kaza meaning

he gathered ". There is also a sentence which in our judgment can yield no meaning, and the Syriac scholar who could find a good sense for it would be very fortunate. In the section of Scorpio, after having foretold that
the Nile will overflow half of
lator
its normal rate, the author or the transadds immediately the The incomprehensible Gbght dkatfinta.

80

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


"
distress"

use of the words Kattinutha and Kattma in the sense of " " distressed and respectively deserves also special notice.

We conclude
The
It

the above survey with a great margin of uncertainty. manuscript in which the work is found is not very ancient.
It

cannot be placed earlier than the fifteenth century.

contains

many

treatises

on astrology by different writers, and among these treatises is included the Testament of Adam, which is printed in the second vol-

ume

of the

the book

Patrologia Syriaca (pp. was an extremely bad Syriac

309- 360). The copyist of scholar, and his transcription is


1

frequently ungrammatical and corrupt owing to the omission of prefixes and suffixes, and to the awkward confusion between graphically similar
letters,

such as and ; occasionally also one notices in the text the omission of complete words and a false conjugation of verbs. The
J.

Rendel Harris's precious " collection and was numbered Cod. Syr. 165 is now the property of The John Rylands Library where it stands as Cod. Syr. 44. It is the
most unsatisfactory Syriac MS. which I have ever seen. " are sometimes similar to those of the Syrian Anatomy
of
Its
**

manuscript which formerly belonged to "

contents

or

"

Book

Medicines" so ably edited and translated

in

1913 by E. A. Wallis
If it

Budge (pp. 520-656). Such is the outer form


so keen an interest
will

of this fantastic apocryphon.

cannot

claim the honour of being counted

among

the books which have excited

always give

it

theologians, its supposed paternity a place in the shelf of writings bearing the sacred

among some

name

of Biblical Patriarchs.

TRANSLATION.
Discourse written by

Shem
in
it.
:

son of

Noah about

the beginning of the

year and
If

all that

happens

the year begins in Aries

The
not be
it

year will

be hard.

The quadrupeds

will die.

There
size,

will

many
have

clouds.
fat grains.

will

The The

standing corn will not have good


river Nile will overflow well.

but
king

The

of the will
first

Romans

will not

remain in one place.


fire.

The

stars of

heaven

be scattered
crops will
*
.
. .

like rays of

The moon
will

will suffer eclipse.

The

perish,

and the second

Passover
1

corn will be mildewed.

From be ingathered. The year will be bad, with

A hole in the

MS.

with the disappearance of about four words.

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS.


severe

81

war and

distress

over

all

the earth, especially over the land of

Many ships will break up when the sea is rough. Oil will Egypt. at a moderate price in Africa, and wheat will be at a low price in Damascus, Hauran, and Palestine it will be at a moderate price.
be
;

(Palestine) will

have

different

kinds of diseases, plagues, and war,

but

it

will

be delivered from them and saved.


:

If

the year begins in Taurus


in his

Anyone having
will

name

(the letters) Beith,

be

ill,

or will be killed with iron weapons.

Yodh, or Koph There will be earth-

quake.

A wind will start

year will be rich in the land and of the surrounding places will destroy that (wheat). The 2 yearly rain will fail during three months, and then corn will be very dear during thirty-six days ; many people will die from diseases of the
throat,

The

from Egypt and spread over all the earth. wheat and abundant rains, but the chiefs of

and then

tribulation will cease.

The

first

crops (of wheat) will

perish, but as (above), the second crops will be ingathered, and barley with the watered cereals will be ingathered also. The devils will attack

the sons of men, but they will not


will rise against
its

harm them
great river

in anything.

Two

kings

each other.

The

Nile will overflow above


ship in the sea,

normal

rate.

who

are on the

Those who are on board a sea will be in great distress.


blessing.

and those

At

the end of the year

there will
If

be great

the year begins in

Gemini

The moon
rain will

will be good.

A South wind will


name
in his face.

blow, from which

come.
will

Anyone

having in his

the letters

Taw, Heth,

or

Mim

have tumours and boils

At

the beginning of

the year there will be a severe war.

There will be early rains, and the standing corn will be good, especially in the watered Mice places. will abound in the earth. The Romans (and the Persians 3 will
?)

wage
forth

a severe

war

against

by

ships on the sea,

one another, and the Romans will come will fight and destroy them. Malicious

people will rise in the world,


great anxiety

and

distress.

who will do mischief, and there will be Good will come at the end of the year

and the

river

Nile will overflow well.


"
earthquake
".

The word zaina may be a mistake

for

zaw'a,

The word
Hole

written on the margin. in the MS. with the disappearance of a word.


is

82
If

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


:

the year begins in Cancer At the beginning of the year corn will be at a moderate price, and people will be comfortable. The Nile will overflow at half its

normal
from
1

rate.

pest.

Stars will shine very brightly,

Alexandria will be besieged, and distress will be in it and the moon will suffer
abound, and many people will
of the eyes.

eclipse.

At

the beginning of the year wheat and barley will be


will
suffer

dear.

Winds

from back

aches, coughs,

and soreness

Wine
;

will

be abundant.
also

Oxen, sheep, and small


perish,

cattle will
for

perish

and be

cereals will

but

oil

will

make up

them.

At

the end of the year corn


rain,

will

be dear

for nine days,

and then there

will

and (the year)

will have
If

much

blessing.

the year begins in

Leo

There
winds
;

will be early rains, but the soil will be scorched by North corn will not be injured and the food of mankind will be

Wheat, rice, and cereals will be dear, and wheat will have to good. be watered. Oil and dates will be dear. There will be diseases in
sons of
cattle.

men and
make
2
.

the pregnant animals will perish as well as small


fight against

A king will
.

a king.

A considerable number of
number
will decrease but
at its highest

locusts will
slightly
.

their

appearance and

their

they will turn from one place to another and they will

be gathered
rate.

together.

The

river

Nile will overflow

People will there will be much


If

suffer

from headaches.

At

the end of the year

rain.
:

the year begins in Virgo

Anyone
Beith and
house.
will

having in his
will

name

Nun

be

ill,

Yodhs, or Semkath, and will be plundered, and will flee from his
(the letters)
3 [
. . .

And there will


of

be

at the beginning of the year


in

There

be shortage

water

some

places.

flourish.

People will be

in distress

and

The first crops will not sickness, Summer and Winter.

The

Corn will second crops will be ingathered, and will be good. be dear in Hauran and in Bithynia, (?) but at the end of the year their
price will be moderate.
will

Wine

will

be abundant.
price,

Oil will be dear.

Dates be cheap and delicious. Wheat and barley will be at a

moderate
1

and

cereals will be cheap.

Rain will be

late

and

will

These words are written on the margin by a

2 3

A hole in the

MS.

later hand. with the disappearance of a word.

There are evidently some words missing

here.

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


not
fall
.

83

upon the earth during


l
. .

thirty

days

down

to the time of Passkill

over.

The
in

king will fight against another king and will

him.

Living

Alexandria will be dear.


ships will break up.
in everything.
:

The

(Nile) will not over-

flow well.
will

Many

At

the end of the year there

be moderation
If

the year begins in Libra


will

There
terverted.

be early
will

rains,

and the (order


oil will

of the) year will

be

in-

People
fruit.

be secure from the East wind.


abound.

Fig-trees

will not bear

Dates and

Wine

will

be dear.

Wheat will be at a very moderate price. Locusts will appear. In Africa there will be a great and severe war. People will have acute In the middle of the year rain will fail during twenty days. diseases. The (kind of) wheat (called) armo'yatha (?) will not be fat enough.
All
fields will

be good.
ill,

Anyone having
will

in

his

name
will

(the letters)

Yodh

or Beith will be

his country.

Wine

emigrate from will be spoiled, and adultery will increase with

have anxiety, and

the increase of foul desires.

The

king will remain in one place,

and

power will cease in the earth, and high officials and there will be between (them) a severe war.

will flee into the sea,


In Galilee there will

be a violent earthquake. Marauders will appear in Hauran and in Damascus. The river Nile will overflow to its highest rate. In

Egypt there
say mules.
If

will

be a

cruel pest,

which

will

be

in

... 2

that

is

to

People

will

be

in distress
:

because of the shortage of

rain.

A
will

the year begins in Scorpio

North wind

will

blow

at the beginning of the year,

and there

be many early

rains.

At

the end of the year everything will


that people will

be dear, and rain will be so scarce and supplications to the living God,

address prayers
3

for the sake of food.

women
only

will

have

diseases.

Many

people will emigrate

Pregnant from their

countries out of distress.


in small
oil.

Wheat and
cereals will

barley will be ingathered, but

quantity

be ingathered.

There

will

be
4

wine and
will

Boils will spring forth in the bodies of people but they

do no harm.
1

The

Nile will overflow half of

its

normal

rate.

2
3

A hole has caused a word to disappear. A hole with the disappearance of a word.
The
verb
is

There

is written on the margin. here a Syriac sentence for which

cannot find any

satis-

factory meaning.

84

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


having in his

Anyone

name

(the letters)
in

Taw,

or

Yodh,
live,

will

be

ill,

but will recover.


killed at the
If

Anyone born

Scorpio will

but will be

end

of the year.
:

the year begins in Sagittarius


in his

Anyone having
severe illness
of the year.

name
be

(the letters) Beith, or Pe, will have


at the beginning
Little will

and

distress,

which will be aggravated


in distress in

be sown
be much

in

People the land of Egypt.

will

many

places.

In the middle of the year there will

rain.

People

will store corn in the barns because of the


will not

shortage of rain.

Crops

the end of the year.

Wine and

oil

be good, so also will be the case at will be at a very moderate price.


cattle will perish.
:

Adultery will
If

increase,

and small

the year begins in Capricornus


in his

Anyone having
be plundered, and
dominate the year.
will not succeed.

name

(the letters)

Koph

will

be

ill,

will

will

be struck with sword.

An
;
. .

East wind will


l
.

Every one should sow

earlier

the last in sowing


will

At

the beginning of the year


l

be dear.
In the

Waves and

billows will increase.

will perish.

Thieves will increase. middle of the year corn will be dear. The officials of the state will be bad. Wasps and reptiles of the earth

Many people (will move) multiply and injure many people. from one place to another because of the war which will take place.
will

Wars
scarce.

will increase in the earth.


In

At

the end of the year rain will be


will yield

in

some places the standing corn others it will perish. There will be
offer

pest in

something, and Damascus and in

Hauran, and famine


People will
If

the sake of rain.

Adultery will increase. prayers and supplications, will fast and give alms for The watered cereals will be normal.
:

in the littoral of the sea.

the year begins in Pisces


in his

Anyone having

name

(the letters)

Koph,

or

Mim,

will be

The year will be good and the standing ill, and will be plundered. corn will also be good and beautiful. There will be early rains. 3 The game of the sea will increase, and when the sea is rough ships
will break up.

The

will

be

ill.

Wine,

oil,

and wheat

The
2

copyist has omitted here the subject of the verb. This verb (or one similar to it) has been omitted by the copyist. Owing to a hole, the first and the two last letters of the verb appear. The subject has been omitted by the copyist.

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


will, all of
strife

85
be

them, be good.

Crops
in

will also

be good.
as
1

There

will

and much devastation

towns

to

the villages, their

site will

Marauders will come change from one place to another. 2 will wage a great war against three forth from Palestine, and and the Romans will sometimes be victorious, and sometimes towns
. . , ;

defeated.

A
come

great disease will affect the sons of men.


forth seeking

black

man The

will

king will endeavour to

power, and the royal family will perish. hear what people would say, and will

destroy
fear of

many

towns, and no one will be able to check him, and the


will be far from him.

God and His mercy


all

At

the end of the

year there will be peace

and

security for the sons of


3
:

men, and union

and concord between


If

the kings of all the earth.

the year begins in Aquarius

having in his name (the letters) Lamadh or Pe will be 4 At the beginning of the year rain will increase, ill, 5 and the Nile will overflow at its highest rate, and Egypt will [ .]

Anyone

or plundered.

over

Palestine.

.]

will

produce.

flourish.

Lambs and sheep

will
fight

against a king.
will not

West wind The first

will

dominate the year.

king will

crops will

be good.

The

(watered) cereals

grow much, but they

will yield (something).

The merchants

will ask for helpers from the Living

God.

III.

FRAGMENT FROM THE PHILOSOPHER ANDRONICUS AND ASAPH, THE HISTORIAN OF THE JEWS.
FOREWORD.
The
short extract here printed
is

a genuine quotation from a Greek the


Philosopher,

writer

called
".

"Andronicus the Wise,

and the
the

Learned

These

author's identity.
1

epithets can hardly lead us to determine In examining all the writers with the name of
is

An-

The

Syriac wording of this sentence

very ungrammatical.

Possibly

the copyist did not understand the text he was transcribing. 2 hole with the disappearance of a word.

here an objection against the text he was tranPisces were put before Antiquarius, while Antiquarius must have been spoken of before Pisces.
copyist
is

The

raising

scribing, because in

it

The sentence 'akar min is The verb is omitted by the

difficult to

understand.

copyist.

The

subject

is

apparently omitted by the copyist.

86
dronicus to

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

whom might be assigned the authorship of the fragment we able to find only three whose claim could be regarded as worthy were of consideration ( ) the astronomer Andronicus Cyrrhestes who ac: 1

cording to Vitruvius

(I,

6, 4) set

up
;

at

Athens the octagonal tower


death
is

of

Marble, which
about
1

is

seen in our days


of

his

generally placed at

00

B.C.

(2) Andronicus

Rhodes, the peripatetic philosopher

who
50

become
B.C.

arranged Aristotle's writings in the form with which we have his death is placed by some Greek scholars at about familiar
;

(3)

The Christian Andronicus


In

poems and in Ethiopia.


according to

according to Libanius (Epist.

Hermopolis in Egypt, whose were much esteemed in Egypt 75) A.D. 359 he was suspected of pagan practice,
of
1

Amm.

Marc. (XIX,

2),

but was acquitted by Paulus,

the envoy of the emperor Constantius. Of these three writers the one who possesses stronger claims

is

Andronicus Cyrrhestes mentioned by Eusebius

of Caesarea in his

work

on the "Star".
peutics of E.
times (pp.

In the

Syrian Anatomy, Pathology, and Thera2

A. Wallis Budge, 237, 521, 654 of the

this

Andronicus

is

mentioned three

translation).

Perhaps some other Andronicus


set forth as the

whom we do not know might be author of the present fragment, but the main point of
contains concerning the Jewish writer

interest

which

it

Asaph

will

hardly be

affected.

The
is,

impression that one gathers from the

word-

ing of the translation,

however, that Andronicus was a Christian

writer speaking of olden

Pagan times

of

Greece.

He

relates

how

before his time a certain literary


"historian of the

man

called

Asaph, a Jew and an

Hebrews," had given


of the

to the twelve signs of the

Zodiac the names

twelve

tribes of Israel.

Now who

was

this

" historian Josephus as the real of the Jews". The quotation, however, is not found in Josephus, and probably Josephus did not write in Aramaic. Further, Syriac

Asaph

Primd

facia one might think

of

writers transcribe rightly Josephus'

well-known name as Yusiphus.


side.

The problem
one

is

therefore to

be approached from another


are informed that

In the

Jewish Encyclopedia we

Asaph Ben
Chron.

Berechiah,
VI. 39), is

of the captive Levites carried off to Assyria (1

given in later Jewish legends as a vizier to Solomon.


1

The

article

W.

Wright

in

Journal of Sacred Literature, 1866,


"

p. 521.

Leipzig-Oxford, 1913.

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


which
is

87

written

by Gottheil

refers to the

Fihrist

(I,

9) as embody-

in Jellinek, B. H. V. 23. ing the same information as that found I was, however, unable to find the name of Asaph in the Fihrist.
If

Gottheil

is

right in his opinion that in the

Jewish tradition
in

Asaph

is

a vizier of Solomon,

we

might perhaps find

him a

certain similarity

with Ahikar.
vizier of

Ahikar was the

vizier of Sennacherib,

and Asaph the

Solomon.

fragment here printed, which can hardly be later than the fourth century of the Christian era, presents Asaph as a Jewish

The

writer and a Jewish historian, and adds that he wrote in Aramaic and There were evidently at the beginning of the Christian not in Greek.
era, or in
era,

some unknown period preceding or following the Christian In lapse of time books written in Aramaic by a certain Asaph.

mediaeval tradition brooded over his

name and made him

the vizier of

Solomon.
In

many

public libraries there

is

a Jewish medical treatise


in

attri-

buted to a certain

(No. 1197, 7) "the astronomer".

calls

The manuscript preserved Asaph. him Asaph ha-Yarhoni, that is


In

Paris
say,

to

the historical

introduction

to

the

treatise

The style, placed between Hippocrates and Dioscorides. however, of the treatise does not bear out such an antiquity, and
Asaph
is

Steinschneider has even thought that

it

was

translated into

Hebrew

from some Syriac

original.

The

previous lines

induce us to suppose that there might have been

a Jewish astronomer, historian, and physician called

Asaph

living in

the centuries immediately preceding or following the Christian era.

fixed to

His works having been lost, his surviving name might have been presome later literary productions, in order to enhance their credit.

On
tion.

this point
It
is

our fragment

is

important and deserves careful considera-

possible that the author of the medical treatise referred


distinct

to above
this

was a person

hypothesis the

Asaph who wrote


in the eighth

from the one quoted in this fragment in the medical treatise would
;

have lived somewhere

to the tenth century

and the For

Asaph

of our

fragment would have


it

lived at a

much

earlier date.

the sake of further researches

is

also useful to state, that in the

Chronicles of Jerakmeel (e&k.


to a certain
of

M.

Gaster, p. 230), there

is

reference

porary

Asaph, governor of the garden of Lebanon, and contemDarius King of Media, Cyrus King of Persia, and Zorob-

88

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


to

babel, and living, therefore, in a period immediately following the

Jewish deportation

Babylonia.

We

learn

from the Jewish

Encyclopedia (XII, 688)


is
first

that the duodecimal division of the

Zodiac
"

mentioned
is

in the

Jewish literature in the


to
;

"

Sefer Yezirah
In

which
(n.

of

unknown
is

antiquity (possibly sixth century).

Yalkut
Zodiac

418) an attempt

made

apply the twelve

signs of the

to the twelve tribes of Israel

the following lines will attribute this

attempt to hebraicize the Zodiac to a


script

much

earlier date.

The manu-

which contains the


"

text

is

the same as the one described above

under the section

Book

of

Shem

son of

Noah

".
L

TRANSLATION.
Again a discourse upon the twelve crrot^eta of the sun, written by Andronicus the Wise, the Philosopher and the learned. Because the lovers of truth must always remember and understand
the good and prominent things which enlighten the
seek after them,

mind

of those

who

I have been anxious, my brethren, to lay down before the prominent question of the evolution of the course of (the sun), you that is to say the limits, the times and all the course of its succession

with the days of the

the influence of the twelve crrot^cia which gravitate circuitously in the number of the twelve months of the
year,

moon and

and which

foretell events

which happen

to us

by order

of

God,
and

creator of everything.
In
1

investigating
their

these o-rot^eia the Greeks have defined


their entities.

shown

They have called them by the names of their gods, and they follow one another in the order of the Kavoves of the numbers of the days of the months, that is to say
according to the lunar computation. They begin with Dio son of Cronus, and they call him Aries. After him comes Poseidon his brother whom they call Pisces. After

names and

him comes Apollo,

After this they put they call Aquarius. of Water," but with us it is Capricornus. Ares, Dog " " After him they say Hermes, whom they call Kerwan ~ (Sagittarius). After this they say Pluto, whom they call Scorpio. After this they

whom
"

whom

they call

say Athena,

whom
"

whom

they call Libra. "

After

this

they put Aphrodite, they say Artemis,

they
1

call

Virgo
is

who is

Spica.

After

this

The
Is it

text here Crotus ?

ungrammatical and somewhat corrupt.

EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS


whom
of

89

After this they say Dionysus, whom they call they call Leo. After this come the Dioscuri, called Castor and Pollux, sons Cancer.

Zeus by Leda, and they

call

them Gemini.

After them comes

Hercules,

whom

they

call

Taurus.

Asaph

the writer and the historian of the


all

Hebrews
names

explains

and

teaches clearly the history of

these, but does not write and show

them with Greek names, but according As to the effects and influences Jacob.
enumerates them
fully

to the

of the sons of

of these a-Toiyeia he, too,

without adding or diminishing anything, but in

the simply changing in a clear language their names into those of He begins them in the Aramaic language and puts at Patriarchs. " Reuben ". After it comes Aries, the head Taurus, which he calls " l Simeon ". After it comes Pisces, which they which they call " " Issachar ". After it comes Aquarius, which they call Levi ". call " After it After it comes Capricornus, which they call Naphtali ". " and calls him Gad," and he is he sketches a rider while shooting,

analogous with the Kirek "

of the Greeks.
it

After

it

comes Scorpio,
calls

which he
After

calls

Dan
it

".

After

he mentions Libra, which he

he mentions Virgo, whom he calls "Dinah". " (comes) Leo, which he calls Judah ". Then he sketches " Zebulun ". After it he mentions Gemini, Cancer, which he calls " whom he calls " Ephraim and " Manasseh ".

"Asher".
it

After

As lovers of truth you will see and understand that these (crroix^a) have been named according to the number of days (of lunar computaI tion). say this, even if it happens that the peal of thunder is heard
(in

them).

At

each month of the year, each one of the crroixeia

turns circuitously according to the /caz/oVe? of the


tates according to the

months and gravi-

moons, each one of them having been brought about by the three KOLVOVZS of the evolution of the moon. This is their exposition, their order, and all their influence of which
of the

number

we

are aware.
1

The
Is

copyist has used

many verbs

in plural

which must have been

in singular.
2

not this a mistake for Crotus ?

The
matical.
original.

Syriac translation of

The

translator

all this last passage is corrupt and ungramdoes not seem to have understood the Greek

SOME EARLY JUD/EO-CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY.


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COPTIC LITERATURE IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY.


BY THE REV. D.
P.

BUCKLE, M.A.
John Rylands Library
is

ONE

of the outstanding features of the

its

interesting collection of
this collection

ance of

may

Coptic manuscripts. importbe judged from the fact that it has

The

been examined by Monsignor Hebbelynck, Honorary Rector of the


University of Louvain, for the purpose of tracing scattered leaves of the same manuscript, and also from -the recent transcription of certain

fragments in order to supply what is regarded as essential material for As these manuscripts have been carefully a new Coptic lexicon. catalogued by Mr. W. E. Crum, it is not necessary to reproduce the
information given in his well-arranged and most useful catalogue about
their date, contents, provenance, etc.

account of printed Coptic texts and of aids to the study of the language contained in the
object of this article
is

The

to give a general

Library.
It is

remarkable that in Manchester it

is

possible to trace the history


its

of the interest taken

by
"

students of Coptic in Europe, from


critical

earliest

beginnings in the works of Kircher to the latest

estimates of the

most recent works

Egyptian Archaeology ". In view of the present relations between England and Egypt, and of the possibilities of the future, it is interesting to note that there has
of the collection of

in

The

Journal of

been a continuous encouragement


scripts,

Coptic manu-

and

of the editing of texts in this country, so that continental

scholars

have been indebted

to English support

both

for research

and

publication.

The
is

best account of the early history of Coptic studies in

given by E. Quatremere in his

"

Europe

Recherches sur

Litter ature de 1'Egypte" (Paris, 1808). the attention of students of literary history, as teresting

Langue et la This work is well worth


la
it

traces, in

a most in-

way, the progress

of nearly
119

two

centuries of

research, with

120

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

minute care, and with a wonderful wealth of references to original The first European collector of Coptic manuscripts noted authorities.

by Quatremere
Gassendi,
the
in

is that of N. C. F. de Peiresc, whose life by P. well-known philosopher and mathematician, is to

be found

the Library in

same time Pietro della Valle


brought

a contemporary binding. About the made a tour in the East, and himself

back several Coptic manuscripts.

His

life

also

may be

studied in the Library in four different editions.

But the most important pioneer work was done by Kircher, whose Prodromus Coptus" (Rome, 1636), and "Lingua Aegyptiaca " restituta (Rome, 1643), are in the Library, bound together in one The first of these works contains a chapter on the utility of volume.
"
the Coptic language, and concludes with a grammar, which
is

prob-

The second reproduces gramably the earliest printed in Europe. mars of previous Egyptian authors and adds the "Scala magna, or

The attempt at Coptic lexicography. John Rylands Library also possesses a copy of the life of Robert
vocabulary," being the
first

Huntington (1637-1701), the first English collector of Coptic manuscripts, who lived in Syria and brought home a collection which passed Thomas Marshall (1621-1685), Rector of Lincoln to the Bodleian. " New TestaCollege, Oxford, commenced an edition of the Coptic

ment" with type provided by Dr. Fell, Bishop of Oxford, but only one sheet (Matt i.-iii.) was actually printed. This scheme is men tioned
in Marshall's preface to a curious little

duodecimo volume, by Josephus

Historia Jacobitarum seu Coptorum," published at the Abudacnus, Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, in 1675.

"

After Marshall's death


to
is

have ceased

for

in 1685 encouragement and interest seem a time, but the early part of the eighteenth century

marked by the publication of three Coptic Liturgies in a translation by Renaudot (Paris, 1716), and his dissertation on the language. Renaudot apparently was not in a position to secure Coptic type*
Contemporaneously

by Wilkins of The Lord's Prayer" in the Chamberlayne collection (1715), and of the "New Testament" at the expense of the University of Oxford (1716).
find the editions

we

"

73 1) he published the Pentateuch ". On the relation of the text of Wilkins and that given by subsequent editors to the manuscripts, reference should be made to an important article by " Professor Brooke in The Journal of Theological Studies," III. 258-78.
Fifteen years later (1

"

COPTIC LITERATURE

121

Wilkins was a Prussian whose original name Wilke (latinized as comWilkius) was changed to that by which he is best known, as a " " New Testament is severely pliment to the Bishop of Chester. His Lacroze accriticized by Lacroze both for its text and translation.
cused Wilkins of profound ignorance of Coptic, and went so far as In the edition of the to place him below Kircher in that matter. " Pentateuch/* however, Quatremere considers that Wilkins surpassed himself. According to the same authority the receipt of a copy of the " New Testament," by Richard Cumberland, Bishop of Peterborough,
greatly interested that aged prelate,

who, though eighty-four years

of

age, gave the rest of his

life

to the study of the language.

The middle
study
in Italy.

of the eighteenth century reveals a revival of

Coptic

Tuki, a Copt by birth, and Bishop of Arsinoe, began

100 years after the appearance of Kircher's Prodromus," a series of works of which Quatremere gives the following list: "Missal" (1736), "Psalter" (1744), "Dito publish
at

Rome,

exactly

"

urnal" (1750), " "

"

Pontifical" (1761, and 1762),

"

"

Ritual

(1763),

Grammar

(1

778).

Of

these the

John Rylands Library possesses


Tuki's

the "Psalter"
largely used

and the

"Grammar".
"

"Grammar" was
of

by Peyron

in his

Lexicon

"
for illustration

Coptic

words.

We
passed
Jordan,

now come
"

to Lacroze,

who, according
et

to

all his

predecessors in the study of Coptic.

Quatremere, surHis life by C. E.


"

Histoire de la
1
1

Vie

des Ouvrages de Mr.

Lacroze

(Amsterdam, 74 ), is also in the Library. With the name of Lacroze must be connected those of Scholz, Royal Preacher at Berlin, and

Woide, a Pole by origin, all of whom were ultimately indebted to the University of Oxford for the publication of their researches. The
Lacroze (1775) arranged by Scholz, annotated and " " indexed by Woide, is bound with the Grammar of Scholz, edited
of
11

"

Lexicon

by Woide (1778),

in the

The end
Italy,

of the eighteenth century

both on the part of due to the interest of Cardinal Stephen Borgia, Secretary, and after-

John Rylands copy. shows a noteworthy activity in native and foreign students, which was partly

wards Prefect
give us the

of the

Propaganda.
of

The

presses of

"

Parma and Bologna

Valperga [Didymus Taurimensis, q.v. in and Mingarelli's "Reliquiae" (1785). John Rylands Catalogue], Valperga's "Grammar" displays a remarkable advance on Tuki's

Grammar"

122

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

its type and in its improved This improvement is an indication that we have reached arrangement. the time when the accumulation of evidence and the advance of know-

already mentioned, both in the clearness of

ledge are beginning to give better editing of text and grammar, with

improved presentation and estimates


this in Georgi,

of textual material.

We

find

" (Rome, 1 789), a fine copy in olive Gospel according to St. John morocco with the arms of Pius VI ; in Ford's edition of Woide's

represented in the Library

by

his

"

Fragments

of the

"

Sahidic Fragments of the


in

New

Testament," also a magnificent vol-

Catalogue of the Borgian Museum Coptic Georgi and Woide both give facsimiles of manuscripts, Manuscripts, and Zoega classifies the script by a method which is still regarded as

ume, and

Zoega's

a standard, and thus prepared the


palaeography.

way

for the

development

of

Coptic
"

When Quatremere's book was published Zoega's " Catalogus was


already printed, but its publication was deferred by a lawsuit between Cardinal Borgia's heirs and the Congregation of the Propaganda. It was actually published in 1810. The Library possesses a copy of

Much information about Biblical texts, the Leipzig reprint of 1903. " after Quatremere's account ceases, will be found in Hyvernat's Studies " " Revue Biblique (1896 on the Coptic Versions," reprinted from the
and 1897).
After Zoega the next important name is that of H. Tattam (1789-1868), whose manuscripts formed the nucleus of the Crawford

His own published John Rylands Library. 'The Gospels" (1829); "Grammar," 1st ed. (1830); "Lexicon "(1835); "Minor Prophets "( 836) "Book
Collection
in the

now

works include:

of

Job" (1846);
;

"Apostolic

Constitutions"

(1848);

"Greater
of

Prophets" (1852)
Job," the
"

"Grammar," 2nd

ed. (1853).

"The Book
"

mar

"

Apostolic Constitutions," and both

editions of the

Gram-

are in the Library.

Meanwhile, Lagarde (1827-1891) [formerly Boetticher, q.v. in the John Rylands Catalogue] had commenced his textual labours and

1852 published at Halle editions of the "Acts of the Apostles" " and of the Epistles," both of which are in the Library, in copies
in

which belonged
44

Library also possesses his Orientalia" (1879), which describes the manuscripts bought from Brugsch by the Gottingen Library, reprints Old Testament fragments,

to

Bishop Westcott.

The

COPTIC LITERATURE
and
In the years 1881

123

intimates his desire to investigate scattered material in England.

and 1882 Lagarde received

200 from Bishop

promoters of learning, to enable him to One result of examine manuscripts at Rome, Florence, and Turin. " the publication of these investigations was Aegyptiaca" in 1883. " Wisdom" in this work was presented to translation of the text of the Library by the late Dr. J. H. Moulton. " The Earliest Known In 1898, Dr. E. A. Wallis Budge published Other in the British Museum ". Coptic Psalter from Codex 5000
Lightfoot and other English

'

texts

from the same source were published by Sir Herbert Thompson, (1) "The Coptic (Sahidic) Version of Certain Books of the Old

Testament" (1908),

and (2)

"

Coptic

Palimpsest containing

Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Judith, and Esther" (1911); and by Mr. " E. O. Winstedt in The Journal of Theological Studies," X. 233-54.

The

Library

possesses the

Ciasca-Balestri

edition

of

the

Roman

fragments of the

"

Old Testament," and Homer's


"

"

New Testament,"

Texts Sahidic. Gospels edited by Budge, Crum, Delaporte, and Winstedt will be found in the
in

the whole in Bohairic, as well as the

"

The Grammars of Stern, Steindorff, and Catalogue of Additions. " " Mall on, and the Berlin reprint of Peyron's Lexicon may be
consulted.

The

collection of material for


size of

Mr. Crum's new Lexicon,

which

will

be twice the

Peyron's book, has been interrupted

by

the war, but nevertheless continues to advance steadily.

Having traced in a very general and confessedly imperfect way the light which the Library throws upon the history of Coptic study, and having indicated some of the useful assistance which it provides,
I

may

conclude with the hope that

its

treasures will continue to enable

students

knowledge of the life and and especially of the valuable conEgypt, tribution which the Coptic Versions and homiletic literature make to the textual criticism and interpretation of the Bible.
investigators to gain a better

and

history of early Christian

STEPS

TOWARDS THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUVAIN.


In the following pages

we

print the sixth

list

of contributions

ta

the
this

new

library for the exiled University of Louvain,

and

we

take

opportunity of again thanking the respective


to our appeal.

donors

for their

wel-

come response
This
list

does not complete the record of gifts which have been received to date, for such is the pressure upon our space in the present

have been compelled to hold over a further list of the most recent of those gifts for publication in our next number.
issue that

we

have ventured to suggest the titles of a number of important works of reference, which are considered to be indispensable to the efficiency of a reference and research library such
In previous appeals

we

we have in contemplation, in the belief that there were our readers and their circle of friends many who would gladly amongst participate in our scheme of replacement, did they know what works would be acceptable. These appeals have met with an encouraging
as the

one

works have been added to the " a set of the notably Dictionary of National Sons, of Cambridge. Biography," presented by Messrs. Heffer should welcome further offers of such sets as the following Godefroy's " " Dictionnaire de 1'ancienne langue fran^aise" the Benedictins His" " " toire litteraire de la France the Acta Sanctorum of the Bolland" " ists the Victoria History of the Counties of England the two " series of the Abbe Migne's and his collection of EncycloPatrologia," " " Perrot and Chipiez's Histoire de Tart dans Fantiquite paedias " " Chevalier's Repertoire des sources historiques du moyen age " " " Brunei's Manuel du libraire et de 1'amateur de livres Notices
response,
useful sets of
collection as a result,

and many very

&

We

et extraits des manuscrits

" facsimiles Bibliotheque National e " of the great Biblical and other manuscripts, such as the Codex " " Codex Sinaiticus," Codex Alexandrinus," and the Vaticanus,"

de

la

series of facsimiles edited

by

M. de

Vries

"
;

des Hautes Etudes," to mention only a few


124

titles

Bibliotheque de FEcole which occur to us

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


as

125

we

write,

and which

we

mention as an indication to would-be

benefactors of the character of the works

we

are anxious to obtain.

Since the publication of our last report, a

new impetus

has been

Miss E. Dixon, of Cambridge (to whom we given to our scheme by are indebted already for much practical help), by her advocacy in
the press of the purchase of selections from the library of the late Dr. Gwatkin, Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University
of Cambridge,

which was
on

listed for sale in

May last by

Messrs. Heffer
"

&

Sons.

In cataloguing the library Messrs.

Church History and " Mediaeval History," comprising together 523 items, which were " " 60 and 90 respectively. Miss for the sum of en bloc offered " " Dixon in her letter to The Times (1 7th May) pointed out that it
together
the works

"

Heffer wisely grouped

Early European

would be a thousand
which
it

pities

for such valuable specialist

collections,

had taken Prof. Gwatkin a

lifetime to get together, to


for

be

dispersed,

and suggested that here was a unique opportunity

some

generous benefactor to give practical expression to his sympathy with


this movement by making, at the comparatively trifling cost of 50, a most welcome and valuable contribution to the new library, which
1

is

already taking very definite shape in the John Rylands Library.

The
and
print
first

response to this appeal was as prompt as it was encouraging, during the morning of the day in which the letter appeared in
several offers to purchase the collections

were received.

The

was from

the Master of

of the College, of which Prof.

Emmanuel College (Dr. Giles) on behalf Gwatkin was a Fellow, and which is

the headquarters of the exiled Belgian Professors in Cambridge. Dr. Giles proposes for the present to arrange the works comprised in this
gift in

the set of rooms which have been placed at the service of the

Belgian scholars, so that their

own

Professor of Divinity,

Canon Van

Hoonacker, may have easy access to them whenever he pleases. The " copy of the first edition of the Dictionary of National Biography," already referred to as having been presented by Mr. Heffer, is also
housed
in

Emmanuel
it

copy which used

College, and will in time take the place of the to stand in the vestibule of the library of Louvain.

We think

is

willingness to take part in

only due to those who so kindly expressed their Miss Dixon's plan, that their names should
In the order in
:

be placed on record.
they are as follows

which

their offers

were received
;

Mr. A. B. Burney,

of

London

Miss Agnes

126

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


; ;

Lord Muir Mackenzie ; Miss Kemp, of London and Miss F. M. Bruce, of London. AlSir George Macalpine though by the prompt action of Dr. Giles they were deprived of the
Fry, of Failand
;

the collections referred to, they very graciously privilege of presenting

allowed us to

select other

suitable

works from the same


to our assistance

library to a

given amount, or promised to

come

whenever another

advantageous opportunity should occur.

We must
Librarian of
his claim as

also gratefully

acknowledge the generous action

of the

Ann Arbor University,


"
first

come

first

Michigan, U.S.A., in renouncing " served to the two collections, in favour

of Louvain.

but

in reply to

Mr. Bishop's order was the first to reach Cambridge, a cablegram asking him to waive his claim in favour of
so.

Louvain, he promptly and generously consented to do

The

following circular letter, issued


of

by Lord Muir Mackenzie,

as

Chairman

the Executive Committee, has attracted

many

offers of

assistance, the details of

which

we hope

to

be

in

a position to print in

our next issue


'

The Executive Committee (appointed early in 1916 at a large representative meeting with Viscount Bryce, O.M., in the Chair) for
promoting the resuscitation of the Library at the University of Louvain after the War made an appeal through the Press, to which a satisfactory response

was made, and they now think that the time has come for making a more personal appeal. "The Committee have already received the promise of a considerable number of valuable books, and their experience, as well as that of the John Rylands Library at Manchester, where several
thousands of volumes have already been collected, so as to be ready for sending to Louvain when the time comes, shows that there are

many people both able and willing to help by Henry Guppy, the John Rylands Librarian, is
Committee, and there
is

their

gifts.

Mr.
of

member

the

complete co-operation between the Committee and the John Rylands Library, with the kind consent of its Governors. " The Committee, as they stated in their former appeal, suggest that sympathisers should send lists or descriptions of books, which they

may be

willing to give, to their

Butler, Librarian of the


after such lists

House

of

Honorary Secretary (Mr. Hugh Lords), [or to Mr. Guppy], who,


lists

have been collated with the

of the

books already

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY

127

write as to the acceptance of any volumes which may presented, will be kindly offered, and as to the place to which they should eventually

be

sent.

"
It is

well to

insist

on the

fact that the

Louvain Library was a

to general library and by no means confined or mainly confined Books therefore of all kinds ecclesiastical or theological literature.
fine

and on
will be "
It

all subjects

suitable for the shelves of a University Library

welcomed.
should be added that
lists

of the gifts

and donors

will

be

cation of the

published from time to time in the BULLETIN John Ry lands Library."


In our last issue reference

the periodical publi-

was made

to the spontaneous offer of


1

Messrs. King

&

Co., of Westminster, of a collection of

79 volumes

expressed the hope that other publishers would follow their example. Mr. Fisher Unwin has been good

published by them, and

we

enough to submit a
willing
liberal

own publishing, which he was to contribute, and from which we were able to make a very For this help we are grateful, and again express selection.
list

of

works

of his

the hope that

it

may
to

stimulate other publishing houses to

do

likewise.

We are glad
daily.

be able

to give fresh proof of the

sentative character of the offers of assistance

widely reprewhich reach us almost

One

of the latest is

from the

Town

Clerk of Auckland,

New

Zealand, intimating the desire of the Council, at the suggestion of Mr. H. Shaw, a local benefactor to the local Public Library, to " donate to the University of Louvain a duplicate copy of Biblia
Latina

cum

glossa

ordinaris

Walfridi

Strabonis

et

interlineari

Anselmi.

accepted, and

land

..." It is needless to say the offer we hasten to place this enlightened Town Council on record, in the hope that
similar use of them.

has been gratefully


action of the
it

Auck-

may

stimulate the
of duplicates

librarians

and committees of other libraries in the possession

to

make

have received intimation from the Secretaries of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the Royal Meteorological Society that complete
sets of their respective publications

We

are to be forwarded as soon as they

can be accumulated.
several of the

This leads us to say that


sets

we

are assured

by

Louvain Professors that

of the transactions of the

learned societies and of the learned periodicals will be most acceptable contributions to the new library.

128

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


In these hurriedly written paragraphs,
interest

we

have evidence of the unabated


for replacing the
gift

and the accompanying lists, which is being evinced in

our scheme

devastated library, but


in

much remains
is

to

be done

if

the

library

which we have

contemplation

to repre-

sent anything approaching the equivalent of the library so wantonly destroyed by the vandals of Germany, and for that reason we renew

and emphasize our appeal


In order to obviate will regard
it

for assistance.

any needless duplication


if

of gifts, the Librarian

as a favour

those

who may

scheme
a view

will, in the first instance,

send to him a

wish to participate in the list of the works they

are willing to contribute, so that the register


of ascertaining
list

may be

examined, with

whether any of the

titles

already figure therein.


inad-

In our last

of contributions at

pages 437-40 we have

vertently acknowledged the gift of a long list of books as from the " The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts".

acknowledgment should have been made


"
Associates of Dr. Bray

in

the

name

of

"The

through the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and we offer our apologies to the Secretary for our mistake.

DUDLEY BAXTER,
BAXTER

Esq., B.A., of Geneva.

With an appendix showing the (Dudley) England's cardinals. of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and reception Westminster. London, 1903. 8vo.
K.Q.

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE EARL BEAUCHAMP,


BRUCE (Thomas) Earl of Elgin and

Memoirs of Thomas, Ailesbury. Earl of Ailesbury, written by himself. Buckley.] [Edited by W. 2 vols. 4to. Westminster, 1890. [Roxburghe Club.]

GUILLAUME

of the life of man, englished with inby F. J. Furnivall by John Lydgate troduction, notes glossary and indexes by Katharine B. Locock. [RoxLondon, 1905. 4to. burghe Club.]
;

de Degulleville.
.

The

pilgrimage

the text edited

HOLME

(Randle)

blazon.

The academy of armory, or, a storehouse of armory and Second volume. Edited by I. H. Jeayes. [Roxburghe Club.]
4to.
of John Maundeuill, being the travels Edited by G. F. Knight (1322-56). Fol. 1889. Westminster, [Roxburghe Club.]

London, 1905.

MANDEVILLE
of

(Sir John)

The buke

Sir John Mandeville,

Warner.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


TlTUS FLAVIUS SABINUS VESPASIANUS, Emperor
of

129

Rome.

Titus and

in rhymed couplets. Edited Vespasian, or the destruction of Jerusalem from the London and Oxford MSS. by J. A. Herbert. [Roxburghe

Club.]

London, 1905.
K. F.

4to.

MISS

BROTHERS,

of Haverthwaite.

ROBERTS

selection of photographs of stars, star-clusters and (Isaac) nebulae, together with information concerning the instruments and the methods employed in the pursuit of celestial photography. London,

[1893].

4to.

SACCHI (Angelo) Catalogo di 1321 stelle doppie misurate equatoriale di Merz all' osservatorio del Collegio Romano a colle misure anteriori. Roma, 860. 4to.
]
.

col

grande

confrontate

THE REV.

D. P.

BUCKLE,

M.A.,

of

Manchester.

BUCKLE (David Purdey) Bohairic lections of Wisdom from a Rylands Library MS. [Extract from the Journal of Theological Studies, Oct. 1915,
Vol. XVII, No. 65.] [London, 1915.]
8vo.

CALCUTTA: THE INDIAN MUSEUM.

ALCOCK
-

(A.)

An

Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator.

account of the deep-sea Brachyura collected by the 4to. Calcutta, 1899.

An

Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator.


-

account of the deep-sea Madreporaria collected by the Royal 4to. Calcutta, 1898.

Indian

Catalogue of the Indian Decapod Crustacea in the collection of the Museum. Part iii, Fasc. 1 .] [Part i, Fasc. 1 -2 Part ii, Fasc. 1 4to. Calcutta, 1901-10. 4pts.
; ;

A descriptive catalogue of the Indian deep-sea Crustacea


in the Indian

Decapod

Being a revised account of the deep-sea species collected by the Royal Indian Marine Survey 4to. Calcutta, \ 901 Ship Investigator.
.

Macrura and Anomala,

Museum.

descriptive catalogue of the Indian deep-sea fishes in the Indian Being a revised account of the deep-sea fishes collected by the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator. Calcutta, 1899.

Museum.

4to.
-

of the Indian

guide to the zoological collections exhibited in the Fish Gallery Museum. Calcutta, 899. 8vo.
1

ANDERSON (Jrm)

[Vol. 1, by J. Anderson: Vol. 2, 91. 2vols. 8vo.

Catalogue of mammalia in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Calcutta, 1881by W. L. Sclater.]

BENTHAM

(T.)

An

illustrated catalogue of the Asiatic

horns and antlers


8vo.

in the collection of the Indian

Museum.
9

Calcutta, 1908.

130

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


:

CALCUTTA

Annotated list of the Asiatic beetles in Indian Museum. Edited by the Superintendent, the collection of the Indian Museum. Part 1. natural history section. Family Carabidae, subfamily Cicindelinae.

By N. Annandale, and W. Horn.

Calcutta, 1909.

8vo.

Memoirs.
history section.
-

Edited by the Superintendent, Indian Museum, natural Vols. 1-5. 4to. Calcutta, 1907-15.

Records.

(A
8vo.

intendent, Indian

Museum,

Edited by the Superjournal of Indian zoology.) natural history section. Calcutta, 1907-15.

Vols. 1-11.

CLARK (Austin Hobart) The Crinoids of the Indian Ocean.


of the Indian

[Echinoderma
moths

Museum, Part

7.]

Calcutta, 1912.

4to.
of the
of India.

COTES

(E. C.) and SWINHOE (C.) 8vo. 7 pts. Calcutta, 1887-89.

A catalogue
of Oriental

DISTANT (W.
1889-92.

L.) 7 pts. 4to.

monograph

Cicadidae.

Calcutta,

FINN

(F.) guide to the zoological collections exhibited in the Bird 8vo. Calcutta^ 1900. Gallery of the Indian Museum.
List of the

birds

in

the

Indian

Museum.

Part

I.

Corvidae, Paradiseidae, 8vo. cutta, 1901.

Ptilonorhynchidae and

Crateropodidae.

Families Cal-

HOSSACK (W.

C.) Aids to the identification of rats connected with plague in India, with suggestions as to the collection of specimens. Second edition. Allahabad, 1907. 8vo.

INVESTIGATOR.

Illustrations of the zoology of H.M. Indian Marine Surveying Steamer Investigator, under the command of Commander A. Calcutta, Carpenter and of Commander R. F. Hoskyn [and others.] 4to. 16 pts. 1892-1909.

KOEHLER
the

(Rene) An account of the deep-sea Asteroidea collected by Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator. [Echinoderma of the

Indian

Museum,

part 5.]

Calcutta, 1909.

4to.

An

Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator. Museum, part 1.] Calcutta, 1899. 4to.

account of the deep-sea Ophiuroidea collected by the Royal [Echinoderma of the Indian

An
Museum,

account
part 8.]

of

the

Echinoidea.
4to.

[Echinoderma

of

the

Indian

Calcutta, 1914.

An
Indian
-

Museum,

account of the shallow-water Asteroidea. 4to. Calcutta, 1910. part 6.]


of the

[Echinoderma of the

Illustrations

shallow-water

Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship


Indian

Museum,

part 2.]

Investigator. 4to. Calcutta, 1900.

Ophiuroidea collected by the [Echinoderma of the

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


KOEHLER

131

(Rene) and VANEY (C.) An account of the deep-sea Holothurioidea collected by the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship InCalcutta, vestigator. [Echinoderma of the Indian Museum, part 3.] 1905. 4to.
-

An

account of the

littoral

Indian

Marine Survey Ship


part 4.]

Museum,

Investigator. 4to. Calcutta, 1908.

Holothurioidea collected by the Royal [Echinoderma of the Indian

MASON
of

(James

new genera and

collection of

the Mantodea, with descriptions and an enumeration of the specimens, in the the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 2 pts. Calcutta, 1889-91.

Wood)

A catalogue of

species,

8vo.
-

lection in the Indian

Figures and descriptions of nine species of Squillidae from the colMuseum. Calcutta, 1895. 4to.

NEVILL
-

(Geoffrey) Catalogue of mollusca in the Indian Fasciculus E. 8vo. Calcutta, 1877.

Museum,

Calcutta.

Hand

list

of mollusca in the Indian

Museum,

Calcutta.

Calcutta,

1878-84.

2vols.

8vo.

SCHULZE

(Franz Eilhard)

An

account of the Indian Triaxonia collected

by the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator. The German original translated into English by Robert von Lendenfeld. Calcutta,
1902.
4to.

SCLATER
-

(William

Calcutta, 1891.

Lutley) 8vo.

List

of

snakes

in

the

Indian

Museum.
8vo.
of

List of the Batrachia in the Indian

Museum.

London, 1892.

SEWELL
proved

(R.
utility

B.

Seymour) and
and

CHAUDHURI

as mosquito-destroyers.

(B. L.) Indian 8vo. Calcutta, 1912.

fish

THOMSON
W.

(John Arthur)

HENDERSON (W.
.

D.)

An

account of

the Alcyonarians collected by the Royal Indian Investigator in the Indian Ocean. [Part 1 By

Marine Survey Ship J. A. Thomson and


J. J.

D. Henderson.
2

Part 2.
pts.

By J. A. Thomson and
of

Simpson.]

Cal-

cutta, 1906-09.

4to.

MONSIGNOR CARTON DE WIART,


minster.

Archbishop

House, West-

ORDERS.
institutae.

Ordines Anglicani.
.

Expositio historica et theologica cura et

studio commissionis ab

Herberto Cardinali Vaughan.


4to.
.
. .

... ad hoc

Londini, 1896.
Sicily,

PHILIP, of Bourbon
Bourbon-Siciles
.
.

...
.

(Discours de 12 du mois de Janvier 1916, etc.)


.
. .

le prince Philippe de Manage de princesse Marie-Louise de Bourbon-Orleans. le cardinal Amette archeveque de Paris prononce le

Prince.

la

(Discours du

G.

Bertrand
1916.

prononce

le

11

du mois de Janvier 1916,

etc.)

Neuilly,

4to.

132

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


M.A.,
of

THE REV. ARTHUR DIXON,


APOSTOLIC FATHERS.
S. Polycarp.
translations.

Haughton Green, Denton.

Revised

The Apostolic Fathers. Part 2. S. Ignatius. texts with introductions, notes, dissertations, and
London, 1885.
2
vols. in 3.

By

J.

B. Lightfoot.

8vo.

BIBLE
tion

ENGLISH.

and notes by B. F. Westcott. [Reprinted from the " Speaker's Com8vo. London, 1882. mentary ".]

The Gospel

according

to St. John.

With

introduc-

The

Epistle to the

Hebrews

the

Greek
8vo.

text with notes

and essays

by B. F. Westcott.

London, 1889.
:

The Epistles of St. John the Greek text with notes and essays 8vo. B. F. Westcott. London, 1883.
St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians.
tion,

by

A revised
B.

text,

with introducSixth
edition.

notes,

and

dissertations.

By

J.

Lightfoot.

London, 1880.

8vo.

Saint Paul's Epistle to the Philippians. revised text, with inand dissertations. By J. B. Lightfoot. Sixth edition. London, 1881. 8vo.
troduction, notes,

text,

revised Saint Paul's Epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon. with introductions, notes and dissertations. B. Lightfoot. By J. Fifth edition. London, 1880. 8vo.

LIGHTFOOT
preached

in the

(Joseph Barber) Leaders in the Northern Church. Diocese of Durham. London, 1890. 8vo.
of
St.

Sermons

Notes on Epistles London, 1895. 8vo.

Paul, from unpublished commentaries.

MURRAY
4to.

principles,

new English dictionary on historical (James Augustus Henry) founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological Edited by J. A. H. Murray [and others]. Oxford, 1888, etc. Society.
In progress.

WESTCOTT

(Brooke Foss) Bishop of Durham. The Bible in the Church. popular account of the collection and reception of the Holy Scriptures New edition. London, 1879. 16mo. in the Christian Churches.

Christian aspects of

life.

London,

897.

8vo.
of

Christus Consummator
Christ in relation to

some aspects of the work and person modern thought. London, 1886. 8vo.
:

Essays in the history of religious thought in the west. 1891. 8vo.

London,

The Gospel
and
history.

of the Resurrection
edition.

Third

London, 1874.
life.

thoughts on its relation to reason 8vo.

The

Incarnation and
introduction to

common
the
1
1 .

London, 1893.
the

8vo.
Sixth
edition.

An

Cambridge and London, 88

study of 8vo.

Gospels.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


WESTCOTT
Father
John.
:

133

(Brooke Foss) Bishop of Durham.

The

revelation of the

short lectures,

on the

titles
(

of the

Lord

in the

Gospel

of St.

London and Cambridge, 1884.

8vo.

The
-

revelation of the risen Lord.

Second

edition.

London and

Cambridge, 1882.
8vo.

8vo.

Social aspects of Christianity.

London and Cambridge, 1887.

of B. F. Westcott.

from the writings Thoughts on revelation and life, being selections Arranged and edited by Stephen Phillips. London,
8vo.

1891.

COLONEL
8vo.

G. E. ELIOT, of

Islip,

Oxon.
10 vols. in 5.

MACCHIAVELLI

(Niccolo) Opere.

Italia [Florence], 1826.

MISS HELEN FARQUHAR, of London. BURNS (Edward) The coinage of Scotland illustrated
Thomas
1887.
Coats, Esq., of Ferguslie

from the cabinet of

amd

other collections.

Edinburgh,

3 vols.

4to.

PROFESSOR FINLAY,
BASTIAT
.

M.D., LL.D.,

of

Glasgow.

of F.

(Frederic) Fallacies of protection being the Sophismes economiBastiat, translated from the fifth edition of the French by P.

;ues Stirling.

London, 1909.

8vo.

BEDFORD
edition.

(Charles H.)

clinical

handbook

of urine analysis.

Second

Edinburgh, 1904.

8vo.
:

BLANDFORD
treatment,

(G. Fielding) Insanity and its treatment lectures on the medical and legal, of insane patients. Second edition.
8vo.

Edinburgh, 1877.

BOUCHARD

(Charles Jacques) Lectures on auto-intoxication in disease, or Translated, with a preface, by T. self-poisoning of the individual. Oliver. 8vo. Philadelphia and London, 894.
\

CLINICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.


volumes and indexes.]
8vo.

Transactions.
(-40).

Vol.

[With supplementary 45 vols. London, 1868-1909.

FERRIER (David) The Croonian


livered before the

Lectures on cerebral localisation. DeRoyal College of Physicians, June, 1890. London,

1890.
-

8vo.

On tabes dorsalis. The Lumleian Lectures delivered before the London, 1906. Royal College of Physicians, London, March, 1906.
8vo.

FlNLAYSON (Thomas Campbell)


of Professor

religion " Henry Drummond's Natural law in

Biological

an essay in criticism the spiritual world ".

Third

edition.

London, 1895.

8vo.

134

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


disease being the Croonof Physicians,

GREEN HOW (Edward Headlam) On Addi son's


ian Lectures for 1875, delivered before the

Royal College

revised and illustrated.

London, 1875.

8vo.
in the causation of disease
;

HAIG

(Alexander) Uric acid as a factor


.

contribution to the pathology of high arterial tension, headache, epilepsy, mental depression, and other disorders. Second edition. London,
.
.

1894.

8vo.

HARRIS (Thomas)

Post-mortem handbook, or

how

to

examinations for clinical and for medico-legal purposes. 8vo.

conduct post-mortem London, 1887.

HORSLEY
With

(Sir Victor Alexander Hayden) and STURGE (Mary D.) Alcohol and the human body an introduction to the study of the subject.
;

a chapter by

A. Newsholme.

London, 1907.

8vo.

KERR
NEALE

prudence.

(Norman) Inebriety, its etiology, pathology, treatment and Second edition. London, 1889. 8vo.
(Richard)
edition.
\

juris-

The

Third

(Appendix including the years 1891


-99.

London,

89

medical digest, or busy practitioner's vade-mecum. to March, 1899.) 2 vols. 8vo.


diagnosis of diseases of the kidney amenable to \ 902. 8vo.
:

NEWMAN
PARKER

(David)

The

surgical treatment.

Glasgow,

(Robert William) Diphtheria

its

nature and treatment.

With

special reference to the operation, after-treatment, and complications of Third edition, largely re-written. London, 1891. 8vo. tracheotomy.

PAW

epicriticism.

(Frederick William) The physiology of the London, 1895. 8vo.

carbohydrates.

An

PEKELHARING

(Cornells Adrianus) and WlNKLER (Cornelis) Beri-beri. Researches concerning its nature and cause and the means of its arrest. Translated by J. Cantlie. Edinburgh and London, 1893. 8vo.

RlNGER
1874.

(Sydney)
8vo.

A handbook of therapeutics.
the individual.

Fourth edition.

London,

ROYCE

(Josiah)

The world and

Gifford Lectures delivered


series.

before the University of Aberdeen. the moral order. York, 1901.

Second
8vo.

Nature,

man and

New

SMITH

(Philip Henry Pye) The Lumleian Lectures on certain points in the aetiology of disease, delivered before the Royal College of Physicians, 1892 ; to which is added the Harveian Oration delivered before the

College in 1893.

London, 1895.

8vo.

SUTTON
1907.

(J.

Bland) Gall-stones and diseases of the bile-ducts.

London,

8vo.

THOMSON

(John Arthur) Heredity.

London, 1908.

8vo.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


MRS. BUCKLEY FISHER,
of

135

Oxford.

BANCROFT

discovery of the continent. 6 vols. 8vo.

the (George) History of the United States of America, from Thoroughly revised edition. London, 1876.

BUCKLEY
1893.

(Robert Burton)
4to.

Irrigation

works

in India

and Egypt.

London,

GREEN
4

vols.

(John Richard) History of the English people. 8vo.

London, 1881-85.

MISS AGNES FRY, of Failand, Bristol. MASSART (Jean) Esquisse de la geographic


avec une annexe.
Bruxelles, 1910.
F. E.

2
of

vols.

botanique de 8vo.

la

Belgique

MR. and MRS.

QARSIDE,

Hampstead, London.

BASSELIN (Olivier) Vaux-de-Vire d'O. Basselin et de Jean Le Houx suivis d'un choix d'anciens Vaux-de-Vire et d'anciennes chansons
Nouvelle edition, normandes. 8vo. Paris, 1858.
revue
et

publiee

par

P.

L.

Jacob.

CARR&

(Paul)

mi-cote

comedies en prose.

poemes dramatiques poesies diverses recits et 8vo. Paris, [1888].


:

HERBERT (George) The poetical works, illustrated. MlGNET (Francois Auguste Marie) Histoire de la
depuis

London, 1865.

8vo.

revolution franchise,

1789 jusqu'en
in
1 .

1814.

Septieme

edition.

Bruxelles,

1838.

2 vols

8vo.

STAEL-HOLSTEI N (Anne Louise Germaine de)


Paris, 1845.
8vo.

Baroness. Del' Allemagne.

VOLTAIRE
histoire

et (Francois Marie Arouet de) Precis du siecle de Louis du parlement de Paris. Nouvelle edition revue collationnee sur 1' edition Beuchot et 8vo. Paris, 1880. soigneusement annotee.

XV

ALBERT
ADDISON
Hurd.

B.

GHEWY,

Esq., of Buckfastleigh, Devon.

(Right Hon. Joseph) The works. London, 1854-56. 6 vols. 8vo.

With

notes by Richard

BAKER

narrative of the expedition to (Sir Samuel White) Ismailia. Central Africa for the suppression of the slave trade, organized by Ismail, Khedive of Egypt. London, 1874. 2 vols. 8vo.

COBDEN

Bright and

Edited by (Richard) Speeches on questions of public policy. J. E. T. Rogers. London, 1870. 2 vols. 8vo.
[pseud,
vols.
i.e.

J.

ELIOT (George)
don, 1876.

Mary Ann

Evans.]

Daniel Deronda.

Lon-

8vo.

GREVILLE

(Charles Cavendish Fulke)

The

Greville memoirs.
8vo.

A journal
Edited by

of the reigns of

King George IV and King William IV.


London, 1874.
3
vols.

Henry Reeve.

136

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


the close of

MARSH MAN
to

(John Clark) The history of India, from the earliest period Lord Dalhousie's administration. London, 1867-69.

3 vols.

8vo.
(C.
of

PRINCE

Leeson) Observations upon the topography and climate Crowborough Hill, Sussex. Second edition. Lewes, 1898. 8vo.

TREVELYAN
Macaulay.

The (Sir George Otto) Bart. London, 1876. 2 vols. 8vo.

life

and

letters

of

Lord

TVNDALL

the Royal Institution of great Britain, April 8-June 3, 1869. edition. London, 1882. 8vo.

(John) Notes of a course of nine lectures on light delivered at Eleventh

JOHN GRANT,
LE CLERC
4
les principales

Esq., of Edinburgh.
. . .

avec (jean) Histoire des Provinces- Unies des Pays Bas medailles et leur explication, etc. Amsterdam, 1723-28.
Fol.

vols. in 2.

VERNULAEUS
tum, forma,

(Nicolaus)
magistratus,
4to.

Academia Lovaniensis
facultates,
et

privilegia,

ejus origo, incremenscholae, collegia, viri

illustres, res gestae.

Recognita

aucta per Chnstianum a Langendonck.

Lovanii, 1667.

DR.

KARL HAFNER,

of Zurich.
civilis libri viginti octo.

DONELLUS (Hugo) Commentariorum juris

Scipio

Gentilis recensuit, edidit, posteriores etiam libros supplevit. 1612. Fol.

Hanoviae,

THE REV. ANDREW HALDEN, of Inverkeilor, Forfarshire. ACTON Qn n Emerich Edward Dalberg) \st Baron. Lectures
French Revolution. Edited by London, 1910. 8vo.
J.

on the N. Figgis and R. V. Laurence.

Letters to Mary, daughter of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone with an introductory memoir by H. Paul. London, 1913. 8vo.

BALFOUR (Lady Frances)


D.D.
London,
(Peter
etc.,

Life and letters of the

... James MacGregor,


(A.D.

[1912].

8vo.

BROWN

Hume)
3
R.)]

bridge, 1899-1909.

History of Scotland. vols. 8vo.


:

80-1843).

Cam-

[CASSELS (Walter
1874.

of divine revelation.

an inquiry into the reality Supernatural religion Fourth edition. London, [By W. R. Cassels.]

vols.

8vo.
at

FROUDE

(James Anthony) Lectures on the Council of Trent delivered Oxford, 1892-93. London, 1896. 8vo.

Thomas Carlyle,
1884.

a history of his

life in

London,

834-1 88 1

London,
795-

vols.

8vo.
first

Thomas
1835.

London, 1882.

Carlyle, a history of the 2 vols. 8vo.

forty years of his

life,

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


GLADSTONE
bearing on
8vo.

137

(Right Hon. William Ewart) The Vatican Decrees in their civil allegiance: a political expostulation. London, 1874.

GREEN

(John Richard) London, 1884. 8vo.

The
of

conquest

of

England.

Second

edition.

INNES (Cosmo) Sketches


Edinburgh, 1861.
8vo.

early

Scotch history and social progress.

MANNING
MILL
-

(Henry Edward) Cardinal. The Vatican Decrees 8vo. on civil allegiance. London, 1875. bearing
(John Stuart) Auguste

in

their

Comte and

Westminster Review.
Nature, the

Second

Reprinted positivism. edition, revised. London, 1866.

from the
8vo.

utility of religion,

and theism.
8vo.

[With introductory notice

by H. Taylor].

London, 1874.

NEWMAN

letter addressed to the Duke of Norfolk on (John Henry) occasion of Mr. Gladstone's recent expostulation. London, 1875. 8vo.

OLIPHANT

memoir of the life of John (Margaret Oliphant Wilson) LL.D. Edinburgh and London, 1888. 8vo. Tulloch, D.D.,

RAN KIN

and London, 1898.

(James) Church ideas in Scripture and Scotland. 8vo.

Edinburgh

ROBERTSON

[The (James) The poetry and the religion of the Psalms. Croall Lectures, 1893-94.] Edinburgh and London, 1898. 8vo.
(Robert Herbert) Memoir of Robert Herbert Story, D.D., Glasgow 1909. Lady Frances Balfour].
',

STORY
by

his daughters [and

8vo.

VALLANCE
T.

(William Aymer)

The

old colleges of Oxford, their architec-

tural history illustrated

and described.

London, [1912].

Fol.

WALTER HALL,

Esq., of Sheffield.

HALL

(T. Walter) Sheffield. 1297 to 1554.


. .

A catalogue
all

of the ancient

charters belonging to the twelve capital burgesses and town and parish of Sheffield, with abstracts of
.

commonalty of the
Sheffield wills

proved
-

at

York

prior to 1554.

Sheffield, 1913.

4to.

Sheffield

and Rotherham from the

12th

to

the 18th

and other documents relating to the districts of Sheffield and Rotherham with abstracts of Sheffield wills proved at York from 1554 to 1560. Sheffield, 1916.
descriptive

century.

catalogue of miscellaneous charters

4to.

HALL

deeds, pedigrees, pamphlets, newspapers, monumental inscriptions, maps, and miscellaneous papers forming the Jackson collection at the Sheffield Public Reference Library. 4to. Sheffield, 1914.
rolls,

(T. Walter) and THOMAS (A. Descriptive catalogue of the charters,

HERMANN) The City of

Sheffield.

138

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


S.

WINSTANLEY HASKINS,
The
"
"

of Knutsford.

AESCHYLUS.
The
"

Agamemnon
by A.
"
of

of Aeschylus.

With an

introduction,

commentary and

translation

W.

Verrall.

London, 1889.
introduction,
\

8vo.

Choephori

Aeschylus.

With an

com-

mentary, and translation by

A.

W.

Verrall.

London,

893.

8vo.

The "Seven
tion,

With an introducagainst Thebes" of Aeschylus. London, 887. commentary, and translation by A. W. Verrall.
\

8vo.

ARISTOPHANES.
adnotatione
critica

Aristophanis
instruxerunt
vols. in
1.

Comoediae
F.

recognoverunt
.

brevique
Geldart.

W.

Hall

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8vo.

ARISTOTLE The
critical notes

Politics of Aristotle translated,


J.

by

E. C. Welldon.

London, 1905.

with an analysis and 8vo.

The Rhetoric of Aristotle. translation by Sir R. C. Jebb. Edited with an introduction and with supplementary notes by J. E. Cambridge, 1909. 8vo. Sandys.
BACCHYLIDES.
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Bacchylides.

The poems and


translation

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edited with

introduction, notes,

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by

Sir

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in

CamThe

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or
love's mystery Fol.

BEAUMONT
CATULLUS
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(Joseph) Psyche,

24

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second edition.

Cambridge, 1702.

(Caius Valerius) Catulli Veronensis liber iterum recognovit Oxonii, apparatum criticum prolegomena appendices addidit R. Ellis.
:

8vo.

COWLEY

formerly printed 1688. Fol.

(Abraham) The works consisting of those which were and those which he design'd for the press. London,
. . . :

DAVENANT

were formerly

William) The works consisting of those which and those which he design'd for the press. printed, [With a dedication by his widow.] London, 1673. 3 pts. in 1 vol. Fol.
(Sir
.
. .

DRAYTON

or, a chorographicall mountaines, forests and other parts of this of Great Britaine. London, \ 622. Fol.

(Michael) Poly-olbion

description of

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isle

DRYDEN
1700.

(John) Fables ancient and modern, translated into verse, from Homer, Ovid, Boccace, and Chaucer with original poems. London*
:

Fol.

ELLIS (Robinson)
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8vo.

A commentary on Catullus.

Second

edition.

Oxford,

FARNELL

of the surviving passages

complete collection (George Stanley) Greek lyric poetry. from the Greek song-writers, arranged with prefatory articles, introductory matter, and commentary. London, 1891.

8vo.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOU VAIN LIBRARY


FORCELLINI (Egidio) Totius
Facciolati.
. . .

139
J.

Latinitatis
J.

lexicon

consilio

et

cura

Edidit

Bailey.

Londini, 1828.

vols.

4to.

GRAY

Gosse.

(Thomas) The works London, 1884. 4


2
vols.

in

vols.

prose and verse. 8vo.


in

Edited by

Edmund

GREEK TRAGEDIANS.
1830.
8vo.

Index

tragicos

Graecos.

Cantabrigiae

HOMER. Homer's Odyssey.


by

Edited with English notes, appendices, etc. Second edition, revised. Merry, and the late J. Riddell. Books XII1.-XXIV. edited ... by Vol. 1, Books I.-XII. [Vol. 2, 8vo. 2 vols. D. B. Monro.] Oxford, 1886-1901.

W. W.

HORAT1US FLACCUS
C.

W.

King.

The

(Quintus) Opera. Illustrated from antique gems by text revised, with an introduction by H. A. J.
8vo.
orators

Munro.

London, 1869.
London, 1893.

JEBB (Sir Richard Claverhouse) The Attic


Isaeus.
-

from Antiphon to

2 vols.

8vo.

Essays and addresses.

Cambridge, 1907.

8vo.
poetry.

The growth and


livered in

influence of classical

Greek

Lectures dein the

1892 on the Percy Turnbull Memorial Foundation London, 1893. 8vo. Johns Hopkins University.

JEBB (Sir Richard Claverhouse) Translations Second edition. Cambridge, 1907. 4to.
translated into English verse

into

Greek and Latin

verse.

JUVENALIS (Decimus Junius) #</PERSIUS FLACCUS (Aulus) The


hands.

Satires,

by Mr. Dryden, and several other eminent


pts. in
1

London, 1693.

vol.

Fol.

LUC AN US

(Marcus Annaeus)
variorum
8vo.

De

bello

civili,

cum H.

Grotii,

Farnabii

notis integris et

selectiss.

Accurante C. Schrevelio.

Am.

stelodami, 1658.

LYCOPHRON.
Cura
et

Alexandra, cum Graecis


J.

Isaacii Tzetzis commentariis.

opera

Potteri.

[Greek and

Latin.]

Oxonii,

697.

Fol.

MUNRO (Hugh Andrew Johnstone) Criticisms and elucidations of


Second
edition.

Catullus.

London, 1905.

8vo.

OVIDIUS NASO

(Publius) Ovid's Metamorphosis Englished, mythologiz'd, and represented in figures. An essay to the translation of Virgil's Aeneis. By G. S[andys]. Oxford, 1632. Fol.

PLATO.
tion

The Republic
text

of Plato, edited with critical notes

and an introduc8vo.
.
. .

on the

by James Adam.

Cambridge,
Latine.

900.

POLLUX
1706.

(Julius)
. .

editionem
1

Onomasticum Graece et emendatum, suppletum,


Fol.

Post

W.

Seberi

et illustratum.

Amstelaedami,

vol. in 2.

PRESCOTT

New

(William Hickling) History and revised edition. Edited by

of the conquest of
J.

F. Kirk.

Mexico. London, 1899. 8vo.


.

140

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.

PRESCOTT

(William Hickling) History of the conquest of Peru, with a New and revised preliminary view of the civilization of the Incas. Edited by J. F. Kirk. 8vo. edition. London, 1886.
. .

SOPHOCLES.
and
1908.

The

translation in English prose,

7vols.

plays and fragments, with critical notes, commentary, by Sir R. C. Jebb. Cambridge^ 18988vo.

TEMPLE
the
life

(Sir William) Bart.

The

works.

... To which

is

prefixed,

friend.

and character of Sir W. Temple. Fol. London, 1740. 2 vols.

Written by a particular

THEOGNIS.
Harrison.

Studies in Theognis together with a text of the poems by E. Cambridge, 1902. 8vo.

THOMPSON

palaeography. 8vo. 1906.

(Sir Edward Maunde) Handbook of Greek and Latin Third edition, with additions and corrections. London,

VERRALL (Arthur Woolgar) Collected literary essays classical and modern.


Edited by

M. A.

bridge, 1913.

Bayfield, and 8vo.

J.

D. Duff.

With

a memoir.

Cam-

A.

Bayfield,

Collected studies in Greek and Latin scholarship. and J. D. Duff. Cambridge, 1913. 8vo.

Edited by

M.

Orestes.
-

Essays on four plays of Euripides. Cambridge, 1905. 8vo.


Euripides the Rationalist
8vo.
:

Andromache, Helen, Heracles,

a study in the history of art and religion.

Cambridge, 1895.
-

Lectures on Dryden. 8vo. bridge, 1914.

Edited by Margaret de G. Verrall.

Cam-

WHITE Qohn
8vo.

Williams)

The

verse of

Greek comedy.

London, 1912.

MRS. HOGG,
Hogg.)

of

Manchester.

(In

memory

of the late Professor

H.

W.

EVANS

(Arthur J.) Scripta Minoa the written documents of Crete, with special reference to the Archives of Knossos. Vol.
linear classes.
4to.

Minoan
1 .

The
figures

hieroglyphic and primitive


in the text.

With

plates, tables

and

Oxford, 1909.

MISS
LlVIUS

HUMPHRY

and MISS
notis.

ELLEN HUMPHRY,

of

London.

(Titus) Patavinus. Sigonii et J. F. Gronovii

Historiarum quod extat,

cum

). Ainstelodami,\bl-T:

perpetuis Car. 3 vols. 8vo.

MARTIN

recules jusqu'en 8vo.

(Bon Louis Henri) Histoire de France depuis les temps les plus 789. 17 vols. Paris, 1860-62. Quatrieme edition.
1

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MASSILLON
italiennes

141

(Jean Baptiste) Oeuvres.

Paris, 1838.

vols.

4to.

SlMONDE DE SlSMONDI
du moyen
8vo.

age.

(Jean Charles Leonard) Histoire des republiques 10 vols. Nouvelle edition. Paris, 1840.

DR. JAMIESON B. HURRY, M.A.,

of

Reading.

HURRY

(Jamieson B.) Poverty and


8vo.

its

vicious circles.

With

illustrations.

London, 1917.

NAUMANN

(Emil)

The

history of music, translated

by F. Praeger.

Edited

by ... Sir F. A. G. Ouseley, Bart. London [1882-86]. 1 vol. in 3. 8vo.

With numerous

illustrations.

MESSRS.

P. S.

KING & SON, PARLIAMENTARY PUBLISHERS,


(Per

of Westminster.

W.

H. Hulbert, Esq.)
London, 191
1.

ADAMS
ALDEN
by Sir

(William)
(Percy)
J.

The

Declaration of London.

8vo.

The unemployed,

Gorst.

a national question. With a preface Second edition. London, 1905. 8vo.

ALDERSON
The
1908.

(Albert William)
8vo.
in

The

causes and cure of armaments and war.

London, 1914.

extinction

perpetuity of armaments and

war.

London,

8vo.
solution.

Urban land, traffic and housing problems. An attempted True land monopoly and its advantages. London, 1912. 8vo.

Why
ANDREADES
lated

the

war cannot be

final.

London, 1915.

8vo.

(A.) History of the Bank of England, 1640-1903.


2 vols. in
1 .

Trans-

by Christabel Meredith, with a preface by H. S. Foxwell.


\

Lon-

don,

909.

8vo.

ARIAS (Harmodis) The Panama


diplomacy.

London, 1911.

Canal, a study in international law and 8vo.


tariff

ASHLEY
1911.

(William James)
8vo.

The

problem.

Third

edition.

London,

BAKER

(C. Ashmore) Rates being the revenue and expenditure of boroughs and urban district councils of ten thousand or more inhabitants London, 1910. Fol. (England and Wales) analysed and compared.
;

BALLEN
8vo.

(Dorothy) Bibliography of road-making and roads in the United Kingdom. With an introduction by Sir G. Gibb. London, 1914.

BANNINGTON
BENSON

(B.

by G. Wallas.

G.) English public health administration. London, 1915. 8vo.

Introduction

tection of

(Godfrey Rathbone) Baron Charnwood. women. London, 1912. 8vo.

Legislation for the pro-

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BERESFORD

The betrayal (Sir Charles William de la Poer) I st Baron. a record of facts concerning naval policy and administration from being the year 1902, to the present time. London, 1912. 8vo.
of Berlin

BEST (Robert H.) Brassworkers


parison.
edition.

and
J.

of

Birmingham: a comFifth

Joint report of

R. H. Best,
8vo.
(C. K.)

W.

Davies, C. Perks.

London, 1910.

BEST (Robert H.) and OGDEN


school and
its

successful solution in

The problem of the continuation consecutive policy. Germany.

London, 1914.

8vo.
of statistics.

BOWLEY
1916.

(Arthur Lyon) Elements


8vo.

Third

edition.

London,

The

London, 1915.

nature and purpose of the measurement of social phenomena. 8vo.

BRASSEY (Thomas

Allnutt) Viscount Hythe. The case for devolution and a settlement of the home rule question by consent. Extracts from speeches collected by Viscount Hythe. London, 1913. 8vo.

BRAY

(Francis

Edmond)

British rights at sea

under the Declaration of

London.

London, 1911.

8vo.

BRIGHT
8vo.

(Charles) Imperial telegraphic communication.

London,

1911.

The

locomotion problem.

London, 1905.

8vo.

CAN NAN

(Edwin) The history of local rates in England in relation to the Second edition much distribution of the burden of taxation. proper
London, 1912.
8vo.

enlarged.

A
political

history of the theories of production

economy from 1776

to 1848.

and distribution in English Second edition. London, 1903.

8vo.

Wealth a brief explanation of the causes Second edition. London, 1916. 8vo.
;

of

economic welfare.

CARTER
4 '

(G. R.) Co-operation and the great war. London, [191 - ]. Co-operation in Agriculture ".]

[Reprinted from 8vo.


districts.

CHANCE

(Sir William) Bart.


8vo.

Building by-laws in rural

Lon-

don, 1914.

CLAPHAM
COLLINS

(John Harold)

The Abbe

Sieyes.

An

essay in the politics of

the French Revolution.

London, 1912.

8vo.
for

The case (E. A.) Leasehold enfranchisement. and a practical scheme. London, 1913. 8vo.
(L. Cope)

and

against,

CORNFORD
8vo.

London pride and London shame.


rule.

London, 1910.

The

price of

home

London, 1910.

8vo.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


DAWSON
-

143

efficiency.

(William Harbutt) The German workman. London, 1906. 8vo.

study in national

Protection in Germany.

A history of
The
:

German

fiscal

policy during

the nineteenth century.

London, 1904.

8vo.

The vagrancy problem.


tramps, loafers,

case for measures of restraint for

and unemployables with a study of continental detention 8vo. colonies and labour houses. London, 1910.
and

DEAF.

The deaf. Handbook containing information relating to statistics, schools, missions, hospitals, charities, and other institutions for the deaf. Compiled by the National Bureau for promoting the general welfare of the deaf.

London, 1913.

8vo.

DEARLE (Norman
DEPTFORD.
1913.

B.) Industrial training, with special reference to the conditions prevailing in London. London, 1914. 8vo.

Fourth report of the Deptford Health Centre.

London,

8vo.

DESTITUTION.

Report
1

of the proceedings of the national conference


st

the prevention of destitution, held at the

May

30th and 3

st,

and June

on Caxton Hall, Westminster, on and 2nd, 191 8vo. London, 191


1
.

1 .

ECVILLE (Howard
of the

short record d') Imperial defence and closer union. life-work of the late Sir John Colomb, in connection with the

movement towards imperial

organisation.

London, 1913.
of parliamentary

8vo.
papers,

ENGLAND: PARLIAMENT.

Catalogue [Compiled by Hilda (-1910), with a few of earlier date. London, [1904-12]. 2 vols. 4to.
(J.

1801
Jones.]

Vernon

ESTEY

With an

introduction

A.) Revolutionary syndicalism, an exposition and a by L. L. Price. London, 1913. 8vo.

criticism.

FABIAN SOCIETY.

What

to read

on

social

and economic
1

interleaved bibliography, compiled by the Fabian Society. London, 1910. 8vo.

subjects. Fifth edition.

An

FAY

(Charles Ryle) Co-operation London, 1908. 8vo. analysis.

at

home and abroad

a description and

FEEBLE-MINDED.

The problem

of

the feeble-minded.

An

abstract of

the report of the Royal Commission on the care and control of the feebleminded. With an introduction by the Rt. Hon. Sir E. Fry. London,

1909.

8vo.

FLETCHER

(Margaret) Christian feminism, a charter of rights and duties. London, 1915. 8vo. [Catholic studies in social reform, 8.]
(Gilbert

FOWLER

installations.

J.)

Some principles underlying the design of small sewage lecture delivered before the Edinburgh Architectural
Edinburgh, [1907].
8vo.

Association on 27 March, 1907.

FREEMAN

(Arnold) Boy life and labour, the manufacture of inefficiency. Preface by Dr. M. E. Sadler. London, 1914. 8vo.

144

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(Herbert Jenner) Poor law orders arranged and annotated by H. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1907-12.
J.

FUST

Fust.

GALTON

(Frank
1.

unionism.

preface by S.

W.) Select documents illustrating the history of trade The tailoring trade. Edited by F. W. Gallon, with a Webb. London, 1896. 8vo.
folly

GASKELL (Thomas Penn)


exposure of free food

Protection paves the path of prosperity. and fiction. London, 1913. 8vo.

An

GEORGE

With an intro(Eric) National service and national education. duction by Lord Henry Cavendish-Bentinck. London, 1913. 8vo.

GERMANY.
GIBBON
-

Some

of

Germany's troubles

her blockaded merchantmen


8vo.

and the stoppage

of her cotton supply.


;

London, [1916].

(I. G.) Medical benefit and Denmark. London, 1912.

a study of the experience of 8vo.

Germany

With
GILES

Unemployment insurance a study of schemes a preface by L. T. Hobhouse. London, 191


;

of assisted insurance.
1.

8vo.

(F. W.) The campaign against syphilis (based on the evidence given before the Royal Commission on venereal disease). London, 1915. 8vo.

GRAHAM
ernment.
1906.

(John Cameron) Taxation (local and imperial) and local govLondon , Fourth edition. Revised by M. D. Warmington.

8vo.

GREENWOOD
GRIGS

(Arthur) Juvenile labour exchanges and after-care.


S.

With

an introduction by

Webb.

London, 1911.

8vo.

review of the relations (J. Watson) National and local finance. between the central and local authorities in England, France, Belgium, and Prussia, during the nineteenth century. With a preface by S. Webb. London, 1910. 8vo. (Hubert)

HALL

A select bibliography for the study,

sources,

and

literature

of English mediaeval economic history. Compiled by a seminar of the London School of Economics under the supervision of H. Hall. London,

1914.

8vo.

HAMILTON

national training.

(General Sir Ian Standish Monteith) London, 1913. 8vo.


social

National

life

and

HARLEY
HARRIS

(J. H.) The new 8vo. London, 1911.

democracy: a study

for the

times.

(J.

the Guernsey 1911. 8vo.

Theodore) An example of communal currency the Market House. With a preface by S. Webb.
:

facts

about

London,

HART

(Heber)

Woman

suffrage

a national danger.

With

the Rt.

Hon. Lewis Harcourt.

Second

edition.

London, 1912.

a preface by 8vo.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


HASBACH

145

history of the English agricultural labourer. (Wilhelm) With a the author and translated by R. Kenyon. Newly by London, 1908. 8vo. preface by S. Webb.

edited

HEATH
8vo.

(Francis George) British rural

life

and labour.

London, 1911.

HEY KING
officers

practical guide for Russian consular (Alphonse) Baron. Second edition and all persons having relations with Russia. and amplified. London, 1916. 8vo. revised
citizen
:

HlGGINS (Alexander Pearce) War and the private ternational law. With introductory note by the
London, 1912.
8vo.

studies in in-

Rt.

Hon. A. Cohen.

HlGGINSON

An outline of practical tariff (John Hedley) Tariffs at work. to the United States and Canada. administration, with special reference
London, 1913.
8vo.
into the abyss.

HlGGS (Mary) Glimpses


-

London, 1906.

8vo.
8vo.
live?

How

to start a

women's lodging home.

London, 1912.

HlGGS (Mary) and HAYWARD (Edward E.) Where shall she The homelessness of the woman worker. London, 1910. 8vo.
HlNCKES (Ralph Tichborne) Seven
1910.
policy.

years of the sugar convention, 1903-

vindication of

Mr. Chamberlain's imperial and commercial


8vo.
:

London, 1910.
(H.
in
J.)

HOARE
results

the

Old age pensions United Kingdom.


8vo.

their actual

With an

introduction

working and ascertained by Sir L,

Gomme.

London, 1915.
(J.

HOPKINS

Ellice)

The

working women.

London,

early training of girls 8vo. [n.d.].

and boys.
a

An
study

appeal

tor

HOUGH TON
polity.

(Bernard)

Bureaucratic
8vo.

government

in

Indian

London, 1913.

HUMBERSTONE (Thomas

short history of national education in Lloyd) Great Britain and Ireland. London, 1908. 8vo.

HUMPHREY
8vo.

(A.

W.)

International socialism

and the war.

London, 1915.

HUSKINSON (Thomas W.) The Bank


our social distress.

of

England's charters the cause of

London, 1912.

8vo.

HUTCHINS

(B. L.) and HARRISON (A) history of factory legislation, with a preface by S. Webb. Second edition revised. London, 1911. 8vo.

HUTT
HYDE

(C. workers.

W.) Hygiene
London, 1912.

for

health

visitors,

school

nurses

and

social

8vo.
:

(H. E.) The two roads international government or militarism. Will England lead the way? 8vo. London, [n.d.]. 10

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1

INFANT MORTALITY.
1
1

Report of the proceedings of the national conference on infantile mortality, held in the Caxton Hall, Westminister, on the 3th and 4th June, 906. (And on the 23rd, 24th, [Second edition.] and 25th March, 1908.) London, [1906]-! 908. 2 pts. 8vo. and the
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A
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1911.

SIR

GEORGE W. MACALPINE, J.P.,


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The Churl and

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1

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478.

[Facsimile.]

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ABRAHAM
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1 1

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T^ 6

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PARIS UNIVERSAL EXHIBITION,


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Choice poems and

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SOCIETY FOR PHYSICAL RESEARCH.


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VERGILIUS

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WM. REED-LEWIS,
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BUNDEHESH.
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Modi.

Bombay,

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;

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DiNKARD.
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The
;

A vesta characters
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...
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volume.

Sir

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Papers on

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Discourses

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.
.

Christian Puranna, a work of the 17th century, from manuscript copies and edited with a biographical note, reproduced an introduction, and a vocabulary by J. L. Saldanha. \Mangalore\ t
.

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TlELE

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Influence

(From the German).


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The religion of the With Darmesteter's


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Parsism on Islam

".

(From the French.)


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and translated with


I.

Persian and Gujarati versions notes by Maneckji Nusservanji


Indo-Iranian

Khordah Avesta, Part


Vol.
6.]

New

[Columbia University.
8vo.

York, 1908.

W.
STAS
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L.

SARGANT,
Servais)

Esq., of

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Bruxelles,

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Oeuvres completes.

1894.

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. .

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GENELLI (Christoph) The the German by C. Sainte
T. Meyrick.
life of St.

163

Foi

Translated from Ignatius of Loyola. and rendered from the French by the Rev.
1889.
8vo.

New

York,

etc.,

IGNATIUS [Lopez de Recalde, de Loyola] Saint. Cartas. A. Cabre, etc.] Madrid, 1874-89. 6 vols. 8vo.
Directorium 16mo. 1635.

[Edited by

in exercitia spiritualia S. P.

N.

Ignatii.

Antverpiae,

JESUITS.
(Decreta,

Constitutiones

Societatis Jesu,

cum earum

declarationibus.

canones,

Societatis Jesu.

censurae et praecepta congregationum generalium Exercitia spiritualia S. P. Regulae Societatis Jesu.

Ordinationes praepositorum in exercitia. Ignatii Loyolae, directorium generalium et instructiones ad provinciales et superiores Societatis.) 8vo. 7 vols. Avenione, 1827-38.
-

1635.
-

Index generalis 16mo.

in

omnes

libros instituti Societatis Jesu.

Antverpiae,

Constitutiones

Societatis

Jesu

et

examen

cum

declarationibus.

Antverpiae, 1635.
-

16mo.
Societatis Jesu.

Canones congregationum generalium


16mo.

Antverpiae,

1635.
-

1635.
-

Decreta congregationum generalium Societatis Jesu. 16mo.

Antverpiae,

Compendium privilegiorum et
16mo.

gratiarum Societatis Jesu. Antverpiae,

1635.
-

et

Formulae congregationum in quarta generali congregatione confectae approbatae in sexta et septima recognitae et auctae. Antverpiae, 1635. 16mo.
Ordinationes praepositorum generalium, communes septimae congregationis generalis contractae. 1635. 16mo.
-

toti

societati,

auctoritate

Antverpiae,

Ratio atque institutio studiorum Societatis Jesu, auctoritate septimae 16mo. Antverpiae, 1635. congregationis generalis aucta.
-

Instructiones ad

provinciales et

congregationis VII.,
verpiae, 1635.
-

ut directiones tantum,

superiores societatis, auctoritate Antseorsim impressae.

16mo.
pratique des Jesuites, representee en plusieurs histoires

La morale

arrivees dans toutes les parties

du monde.
12mo.

[By S.

J.

Du Cambout

de

Pont-Chateau.]
-

Cologne, 1669.

Morale pratique des Jesuites. Troisieme volume, contenant la justification des deux premiers volumes de cette morale. {Cologne?}.
1689.

12mo.
(Joseph) Epitome historiae Societatis Jesu. 8vo.

JOUVENCY
4
vols.

Gandavi, 1853.

164

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


De
rebus Societatis Jesu commentarius O. Manarei.
8vo.
di
1

MANARE

(Olivier) Florentiae, 1886.

MASSEI (Giuseppe) Vita


Terza edizione.

S.

Francesco Saverio apostolo


.

dell* Indie.

Fir ens e,
de)

701

4to.

RlBADENElRA (Pedro
Loyola.

Vida

Segunda

edicion.

del bienaventurado padre Ignacio de 8vo. Barcelona, 1885.

RODRIGUEZ

(Simone) De origine et progressu Societatis Jesu usque Romae, 1869. 8vo. ejus confirmationem commentarium.
(Sir Ernest

ad

SATOW

Mason) K.C.M.G.
[London], 1888.

The
4to.

Jesuit

Mission Press in

Japan, 1591-1610.

JOHN SCOTT,
CHAMPOLLION

Esq., of Fulham, London.

(Jean Francois) Dictionnaire egyptien en ecriture hieroglyphique, public d'apres les manuscrits autographes, et sous les auspices de M. Villemain, par M. Champollion Figeac. Paris, 1841. Fol.

SHAW, Esq., of BUTTURA (Antonio)


A.
dal

Wells, Somerset.

1200

I quattro poeti italiani con una scelta di poesie italiane sino a' nostri tempi publicati da A. Buttura. Parigi, 1833.

8vo.

ERASMUS

P. S. Allen.

(Desiderius) Opus epistolarum denuo recognitum et auctum per 3 vols. 8vo. Oxonii, 1906-13.
.

FROISSART
3
vols.

(Jean) Les chroniques. Nouvellement revues eclaircissemens, tables et glossaire par J. A. C. Buchon.
4to.

avec notes,

Paris, 1835.

HAMERTON
1

(Philip Gilbert) Philip Gilbert


1

Hamerton

834- 1 858, and a memoir by his wife,

858- 1 894.

an autobiography, 8vo. Boston, 1 896.


:

HOWELL
8vo.

edited, annotated,

(James) Epistolae Ho-Elianae. The familiar letters of J. Howell, 2 vols. and indexed by J. Jacobs. London, 1892.

MOMMSEN
Dickson.
ditions.

(Theodor)

The

A new edition revised throughout and


5 vols.

history of

Rome
8vo.

translated

... by W.

P.

embodying recent adlengua castellana por 8vo.

London, 1901.

REAL ACADEMIA ESPANOLA.


la

Gramatica de

la

Real Academia Espanola.

Nueva

edicion.

Madrid, 1895.

STOLZ

(Friedrich) and SCHMALZ (J. H.) Lateinische Grammatik. Lautund Formenlehre. Syntax und Stilistik. Mil einem Anhang iiber Lateinische Lexikographie von F. Heerdegen. [Handbuch der Klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft, 2,
ii.]

Miinchen, 1910.

8vo.

SWIFT

(Jonathan)

par B.

Voyages de Gulliver. Traduction H. Gausseron. Paris, [1885]. 8vo.

nouvelle et complete

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY

165

Coleccion diri(Enrique de) Historiadores primitives de Indias. de autores espafioles, illustrada por E. de Vedia. [Biblioteca gida e XXII, XXVI.] Madrid, 1877-1906. 2 vols. 8vo.
R. P.

SHEPARD,
(John)

Esq., of Kensington,

London.
London,
\

LOCKE
Fol.

The

works.

The second

edition.

722.

3 YO!S.

MESSRS. SHERRATT & HUGHES,


ClCERO (Marcus
usum
serenissimi Delphini.

of

Manchester.
in

Tullius) Opera omnia cum delectu commentariorum,

Patavii, 1773.

16

vols.

8vo.

Historiarum ab urbe condita libri qui supersunt Li VI US (Titus) Patavinus. Recensuit et notis illustravit J. B. L. Crevier. Parisiis,

XXXV.
1735-42.

vols.

4to.

MlSSALE.
restitutum
positae.
-

Missale

Romanum

ex decreto sacrosancti Concilii Tridentini


dis-

...

in

quo missae novissimae sanctorum accurate sunt


4to.

Venetiis, 1748.

-1

Missae propriae sanctorum Hispanorum, quae generaliter in Hisex apostolica concessione et auctoritate summorum pania celebrantur 4to. Venetiis, 1 746. pontificum, ad formam missalis Romani redactae.
;

Missae propriae sanctorum trium ordinum fratrum minorum ad


missalis
4to.

formam
746.
-

Romani

redactae, et exactius examinatae.

Venetiis,

antiqua,

Missae propriae festorum dioecesis Ulyssiponensis, ex consuetudine et concessione Xysti V. in tola dioecesi celebrari solitae.
4to.
in

Ulyssipone, 1683.
-

Missae novae

missali

Romano

ex mandate

Rom.

Pont. Urbani

VIII., Innocentii

X.

et

XL,

XII. et XIII., Alexandri VII., dementis IX. Benedicti XIII. postremoque S.D.N. dementis Papae XII.

X. XI.

apponendae.

Ulyssipone Occidentali, 1739.

4to.
.

PLUTARCH.
Plutarchi

Omnium quae
ex ipso,

exstant operum.

vita,

et aliis utriusque linguae scriptoribus,

Accedit nunc primum aj. Rualdo

collecta digestaque. Fol. 2 vols.

[Greek and Latin.]

Lutetiae Parisiorum, 1624.

THE SIGNET LIBRARY,


Librarian.)

of

Edinburgh.

(John Minto, Esq., M.A.,

ABERCROMBY
2 vols.

(Hon. John) The pre- and proto- historic Finns, both eastern and western, with the magic songs of the West Finns. London, 898.
\

8vo.
(John) Process of Declarator (John Anderson)
:

ANDERSON

775, concern-

ing the management of the revenue of Glasgow College a vote in the Comitia of the University of

and concerning With an apGlasgow.

pendix.

\Glasgow\, 1778.

4to.

166

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


(Richard) Journal of the Transactions
in

BANNATYNE
contest

between the adherents of Queen Mary, and those 8vo. 1570-1573. Edinburgh, 1806.

Scotland during the of her son,

BARBERINO

(Francesco) Antiquitates ecclesiae orientalis clarissimorum virorum Card. Barberini, L. Allatii, L. Holstenii, J. Morini, A. Ecchellensis, N. Peyrescii, P. a Valle, T. Comberi, J. Buxtorfii, H. Hottingeri,
etc., dissertationibus

epistolicis enucleatae

quibus praefixa

est J.

Morini

vita.

Londini, 1682.

8vo.
libri

BELLENDENUS
emendation

(Gulielmus) De statu 8vo. Londini, 1787.


:

tres.

Editio

secunda,

longe

BlOGRAPHIA BRITANNICA or, who have flourished in Great


edition, with corrections,

the lives of the most eminent persons


Britain

and

Ireland.

enlargements, and the addition of


1-5.

The second new lives

by Andrew
93.
5 vols.

Kippis.
Fol.

Vol.

[No more
1'histoire
. . .

published.]

London, 1778-

BOWLES

(William) Introduction a physique de 1'Espagne; traduite 8ro. Paris, 1776.

naturelle et a la geographic
le

par

Vicomte de Flavigny.

BURNETT (Montgomery)
of Burnetland

and Barns,

Genealogical account of the family of Burnett, in the Sheriff dom and county of Peebles.

(For members of the family only.)

Edinburgh, 1880.

4to.

CAMPBELL
Earl of
Sir

Letters from Archibald, (Archibald) gth Earl of Argyle. to John, Duke of Lauderdale (1663-70). [Edited by Argyle,

G.

Sinclair
4to.

and C. K. Sharpe.]

[Bannatyne Club.]

Edinburgh,
Lisboa,

1829.

CASTRO

(Joao Bautista de) 4to. 3 vols. 1762-63.

Mappa de

Portugal antigo e moderno.

CHARLES
Journal,

Relation en forme de II., King of Great Britain and Ireland. du voyage et sejour que Charles. II ... a fait en Hollande, depuis le 25 May, jusques au 2 Juin, 1660. [With plates.] La Haye,
. . .

1660.

Fol.

COLMAN (George) The dramatick works. DEL PlNO (Joseph Giral) A new Spanish
the Spanish language.

London,

777.
;

vols.

8vo.

grammar

or,
1

the elements of

The second

edition.

London,

777.

8vo.

DlCUILUS.

Recherches geographiques

et critiques sur le livre

De Mensura

orbis terrae, compose en Irelande, au commencement du neuvieme siecle, Paris, 1814. par Dicuil ; suivies du texte restitue par A. Letronne.

pts. in

vol.

8vo.

DRUMMOND Du HOUX
...

(William) of Hawthomden.
.
. .

The

history of Scotland from

the year 1423 until the year 1542. With a prefatory introduction by Mr. Hall, of Grays-Inn. London, 1655. Fol.

sur les affaires

(Antoine Charles) Baron De Viomenil. de Pologne, en 1771 et 1772.

Lettres particulieres 8vo. Paris, 1808.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


EDINBURGH
:

167

Portrait Gallery.

Scottish National Portrait Gallery. The building and its contents.

The

Scottish National

opening ceremony.
1891.
4to.
:

Compiled by the Curator

[J.

Also a report of the M. Gray] Edinburgh,


.

EDINBURGH

history of Society of Writers to Her Majesty's Signet. the Society of Writers to Her Majesty's Signet, with a list of the members of the Society from 1594 to 1890, and an abstract of the minutes.
4to.

Edinburgh, 1890.

EDINBURGH:

University Library.

sive catalogus librorum quos Bibliothecae d.d. q. an. 1627.

Auctarium Bibliothecae Edinburgenae, Gulielmus Drummondus ab Hawthornden


Edinburgi, 1627.
[Reprinted], \Edin-

burgh, 1815.]

4to.
sei

ERIZZO

(Sebastiano) Le 4to. Venetia, 1567.

giornate mandate in

luce da L.

Dolce.

FABRONI (Angelo)
1784.

Laurentii Medicis Magnifici vita.


4to.

(Adnotationes

et

monumenta ad Laurentii Medicis Magnifici vitam


2vols. inl.

pertinentia.)

Pisis,

FVFE

(Alexander)
4to.

The

royal martyr,

K. Charles

I.

an opera.

[London],

1705.

GORDON
\

(George)
8vo.

De natura rerum quaestiones

philosophicae.

Glasguae,

758.

GORDON

(John) Observations on the structure of the brain, comprising an estimate of the claims of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim to discovery in the

anatomy

of that organ.

Edinburgh, 1817.
in

8vo.
in the years 1818-21

GRAY (WILLIAM)
GREGORY

Travels

Western Africa,

from
.
. .

the River Gambia,

...

Staff-Surgeon Dochard.

River Niger. By London, 1825. 8vo.


to the
:

W.

Gray, and

by J. Gregorie, and elegies on his


.

written or, certain learned tracts (John) Gregorii Posthuma Together with a short account of the author's life ;
:
. .

...

Death.
antiqui

London,
populorum

649-50.

4to.
illustrati.

HARDOUIN
1684.

(Jean)

Nummi

et

urbium

Parisiis,

4to.

HARINGTON
1

tract on the Succession to the Crown (A.D. (Sir John) Edited with notes and an introduction by C. R. Markham. London, 1880. 4to. [Roxburghe Club:]

602).

HARRISSE (Henry) The


1452-1494.

London, 1897.

diplomatic history of 8vo.

America

its first

chapter,

HAYCRAFT
8vo.

(John Berry) Darwinism and race progress.

London, 1895.

[HOME

and natural

(Henry)] Lord Kames. Objections against the Essays on morality religion examined. [By Henry Home, Lord Kames.]
8vo.

Edinburgh, 1756.

168

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


(Joseph)

HURST
8vo.

of commercial law.

and CECIL (Lord Edgar Algernon Robert) The principles Second edition. By Joseph Hurst. London, 1906.
K. Edward

IRELAND

The

Statutes of Ireland, beginning the third yere of

the second, and continuing untill the end of the Parliament, begunne in the eleventh yeare of the reign of ... King James. Newly per.
. .

used and examined.

[By Sir Richard Bolton.]


life

Dublin, 1621.

Fol.

IRVING (Washington) The


Author's revised edition.

and voyages of Christopher Columbus. 8vo. London, 850. 2 vols. in


\
1 .

ISTITUZIONE.
8vo.

Istituzione antiquario-lapidaria o sia introduzione allo studio delle antiche Latine iscrizione in tre libri proposta. Roma, \ 770.

[JAMES

(Lionel)]

On

the heels of

De Wet.
t

By
1902.

[Lionel James].

Edinburgh and London

the Intelligence Officer 8vo.

JOECHER

(Christian Gottlieb) Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, darinne die Gelehrten aller stande ... in alphabetischer Ordnung beschrieben werden. Leipzig, 1750-51. 4 vols. 4to.

KNOX

(Robert) Fish and fishing in the lone glens of Scotland.

With

history of the propagation, growth,

and metamorphoses

of the

salmon.

London, 1854.

8vo.

LELAND

(John) Reflections on the late Lord Bolingbroke's Letters on the and use of history especially so far as they relate to Christianity, study and the Holy Scriptures. The second edition. London, 753. 8vo.
; \

LINEN MANUFACTURE.
1751.
8vo.

collection of the

Acts

of Parliament,

now

in force, relating to the linen

manufacture

[in

Scotland].

Edinburgh,

MACINTOSH

(William Carmichael)

The

resources of the sea as shown in

the scientific experiments to test the effects of trawling, and of the closure of certain areas off the Scottish shores. London, 1899. 8vo.

MACKENZIE
and
Isles.

(William Cook)
Paisley, 1906.

short history of the Scottish

Highlands

8vo.

MAITTAIRE
plectens.

(Michael) Stephanorum historia, vitas ipsorum ac libros com8vo. 2 vols. in Londini, 709.
\ 1 .

MARTENS
8vo.

relations exterieures des puissances

(Georg Friedrich von) Cours diplomatique, ou tableau des de 1'Europe, tant entre elles qu'avec 3 vols. d'autres etats dans les diverses parties du globe. Berlin, 1801.
(Antonius) De nobilitate, de principibus, de ducibus, de de advocatis ecclesiae, de comitibus, de baronibus, de militibus, comitatu Hollandiae et dioecesi Ultrajectina libri quatuor. Amstelodami,
. . .

MATTHAEUS
et

Lugd. Batavor., 1686.

4to.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


MAURICE, Prince of Orange. The tion ... of all the victories
.

169

or, a descriptriumphs of Nassau Estates granted by God to the Translated out of of the united Netherland Provinces. generall French by W. Shute. London, 1613. Fol.
:
. .

MONK
MORE
8vo.

(George)

Duke of
London,

political affairs.

Observations upon military and Albemarle. Fol. \ 671.


:

(Sir Thomas) Utopia or the happy republic Translated into English by Gilbert Burnet. romance.

philosophical
\

Glasgow,

743.

MURRAY

(Arthur Mordaunt) Imperial outposts from a strategical and With commercial aspect, with special reference to the Japanese alliance. a preface by Field-Marshal Earl Roberts. London, 1907. 8vo.

OPINIONS.
examined.

Some

late opinions

In a Letter to a Friend.

concerning the foundation of London, 1753. 8vo.

morality,

OSMONT
PATIN

et critique

(Jean Baptiste Louis) Dictionnaire typographique, historique 2 vols. des livres rares. 8vo. Paris, \ 768.

(Charles)

Patavii,

Lyceum Patavinum, sive icones et vitae professorum, 1682 publice docentium. Pars prior. [No more published.]
4to.

Patavii, 1682.

PERLIN
1558.

(Etienne) Description des royaulmes d'Angleterre et d'Escosse. Histoire de 1'entree de la reine mere dans la Grande Bretagne.
cuts,

Par P. de la Serre. 1639. Illustrated with R. Gough]. London, 1775. 4to. [by

and English notes

PETERS

(John Punnett) and THIERSCH (Hermann) Painted tombs in the necropolis of Marissa (Mareshah). Edited by S. A. Cook. [Palestine London, 1905. 4to. Exploration Fund.]

PEZZANA

(Angelo) Proposta di un edifizio da construirsi alia memoria di Francesco Petrarca in Selvapiana di Ciano. [Parma, 838.] 4to.
\

PHILIPPSON

(Martin) La centre-revolution 8vo. Paris, Bruxelles, 1884.

religieuse

au

XVIs

siecle.

PHILOPOLITEIUS.
in Scotland.

... As

Memorialls for the Government of the Royall-Burghs also, a survey of the City of Aberdeen, with the

epigrams of A. Johnstoun upon some of our chief Burghs, translated


into English

by J. B[arclay]. 12mo. Aberdeen, 1685.

By

Philopoliteius

[i.e.

Alexander Skene].
accessere ApolCallistrati

PHILOSTRATUS.
lonii

Philostratorum quae supersunt omnia

Tyanensis epistolae, Eusebii liber adversus Hieroclem,

descript. statuarum.

Omnia
\

recensuit

G. Olearius.

[Greek

and

Latin.]

Lipsiae,

709.

Fol.

Pi L LANS Qames) Ex tentaminibus metricis puerorum in Scholia Regia Edinensi provectiorum electa, anno, 1812. 8vo. Edinburgi, 1812.

170

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


of

PLINIUS SECUNDUS (Caius) The Historic


English by Philemon Holland.

the

World:
vols. in
1.

commonly
Fol.
;

called the Naturall Historic of C. Plinius Secundus.

Translated into

London, 1635.

RAMSAY
RASK

(Allan) with a glossary.

The poems.

new
2

edition, corrected,

and enlarged

London, 1800.

vols.

8vo.

(Erasmus)
edition.

A grammar
8vo.

new

of the Anglo-Saxon tongue, with a praxis. Translated from the Danish by B. Thorpe. Copen-

hagen, 1830.

ROME

Seven Wise Masters of Rome. Li Romans des sept Sages nach der Pariser Handschrift, herausgegeben von H. A. Keller. Tubingen,
:

1836.

8vo.

ROSING

(Svend) Engelsk-Dansk Ordbog.

Kjbenhavn, 1899.
Transactions.

8vo.
[Vol.
1-4.]

ROYAL SCOTTISH SOCIETY OF ARTS.


Edinburgh, 1841-56. 4
vols.

8vo.

SCOTLAND.

collection of the laws in favour of the Reformation in

Scotland, in three parts.

Edinburgh,

749.

8vo.

SERGEANT Qohn)
Ideists
:

or, the

method

Solid philosophy asserted against the fancies of the to science farther illustrated. With reflections

on Mr. Locke's Essay concerning human understanding. London, 1697. 8vo.

By

J.

S.

SHEPHERD

hundred and fourteen.

(William) Paris in eighteen hundred and two, and eighteen The second edition. London, 1814. 8vo.

SLINGSBY (Sir Henry) Original memoirs, written during the great civil war being the life of Sir H. Slingsby, and the memoirs of Capt. Hodgson. With notes, etc. [Edited by Sir Walter Scott.] Edinburgh,
;

1806.

8vo.

SMITH

what has been published on the and family history of the county

(John Russell) Bibliotheca Cantiana a bibliographical account of history, topography, antiquities, customs 8vo. of Kent. London, 1837.
:

STAUNTON

An authentic account of an (Sir George Leonard) Bart. from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China embassy taken chiefly from the papers of the Earl of Macartney, Sir Erasmus Gower, etc. London, \ 797. 2 vols. 4to.
;
.
.

[STEUART

(Sir James)] Jus populi vindicatum, or the peoples right, to defend themselves and their covenanted religion, vindicated. ... By a
[By Sir James Steuart, of Goodtrees.]

friend to true christian liberty. 8vo. [n.p.] 1669.

[STORER (James
castellated,

or, delineations of monastic, Sargant)] Ancient reliques and domestic architecture, and other interesting subjects; with historical and descriptive sketches. London, 1812-13. 2 vols.
;

8vo.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


STUCK
(Johann Wilhelm)
libros
tres.
.
.

171

Operum tomus
.

convivialium

(Tomus secundus,
descriptionem.)
I.

primus, continens antiquitatum continens sacrorum et

sacrificiorum gentilium

Lugduni Batavorum,

Amstelodaiiii 1695.
,

vols. in

Fol.
:

TAYLOR
which
Young.

(Brook) Contemplatio philosophica


is

a posthumous work,
Sir

...

to

prefixed a life of the author, by his grandson, 8vo. London, 1793.

William
des
1.

THIERSCH
moyens
8vo.

(Friedrich
d'arriver
a

Wilhelm von) De
sa

1'etat

actuel

de

la

Grece
2
vols.

et

restauration.

Leipzig, 1833.

in

THUCYDIDES.
I.

De

Bekkerus.

Berolini, 1846.

bello Peloponnesiaco 8vo.

libri

octo.

Iterum

recensuit

VERGILIUS

MARC (Publius) Virgil's Aeneis, translated into Scottish verse,


of

Gawin Douglas, Bishop by Fol. Edinburgh, 1710.


the famous

Dunkeld.

new

edition.

WARREN
1885.

(William Fairfield) Paradise found

the cradle of the

race at the North Pole.


8vo.

human

study of the prehistoric world.

London,

WENTWORTH
letters

(Thomas) Earl of Strafford. The Earl of Strafforde's and dispatches, with an essay towards his life by Sir George Radcliffe. ... By William Knowler. London, 739. 2 vols. Fol.
\

WRIGHT
to
1

Guthrie) Gideon Guthrie, a monograph written 1712 Edited by C. E. G. Wright, with an introduction by the Right Rev. John Dowden, bishop of Edinburgh. London, Edinburgh
(C. E.

730.

&

1900.

8vo.

ZEILLER

serte Auflage.

(Franz Edlen von) Das natiirliche Privat-Recht. Wien, 1819. 8vo.

Dritte verbes-

MISS

C.

M. SULLIVAN,

of

Regents Park, London.

BIBLE. The Holy Bible, translated from the Latin vuloate. 5 vols. 1796-97. 8vo.

Edinburgh.

BLAIR (Hugh) Essays on


lectures on that science.
-

rhetoric,

abridged chiefly

The

sixth edition.

from Dr. Blair's London, 1810. 8vo.

Lectures
\

London,

787.

on rhetoric and 3 vols. 8vo.

belles lettres.

The

third

edition.

BOILEAU DESPRiAUX
rigee et augmentee.

La Haye,

Nouvelle edition revue, cor(Nicolas) Oeuvres. \ 722. 4 vols. 12mo.

BYRON
of

(George Gordon Noel) Baron. Letters and journals, with notices life, by Thomas Moore. [Vols. 1-6 of The Works.] London, 1832. 6 vols. 8vo.
his

CHATEAUBRIAND
ou beautes de 2 vols. 8vo.

la religion

(Frangois Rene de) Viscount. Genie du chrisbanisme, chretienne. Sixieme edition. Paris, 1816.

172

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


(Hugh)
short and easy introduction 12mo. London, 1812.

CLARK

to heraldry.

The

eighth

edition.

GOLDONI

note, dall' editore,

(Carlo) Scelta completa di tutte le migliori commedie il A. Montucci. 4 vols. 12mo. Lipsia, 1828.
.
.

con

HUSENBETH

(Frederick Charles) Faberism exposed and refuted


:

and the

against the second edition, apostolicity of catholic doctrine vindicated " " Difficulties of Romanism ". revised and remoulded," of Faber's

Norwich, 1836.

8vo.
of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia.

JOHNSON

(Samuel) The history 12mo. London, 1822.


:

tale.

--

The Rambler with a biographical, London, 1826. by the Rev. R. Lynam.

historical,

and

critical

preface

vols.
\

12mo. 2
vols.

LA BRUYERE (Jean de) Les caracteres. Paris, 759. LA ROCHEFOUCAULD (Francois de) Duke. Maxims
tions.

16mo.
reflec-

and moral

new

edition,

revised

and improved.

Edinburgh,

1783.

16mo.

LE SAGE
boiteux.

(Alain Rene) Le diable boiteux augment? des bequilles du diable 2 vols. 16mo. Paris, 1825.
(John)

LlNGARD
Romans.

history of

England from the


14 vols.
8vo.
life of

first

invasion by the

London, 1825-31.

LOCKHART

(John Gibson) Memoirs of the 7 vols. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1837-38.

Sir

Walter

Scott, Bart.

MAINTENON

Memoires pour servir (Francoise d'Aubigne) Marquise de. a Thistoire de M. de Maintenon, et a celle du siecle passe. (Lettres de Mjde Maintenon.) [Edited by L. Angliviel de la Beaumelle.] Maes6 vols. 2mo. trie/it, \ 778-89.
1

[MlLEY

(John)] Rome, as it was under paganism, the popes. London, 1 843. [By John Miley.]

and as

it

became under
8vo.

2 vols.

MlLTON
12mo.

G^ n

Paradise

lost.

A poem,

in

twelve books.

London, 1817.

--

Paradise

regained,

Samson Agonistes,

Comus,

and

Arcades.

London, 1817.
16mo.

12mo.
Paris,
1822.

(Jean Baptiste Poquelin de) Oeuvres.

vois.

MOUSTIER
1812.

(Charles Albert de) Lettres a Emilie sur 3 vols. 16mo.

la

mythologie.

Paris,

OSSIAN.

The poems

of Ossian.

new

edition.

London, 1784.

Translated by James Macpherson. 2 vols. 8vo.


his life of Zoilus.

PARNELL
edition.

(Thomas) The poetical works, with 16mo. London, 1833.

Magnet

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


PELLICO
1835.
(Silvio)

173

Dei doveri degli uomini

discorso ad un giovani.

Parigi,

8vo.
Plutarch's
lives,

PLUTARCH.
historical,

translated

with

notes critical
. .

and

and a new
.

life of

Plutarch.
edition.

By

Langhorne.
16mo.

The

sixth

J. Langhorne, 6 London, 1795.

and

W.
8vo.

vols.

POMFRET (Jrm) The


PRECEPTOR.
Wherein
edition.

poetical works.

Magnet

edition.

London, 1833.

The Preceptor
first

containing a general course of education.

principles of polite learning are laid down in a way The seventh most suitable for ... advancing the instruction of youth.

the

London, 1783.

vols.

8vo.

RACINE

(Jean) Oeuvres.

Paris, 1810.

vols.

8vo.

RUSSELL
man.

(William)
\

The

revolutions in

Asia and Africa. London, 793. 2 vols.


history of

history of ancient Europe ; with a view of the In a series of letters to a young noble-

8vo.
: .
.

The

modern Europe

A new

edition, with a con-

tinuation, terminating at the death of Alexander, the in 1825. 6 vols. 8vo. London, 1827.

Russian Emperor,

Nouvelle edition.

(Marie de Rabutin Chantal) Marquise de. 12mo. 10 vols. Paris, 1801.


(William)

Recueil des

lettres

SHAKESPEARE

The

plays.

Edinburgh, 1804.
:

vols.

12mo.

[SMITH (Horace) and

(James)] Rejected addresses or the new theatrum Fourth edition. London, poetarum. [By Horace and James Smith.] 1812. 12mo.
sentimental journey through France and Italy. (Lawrence) Zadig or the book of fate an oriental history, translated from the French of M. de Voltaire. London, 1839. 32mo.
;

STERNE

TASSO

(Torquato) La Gerusalemme liberata, publicata da A. Buttura. 4 vols. 32mo. Parigi, 1822.


(Publius) Comoediae sex ad fidem editionis Zeunianae accurate recensitae. 8vo. Londini, 1825.

TERENTIUS AFER

TOOKE (Andrew) The


heathen
gods, London, 1798.

and
8vo.
of.

Pantheon, representing the fabulous histories of the most illustrious heroes. The thirtieth edition.

TRENT
Max.

Council

Catechismus

concilii

Tridentini,

Pii

V.

Pontif.

juasu promulgatus.

Parisiis, 1830.

vols.

32mo.

The

catechism of the Council of Trent.


J.

Translated into English

by the Rev.

Donovan.

Dublin, 1829.
romane.

8vo.

VERRI

(Alessandro)

Le

notti

Parigi, 1826.

vols.

12mo.

174

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


(John)
all

WATKINS

containing

...

persons of 8vo.

biographical, historical, and chronological dictionary i the lives, characters, and actions of the most eminent Third edition. London, 1807. ages and all countries.

YALDEN
16mo.

(Thomas) The poetical works.

Magnet

edition.

London,

833-

ARTHUR SYKES,
EPISTOLAE.

Esq., of Roundhay, Leeds.


:

the Latin text with an Epistolae obscurorum virorum English rendering, notes, and an historical introduction by F. G. Stokes. London, 1909. 8vo.
short history of the English people. Illustrated Richard) London , Edited by Mrs. J. R. Green and Miss K. Norgate. 4 vols. 8vo. 1892-94.

GREEN Qohn
edition.

HAMILTON

(Antoine) Count.

Memoirs

of the

Count de Gramont

con-

taining the amorous history of the English court under the reign of Charles II. Edited by H. Vizetelly. London. 1889. 2 vols. 8vo.

MALTHUS
1890.

(Thomas Robert)
its

An

essay on the principle of population


effects

or.

a view of

past

and present

on human happiness.

London*

8vo.
Lucretius, epicurean

MASSON Qohn)
London, 1909.

and poet.

Complementary volume.
life

8vo.

RICHARDSON
by

(Samuel)

The

works.

With a
1.

sketch of his

and writings,

the Rev. E. Mangin.

London, 181

19

vols.
:

8vo.
extent, causes,

SANGER
effects

(William

W.) The

history of prostitution

its

and

throughout the world.


8vo.

New

York,

895.

8vo.

SCOTT
48

(Sir Walter) Bart.

The Waverley

novels.

Edinburgh, 1859-60.

vols.

SHAKESPEARE
genius,

(William)

The

works.

With

a/

memoir, and essay of his


vols.

by Barry Cornwall.
Select works.

London, 1846.
London, 1891.
history of

8vo.

SWIFT Qonathan)

8vo.

WESTERMARCK
1894.
8vo.

(Edward) The

human

marriage.

London,

WRIGHT
Wright.

(Joseph)

The

English dialect dictionary.

Edited by Joseph

London, [1896-1905].

vols.

4to.

ROBERT WARDLE,
MONTAIGNE

Esq., of Swinton, Manchester.

(Michel de) Essais avec des notes de tous les commentateurs. Edition revue sur les textes originaux. 8vo. Paris, 1876.
Reflexions et Pensees de Blaise Pascal. maximes de La Rochefoucauld. Caracteres de La Bruyere. Oeuvres Considerations sur les moeurs de ce siecle > completes de Vauvenargues.

MORALISTES pRANQAIS.
par Duclos.

Paris, 1869.

8vo.

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


DR. Q.
C.

175

WILLIAMSON,
The

of

Hampstead, London.
First edition,

ASCHAM
1870.

(Roger)
8vo.

Scholemaster.

the second edition, 1571,

by E. Arber.
Edited by

[English Reprints.]

1570; collated with London,

Toxophilus,

1545.

E. Arber.

[English

Reprints.]

London, 1868.

8vo.

AUREL1US ANTONINUS (Marcus) The


translated from the

and

notes,

meditations of Marcus Aurelius, Greek by J. Collier revised, with an introduction by A. Zimmern. London, 1891. 8vo.
;

BRITISH ASSOCIATION
thirty- eighth

for the

advancement

of science.
. . .

Report of the

meeting of the British Association in August, 1868. London, 1869. 8vo.

held at Norwich

BUDGE
and

Syrian anatomy, pathology, (Ernest Arthur Thompson Wallis). " The Syriac text, edited the book of medicines ". therapeutics, or

from a rare manuscript, with an English translation by E. A. Wallis 8vo. 2 vols. Oxford, etc., 1913. Budge.

CUST

(Robert Needham) Linguistic and oriental essays, written from the Second series. London, 1887. 8vo. year 1847 to 1887.
1

Linguistic and oriental essays, written from the year Fifth series. Vol. 1. London, 1898. 8vo.

840

to

897.

DESCARTES

writings, selected 8vo.

(Rene) The philosophy of Descartes in extracts from his and translated by H. A. P. Torrey. New York, 1892.

FENELON

(Francois de Salignac de la Mothe) The adventures of Telenew translation, revised by F. Fitzgerald. machus, son of Ulysses.

London, 1792.

4to.
1
.

GASCOIGNE
1575.
2.

(George)

Certayne notes

of instruction in

English verse,

The

1576.
8vo.

Edited

Steele Glas, 1576. 3. The complaynt of Philomene, London, 1868. by E. Arber. [English Reprints.]

GOOGE

(Barnaby) Eglogs, epytaphes, and sonettes, 1 563. Arber. London, 1871. 8vo. [English Reprints.]

Edited by E.

GUEULLETTE (Thomas
(Tartarian tales).

Simon) The thousand and one quarters of an hour. Edited by L. C. Smithers. 8vo. London, 1893.

HABINGTON
Reprints.]

(William) Castara.

The
1

third edition of
1

1640

edited and

collated with the earlier ones of

634,

635, by E. Arber.

[English

London, 1870.

8vo.

HOWARD
sonettes

(Henry) Earl of Surrey. Tottel's miscellany. Songes and by H. Howard, Earl of Surrey, Sir T. Wyatt the elder, N. Collated with the second edition of Grimald, and uncertain authors. 1557, by E. Arber. London, 1870. 8vo. [English Reprints.]

176

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


Collated with (James) Instructions for forreine trayell, 1642. Edited by E. Arber. [English Reprints.]
8vo.

HOWELL

the second edition of 1650.

London, 1869.

HUME
first

(David) The

philosophy of

Hume

as contained in extracts from the

book and the first and second sections of the third part of the second book of the Treatise of human nature, selected, with an introduction by

H. A. Aikins.

New

York, 1893.

8vo.

LEWES
1892.

(George Henry)
8vo.

biographical history of philosophy.

London,

LOCKE

(John)

The

cerning human

E. Russell.

New

philosophy of Locke in extracts from the Essay conunderstanding, arranged, with introductory notes, by J.

York, 1891.

8vo.

LVLY

The anatomy of wit, 1579. Euphues and his (John) Euphues. Edited by E. Arber. London, England,f\ 1580. [English Reprints.] I c\ s c\
lOOO.
OVO.

MORE

Second and revised edition, 556. (Sir Thomas) Utopia. 8vo. London, 1869. by E. Arber. [English Reprints.]
1

Edited

NAUNTON
1870.

(Sir Robert) Fragmenta regalia. Reprinted from the third London, posthumous edition of 653, by E. Arber. [English Reprints.]
1

8vo.

PHILOXENUS, Bishop of Mabug.


of

The discourses of Philoxenus, Bishop Edited from Syriac manuscripts of the sixth and seventh centuries, in the British Museum, with an English translation by E. A. Wallis Budge. London, 1894. 2 vols. 8vo.
Mabbogh, A.D. 485-519.
(George)

PUTTENHAM
Arber.

The

arte of English poesie,

589.

Edited by E.

[English Reprints.]

London, 1869.

8vo.

REID (Thomas) The

" philosophy of Reid as contained "in the Inquiry into the human mind on the principles of common sense with introduction and selected notes by E. H. Sneath. New York, 1892. 8vo.
;

SIDNEY (Sir

Philip)

An apologie for poetrie,


London, 1868.
8vo.

1595.

Edited by E. Arber

[English Reprints.]

SPINOZA
first,

(Benedictus de) The philosophy of Spinoza as contained in the " second and fifth parts of the Ethics," and in extracts from the third and fourth, translated and edited, with notes, by G. S. Fullerton. Second edition enlarged. New York, 1894. 8vo.
(Nicholas) Roister Doister.

UDALL

Eton College, by E. Arber.


with
illustrations

[English Reprints.]

Edited from the unique copy, now at London, 1869. 8vo.

VlLLIERS (George) 2nd Duke of Buckingham.


from
[English Reprints.]

The
Edited

rehearsal,

1672,

previous plays, etc. London, 1868. 8vo.

by E. Arber.

WATSON

Reprints.]

(Thomas) Poems, [1582]-93. London, 1870. 8vo.

Edited by E. Arber.

[English

RECONSTRUCTION OF LOUVAIN LIBRARY


WEBBE
WEBBE
Arber.

177

(Edward) His
(William)

trauailes, 1590.

Edited by E. Arber.

[English

Reprints.]

London, 1868.

8vo.

[English Reprints.]

discourse of English poetrie, 1586. London, 1870. 8vo.

Edited by E.

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.


for scientific

[1908-14].
-

business, 1908 (-1913). 25 P ts. 8vo.

Proceedings of the general meetings London, (Index 1901-1910.)

Transactions.

Vol. 18 (-20).

London, 1908-13.

13 pts.

4to.

JOHN WINDSOR,
ATENEO.
artes.

Esq., of Mickle Trafford, near Chester.

El Ateneo periodico de literatura espanola, ciencias y bellas 4to. Sevilla, [1874-75]. [No. 1-24, Dec. 1874-Nov. 1875].

EEC HER (H. C.

a journey from Lake R.) trip to Mexico, being notes of about the With an appendix Erie to Lake Tezcuco and back. who inhabited Mexico, etc. Toronto, \ 880. 8vo. ancient nations
.

A
.

BREHM

(Alfred

Edmund) Brehms

Tierleben.

Kleine Ausgabe fur Volk

und Schule.
Schmidtlein.

Zweite Auflage, ganzlich neubearbeitet von Richard 3 vols. 8vo. Leipzig und Wien, 893.
\

DAVILLIER
DlEZ

(Jean Charles) Baron. L'Espagne. Illustree de 309 gravures, 4to. dessinees sur bois, par Gustave Dore. Paris, 1874.
(Friedrich Christian) Etymologisches Bonn, 1853. 8vo. Sprachen.

Worterbuch der romanischen


les

DURUY
7 vols.

(Victor) Histoire des


8vo.

Romains depuis
Nouvelle

jusqu' a 1'invasion des barbares.

edition.

temps les plus recules Paris, 1879-85.

HAACKE
1893.

(Wilhelm) Die Schopfung der Tierwelt.


8vo.

Leipzig

und Wien,
2
vols.

KERNER
8vo.

(Anton) Pflanzenleben.

Leipzig
et

und Wien, 1890-91.


nature

LlAIS (Emmanuel) L'espace physique de 1'univers Paris, [1866]. Dargent.


. .

celeste
.

la

preface de 8vo.

M.

tropicale, description Babinet, dessins de Yan*

MARCOY

(Paul) \pseud. i.e. Laurent Saint Cricq] journey across South America, from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Illustrated with engravings drawn by E. Riou, and printed maps in colours. 4to. London, 1873-74. 2 vols. in 4.
. .
.

PARKS AND GARDENS.


scribed and illustrated.

The famous

parks and gardens of the world de4to. 1880. London,


neubearbeitete Auflage.

RANKE

(Joannes)

Leipzig

Der Mensch. Zweite, ganzlich und Wien, 894. 2 vols. 8vo.


\

SCHILLER

(Johann Christoph Friedrich von) Schillers sammtliche 2 vols. in 1. 8vo. Stuttgart, 1869.

Werke.

178

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


Afrika.

SlEVERS (Wilhelm)

Eine allgemeine Landeskunde.


Leipzig

Leipzig

und Wien,
-

1891.

8vo.

Amerika.
8vo.

Eine allgemeine Landeskunde.


Eine allgemeine Landeskunde.

und Wien,
1893.

1894.

Asien.
8vo.

Leipzig

und Wien,

TURNER
sions

(Thomas A.) Argentina and the Argentines.


the

Notes and impres1885-90.

a five years' sojourn in London, 1892. 8vo.


of

Argentine Republic,
le

UjFALVY
1880.

(Marie)
4to.

De

Paris a Samarkand,

Ferghanah,

le

Kouldja

et la

Siberie Occidentale.

Impressions de voyage d'une Parisienne.

Paris,

WELLS

(James

W.)
2

Exploring and travelling three thousand miles through


to

Brazil from

Rio de Janeiro
vols.

Maranhao.

Second

edition,

revised.

London, 1887.

8vo.

ABERDEEN

THE UNIVERSITY

PRESS.

BULLETIN OF THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

MANCHESTER
VOL. 4

BY THE LIBRARIAN

SEPTEMBER, 1917-JANUARY,

1918

No.

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS

WE
stated,
list

are glad to be able to report that interest in the scheme, which has for its object the reconstruction THE
of the Library of the University of
in

Louvain,

LIBRARY

SCHEME. December, 1914, by the Governors of the John Ry lands Library, has shown no signs of abate^ ment during the past year, notwithstanding the increasing number of
and which was inaugurated
other projects which daily clamour for public support. As evidence of this sustained interest it needs
that
since

only
of

to

be

the

publication,

in

August

last,

the

sixth

have actually received library, the aggregate to nearly two thousand further gifts, amounting in volumes, whilst many other definite promises of help have still ta
of

contributions to the

new

we

materialize.

Unfortunately, the

demands upon our space

in the present issue


lists

render

it

necessary for us to

hold over the detailed


;

of the

works

comprised have much pleasure in number of volumes contributed respectively by each. As we have already pointed out in previous reports on the prothe generous response which our gress of the scheme, appeals have evoked has resulted in a collection of works which constitutes an excellent beginning of the

in these gifts until next quarter

meantime, we the names of the donors, with the recording


but, in the

new

library.

Yet,

when

it

is

remembered

that the collection of books so wantonly destroyed by the numbered upwards of a quarter of a million of volumes, it
that
if

Germans
is

evident

the work of replacement


to

is

to

be accomplished, very much

more remains
It
is,

be done.
the utmost confidence that

therefore, with

emphasize our appeal

for further offers of help,

we renew and which may take the

form, either of suitable books or of contributions of money, to assist 12

ISO

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

us in this endeavour to restore the library resources of the crippled

and exiled University.


In the light of recent events

we

are encouraged to believe that

the time approaches

when

Belgium's wounds will heal,

when

her

country will be evacuated by the enemy, and morally and materially greater than ever before she will pursue in peace her high destiny,
strong in the memories of an heroic past,

and

in the affectionate esIt is

teem

of all

who

love liberty and admire valour.

for that reason

we
of

solicit

when

a prompt and generous response to this appeal, so that the time arrives for the return of the exiled scholars to the scene
as well as of painful

happy

memories

a day which

may be

nearer

we shall be in a position to provide them than most of us suppose with a live up-to-date library, adequate in every respect to meet their requirements, and ready to be placed upon the shelves prepared for its
reception for immediate use.
In this

way we

shall

be doing for the great

little

nation of Bel-

gium

It is a is at present powerless to do for herself. she needs, and it is whilst she is still in exile that we present help want to demonstrate our determination to secure her restoration, and

that

which she

thus give to her noble Sovereign and his people tangible proof of the

high regard in which

we

and

for the heroic

sacrifices

hold them, for their incomparable bravery, which they have made in their honour-

able determination to remain true to their pledges of neutrality by


refusing to listen to

Germany's infamous proposals.


in this

In order to obviate

may

wish to participate
first

any needless duplication of gifts, those who scheme are requested to be good enough,

in the

instance, to send to the writer, the Librarian of the

John

Rylands Library, Manchester, the titles of the works they are willing to contribute. He will be glad also to advise would-be donors as to
the
titles

of suitable works.

ABERDEEN

University.

Per P.
of

J.

Anderson, Esq.,
5

M. A.,
vols.

Librarian.

Second contribution
F. Harrington

377

vols.

ARDLEY,
late of

Esq., of

Teddington.

RECENT GIFFSTO

Mrs. BEARD,

Knutsford.

48

vols.

The Right Hon. Earl BEAUCHAMP, K.G. 5 vols. (Additional.) The Rev. H. P. BETTS, M.A., of Petersfield. 24 vols. The Committee of the BoLTON Public Library. Per Archibald
Sparke, Esq., Librarian.

10

vols.

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS


The BRITISH
School at Rome.
of the British

181

Per A. H. Smith, Esq., M.A.,


vols.

Museum.

7 vols. Miss E. L. BROADBENT, of Manchester. Miss F. N. BRUCE, of Bethnal Green. 6 vols.

The

Right Rev. Dom CABROL, 105 vols. borough.

The Abbey

of St. Michael,

Farn-

Senora Aurelia Castello de GONZALEZ, of Habana, Cuba. 3 vols. Robert H. CLAYTON, Esq., of Didsbury.

vols.

A. W. COATES,

Esq., of Carlisle.

60

vols.

The The

(Additional.) Right Rev. the Abbot of DOWNSIDE Abbey, near Bath. 2 1 vols. Mr. and Mrs. FlGAROLA-CANEDA, Biblioteca Nacional, Habana,

Rev. Arthur DlXON, M.A., of Denton.

5 vols.

Cuba.

45

vols.
1

Andrew HALKETT, Esq., of Ottawa, Canada. vol. Bernard HALL, Esq., of Manchester. 162 vols. Sir William HARTLEY, of Southport. Per Professor A.
D.D.
Messrs.

S. Peake,

231

vols.
1

Mrs. Winstanley HASKINS, of London.

vol.
vols.

HEFFER

&

Sons, of Cambridge.
of

The The
Dr.

Rev. A.

Du

Boulay HlLL,

Mrs. Charles
Misses

HUGHES,

East Bridgford. of Manchester. 1 vol.

35

vols.

HUMPHRY, of London. 5 vols. Jamieson B. HURRY, M.A., of Reading.


In

13 vols.

Mrs. JAMESON, of Bowdon.


son, Esq.
1

memory
5 vols.

of the late

John

W.

Jame-

vols.

T. JESSON,

The

Esq., of Cambridge. Governors of the JOHN

RYLANDS
89
vols.

Library.

(Additional.)

In

memory

of their colleague, the late Professor


etc.

James

Hope

Moulton, D.D., LittD.,

Miss KEMP, of Regent's Park, London. Howard C. LEVIS, Esq., of London.

135
1

vols.

vol.

(Additional.)
Millett, Esq.
1

The

University Press of

LIVERPOOL.

Per D.

vol.

(Additional.)

Miss LONSDALE, of London. vol. W. R. MACDONALD, Esq., of Edinburgh. 26 vols. J. G. MlLNE, Esq., of Farnham.
1

vols.

The

Daughters of the
condra.

late

Rev. T.

O'MAHONY,

D.D., of Drum-

20

vols.

182
C. T.

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


OWEN,
Esq., of

Hampstead.

vols.
1

Julius J. PRICE, Esq., of Toronto, Canada. The Rev. H. E. SALTER, of Abingdon. 45

vol.

vols.
vol.

Mrs. SANDERSON, of Bekurbet, Ireland. 12 vols. John ScOTT, Esq., of London.


J.

10 vols. Esq., of Cambridge. Natural History Society. 196 vols. TORQUAY T. Fisher UNWIN, Esq., of London. 3 vols. (Additional.)

Day THOMPSON,

The

Library of the Surgeon- General's Office,


1

WASHINGTON, U.S.A.

vol.

Mrs. Isaac

WATTS,

of

Altrincham.

vols.

take this opportunity of congratulating Sir Adolphus the Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge, upon the attain-

We

W. Ward,

ment (on 2 December) of his eightieth birthday. Sir PHUS Adolphus was for many years closely and actively identified

with the development of the educational


in the

life

of Manchester.

For
the

twenty-two years (commencing Chair of History and English Poetry

as long ago as

1866) he

filled

Owens

College, and sub-

sequently, for a period of seven years (1890-97), he occupied the From 1886 to 1890, and again from Principalship of the College.

1896 he was Vice- Chancellor of Victoria University, a period which was distinguished by the growing prestige and influence
to

1894

Adolphus migrated to Cambridge to take up the Mastership of Peterhouse, the Corporation of Manchester conferred upon him the honorary freedom of the City.
of the University.

In

1900,

when

Sir

He has

filled the presidential chair of

the British

Academy,

Historical, the

Chetham and

several other societies,

the Royal and we are proud

to number him amongst the Trustees of the John Ry lands Library, in which capacity he has rendered valuable service to the institution. The vacancy on the Council of Governors of the John Rylands

caused by the lamented death of Professor James Hope Moulton, has been filled by the appointLibrary,

APPOINT-

NEW^GOV^

ment

of the

syriology in

Rev. C. L. Bedale, M.A., Lecturer in As- ERNOR. the University of Manchester, and one of the late Dr.
staff of
is

Moulton's colleagues on the


at

the

Wesleyan Training College


one of
responsible for the transof

Didsbury.

Mr. Bedale

at present overseas, acting as

H.M.

Chaplains to the Forces.


transliteration,

He

was

scription,

and

translation

the Sumerian tablets*

LIBRARY NOTES
which forrted the
"
subject of the

AND NEWS

183
in

volume published by the Library


in the

1915, entitled

Sumerian Tablets
the
first

John Rylands Library".

We

take

this,

opportunity, of officially confirming the an-

nouncement which has already been given wide publicity DR in the columns of the press, of the acceptance by Dr. REW3EL Rendel Harris, of the cordial invitation extended to him

by the Governors
his retirement

of

the John

Rylands Library, on the occasion


Friends, at

of

from the Directorship of Studies at the Woodbrooke

Settlement of the Society of

Birmingham, to

settle

in

Manchester and become


ripe

officially

attached to the Library, where his


in the de-

and varied scholarship will velopment of its resources, and in the


Founder, which was
to establish in

be of inestimable service

fuller realization of the

aim

of

its

Manchester a home

of scholarly

research, in other words,


of learning.

an

institution

devoted to the encouragement

Dr. Harris

is

no stranger to Manchester.

For many years he

has been a valued contributor to the library series of lectures, and has
In this and in always attracted large and appreciative audiences. other ways he has been ever ready to place his stores of learnmany ing at the service of the public, whether preachers, students, or the

ordinary seekers after knowledge, in a form which


tive

was

at once attract-

and

illuminating.

It

may be

said, therefore, that not

alone will

the John Rylands Library benefit by his migration to the northern city, for those of us who know him best, and have felt the influence
of the subtle will

charm

of his personality, are convinced that his

mean a

great accession of strength both to the intellectual


life

coming and to

the religious

of the city.

Dr. Harris,

we
of

are glad to say,


his

is

from the
to

effects

trying ordeal of

making a splendid recovery last spring, and is hoping

be able

to

take up his residence in Manchester at Easter.

He

will find a most cordial

welcome awaiting him from

all

sections of the

community, not only in the city proper, but in that wider area of which the city is rightly regarded as the metropolis.
the present time Dr. Harris is actively engaged, in collaboration with Dr. Mingana, on the second volume of " The Odes

At

and Psalms

of

Solomon," the publication


is

of

which

is

eagerly awaited.

The

manuscript

practically ready

for the printer,

and the volume

may be looked

for in the course of the

next few months.

184

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

Mr. William Poel, the Founder and Director of the Elizabethan Stage Society, has compiled a most interesting Chrono- WILLIAM logical Table, showing what is proved and what is not SHAKE" Life and Work," in two proved about Shakespeare's the first of which deals with the Elizabethan WORK. sheets,
Period,

1616.

These

1564-1603, the second with the Jacobean Period, 1603sheets were printed in the October and November

"Monthly Letter" which is written and published by Mr. Poel, for the Shakespeare League. Such has been the interest " " which the publication of this Table has evoked, that a new edition is
issues of the

necessary

if

the

demand

for copies is to

be

satisfied.

In these circum-

stances, at the request,

and with the permission,

of

Mr. Poel,

it

will

be reprinted, in a revised form, in the next issue of the BULLETIN. " It will also be published in a separate form as one of The John

Rylands Library Reprints," in the usual binding, copy, by the Manchester University Press.
"

at

one

shilling per

Mr. Poel explains that the Table" is not written for the experts, though it seems to be useful to them, to some extent, for reference. I wrote it, says Mr. Poel, in the hope that some public curiosity might be aroused, to urge students to make fresh endeavours to search for evidence with which to make good the many blanks, and also to
discredit
if

possible the

"

Tradions

"

which

in

my

opinion are un-

worthy
It

of consideration.

may

not be out of place to remind readers that a few copies


:

remain of Mr. Poet's illustrated monograph, entitled " Some Notes on Shakespeare's Stage and Plays," which
after

POEL ON
SPEARE'S

appearing

in the

BULLETIN was

published separ-

These may be obtained January of last year. from the Manchester University Press, at the original
ately in

price of one shilling each.


It

will interest readers to

know

that

Professor Tout's article on

"

Mediaeval
issue, is

Town

last

Planning," which appeared in our regarded by experts as the most complete

PROFESSOR

and
i

authoritative
. .

monograph on the

Indeed, it represents planning in the mediaeval penod. such a real contribution to the history of the subject that permission has been sought and given for its republication in " The Town Planning Review," the periodical which is edited by Professor Abercrombie for

-111-

subject of

town

TOWN
PLANNING.

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS

185

the Department of Civic Design in the University of Liverpool. are glad to know that in this way Professor Tout's work will obtain
the wider publicity which
it

We

deserves.

Copies of the separate edition of this monograph, in the John Rylands series of Reprints, may still be obtained from the Manchester
University Press, at the price of eighteen pence each. The subject of town planning is exciting a good deal of attention
just

now

for reasons

which are not

far to seek,

and

it is

MANCHESOF
CIVIC

interesting to learn that the establishment of a

School of

Civic Design work of the

may be one of
University of

the next developments in the

Manchester.

At

present

only London and Liverpool have such departments, but there are special reasons why Manchester, as the centre of a great urban community, should add to the activities of
side of social teaching.
its

University this important

With
of

the return to peace conditions a


will

new era
little

in the

development

town

life

open up.

There has been

building of residential

areas for three or four years,

up there

will

preparation of

be great broad schemes on town-planning


its

and when the leeway comes to be made need for foresight and skilled guidance in the
lines.

A School

of

Civic Design takes within


It

scope

all

questions of

covers social and economic aspects like civic

urban development. law and building re-

gulations, as well as

more material aspects

like the laying out of areas,

and

architectural

for the surveyor

and

It types of buildings. provides a training-ground architect, as well as the municipal administrator.

The

architectural department of

under the

joint control of the University, the

Manchester University, which is Manchester Education


of Architects,
is

Committee, and the Manchester Society


to stimulate interest in the subject

endeavouring
with

by

the organization of public lectures,


of such a department,

to prepare the
its

way
and

for the establishment


staff.

own

chair

Professor Tout's lecture, from which his


therefore most timely.

monograph was elaborated, was


In our last issue

we

published an interesting article on

"

Coptic

Literature in the John Rylands Library," from the pen of the Rev. D. P. Buckle, in which the writer incidentally referred to the valuable contribution
versions

S CRIPTUR-

T,V 8
)

UOTA

'

which the Coptic COPTIC

and homiletic

literature

make

to the textual criti-

cism and interpretation of the Bible.

186

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


In the present issue
list

by giving a

of

Mr. Buckle follows up this general statement quotations and allusions which he has drawn from
in the

one of the early Coptic manuscripts

John Rylands Collection.

He has commented upon certain features of the passages cited, and has collated them with the readings to be found in the published texts
doing so has stumbled upon what he believes to be interesting evidence of the existence of two Sahidic versions, one independent and one related to the Bohairic.
of the Coptic versions,
in

and

Coptic students will be able, by the aid of the facsimile which accompanies the article, to follow Mr. Buckle in his argument.

announced, at Florence, at the ripe age of ninety years, of Senator Pasquale Villari, one of the most note- DF ATH OF worthy of Italy's modern historians. Villari was born in PASQUALE
is

The

death

Naples

in

1827, and was thus one of the few Italians


the
first

who saw
had

and

last

war

of

liberation.

In

847

his

political

opinions rendered him suspect to the Neapolitan Government, and he


to seek refuge in

Florence,

where except
living

for three years spent in

Pisa he lived

down
life,
it

to the time of his death.

For many years he led

a very quiet
foreigners, but
torical studies

earning

scanty

was during
to

those years that he

by teaching Italian to commenced the his-

which were

wherever
that

historical

research

is

make him famous, not only in Italy, but cultivated. It was during these years
which were
at

he began

to collect the materials

to

blossom into the

"

Life of Savonarola," the


is

work which
Both

once made him famous, and

by which he
his

perhaps best known.


".

A few years later he published


works were quickly
trans-

"

Life of Machiavelli
into

of these

lated

English, as well as other

European languages.

Villari

was for a time Minister of Public Instruction, but it is as humanist and educator rather than as politician that he is best known. He published upwards of 400 volumes and pamphlets, and we are
greatly indebted to Professor Bonacci for the volume of extracts

which

he has gathered from

Villari's works, dealing with the contributions

that ancient, mediaeval,

and modern

Italy

have made to
historian's

civilization,

and which was actually published on the


birthday, as a tribute to his scholarship.

eighty-ninth

One

writer describes Villari


intel-

as a

man

of short

but dignified
lost a

stature,

whose innate modesty,


failed to attract.

lectual brilliancy,

and winning charm never


familiar figure,

Cambridge has

by the death

of Dr.

James

LIBRARY NOTES
Bass-Mullinger, after
nearly
fifty

AND NEWS
j

187

fifty-five

years connection with the town, and

University.

the years spent on his great history of He began with an essay on "Cambridge

AMES

BASS-MUL-

Characteristics in the Seventeenth Century,"

which had

valuable chapter on the

Cambridge

Platonists,

and then

settled

down

For some time he lectured on history at St. John's, acting the while as Librarian of the College, and wrote several essays " But his History" was his chief work, subsidiary to his main work. and after three large volumes had appeared in 1873, 1884, and
to his great work.

He he received the honorary degree of LittD. was still at work, when death claimed him, on the fourth volume, which was to have brought the history down to the middle of the
191
1

respectively,

eighteenth century.

It

is

to

be hoped that

it

will

be taken up by

some other hand and carried


It

to a successful conclusion.

may

interest

our readers to
at

know
Oxford

that

appointed Romanes Lecturer


year.

for the present

Mr. Asquith has been MR. AS-

The

list

of lecturers

on

this

foundation began with

ROMANES

Mr.
ley,

W.

E. Gladstone, and has included Professor


J.

Hux- LECTURER,

Mr. A.

Balfour,

Lord Morley, and President Roosevelt.


it

No

appointment was made last year. It is not generally known that for some considerable time

was
-

practically Lord Morley's intention to give the library of THE ACTON LIBRARY the late Lord Acton to Mansfield College, Oxford.

Eventually, after the most careful consideration, he decided to bestow


this gift
field,

on Cambridge University.

If

the library

very considerable additions to the buildings

had gone to Manswould have been

necessitated,

and that was one

of the

main reasons which decided the

matter.
It is

doubtful whether any publishing season within living

memory

has shown greater signs of activity than the year 1917, and that in spite of three years of war with all its attendant
difficulties.

THE LITER ARY OUTof poetry.

The

literary

output includes some

300
But
been
"

novels,
it is

some 200 war books, and very many volumes

in serious books, especially biographical, that

the season has

specially noteworthy. Sir

Dilke";
"

R.

J.

Godlee's
;

Life of John

Keats"

kin

"
;

The Life of Sir Charles "Lord Lister"; Sir Sidney Colvin's " Mrs. Creighton's Life of Thomas HodgThese include

"

Recollections of Seventy-two Years of the

Hon. William

188

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


* '

Selections from the Correspondence of Lord Warren Vernon " " " Letters of John Henry Newman another volume of Acton "Some Hawarden Letters, 1878-1893, written to Mrs. Drew (Miss
; ;

"

Mary
Life

Gladstone) before and after her marriage

"

and Letters
of

of Stopford

Brooke"

H.

P. Jack's " Noel Williams's Life


;

L.

and Letters

Admiral
"

Sir Charles Napier," a salt of the old school,


;

and Lord Morley's


worthy.

Recollections"

to mention only the

most note"

Beyond
"
collections

all

doubt the book


is

of the year

is

Lord Morley's

Re-

the moral stature of a great and distinguished personality, which will have a place among the great

which

the

self- revelation of

autobiographies.

These

recollections

are interesting because of the


looks at the world

man who

writes,

who

tells

us

how he

and

its

great

issues, but they are also interesting because he tells us what he thinks of the men with whom he has worked, of his friends, and of the public

men

of his day.

One

writer has remarked that the book comes at

a curiously appropriate moment to show that a man may be a great that he need not always shout with politician and yet a gentleman
;

the

crowd

and that a busy


or

life

spent in doing the world's immediate


great

work need not prevent a man from keeping touch with the
realities of
life,

from having a keen sense

of

the majesty of living

and

being.

The volumes

are full of pen portraits.

Here

is

a group of famous

statesmen at Althorp

Lord Spencer's

Seat, the original

home
into

of the

famous Spencer Collection, now one of the glories of this " also of Manchester After dinner we went in 1891.
think
small

library

and
I

what

was the most


one
of

fascinating

room

ever

saw

in

a house

great or

the libraries lined with

well-bound books on white

enamelled shelves, with a few but not too many nick-nacks lying about, and all illuminated with the soft radiance of many clusters of wax
candles.

picture to

remember

Spencer, with his noble carriage,

and

fine red

beard

Gladstone] seated on a
; *

low

stool, discoursing

as usual, playful, keen, versatile

Rosebery, saying
*
;

little,

but

now and

then launching into a pleasant mot Harcourt, cheery, expansive, Like a scene of one of Dizzy's novels, and all the actors, men witty.

with parts to play. The rare books they unbent over, the treasures of The men are Althorp, have now gone to a northern city. ..." save two, and can meet no more." gone
'

LIBRARY NOTES AND NEWS


It is

189

undoubtedly true

to say that

not so

much upon
boasts.

his political as

Lord Morley's reputation rests upon his literary work, of which he

belongs the credit of having written the best biography of Rousseau, the best biography of Voltaire," and the best " has already Life of Gladstone biography of Diderot, whilst his taken rank as one of the classical biographies in the English language.

nowhere

To him

high tribute to the place the writer of these recollections holds is paid by the press, in the great space which it has devoted to notices
of the work.

Another book

(in the list) of

no

little
is

charm and
alive

significance,
interest

every

page and almost every

line

of

which

with

"
is,

Some

The place of honour in this volume is given to Letters ". Ruskin, but other great names included amongst the correspondents are the Duke of Argyll, Sir Edward Burne- Jones, Robert Browning,
Hawarden
Professor Stuart, Professor Sidgwick, Alfred Lyttleton,
four.
It It is

and A.

J.

Bal-

a definite contribution to the history of a great generation.


left

seems that Mr. Gladstone

behind him forty volumes of

diaries,

and

that Mrs.

Drew

raised the question of their

publication in

whole or

in part.

MR. W. E. Lord Gladstone how- STONE'S


-

ever discouraged the suggestion because, to quote his DIARIES own words " The diaries are a daily record of conscience, unique
:

in their rigidity of

self-examination and introspection.


to the public save for

At

pre-

sent they are


*

unknown

some

extracts in

Lord

Morley's Life '. The justification of his public action lies not in the diaries but in his public statements. In the domain of moral principle
it is,

of course, very difficult, but his inmost soul cannot


It

be

laid bare

as an answer to scurrility."

will be noticed that the possibility of


is

the ultimate publication of the diaries

not disclaimed.

books dedicated to one person have been awaited with " greater eagerness by the public than Mr. Gerard's GERARD'S Four Years in Germany ". The volume is charmingly

Few

My

MENT^OF

dedicated

"To my

small but tactful family of one

my GERMANY.
less felicitous

wife/' a dedication which is only equalled by the no words employed by Dr. Nansen in the dedication

of

"Farthest

North"

to his wife as

"To Her who


is

christened the ship and

had

the courage to wait".

Mr. Gerard's book


and her
perfidy, but
is

not only the greatest indictment of

Germany

one of the heaviest blows which has been

190
aimed
first

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


at the Kaiser,

and

it

has been

felt.

The
hit

Kaiser will be the


like

to

admit that an ambassador


of respect.

who

can

back

Gerard

is

worthy

In our next issue

we hope

to publish amplifications of the follow-

ing three lectures, which have been delivered from time


to time in the

NEXT

"

John Rylands Library.


in

The

Venetian

History," by Conway, Dragons and Rain Gods/' by Professor G. Elliot Smith, " Puritan Idyll Richard Baxter ( 6 5- 69 ) M. D., F.R.S. and and his Love Story/' by the Rev. Frederick J. Powicke, M.A.,
Litt.D.

Point of
;

View
"

Roman

Professor R. S.

Ph.D.

Two

of Lucretius/'

of the articles appearing in the present issue "

"
:

The

Poetry
i

by Quintessence of Paulinism," by Professor Peake, will be republished almost immediately by the Manchester University
Press,
at

Professor Herford, and

The

REPR NTS OF

contribution on

the price of one shilling each. Professor Elliot Smith's " " is to be Incense and Libations expanded, by the

inclusion of other important matter, dealt with


lecture

by the author in his and Rain Gods," into a volume which will be Dragons issued shortly by the same publishers. The volume will be uniform
on
"

with

"The

Ascent

appeared

last year,

Olympus," by Dr. Rendel Harris, which and will probably be published at the same price
of

of five shillings.

INCENSE

AND

LIBATIONS.

BY G. ELLIOT SMITH, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER.
is

commonly assumed

that

many

of the

elementary practices
stone buildings,

IT
that

of civilization,

such as the erection of rough

whether houses, tombs, or temples, the

crafts of the carpenter

and the stonemason, the carving

of statues, the customs of pouring out

libations or burning incense, are such simple

and obvious procedures

any people might adopt them without prompting or contact of any kind with other populations who do the same sort of things. But if such apparently commonplace acts be investigated they will be None of these things that found to have a long and complex history.

was attempted cumstances became focussed in some strained some individual to make the
seem so obvious
to us of obviousness

until

a multitude of diverse

cir-

particular community,

and con-

discovery.

Nor did

the quality

become apparent even when the enlightened discoverer had gathered up the threads of his predecessor's ideas and woven them into the fabric of a new invention. For he had then to begin
the strenuous fight against the opposition of his fellows before he could

induce them to accept his discovery.


against their preconceived ideas
significance of 'the progress

He

had, in

fact, to

contend

and

their lack of appreciation of the

them

of

"
its

he had made before he could persuade obviousness ". That is the history of most inventions

since the

world began.

But

because tradition has


to us
it

made

begging the question to pretend that such inventions seem simple and obvious
it is

unnecessary to inquire into their history or to assume that any people or any individual simply did these things without any inis

struction
1

when

the

spirit

moved

it

or

him

so to do.

elaboration of a Lecture on the relationship of the Egyptian practice of mummification to the development of civilization delivered in the John Rylands Library, on 9 1916.

An

February,
191

192

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


The

customs of burning incense and making libations in religious ceremonies are so widespread and capable of being explained in such
plausible, though infinitely diverse,

ways

that

it

has seemed unneces-

sary to inquire

more deeply
l

into

their real origin

and

significance.

For example, Professor

Toy

disposes of these questions in relation to

claims that when burnt before incense in a summary fashion. " " it is to be regarded as food, though in course of time, the deity

He

"

was lost, a convenwas attached to the act of burning. tional significance more refined demanded more refined food for the gods, such as ambrosia and period
the recollection of this primitive character

when

nectar, but these also

were

This, of course,

is

finally given up." a purely gratuitous assumption, or series of asis

sumptions, for which there


there

no

real

evidence.

Moreover, even

if

were any

really early literature to justify such

statements, they

explain nothing.

Incense-burning
it

claim be granted as
explanations, for
is

was

all

of

if Prof. Toy's But a bewildering variety of other " " which the merit of being simple and obvious

is

just as

mysterious

before.

claimed, have been suggested.

The

reader

who

is

curious about

these things will find a luxurious crop of speculations


series of encyclopaedias."
I

by consulting a
"

shall content

myself by quoting only one more.


in

Frankincense
sacrifices

and other

spices

were indispensable

temples where bloody


of

Solomon's temple formed part of the religion. atmosphere must have been that of a sickening slaughter-house, and the fumes of
incense could alone enable the priests and worshippers to support
it.

The

This would apply to thousands of other temples through Asia, and doubtless the palaces of kings and nobles suffered from uncleanliness

and

insanitary arrangements
:

and required an antidote

to evil smells to

make them
It is

endurable.**

an altogether delightful anachronism to imagine that religious


the ancient

ritual in

and aromatic East was inspired by such squeamthe twentieth century might

ishness as a

British sanitary inspector of

experience
1 -

"

Introduction to the History of Religions/' p. 486.

on
p.

"

might start upon this journey of adventure by reading the article " Incense in Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 3 Samuel Laing, " Human Origins," Revised by Edward Clodd, 1903,

He

38

\/V
FIG.
i.

THE CONVENTIONAL EGYPTIAN REPRESENTATION OF THE BURNING OF


INCENSE AND THE POURING OF LIBATIONS
(Period of the

New

Empire)

after

Lepsius

INCENSE
But
if

AND

LIBATIONS

193

there are these

many

diverse

and mutually destructive

it follows that reasons in explanation of the origin of incense-burning, and obvious". the meaning of the practice cannot be so "simple as to the sense in For scholars in the past have been unable to agree

which these adjectives should be applied. But no useful purpose would be served by enumerating a

collec-

tion of learned fallacies and exposing their contradictions when the true explanation has been provided in the earliest body of literature

that

has

come down from

antiquity.

refer

to

the

Egyptian

"

Pyramid Texts". Before this ancient testimony


it

is

examined

certain general principles

involved in the discussion of


In this connexion
is

such problems should be considered. appropriate to quote the apt remarks made, in

reference to the practice of totemism,


difficult

by
.

Professor Soil as.


.

"If
it is

it is

to conceive

how

such ideas

originated

at

all,

still

more difficult to understand how they should have arisen repeatedly and have developed in much the same way among races evolving
It is at least simpler to independently in different environments. and may have suppose that all [of them] have a common source
. . .

been carried
1

...

to remote parts of the world."

do not

think that anyone

who

conscientiously

and without bias

examines the evidence relating to incense-burning, the arbitrary details


of the ritual

and the peculiar circumstances under which

it is

practised

in different countries, can refuse to admit that so artificial a

custom

must have been dispersed throughout the world from some one centre

where

it

was

devised.

fact that emerges from an examination of these "obvious explanations" of ethnological phenomena is the so-called failure on the part of those who are responsible for them to show any

The

remarkable

adequate appreciation of the nature of the problems to be solved. They know that incense has been in use for a vast period of time, and
that the practice of burning
it

is

very widespread.
certain

They have been


less

so familiarized with the custom


for
its

and

more or

vague excuses

perpetuation that they

show no

realization of

how

strangely

obvious meaning the procedure is. The reasons usually given in explanation of its use are for the most part merely paraphrases of the traditional meanings that in the course of
irrational

and devoid

of

"

Ancient Hunters," 2nd Edition, pp. 234 and 235.

194
history

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


have come
it.

to

be attached

to the ritual act or the

words used

to designate

as a rule,

Neither the ethnologist nor the priestly apologist will, admit that he does not know why such ritual acts as pour-

ing out water or burning incense are performed,

and

that they are

wholly inexplicable and meaningless to him.


that the real inspiration to perform such rites
is

Nor

will they confess

the fact of their preacts of devotion, the

decessors having
of

handed them down as sacred

which has been entirely forgotten during the process of meaning transmission from antiquity. Instead of this they simply pretend that
Stripped of the glamour which religious emotion and sophistry have woven around them, such
is

the significance of such

acts

obvious.

pretended explanations become transparent subterfuges, none the less real because the apologists are quite innocent of any conscious intention
to deceive either themselves or their disciples.
It

should be

sufficient

have been handed down by tradition for them But in response to the instinctive as right and proper things to do.
that such ritual acts

impulse of
a

all

human

beings, the

mind seeks
is

for reasons in justification

of actions of
is

which the

real inspiration

unknown.

common fallacy to suppose that men's actions are inspired It mainly by reason. The most elementary investigation of the psychology of everyday life is sufficient to reveal the truth that man is not, as a
rule, the
1

pre-eminently rational creature he


is

is

commonly supposed

to

be.

He

impelled

to

most

of his acts

stances of his personal experience,

by and the conventions

his instincts, the circum-

of the society

But once he has acted or decided upon in which he has grown up. a course of procedure he is ready with excuses in explanation and In most cases these are not the attempted justification of his motives.
real reasons, for

in fact are

to analyse their motives or without help to understand their own feelings competent

few human beings attempt

and the

real significance of their actions.

There

is

implanted in

man

the instinct to interpret for his own satisfaction his feelings and sensaBut of necessity this is tions, i.e. the meaning of his experience.

mostly of the nature of rationalizing, i.e. providing satisfying interpretations of thoughts and decisions the real meaning of which is hidden.

Now
tion will
1

must be patent that the nature of this process of rationalizadepend largely upon the mental make-up of the individual
it

On

this

subject see

Elliot

Smith and Pear,

"

Shell

Shock and

its

Lessons," Manchester University Press, 1917,

p. 59.

INCENSE
of the

AND

LIBATIONS
which
his

195

body

of

knowledge and

traditions with

mind has beinfluences

come
to

stored in the course of his personal experience.

The

which he has been exposed, daily and hourly, from the time of his birth onward, provide the specific determinants of most of his beliefs
Consciously and unconsciously he imbibes certain definite ideas, not merely of religion, morals, and politics, but of what is the correct and what is the incorrect attitude to assume in most of the

and views.

circumstances of his daily


his beliefs

life.

These form the


Reason plays a

staple currency of
surprisingly small

and

his conversation.

part in this process, for

most human beings acquire from their fellows

the traditions of their society which relieves

them

of the necessity of

undue thought.
of his

The

very words

in

which the accumulated

traditions

community are conveyed

to

each individual are themselves

charged with the complex symbolism that has slowly developed during the ages, and tinges the whole of his thoughts with their subtle and,
to most

men, vaguely appreciated shades

of

meaning.

During

this

process of acquiring the fruits of his community's beliefs and experiences every individual accepts without question a vast number of apparently

to

simple customs and ideas. . He is apt to regard them as obvious, and assume that reason led him to accept them or be guided by them,

although

when

the specific question

is

put to him he
l

is

unable to give

their real history.

Before leaving these general considerations


certain

elementary

facts

of psychology

I want to emphasize which are often ignored by

those

who

investigate the early history of civilization.

First,

the multitude and the complexity of the circumstances that

are necessary to lead

men
all of

to

make even

the simplest invention render

the concatenation of

these conditions wholly independently

on

the highest degree improbable. Until very definite and conclusive evidence is in any individual case forthcoming
occasion in
it

second

can safely be assumed that no ethnological ly in customs or beliefs has ever been made twice.

significant innovation

Those
by

critics

who have
work

recently attempted to dispose of this claim

referring to the

of the

Patent Office thereby display a singular

lack of appreciation of the real point at issue.

For the ethnological

For a fuller discussion of certain phases of this matter see my address on " Primitive Man," in the Proceedings of the British Academy, 1917,
especially pp. 23-50.

13

196
problem
to share
is

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


concerned with different populations

who

are assumed not

any common heritage


resort to the

of acquired knowledge, nor to

have had
in-

any

contact, direct or indirect, the

one with the


all

other.

But the

ventors

who

Patent Office are

of

them persons supcivilization


;

plied with information from the storehouse of our

common

and the inventions which they seek

to protect

from imitation by others

are merely developments of the heritage of all civilized peoples. Even when similar inventions are made apparently independently under

such circumstances, in most cases they can be explained by the fact that two investigators have followed up a line of advance which has

been determined by the development


ledge.

of the

common body
in the

of

know-

This general discussion suggests another factor the human mind.

working of

When
man
to
results

certain vital needs or the force of circumstances

compel a

embark upon a certain train of reasoning or invention the which his investigations lead depend upon a great many circumstances. Obviously the range of his knowledge and experience
to

and the general ideas he has acquired from


large part in shaping his inferences.
It
is

his fellows will

play a

quite certain that even in

the simplest problem of primitive physics or biology his attention will

be directed only

to

some
his

of,

and not

all,

the factors involved, and that

him to form a wholly knowledge inadequate conception even of the few factors that have obtruded But he may frame a working hypothemselves upon his attention. thesis in explanation of the factors he had appreciated, which may
the limitations of
will permit

seem perfectly exhaustive and


him, but to those

final,

as well as logical

and

rational to

who come

after him,

with a wider knowledge of the

and a wholly man's solution different attitude towards such problems, the primitive may seem merely a ludicrous travesty.
properties of matter

and the nature

of living beings,

But once a tentative explanation of one group of phenomena has been made it is the method of science no less than the common
tendency of the

human mind
It is

to buttress this theory with analogies

and

fancied homologies.
into a generalisation.
this

In other

words the

isolated facts are built

up

important to
;

remember

that in most cases

mental process begins very early

so that the analogies play a veiy

obtrusive part in the building

up

of theories.

As

a rule a multitude

INCENSE
Hence

AND
is

LIBATIONS

197

or unconsciously in shaping of such influences play a part consciously

any

belief.

the historian
ascertaining

faced with the difficulty, often

(among scores of factors that dein the building up of a great generalization) finitely played some part the real foundation upon which the vast edifice has been erected. First, refer to these elementary matters here for two reasons. I
of quite insuperable,

and secondly, because they are so often overlooked by ethnologists because in these pages I shall have to discuss a series of historical events in which a bewildering number of factors played their part.
;

In sifting out a certain


I

do not pretend
thought.

to

I want to make it clear that more than a small minority of the have discovered

number

of them,

most conspicuous threads

in the

complex texture

of the fabric of early

human

Another
considerations

fact that
is

emerges from these elementary psychological


In the course of

the vital necessity of guarding against the misunder-

standings necessarily involved in the use of words.

long ages the originally simple connotation of the words used to denote many of our ideas has become enormously enriched with a meaning

which
of

in

some degree

reflects

the chequered history of the expression


writers
for

human aspirations. Many make use of such terms, peoples


and
"

who

in

example, as

"

discussing

ancient

"
soul,"
religion,"

gods," without stripping them of the accretions of complex symbolism that have collected around them within more recent times,

become involved

in difficulty

For example, the use

of the terms

and misunderstanding. " " "


soul

"
soul- substance
in
is

or

much

of the literature relating to early or relatively primitive people

fruitful of

misunderstanding.

For

it

is

quite clear from the context

that in

"
life

"

many
or

cases such people

"
vital

meant to imply nothing more than the absence of which from the body for principle," But
to translate such a

any prolonged period means death.


simply as " "
life
is

word

inadequate because all of these people had some theoretical views as to its identity with the "breath "or to its being in the nature of a material substance or essence. It is naturally impossible to
find

any one word or phrase


for

in

our

own

language to

among varying shades of meaning which cannot adequately express the symbolism distinctive of each place and To meet this insuperable diffisociety. " the term vital essence" is open to least culty perhaps objection.

express the exact idea,

every people there are

198
In

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


my
last

Rylands

lecture

sketched in rough outline a tenta-

tive explanation of
civilization that is

the world-wide dispersal of the elements of the now the heritage of the world at large, and referred

to the part played


arts,

by Ancient Egypt

in the

development
I

of

certain

customs, and beliefs.

On

the present occasion

propose to exgreater detail,

amine certain aspects

of this process of

development

in

and
tice

to study the far-reaching influence exerted


of

by the Egyptian pracit,

mummification, and the ideas that were suggested by

in

starting

new

trains of thought, in stimulating the invention of arts

and

crafts that

body

of customs

were unknown before then, and in shaping the complex and beliefs that were the outcome of these potent

intellectual ferments.

In speaking of the relationship of the practice of mummification to

the development of civilization, however,


the influence
it

have

in

mind not merely

exerted upon the moulding of culture, but also the part played by the trend of philosophy in the world at large in determining the Egyptian's conceptions of the wider significance of embalming, and
the reaction of these effects upon the current doctrines of the meaning of natural phenomena.

No
as the
it

doubt

it

will

be asked

at the outset,

what

possible connexion

can there be between the practice of so fantastic and gruesome an art

embalming

of the

dead and the building up

of civilization ?

Is

conceivable that the course of the development of the arts and


of the essential

crafts,

the customs and beliefs, and the social and political organizations
fact

in

any

elements of civilization
left

has been deflected

a hair's breadth to the right or directly, of such a practice ?


In previous essays
this

as the outcome, directly or in-

'

and

lectures

have indicated

how

intimately

custom was related, not merely to the invention of the arts and crafts of the carpenter and stonemason and all that is implied in the " matrix of civilibuilding up of what Professor Lethaby has called the
zation," but also to the shaping of religious beliefs
1

and

ritual practices,

"

The

Influence of Ancient Egyptian Civilization in the East and in


Jan. -March, 1916.

America," The Bulletin of the John Rylands Library,


2

"
:

and

Press Studies Presented to William Ridgeway, Cambridge, 1913, p. 493 "Oriental Tombs and Temples," Journal of the Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society, 1914-1915, p. 55.
:

The Migrations of Early Culture/* 1915, Manchester University " The Evolution of the Rock cut Tomb and the Dolmen," Essays

INCENSE
which developed
in association

AND

LIBATIONS
have also suggested the

199

with the evolution of the temple and the


I

conception of a material resurrection.


reaching significance of an
fication in

far-

indirect influence of the practice of


It

mummi-

the history of civilization.


1

prompting the earliest great For has been preserved.

was mainly responsible for maritime expeditions of which the history


centuries the quest
of
resins

many

and

for balsams for embalming and temple ritual, motives which induced coffin-making, continued to provide the chief the Egyptians to undertake sea-trafficking in the Mediterranean and
for use in

and wood

Red Sea. mately made it


the

The knowledge and


possible for the
afield.
It is

experience thus acquired


their pupils to

ulti-

Egyptians and

push

their

adventures further

impossible adequately to estimate the

vastness of the influence of such intercourse, not merely in spreading

abroad throughout the world the germs of our


but
also,

common

civilization,

by

bringing into close contact peoples of varied histories


progress.

and

traditions, in stimulating

Even

if

the practice of mummifi-

cation

had exerted no other noteworthy effect in the history of the world, this fact alone would have given it a pre-eminent place. Another aspect of the influence of mummification I have already
discussed,

and do not intend

to consider further in this lecture.


it

refer to the

manifold ways in which

affected the history of medicine

and pharmacy.
turies, to

By

accustoming the Egyptians, through thirty cen-

the idea of cutting the

human

corpse,

it

made

it

possible for

Greek

physicians of the

Ptolemaic and

later ages to initiate in

Alex-

andria the systematic dissection of the

human body which popular

prejudice forbade elsewhere, and especially in Greece itself. Upon this foundation the knowledge of and the science of medicine anatomy

has been built up." But in fication exerted far-reaching

many

other

effects, directly

ways the practice of mummiand indirectly, upon the

development
"

of medical

and pharmaceutical knowledge and methods. 3

Ships as Evidence of the Migrations of Early Culture," Manchester University Press, 1917, p. 37.

Egyptian Mummies," Journal of Egyptian Archceology, Vol I July, 1914, p. 189. Such, for example, as its influence in the acquisition of the means of preserving the tissues of the body, which has played so large a part in the development of the sciences of anatomy, pathology, and in fact biology in The practice of mummification was largely responsible for the general. attainment of a knowledge of the properties of many drugs and especially
Part
III,
*

"

200
There

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

then this prima-facie evidence that the is Egyptian mummification was closely related to the development of But what I am architecture, maritime trafficking, and medicine.
practice of
chiefly

concerned with in the present lecture


it

is

the discussion of the

much
and

vaster part

played

in

shaping the innermost beliefs of mankind

directing the course of the religious aspirations and the scientific opinions, not merely of the Egyptians themselves, but also of the

world
It

at large, for

many

centuries afterward.

had a profound influence upon the history of


ill-defined ideas of physiology

human
1

thought.

The vague and

and psychology, which


in
definite

had probably been developing since Aurignacian times were suddenly crystallized into a coherent structure and

Europe, form

by the musings

new

But at the same time the Egyptian embalmer. found expression in the invention of the first deities, philosophy
of the
all

the establishment of the foundations upon which

religious ritual

was subsequently
minister the rites
tion.

built up,

and the

initiation of

a priesthood to adof

which were suggested by the practice

mummifica-

THE BEGINNING OF STONE- WORKING.


During the
last

few years
I

out the fundamental fallacy underlying


tion in ethnology, here.
2

have repeatedly had occasion to point much of the modern speculaof repeating these strictures

and

have no intention

But

it

is

a significant fact that,

when one

leaves the writings

of professed ethnologists
jects written

and turns

to the histories of their special sub-

by

scholars in kindred fields of investigation, views such

of those

which

acquisition of a influence. The


for so

But it was not merely in the restrain putrefactive changes. knowledge of material facts that mummification exerted its

and medicine, which prevailed which are embalmed for all time in many our common speech, was closely related in its inception to the ideas which
humoral theory
of pathology

centuries and the effects of

shall discuss in these pages.

The

Egyptians themselves did not

profit to

any appreciable extent from the remarkable opportunities which their practice The sanctity of these of embalming provided for studying human anatomy. ritual acts was fatal to the employment of such opportunities to gain knowNor was the attitude of mind of the Egyptians such as to permit ledge. the acquisition of a real appreciation of the structure of the body.
1

See my address, " Primitive Man,'* Proc. Brit. Academy, 191 7. " The Origin of the Pre-Columbian See, however, op. cit. supra ; also Civilization o< America," Science, N.S., Vol. XLV, No. 1158, pp. 241246, 9 March, 1917.
2

INCENSE
as
I

AND

LIBATIONS

201

have been

often setting forth will

be found to be accepted without

the obvious truth. question or comment as " Architecture/* written There is an excellent little book entitled

by Professor
particular

R. Lethaby for the Home University Library, that I refer to this affords an admirable illustration of this interesting fact.

W.

work because

it

gives lucid expression to

some
arts

of the ideas

that

wish to submit

for consideration.

"Two

"

have changed
*

the surface of

the world, Agriculture and Architecture

(p. 1).

To

large degree architecture" [which

civilization "]

"
is

"

an Egyptian art

he defines as "the matrix of " we shall for in Egypt (p. 66)


:

best find the origins of architecture as a

Nevertheless Professor Lethaby

whole" (p. 21). bows the knee to current

tradition

when he makes
ably learnt
its

the wholly unwarranted assumption that

Egypt probremarkable
is

art

from Babylonia.

He

claim in spite of his frank confession that


of a primitive age in

puts forward "


little

this

or nothing

known

Mesopotamia.

At

a remote time the art of

Babylonia was
is

that of a civilized people.

As

has been said, there

a great similarity between this art and that of dynastic times in Yet it appears that Egypt borrowed of Asia, rather than the Egypt.

reverse."

[He

gives

no reasons

for this opinion, for

which there
"

is

If no evidence, except possibly the invention of bricks for building.] the origins of art in Babylonia were as fully known as those in Egypt,

the story of architecture might have to begin in Asia instead of


( P . 67).

"

Egypt

But
facts

later

on he speaks

in a
:

more convincing manner

of the

known

first

says (p. 82) Greece entered on her period of high-strung invention in the arts was over the heroes of Craft,

when he

When

life

the time of

like

Tubal Cain

and Daedalus, necessarily belong to the infancy of culture. The phenomenon of Egypt could not occur again the mission of Greece was rather to settle down to a task of gathering, interpreting, and bringing to perfec;

tion Egypt's gifts.

The
is
if

tight compartments, as

arts of civilization were never developed in watershown by the uniformity of custom over the modern
'

world.
that, like

Further,

Japan,

it

any new nation enters into the circle of culture it seems must borrow the capital '. The art of Greece could

Ideas hardly have been more self-originated than is the science of Japan. of the temple and of the fortified town must have spread from the East, the square-roomed house, columnar orders, fine masonry, were all Egyptian.

Elsewhere

have pointed out that


1

it

was the importance which

Of), tit.

supra.

202
the Egyptian

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


came
to attach to the preservation of the
for the

dead and

to

the making of

adequate provision

deceased's welfare

that

gradually led to the aggrandisement of the tomb. 1 this impelled him to cut into the rock, and, later

In course of time
still,

suggested the

substitution of stone for brick in erecting the chapel of offerings

above

The Egyptian burial customs were thus intimately related to ground. the conceptions that grew up with the invention of embalming. The
evidence in confirmation of
scientiously examines
it

this is so precise that

every one

must be forced

to the conclusion that

who conman did

not instinctively select stone as a suitable material with which to erect temples and houses and forthwith begin to quarry and shape it for

such purposes.

There was an intimate connexion between the


for building
this reason,

first

use of stone
for

and the

practice of mummification.
of

It

and not from any abstract sense


Professor Lethaby claims,
that

"

was probably
at the

wonder

of art," as

"

magic

ideas of sacredness, of

ritual tightness, of

magic

stability

verse,

and

of perfection of

and correspondence with the uni" came to be associform and proportion


for

ated with stone buildings.

At

first

stone

was used only

pharaoh alone was entitled to use it fact that he was divine, the son and incarnation on earth
god.
It

such sacred purposes and the for his palaces in virtue of the
of the

Sun-

to other countries,
rigid

was only when these Egyptian practices were transplanted where these restrictions did not obtain, that the wall of convention was broken down.
in

Even
tic

Rome

until

well into the Christian era


of plastered brick
".

"
'

the largest domes-

and

civil

buildings

were

Wrought masonry
monuments, triumphal
(Lethaby,

seems to have been demanded only arches, theatres, temples and above
op.cit.p. 120). Nevertheless
hieratic tradition

for the great


all for

the Coliseum."

Rome was

mainly responsible for breaking down the which forbade the use of stone for civil purposes.

Roman architecture the engineering element became paramount. was this which broke the moulds of tradition and recast construction " into modern form, and made it free once more 30). (p.
In
It
1

"

For the

earliest

poses, see

my

statement in the Report

evidence of the cutting of stone for architectural purof the British Association for 1914,

P 212.
.

INCENSE
stone for building.

AND

LIBATIONS

203

But Egypt was not only responsible for inaugurating the use of For another forty centuries she continued to be

the inventor of

new

devices in

architecture.

From

time

to

time

which developed in Egypt were adopted by her neighbours and spread far and wide. The shaft- tombs and mast abas of the Egyptian Pyramid Age were adopted in various localities

methods

of building

in the region of the Eastern


in

Mediterranean, with certain modifications

each place, and


in later

in

turn

became the models which were roughly

copied

ages

by

the wandering dolmen-builders.

The round

tombs

of

Crete and Mycenae were clearly only local modifications of

their square prototypes, the

Egyptian Pyramids of the Middle Kingart

dom.
Egypt,
the

'

While

this

/Egean
its

it

passed on
of
in

ideals to the north

gathered from, and perhaps gave to, and west of Europe, where

productions
p.

the

Bronze

Age

clearly

show

its

influence"

(Lethaby,
2

78)
of

the chambered

mounds

of the Iberian peninsula of

and Brittany,
Orkneys.

New

Grange

in

Ireland

and

Maes Howe
/Egean

in the

In the East the influence of

these

modifications

possibly be seen in the Indian stupas and the dagabas of Ceylon, as the stone stepped pyramids there reveal the effects of contact just

may

with the

civilizations of

Babylonia and Egypt.

Professor Lethaby sees the influence of Egypt in the orientation of Christian churches (p. 33), as well as in many of their structural de1

tails (p.

142)

in

the

domed

roofs, the

iconography, the symbolism,


1

and the decoration

Mohammedan
For
it

Byzantine architecture (p. buildings wherever they are found.


architecture

of

38)

and

in

was not only the


its

Christendom that received


also.

of Greece, Rome, and from Egypt, but that of Islam inspiration

These buildings were


in

Arabic

"
origin.

not, like the religion itself, in the


is

main

When
1

the

new

quite negligible. strength of the followers of the Prophet was consoli-

Primitive Arabian art itself

Especially in Crete, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, and the North

African

Littoral.

For an account
historique Celtique et

of the evidence relating to these

bibliographical references, see

Urgeschichte Europas," 1905, pp. 74 and 75; and Louis Siret, " Les Cassiterides et 1'Empire Colonial des Pheniciens," L'Anthropologie, T. 20, 1909, p. 313.
Miiller,

Sophus

"

Manuel d'ArcheoIogie Gallo-Romaine," T. 1, 1912, pp. 39Q et seg. ;


Dechelette,

"

monuments, with

full

prealso

204

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


"

dated with great rapidity into a rich and powerful empire, it took over the arts and artists of the conquered lands, extending from North
Africa to Persia
(p.
1

58)

and

it

is

known*

how

this

influence

spread as far west as Spain

and as

far east as Indonesia.

'The
B.C.,

Pharos

at

Alexandria,

the great lighthouse built about

280

almost appears to have been the parent of all high and isolated towers. Even on the coast of Britain, at Dover, we had a Pharos which . . .

was
of
it

in

some degree an
at

imitation

of the

Alexandrian one."

The

Pharos

Boulogne, the round towers of Ravenna, and the imitations

of

elsewhere in Europe, even as far as Ireland, are other examples "


influence.

its

But

in

addition the Alexandrian Pharos had


it

as

great

an

effect

as the prototype of Eastern minarets as

had

for

Western towers "(p. 115).


I

have quoted so extensively from Professor Lethaby's

brilliant little

book

to give this independent testimony of the vastness of the influence

by Egypt during a span of nearly forty centuries in creating " and developing the Most of this wider matrix of civilization ". dispersal abroad was effected by alien peoples, who transformed their
from Egypt before they handed on the composite product to some more distant peoples. But the fact remains that the great centre of
gifts

exerted

original inspiration in architecture

was Egypt.
Egyptian

The
art

original incentive to the invention of this essentially

the desire to protect and secure the welfare of the dead. The importance attached to this aim was intimately associated with the

was

development

of the practice of mummification.

With
of

this tangible

and

persistent evidence of
I

the general scheme

of spread of the arts of building

can
"

now

turn to the consideration

some

of

the other,

more
also,

vital,

manifestations of

human thought "


itself,

and

aspirations,

which

like the

matrix of civilization

grew up
dead.
I

in intimate association with the practice of

embalming the

have already mentioned Professor Lethaby's reference to architecture and agriculture as the two arts that have changed the surface of
the world.
It is

interesting to note that the influence of these

two

in-

gredients of civilization

was

diffused

intimate association the one with the other.

abroad throughout the world in In most parts of the world


distinctive

the use of stone for building and Egyptian methods of architecture

made

their

first

appearance along with the peculiarly

form

INCENSE
of agriculture

AND

LIBATIONS

205
Babyshaping

and
1

irrigation

so intimately associated with early

lonia

and Egypt. But agriculture also exerted a most profound influence

in

the early Egyptian


I

body

of beliefs.

shall

now

call attention to certain features of

the earliest

mummies,

and then

discuss

how

the ideas suggested

by the

practice of the art of

embalming the dead were affected by the early theories of agriculture and the mutual influence they exerted one upon the other.

THE ORIGIN OF EMBALMING.


have already explained how the increased importance that came to be attached to the corpse as the means of securing a continuI 2

ance of existence led to the aggrandizement of the tomb. Special care was taken to protect the dead and this led to the invention of

making of a definite tomb, the size of which rapidly increased as more and more ample supplies of food and other offerings
coffins,

and

to the

But the very measures thus taken the more efficiently to protect and tend the dead defeated the primary object of all this care. For, when buried in such an elaborate tomb, the body no longer be-

were made.

came

desiccated and preserved


it

by
in

the forces of nature as so often

happened when
dry sand.
It is

was placed

a simple grave directly in the hot


in the

of

fundamental importance
that these factors

argument

set forth

here to

remember

came

into operation before the time of

the First Dynasty.

They were

responsible for impelling the Proto-

Egyptians not only to invent the

wooden

coffin,

the stone sarcophagus,

the rock-cut tomb, and to begin building in stone, but also to devise

measures for the

artificial

preservation of the body.

But

in addition

to stimulating the
art of

architecture

and the

development of the first real mummification other equally far-reaching

results in the region of ideas

and

beliefs

From
two

the outset the Egyptian embalmer


:

grew out of these was clearly

practices.

inspired

by

ideals

(a) to preserve the actual tissues of the

body with a

disturbance of the integrity of the surface of the body ; and At first (b) to preserve a likeness of the deceased as he was in life.
1

minimum

"
Perry,

Irrigation,"
2

Memoirs and P roc. Manch.


supra.

The Geographical

Distribution of Terraced Cultivation and Lit. and Phil. Soc., Vol. 60, 1916.

op. cit.

206
it

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


naturally attempted to

was
it

make

this

if

were

possible, or alternatively,
its

when

simulacrum of the body itself this ideal was found to be


portrait statue.
It

unattainable, from

wrappings or by means of a
that
it

was soon recognized


balmer
to

was beyond

succeed

in

mummifying

the powers of the early emthe body itself so as to retain a


alive
1

recognizable likeness to the

man when

time such attempts were repeatedly made,

although from time to until the period of the

Dynasty, when the operator clearly was convinced that he achieved what his predecessors, for perhaps twenty- five centuries, had been trying in vain to do.

XXI

had

at last

EARLY MUMMIES.
In

the earliest

attempts at
of bandages,

mummification

known (Second Dynasty) examples of Egyptian 2 the corpse was swathed in a large series
into shape to represent the form of

which were moulded

the body.

In a later (probably Fifth

Dynasty)

mummy,

found

in

1 892 Medum, by had been impregnated with a resinous paste, which while still plastic was moulded into the form of the body, special care being bestowed

Professor Flinders Petrie at

the superficial bandages

upon the modelling of the face and the organs of reproduction, so as Professor to leave no room for doubt as to the identity and the sex.
Junker has described
4

an interesting

series

of

variations

of

these

In two graves the bodies were covered with a layer of practices. stucco plaster. First the corpse was covered with a fine linen cloth
:

then the plaster was


(p. 252).
1

put on, and modelled into the form of the


cases
it

But

in

two other
on
"

was not

the

whole body

that

body was

See

my volume
Museum.
Elliot Smith,

"

The Royal Mummies," General

Catalogue of

the Cairo
-

The Earliest Evidence of Attempts at MummificaReport British Association, 1912, p. 612: compare also Egypt," " Burial Customs of Ancient Egypt," London, 1907, pp. 29 and J. Garstang, 30. Professor Garstang did not recognize that mummification had been
G.
tion in

attempted.
3

G.

Elliot

Smith,

"

Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 1910


Journal of Egyptian

History of Mummification in Egypt," Proc^ " also Egyptian Mummies," Part III, July, 1914, Plate Archeology, Vol. I,
:

The

XXXI.
Excavations of the Vienna Imperial Academy of Sciences Pyramids of Gizah, 1914," Journal of Egvptian Archeology\ Vol. 1914, P 250.
.

14

at
I,

the

Oct.

FlG.

3.

A MOULD

TAKEN FROM A LIFE-MASK FOUND BY MR. QUIBELL

IN

THE PYRAMID OF TETA

INCENSE
covered with
claims that this

AND

LIBATIONS

207

this layer of stucco,

was done

"

Professor Junker but only the head. the head was regarded apparently because
as the organs of taste, sight,
smell,

as the most important part,

and

hearing were contained in it ". and more obtrusive reason that the face affords the means of identifying
the

But surely there

was the

additional

modelling of the features was intended of the body which had been primarily as a restoration of the form In other cases, where no attempt altered, if not actually destroyed.
individual
!

For

this

was made

to restore the features in such durable materials as resin or

stucco, the linen-enveloped


of the eyes painted of the face.

upon

it

head was modelled, and a representation so as to enhance the life-like appearance


earliest

These

facts

prove quite conclusively that the

attempts to

reproduce the features of the deceased and so preserve his likeness, Thus the itself. was were made upon the wrapped

mummy

mummy

intended to be the portrait as well as the actual bodily remains of the In view of certain differences of opinion as to the original sigdead.
nificance of the funerary ritual,
later

which

shall

have occasion

to discuss

on (see

p.

0),

it is

A discovery
a

made by Mr.
l

important to keep these facts clearly in mind. J. E. Quibell in the course of his ex-

cavations at Sakkara

suggests that, as an

outcome

of these practices

new procedure may have been


of a death-mask.

making

devised in the Pyramid Age the For he discovered what seems to be the

mask taken

directly from the face of the


this

Pharaoh Teta

(Fig. 3).

time also the practice originated of making a life-size statue of the dead man's head and placing it along with the portrait actual body in the burial chamber. These "reserve heads," as they

About

have been called, were usually made found one made of Nile mud."

of fine limestone, but

Junker

Junker believes that there was an intimate relationship between the plaster- covered heads and the reserve-heads. They were both
expressions of the

same

idea, to preserve a
lost
all

simulacrum of the deceased

when
*

his actual

body had

recognizable likeness to him as he

"

at Saqqara," 1907-8, p. 113. great variety of experiments that were being made at the beginning of the Pyramid Age bears ample testimony to the fact that the o; iginal inventors of these devices were actually at work in Lower Egypt
-

Excavations

The

at that time.

208
was when

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


alive.

The one method aimed


body and the
decayed.
"it
is

at

combining

in the

same

the other at making a more life-like portrait apart from the corpse, which could take the place of object the actual
likeness
;

the latter

when

it

any have no statue- chamber and probably possessed no statues. The statues [of the whole body] certainly were made, at any rate partly, with the intention that they should take the place of the decaying
.

Junker heads
.

states further that


.

no chance that the

substitute-

entirely, or at

rate chiefly, are found in the

tombs that

body,

although later

the idea

was

modified.
of]

The

placing of

the

substitute-head in [the burial

chamber

the mastaba therefore be-

came unnecessary

at the

moment when

the complete figure of the dead


>

now commonly called the serdab above was introduced." The ancient Egyptians themselves called ground] " the serdab fa&pr-twt or statue-house," and the group of chambers, the tomb-chapel in the mastaba, was known to them as the forming
[placed in a special chamber,

important to remember that, even when the custom of making a statue of the deceased became fully established, the original idea of
It is

restoring the form of the


sight of.

mummy

itself

or

its

wrappings was never

lost

Dynasties to
give
it

attempts made in the XVIII, and pack the body of the mummy itself and by a life-like appearance afford evidence of this.

The

XXI

and

XXII
means

artificial

In the

New

Empire and in Roman times the wrapped mummy was sometimes But throughout Egyptian history modelled into the form of a statue.
it

was a not uncommon

practice to provide a painted

mask

for the

wrapped mummy,
deceased.

or in early Christian times merely a portrait of the

custom there also persisted a remembrance Professor Gars tang records the fact that ginal significance.
this
2

With

of its oriin the

XII

Dynasty,

when
statue

mummy, no
1

painted mask was placed upon the wrapped The underor statuette was found in the tomb.

the Serdab, "Journal of Egyptian Archeology, Vol. Ill, Part IV, Oct., 1916, p. 250. The word serdab is merely the Arabic word used by the native workmen, which has been adopted and converted into a technical term by European archaeologists.
2

" Aylward M. Blackman, The A'a-House and

<9/>

cit.

17'

<v

FIG.

4.

PORTRAIT STATUE OF AN EGYPTIAN LADY OF THE PYRAMID AGE

INCENSE

AND

LIBATIONS
l

209

with takers apparently realized that the mummy which was provided the purposes for which statues the life-like mask was therefore fulfilling

were devised.

So

also in the

New

ling of the actual

mummy

so as to restore

Empire the packing and modelits life-like appearance were

for a statue. regarded as obviating the need the further consideration of the I must now return to

Old Kingdom

statues.
desire,

All these varied experiments were inspired by the same But when the to preserve the likeness of the deceased.

sculptors attained their object,


portraits,

which must ever remain marvels of technical

and created those marvellous life-like skill and artistic


minds
of the

the old ideas that surged through the feeling (Fig. 4),

remains Pre-dynastic Egyptians as they contemplated the desiccated


of the

dead were strongly

reinforced.

The

earlier people's thoughts

were turned more specifically than heretofore to the contemplation of the nature of life and death by seeing the bodies of their dead preserved whole and incorruptible
as an
;

and,

if

their actions

can be regarded

expression of their ideas,


in

they began to wonder what


to prevent

was

lacking
feeling

these physically complete bodies


acting like living beings.

them from
results

and

Such must have been the


life

of their puzzled contemplation of the great problems of

and death.

Otherwise the impulse to make more certain the preservation of the body by the invention of mummification and to retain a life-like

by means of a sculptured statue reBut when the corpse had been rendered incorruptible and the deceased's portrait had been fashioned with realistic The perfection the old ideas would recur with renewed strength.
representation of the deceased

mains inexplicable.

then took more definite shape that if the missing elements of vitality could be restored to the statue, it might become animated and
belief

the dead

man would

live

again in his vitalized statue.

This prompted

a more intense and searching investigation of the problems concerning the nature of the elements of vitality of which the corpse was deprived at the time of death. Out of these inquiries in course of time a
2 highly complex system of philosophy developed.
1

It is

perhaps the

a remarkable fact that Professor Garstang, who brought to light best, and certainly the best-preserved, collection of Middle

Kingdom mummies
had
really
"

been embalmed

The

ever discovered, failed to recognize the fact that they (pp. cit. p. 171). reader who wishes for fuller information as to the reality of

these beliefs and

how

seriously they

were held

will find

them

still

in active

210
But

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


in the earlier tinftes

with which

am now

concerned

it

found

practical expression in certain ritual procedures, invented to convey to the statue the breath of life, the vitalising fluids, and the odour and

sweat of the
feeling

living

body.

Apparently the

seat of

knowledge and
left

of

was

retained in the

body when
to

the heart

was

in situ
it

so

that the only thing


sible for the

needed

awaken consciousness and make


heed
of his friends

pos-

dead man

to take

and

to act volun-

tarily

was
at

to present offerings of

functions of the heart.

But the element


1

blood to stimulate the physiological of vitality which left the

body
In

death had to be restored to the statue, which represented the


earlier attempts
~

deceased in the ka -house.

my

to interpret these problems,


portrait

adopted the

view that the making

of

statues

of the practice of mummification.

was the direct outcome But Dr. Alan Gardiner, whose


enables him
to look at

intimate knowledge of the early

literature

such problems from the Egyptian's a modification of this interpretation.

own

point of view, has suggested Instead of regarding the custom

of making statues as an outcome of the practice of mummification, he thinks that the two customs developed simultaneously in response

to the twofold desire to preserve both the actual

body and a repreearliest

sentation

of

the features of the dead.

But

think this suggestion


at-

does not give adequate recognition to the fact that the


tempts
actual
at funerary portraiture

mummies.

This

fact

were made upon the wrappings of the and the evidence which I have already

admirable account of Chinese philosophy wall be operation in China. " found in De Croat's Religious System of China,'* especially Vol. IV, Book II. It represents the fully developed (New Empire) system of Egyptian
influences, as well as

An

ways by Babylonian, Indian and Central Asiatic by accretions developed locally in China. 1 A. M. Blackman, " The A'tf-House and the Serdab," The Journal of Egyptian Archeology, Vol. Ill, Part IV, Oct., 1916, p. 250.
belief modified in various

Migrations of Early Culture," p. 37. " The Tomb of AmenDr. Alan Gardiner (Davies and Gardiner, I think, overlooked certain statements in emhet," 1915, p. 83, footnote) has, my writings and underestimated the antiquity of the embalmer's art for he attributes to me the opinion that "mummification was a custom of rela3
;

"

tively late

growth

".

presence in China of the characteristically Egyptian beliefs concerning the animation of statues (de Groot, op. cit. pp. 339-356), whereas the practice of mummification, though not wholly absent, is not obtrusive, might perhaps be interpreted by some scholars as evidence in favour of the

The

INCENSE AND. LIBATIONS

211

quoted from Junker make it quite clear that from the beginning the embalmer's aim was to preserve the body and to convert trie mummy
itself

into a

simulacrum
skill

of

the deceased.
to

When

he realized that

enable him to accomplish this was not adequate his technical double aim, he fell back upon the device of making a more perfect

and

realistic portrait

statue apart from the

mummy.

But, as

have

already pointed out,

he never completely renounced his ambition of the mummy itself and in the time of the New Empire transforming he actually attained the result which he had kept in view for nearly
;

twenty centuries. In these remarks


statues.

have been referring only to funerary portrait

Centuries before the attempt was made to fashion them modellers had been making of clay and stone representations of cattle and human beings, which have been found not only in Predynastic " " graves in Egypt but also in so-called Upper Palaeolithic deposits
in

Europe.

But the fashioning


for funerary

of realistic

and
art,

life-size

human

portrait- statues

purposes was a

new
in

the

way

have

tried to depict.

No

which gradually developed in doubt the modellers made use

of the skill they

had acquired

the practice of the older art of rough

impressionism.

Once
vided for

the statue
it

serdab

it

was made a stone-house (the serdab) was proabove ground. As the dolmen is a crude copy of the can be claimed as one of the ultimate results of the practice

development of the custom of making statues independently of mummificaBut such an inference is untenable. Not only is it the fact that in most parts of the world the practices of making statues and mummifying the dead are found in association the one with the other, but also in China the essential beliefs concerning the dead are based upon the supposition that the body is fully preserved (see de Groot, It is chap. XV.). quite evident that the Chinese customs have been derived directly or indirectly from some people who mummified their dead as a There can regular practice. be no doubt that the ultimate source of their to do these
tion.

inspiration

was Egypt.
I

things

this quite

depict the souls of the viscera as


(p.

need mention only one of many identical peculiarities that makes De Groot says it is "strange to see Chinese certain. fancy

71).

The same custom


were
first

protective deities
(Reisner).
1

" with animal forms prevailed Egypt, where the "souls "or given animal forms in the Nineteenth Dvnastv
distinct individuals
in
;

Op.

cit.

supra, Ridgeway Essays

also

Man,

1913, p. 193

212

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


It is

of mummification.

clear that the conception of the possibility of

a life beyond the grave assumed a more concrete form when it was realized that the body itself could be rendered incorruptible and its
distinctive traits could

be kept alive by means of a portrait statue. There are reasons for supposing that primitive man did not realize or

1 contemplate the possibility of his own existence coming to an end. Even when he witnessed the death of his fellows he does not appear

to

have appreciated the

fact that

it

was

really the

end

of

life

and not

But if merely a kind of sleep from which the dead might awake. the corpse were destroyed or underwent a process of natural disintegration the fact
If

these considerations,
in

was brought home to him that death had occurred. which early Egyptian literature seems to suggest,

be borne

mind, the view that the preservation of the body from corruption implied a continuation of existence becomes intelligible.

At

first

the subterranean chambers in which

housed were developed into a many-roomed house


complete in every
detail."

the actual body was for the deceased,

But when the statue took over the function

of representing the deceased, a dwelling

ground.

This developed into

was provided the temple where the


offerings of

for

it

above

relatives

and

friends of the

dead came and made the

food which were

regarded as essential for the maintenance of existence.

The
For
at

evolution of the temple

was thus the

direct

outcome

of the

ideas that

grew up in connexion with the preservation of the dead. was nothing more than the dwelling place of the reBut when, for reasons which I shall explain later animated dead.
first it

dead king became deified, his temple of offerings became the building where food and drink were presented to the god,
(see p. 220), the

not merely to maintain his existence, but also to restore his consciousness and so afford an opportunity for his successor, the actual king,
to consult
offerings

him and obtain


ritual

his advice

and help.

The

presentation of
restoring con-

and the

procedures for
at
first

animating and

sciousness to the

dead king were

directed solely to these ends.

But

in course of time, as their original

purpose became obscured, these

services in the
1

temple altered in character, and their meaning became

See Alan H. Gardiner, "Life and Death (Egyptian)," Hastings'


in

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 2 See the quotation from Mr. Quibell's account
Report of the British Association for 1914,
p.

my

statement in the

215.

INCENSE
rationalized into
acts of

AND

LIBATIONS
of prayer

213
and

homage and worship, and

later times, acquired an ethical and moral supplication, and in much absent from the original conception of significance that was wholly

The earliest idea of the temple as a place of the temple services. Even in our times the offertory offering has not been lost sight of.
still

finds a place in

temple

services.

THE
The

SIGNIFICANCE OF LIBATIONS.

central idea of this lecture

was suggested by Mr. Aylward


1

M.
and

Blackman's important discovery of the actual meaning of incense


libations to the

The earliest body of Egyptians themselves. literature preserved from any of the peoples of antiquity is comprised in the texts inscribed in the subterranean chambers of the Sakkara
Pyramids
of the Fifth

forty-five centuries ago,


1

and Sixth Dynasties. were first brought


scholars

to light in

These documents, written modern times in

880-8

and

since the late Sir

translation of them,

many
But

Gaston Maspero published the first have helped in the task of elucidatfor

ing their meaning.

it

remained

Blackman

to discover the ex-

planation they give of the origin

and

significance of the act of pouring


is

out libations.

"

The

general meaning of these passages


is

quite clear.
it

The

corpse of the deceased

dry and
it

shrivelled.

To

revivify

the

vital fluids that

have exuded from


for

[in

the process of mummification]


life

must be restored,
again.

not

till

then will
us,

return

and the heart beat


to

This, so the texts

show

was believed

be accomplished
"
(pp. cit.

by

offering libations to the

accompaniment

of incantations

p. 70).

In the

first

three passages quoted

Texts "the

libations are said to


".

by Blackman from the Pyramid be the actual fluids that have issued
"
a different notion
is

from the corpse


introduced.
his

In the next four quotations

It is

not the deceased's

own

exudations that are to revive


2

shrunken frame but those of a divine body, the [god's


'

fluid]

that

The
.

Significance of Incense

and Libations

Ritual,'* Zeitschrift fiir

Agyptische Sprache
actual

in Funerary and Temple und Altertumskunde, Bd. 50, in hieroglyphics and adds in a footnote :

1912, P 69.
-

the translation
'

Mr. Blackman here quotes the "


"
god's fluid

word

The

Nile was supposed to

and the following explanation be the fluid which issued from

Osiris.

expression in the Pyramid texts

may

refer to this belief


if

the dead

"

The
[in

the

Pyramid

Age

it

would have been more accurate

he had said the dead

214

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

came from the corpse of Osiris himself, the juices that dissolved from his decaying flesh, which are communicated to the dead sacramentwise under the form of these libations."

This dragging-in
of the life-giving

of Osiris is especially significant.

For the analogy


Just as

power

of

water that

is

specially associated with Osiris


ritual of

played a dominant part in suggesting the


water,

libations.
it

when
to

applied to the apparently dead seed, makes


life,

germinate

and come
and, as

so libations can reanimate the corpse.

These general
at the time,
specific

biological theories of the potency of


1

water were current

shall explain later

(seep. 218), had possibly received


l

application to
in the

man

long before the idea of libations developed.


of the cult of Osiris

For,

development

the general fertilizing

power

king, in identified
water.'*
1

whose Pyramid
with
Osiris

the

inscriptions

were found]

"
being usually was Nile

since the water

used

in the libations

The voluminous

in the latest edition of in

literature relating to Osiris will "

"

The Golden Bough


this

by

Sir

be found summarized But James Frazer.

remarkable compilation of evidence it is necessary to call particular attention to the fact that Sir James Frazer' s interpretation is permeated with speculations based upon the modern ethnological dogma of independent evolution of similar customs and beliefs without cultural contact between the different localities where such similarreferring the

reader to

ities

their appearance. complexities of the motives that inspire and direct human activities are entirely fatal to such speculations, as I have attempted to indicate (see

make

The

above, p.

jections to Sir

But apart from this general warning, there are other obIn his illuminating article upon James Frazer's theories. Osiris and Horus, Dr. Alan Gardiner (in a criticism of Sir James Frazer's "The Golden Bough: Adonis, Attis, Osiris; Studies in the History of Oriental Religion," Journal of Egyptian Archeology^ Vol. II, 1915, p. 122) insists upon the crucial fact that Osiris was primarily a king, and " " that it is the role of the living king being invarialways as a dead king," ably played by Horus, his son and heir ". He states further " What Egyptologists wish to know about Osiris beyond anything else is how and by what means he became associated
1

95).

with the processes of vegetable

life ".

An

examination of the literature

relating to Osiris and the large series of homologous deities in other countries (which exhibit prima facie evidence of a common origin) suggests the idea that the king who first introduced the practice of systematic irrigation there-

by

for reasons

laid the foundation of his reputation as a beneficent reformer. When, which I shall discuss later on (see p. 220), the dead king became deified, his fame as the controller of water and the fertilization of the

became apotheosized also. I venture to put forward this suggestion only because none of the alternative hypotheses that have been propounded
earth

INCENSE
of water

AND
soil

LIBATIONS
specific exemplification in

215
the

when

applied to the

found

Malinowski potency of the seminal fluid to fertilize human beings. who are ignorant of the has pointed out that certain Papuan people,
fact that

women

are fertilized

by

sexual connexion, believe that they

can be rendered pregnant by The study of folk-lore and early


in the distant past

rain falling
beliefs

upon them (op. cit. infra). makes it abundantly clear that


no clear
distinction

which

am now
and
the

discussing

was
life

made between
into being

fertilization

vitalization,

between bringing new

and reanimating

The

process of fertilization of

body which had once been alive. the female and animating a corpse or a
to the

statue

were regarded as belonging

same category

of biological for

processes.

The
'

sculptor
'

who

carved

the

portrait- statues

the

Egyptian's tomb was called sankh, "he who causes to live,*' and " the word to]fashion (nts) a statue is to all appearances identical

with ms,

'

'

to give birth

'V

Thus

the Egyptians themselves expressed in

words the ideas which

an independent study

of the ethnological evidence

showed many other


2

peoples to entertain, both in ancient and modern times. The interpretation of ancient texts and the study of the beliefs of
less

cultured

birth," "to give

modern peoples indicate that our expressions "to give life," "to maintain life," "to ward off death," "to
:

insure good luck," "to prolong life," "to give life to the dead," "to " to give fertility," animate a corpse or a representation of the dead," " to impregnate," "to create," represent a series of specializations of meaning which were not clearly differentiated the one from the other
in early times or

among

relatively primitive

modern people.

seem

to
of

be

body

known

It is

offer an adequate explanation of, the concerning Osiris. a remarkable fact that in his lectures on " The Development of

in

acccordance with, or to
facts

Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt," which are based upon his own studies of the Pyramid Texts, and are an invaluable storehouse of information, Professor J. H. Breasted should have accepted Sir James Frazer's views.

These seem

actual Egyptian texts

be altogether at variance with the renderings of the and to confuse the exposition. 1 Dr. Alan Gardener, quoted in my " Migrations of Early Culture," see also the same scholar's remarks in Davies and Gardiner, " The p. 42 Tomb of Amenemhet," 1915, p. 57, and " new Masterpiece of Egyptian Sculpture," The Journal of Egyptian Archceology, Vol. IV, Part I,
to to
:

me

Jan., 1917.
2

" Wilfrid Jackson, Shells as Evidence of the Migrations of Early Culture," 1917, Manchester University Press.

See

J.

216

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


evidence brought together in Jackson's work clearly suggests

The

that at a very early period in

human

history, long before the ideas that

found expression
tion

in the Osiris story

had

materialized,

men

entertained

in all its literal crudity the belief that the external

organ of reproducfrom which the child emerged at birth was the actual creator of
life.

the child, not merely the giver of birth but also the source of

The
objects

widespread tendency
attribute to

of the

human mind

to identify similar

and

them the powers

of the things they

mimic led

primitive

men

to assign to the
It

cowry- shell all


off

these life-giving

and

birth-giving virtues.
birth, to

became an amulet

to give fertility, to assist at

maintain

life,

to

ward

danger, to ensure the life hereafter,

to bring luck of
shell also

came

to

any sort. Now, as the giver of birth, the cowrybe identified with, or regarded as, the mother and
family
;

creator of the

human

and

in course of time, as this belief

became
and
first
it

rationalized, the shell's maternity received visible expression

became
the dead

personified as an actual

woman,

the Great Mother, at

nameless and with ill-defined features.

But

at a later period,

when

king Osiris gradually acquired his attributes of divinity,

and a god emerged with the form of a man, the vagueness of the Great Mother who had been merely the personified cowry-shell soon
disappeared and the amulet assumed, as Hathor, the form of a real woman, or, for reasons to be explained later, a cow.

The
fertility

influence of

these developments reacted


;

conception of the water-controlling god, Osiris

upon the nascent and his powers of

were enlarged

to include

many

of the life-giving attributes of

Hathor

EARLY BIOLOGICAL THEORIES.


Before the
it is

full significance of

these procedures can be appreciated

and

to try to get at the back of the Proto- Egyptian's mind I understand his general trend of thought. specially want to make it clear that the ritual use of water for animating the corpse
essential

to

or the statue
of biology

was merely a

specific application of the general principles

which were then

current.

It

was no mere
It

childish

makewhich
;

believe or priestly subterfuge to regard the pouring out of water as a

means
and

of animating

a block of stone.

was a

conviction for

the Proto- Egyptians considered there


their faith in the efficacy of

was a

substantial scientific basis


is

water to animate the dead

to

be

INCENSE

AND

LIBATIONS

217

which is made regarded in the same light as any scientific inference a specific application of some general theory at the present time to give The Proto- Egyptians clearly beconsidered to be well founded.
lieved in the validity of the general biological theory of the life-giving Many facts, no doubt quite convincing to them, properties of water.
testified to the

soundness of their theory.

They

accepted the principle

with the same confidence that modern people have adopted Newton's Law of Gravitation, and Darwin's theory of the Origin of
Species,
certain

and applied it to explain many phenomena or to justify procedures, which in the light of fuller knowledge seem to
ludicrous.

modern people puerile and

But the early people obviously


their actions as rational.

took these procedures seriously

and regarded
theory

The

fact that their early biological

was inadequate ought not


to fall into the error

to mislead

modern

scholars

and encourage them

of supposing that the ritual of libations

inference.

was not based upon a serious do not accept the whole of Darwin's " Law," but this does not mean teaching, or possibly even Newton's that in the past innumerable inferences have been honestly and con-

Modern

scientists

fidently
It

made

in specific application of these general principles.

should examine more closely the Proto- Egyptian body of doctrine to elucidate the mutual influence of
is

important, then,

that

it

and the ideas suggested by the practice of mummification. It is not known where agriculture was first practised or the circumstances
which led men
In
to appreciate the fact that plants

could be cultivated.

many

parts of the

world agriculture can be carried on without

artificial irrigation,

part of

and even without any adequate appreciation on the But when it came to the farmer of the importance of water.
in

be practised under such conditions as prevail


essential for the
artificial

Egypt and Mesopo-

tamia the cultivator would soon be forced to realize that water

was

growth means by which the

of plants,
soil

and

that

it

was imperative
It is

to devise

might be
fact

irrigated.

not

known

where

or

by whom

this cardinal

first

came

to

be appreciated,

whether by the Sumerians or the Egyptians or by any other people. But it is known that in the earliest records both of Egypt and Sumer the most significant manifestations of a ruler's wisdom were the making
of irrigation canals
facts are

and the controlling

of water.

Important as these

from

their bearing

they had an

infinitely

upon the material prospects of the people, more profound and far-reaching effect upon the

218
beliefs of

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


mankind.

Groping

after

some explanation
fertile

of the natural

phenomenon
to
it,

that the earth

became

when water was

applied

and that seed burst

into life

under the same influence, the early

formulated the natural and not wholly illogical idea that water was the repository of life-giving powers. Water was equally
biologist

necessary for the production of

life

and

for the

maintenance of

life.

At an
man and
in animals.

early stage in the development of this biological

other

animals

were brought within

the

scope

of

theory the

generalization.

For the drinking of water was a condition of existence The idea that water played a part in reproduction was
fact.

co-related with this

Even

at

the present time

many

aboriginal peoples in Australia,

Guinea, and elsewhere, are not aware of the fact that in the process of animal reproduction the male exercises the physiological
role of fertilization.
1

New

There are widespread

indications throughout the world that the

appreciation of this elementary physiological


at a relatively recent period in the history of

knowledge was acquired


mankind.
It is difficult

to believe that the fundamental facts of the physiology of fertilization

animals could long have remained unknown when men became The Egyptian hieroglyphs leave no doubt that breeders of cattle.
in

the knowledge

was

fully appreciated at the period

when
"
is

the earliest

picture- symbols were devised, for the verb by the male organs of generation. But,

"

to beget

represented

as

the

domestication of
it is

animals

may have been

earlier

than the invention of agriculture,

quite likely that the appreciation of the fertilizing powers of the

male

animal

may have been, and probably was,

definitely

more ancient

than the earliest biological theory of the fertilizing power of water. I have discussed this question to suggest that this earlier knowledge
that

animals

could

be

fertilized

by the seminal
properties.

fluid

was

certainly brought within the scope of the wider generalisation that

water

itself

was endowed with

fertilizing

Just as water

fertilized the earth so the


1

semen

fertilized the female.

Water was

Australia

Baldwin Spencer and Gillen, "


;

"Across Australia"

Northern Territory of Australia


:

".

"The Northern Tribes of Central and Spencer's " Native Tribes of the For a very important study of the

whole problem with special reference to New Guinea, see B. Malinowski, " Baloma the Spirits of the Dead," etc., Journal of the Roval Anthropological Institute, 1916, p. 415.

INCENSE

AND

LIBATIONS

219

necessary for the maintenance of life in plants and was also essential As both the earth and women in the form of drink for animals.

could be
other.
1

fertilized

The

earth

came

by water they were homologized one with the to be regarded as a woman, the Great

Mother.

When

the fertilizing water


Isis

came

to

be

personified in the

person of Osiris his consort

was

identified with

the earth which

was

fertilized

by water.

an Egyptian king represents him 3 This using the hoe to inaugurate the making of an irrigation-canal. was the typical act of benevolence on the part of a wise ruler. It is

One

of the earliest pictures of

not unlikely that the earliest organization of a community under a definite leader may have been due to the need for some systematized
control of irrigation.
In

any case the

earliest rulers of

Egypt and

Sumer were

essentially the controllers and regulators of the water


fertility

supply and as such the givers of

and

prosperity.

Once men

first

not the end of all


1

consciously formulated the belief that death was 4 things, that the body could be re-animated and
space and time as Ancient Egypt and

In places as far apart in

Modern
fer-

America.
2

With

reference to the assimilation of the conceptions of

human

tilization

of

and watering the soil and the widespread idea among the ancients " he who irrigates," Canon van Hoonacker gave regarding the male as
:

Louis Siret the following note " In Assyrian the cuneiform sign for water is also used, inter alia, to express the idea of begetting (banfi). Compare with this the references In Isaiah xlviii. 1 we read Hear ye from Hebrew and Arabic writings. house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are this, and in Numbers xxiv. 7, Water come forth out of the waters of Judah shall flow from his buckets and his seed shall be in many waters '. " The Hebrew verb (shangat) which denotes sexual intercourse has, in Arabic (sadjald), the meaning to spill water '. In the Koran, Sur. 36, " v. 6, the word maun (water) is used to (L. Siret, designate semen
' ,

M.

'

Questions de Chronologic et d' Ethnographic Iberiques," Tome I, 1913, p. 250). " 'Quibell, Hieraconpolis, Vol, I, 260, 4. 4 In using this phrase I want to make a clear distinction between the phase of culture in which it had never occurred to man that, in his individual case, life would come to an end, and the more enlightened stage, in which he fully realized that death would inevitably be his fate, but that
in spite of
It is
it

"

his real existence

would

continue.

the fact that he could

man appreciated an animal or his fellow-man. But for a long time he failed to realize that he himself, if he could avoid the process of meclear that at quite an early stage in his history
kill

220

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


it

consciousness and the will restored,

was

natural that a wise ruler

who, when

alive,

continue to be consulted.
;

had rendered conspicuous services should after death The fame of such a man would grow with
;

his good deeds and his powers would become apotheosized age he would become an oracle whose advice might be sought and whose

be

help be obtained in grave "


deified," or at

crises.

In other

words the dead king would


alive.

any

rate credited with the ability to confer even

greater boons than he


It
is

was

able to

do when
first

no mere coincidence that the

"

"

god

should have been

was

a dead king, Osiris, nor that he controlled the waters of irrigation and Nor, for the reasons that I specially interested in agriculture.
phallic
of fer-

have already suggested, is it surprising that he should have had attributes, and in himself have personified the virile powers
1

tilization.

In attempting to explain the origin of

the ritual procedures of

burning incense and offering libations it is essential to realize that the creation of the first deities was not primarily an expression of religious
belief,

but rather an application of science to national

affairs.

It

was

the logical interpretation of the dominant scientific theory of the time


tor the practical benefit of the living
;

or in other words, the

means

devised for securing the advice and the active help of wise rulers after their death. It was essentially a matter of practical politics and applied science.
It

became

religion

only

when

the

advancement

of

knowledge superseded these primitive


as soothing traditions for the thoughts
cultivate.

scientific

theories

and

left

them

and

aspirations of

mankind to

For by the time the adequacy of these theories of knowledge began to be questioned they had made an insistent appeal, and had come to be regarded as an essential prop to lend support to

web of man's conviction of the reality of a life beyond the grave. moral precept and the allurement of hcpe had been so woven around
them
that

no force was able to

strip

away

this

body

of consolatory

chanical destruction
in existence so

not continue to exist.

by which he could kill an animal or a fellow-man, would The dead are supposed by many people to be still Once the body begins to as the body is preserved. long

disintegrate even the most unimaginative of men can entirely repress the idea of death. But to primitive people the preservation of the body is a token that existence has not come to an end. The corpse is equally

merely sleeping.
1

Breasted, op.

cit.

p. 28.

INCENSE
beliefs
;

AND

LIBATIONS

221

and they have persisted for all time, although the reasoning by which they were originally built up has been demolished and forgotten
several millennia ago.
It is

not

known where

Osiris

was

born.

In other countries there

are homologous deities, such as Ea,

Tammuz, Adonis, and

Attis,

which are certainly manifestations of the same idea and sprung from the same source. Certain recent writers assume that the germ of the But if so, Osiris-conception was introduced into Egypt from abroad.
nothing
is

known

for certain of its place of origin.

In

any case there

can be no doubt that the distinctive features of Osiris, his real personality

and character, were developed in Egypt. For reasons which I have suggested already
water
in cultivation

it is

probable that the

significance of

was not

realized until cereals

were

cultivated in

some such place as Babylonia or Egypt.


Babylonian Ea coming
is
1

But there are


from abroad by

very definite legends of the

way of the Persian Gulf. The early history of Tammuz


in

veiled in obscurity.

Somewhere
some
scientific

South Western Asia or North Eastern Africa, probably within a


of the

few years
theorist,

development of the

art of agriculture,

interpreting the

body

of empirical

knowledge acquired by

cultivating cereals,
life-giving

was the great propounded This view eventually found expression in the element.
the view that water
specific application in the invention of libations

Osiris-group of legends.

This theory found

and

upon the general body of doctrine and gave it a more sharply defined form. The dead king also became more real when he was represented by an actual embalmed body and a life-like statue, sitting in state upon his throne and
holding in his hands the emblems of his high office. Thus while, in the present state of knowledge,
justifiable to claim that the Osiris- group of deities
it would be unwas invented in

incense.

These

practices in turn reacted

Egypt, and certainly erroneous to attribute the general theory of the fertilizing properties of water to the practice of embalming, it is true
that the latter
1

was

responsible for giving Osiris a

much more

concrete

even the probability, must be borne in mind that arising from the waters may be merely another way of expressing his primary attribute as the personification of the fertilizing powers of water.
possibility, or

The

the legend of

Ea

222

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


"

and clearly-defined shape, of making a god in the image of man/' and for giving to the water-theory a much richer and fuller significance
than
it

had

before.

symbolism so created has had a most profound influence upon the thoughts and aspirations of the human race. For Osiris

The

was

the prototype of
;

all

the gods
priests

his ritual

was

the basis of

all

religious ceremonial

his

who

conducted the animating cere-

monies were the pioneers of a long series of ministers who for more than fifty centuries, in spite of the endless variety of details of their
ritual

and the character

of their temples,

have continued to perform

ceremonies that have undergone remarkably

little essential change. the chief functions of the priest as the animator of the god Though and the restorer of his consciousness have now fallen into the back-

ground

in

most

religions, the ritual acts (the incense

and

libations, the

offerings of food

and blood and the

rest) still persist in

many

countries

the priest still appeals by prayer and supplication for those benefits, which the Proto- Egyptian aimed at securing when he created Osiris
as a god to give advice and help.

The
"

prayer for rain

is

the earliest

form of

religious appeal.

In using the terms


earliest

"god" and
of confusion
is

religion" with reference to the

form of Osiris and the beliefs that grew up with reference to


introduced.

him a potent element

During the last fifty centuries the meanings of those two words have become so complexly enriched with the glamour of a mystic symbolism that the Proto- Egyptian's conception of Osiris and the
Osirian beliefs must have been vastly different from those implied
in the
Osiris words "god" and "religion" at the present time. was regarded as an actual king who had died and been reanimated.

could bestow upon his former subjects the benefits of his advice and help, but also could display such human weaknesses as malice, envy, and all uncharitableness.
In other

words he was a

man who

Much modern

discussion completely misses the

to recognize that these so-called

capable of acts of

mark by the failure were really men, equally "gods" beneficence and of outbursts of hatred, and as one

became accentuated the same deity could become a Vedic deva or an Avestan dceva, a dens or a devil, a god of kindor the other aspect
ness or a

demon
acts

of wickedness.
earliest

The

which the

"

"

gods

were supposed

to perform

INCENSE
were not
at
first

AND

LIBATIONS

223

They were merely the regarded as supernatural. was supposed to be able to confer, by boons which the mortal ruler and rendering the land fertile. It controlling the waters of irrigation
was only when
his

powers became apotheosized with a halo

of

accum-

ulated glory (and the growth of knowledge revealed

the insecurity

of the scientific basis upon which his fame was built up) that a priesthood, reluctant to abandon any of the attributes which had captured the popular imagination, made it an obligation of belief to accept these

supernatural powers of the gods for which the student of natural phenomena refused any longer to be a sponsor. This was the parting of

the
of

ways between science and religion and thenceforth the attributes " " the gods became definitely and admittedly superhuman.
;

As

have already stated

(p.

2 3) the
1

original object of the offering

of libations

was

thus clearly for the purpose of animating the statue of

the deceased and so enabling

him

to continue the existence

which had

merely been interrupted by

the incident of death.

In course of time,

however, as definite gods gradually materialized and came to be rethey also had to be vitalized by offerings of Thus the pouring out of libations came to be an act of worship of the deity and in this form it has persisted until our own times in many civilized countries.
presented

by

statues,

water from time to time.

But not only was water regarded as a means of animating the dead or statues representing the dead and an appropriate act of worship, in
that

an idol and the god dwelling in it was thus able to Water also became an essential part hear and answer supplications.
it

vitalized

of

any

act of ritual rebirth.


life.

giving of

The

initiate

a baptism it also symbolized the was re-born into a new communion of faith.

As

In scores of other
of

ways

the

same conception

of the life-giving properties

water was responsible for as

many

applications of the use of liba-

tions in inaugurating

new
It is

enterprises, such as

"
christening

"

ships

and

blessing buildings.

important to

remember

that according to early

Egyptian

beliefs the continued existence of the

dead was wholly de-

Unless this animating pendent upon the attentions of the living. was performed not merely at the time of the funeral but also ceremony
at stated periods afterwards,
1

and unless the

friends of the deceased

This occurred

at

a later epoch

when

the attributes of the water-conof the birth-giving

trolling deity of fertility

became confused with those


p.

mother goddess (vide injra,

230).

224

THE JOHN RYLANDS. LIBRARY


and
drink, such a. continuation of existence

periodically supplied food

was

impossible.

But the development


other directions.
ultimately
into

had far-reaching effects in The idea that a stone statue could be animated
of these beliefs
to

became extended
in

mean

that the

dead man could enter


and wide, that and that
;

and dwell

a block of stone, which he could leave or return


this arose the beliefs,

to at will.

From

which spread

far

the dead, ancestors, kings, or deified kings, dwelt in stones

they could be consulted as oracles, who gave advice and counsel. But as any mortal at his death could thus enter into a stone, another crop of legends concerning the petrification of

men and

animals also

In other words the acts of dying and then entering into developed. the stone were merged into one simultaneous process and the living man or creature at once became transformed into stone.
;

crop of myths concerning men and animals dwelling in stones, as well as the petrifaction stories, which are to be found

All

this rich

encircling the globe from Ireland to

these early Egyptian attempts to solve the mysteries of death,

America, can be referred back to and to


1

acquire the

means

of circumventing fate.

These
But

beliefs at first

may have concerned human


of revictualling

beings only.

in course of time, as the

number

of

duty tombs and temples tended

an increasingly large
models,

to tax the resources of the


for the real things

people the practice developed of substituting


the dead.
reality

or even pictures, of food-animals, vegetables, and other requisites of

And

these objects
of a ritual

and

pictures

were restored

to life or

by means

which was

essentially identical with that


2

used for animating the statue or the mummy of the deceased himself. It is well worth considering whether this may not be one of the
basal factors in

explanation

of the

phenomena which the

late Sir

Edward Tylor
So
all,

labelled "animism".
if

from being a phase of culture through which many, peoples have passed in the course of their evolution, may
far
stories see

not

it

not

of

instructive, as revealing the intimate connexion of such ideas with the beliefs regarding the preservation of the body,

For a large series of these Perseus". But even more


J. J.

E. Sidney Hartland's

"

Legend

see
:II,

M. de

Groot,

"

The

Religious System of China," Vol. IV,


cit.

Book

1901.
2

In this

connexion see de Groot, op.

pp.

356 and 415

INCENSE
.

AND

LIBATIONS

225

have been merely an


given
so definite a
just hinted,

artificial

form

in

conception of certain things, which was Egypt, for the specific reasons at which I

have

Against this talk in an animistic fashion.

and from there spread far and wide ? view may be urged the fact that our

own
is

children

But

is

not this due in some measure to

the unconscious influence of their elders ?

Or

at

most

it

not a

volved in

anthropomorphism necessarily inwhich is vastly different from what spoken languages, " animism" ? the ethnologist understands by whether this be so or not there can be no doubt that the But " " of the early Egyptians assumed its precise and clear-cut animism
ill-defined
all

vague and

attitude of

distinctive features as the result of the

growth

of ideas suggested

the attempts to
offerings of food

make mummies and


and other funerary

statues of the
requisites.

by dead and symbolic

Thus incidentally there grew up a belief in a power of magic by means of which these make-believe offerings could be transformed into
realities.

But

it is

important to emphasize the fact that originally the

conviction of the genuineness of this transubstantiation was a logical and not unnatural inference based upon the attempt to interpret
natural phenomena,

and then

to

influence
1

them by

imitating

what

were regarded as the determining factors. In China these ideas still retain much

of their primitive influence

belief in Referring to the Chinese " the identity of pictures or images with the beings they represent de " " *' Groot states that the kw an shuh or is a main branch magic art

and

directness of expression.

"

of Chinese witchcraft ".


soul,
life,

It

consists essentially of

"

the infusion of a

and
in

activity into likenesses of beings, to thus render

them

fit

to

work

some

direction desired

this infusion

is

effected
:

by

blowing or breathing, or spurting water over the likeness indeed breath or kki, or water from the mouth imbued with breath, is
identical with
1

yang

substance or
in

life."

were inade" *' continued to make quate to attain the desired end while the magician the pretence that he could attain that end by ultra-physical means.
the fact that the measures taken
;

" became " magical growth of knowledge revealed


It

our

sense

of

the

term only when the

De

Groot, op.

cit. p.

356.

226

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


INCENSE.

So
But

far

have referred

in detail only to the offering of libations.

this

was only one

of several procedures for animating statues,

mummies, and food- offerings. I have still to consider the ritual pro" cedures of incense-burning and opening the mouth ". From Mr. Blackman's translations of the Egyptian texts it is clear
that the burning of incense

was intended

to restore to the statue (or

mummy) body and that this was part of the procedure considered necessary to animate the statue. He says " the belief about incense [which is explained by a later document, the Ritual of Amon] apparently does not occur in the Old Kingthe

the odour of the living

dom

religious texts that are preserved to us, yet

it

may

quite well

be

as ancient as that period.


p. 75).

That

is

certainly Erman's view

"

(pp. cit.

He

gives the following translation of the relevant passage in the

Ritual of Amon

(XII, 11): "The god comes with body adorned which he has fumigated with the eye of his body, the incense of the god which has issued from his flesh, the sweat of the god which has

fallen to the ground,

which he has given


the people
72).
In

to all the gods.


flesh lives,

...

It is

the

Horus

eye.

If it lives,

vigorous" (pp.

cit. p.

live, thy thy members are his comments upon this passage Mr.

Blackman

states

"
:

In the light of the

Pyramid

libation-formulae the

expressions in this text are quite comprehensible.

Like the libations


1

the grains of incense are the exudations of a divinity,

'the fluid

which issued from


. .
.

sweat descending to the ground. 'odour of the god,' but the " " Both (pp. at. p. 72). grains of resin are said to be the god's sweat
his flesh/ the god's
is

Here

incense

not merely the

rites,

the pouring of libations and the burning of incense, are performed to revivify the body [or the statue] of god for the same purpose

and man by
1

restoring to

it its

lost

moisture"

(p. 75).

In attempting to reconstitute the circumstances

which led

to the

As

incense-tree

shall explain later (see page 228), the idea of the divinity of the was a result of, and not the reason for, the practice of incense-

As one of the means by which the resurrection was attained burning. incense became a giver of divinity ; and by a simple process of rationalization the tree which produced this divine substance became a god. The reference to the " eye of the body," I shall discuss later (see
p. 242).

INCENSE
to
of

AND

LIBATIONS

227

invention of incense-burning as a ritual act, the nature of the problem

be solved must be recalled.

Among

the most obtrusive evidences

death were the coldness of the

skin, the lack of perspiration

and

of

It is important to realize what the phrase the odour of the living. " " would convey to the Proto- Egyptian. From odour of the living

the earliest Predynastic times in Egypt make extensive use of resinous material

it

had been the custom


an
essential

to

as

ingredient
of

(what a pharmacist would


cosmetics.

call

the adhesive

"vehicle")

their

One
1

of the results of this practice in a hot climate of a strong

must

have been the association


living person.

aroma

of resin or

balsam with a

Whether

or not
is

it

was

the practice to burn incense

to give pleasure to the living

not known.

The

fact

that such a

procedure was customary among their successors may mean that it was really archaic, or on the other hand the possibility must not be
overlooked that
it

may be merely

the later vulgarization of a practice

which

originally

was devised

for purely ritual purposes.

The

burning
it

of incense before a corpse or statue

was intended
life.

to

convey

to

the

warmth, the sweat, and the odour

of

When
cense

was

established that the burning of inas an animating force and especially a giver of life to potent

the belief

became well
to

the dead

it

naturally
it

came

be regarded as a divine substance

in the

As the grains of incense consisted of the exudation of trees, or, as the ancient texts express it, " their sweat," the divine power of animation in course of time became
sense that

had the power

of resurrection.

transferred to the trees. They were no longer merely the source of the life-giving incense but were themselves animated by the deity whose drops of sweat were the means of conveying life to the mummy.

The

reason

why

the deity which dwelt in these trees

was

usually

identified

with the Mother- Goddess will become clear in the course of

the subsequent discussion (p. It is 228). probable that this was due to the geographical circumstance that the chief source of mainly incense

was Southern Arabia, which was


goddesses of fertility.
personifications of the life-giving

also

the

home

of

the primitive

originally nothing more than amulets from the Red Sea. cowry Thus Robertson Smith's statement that " the value of the gum of the acacia as an amulet is connected with the idea that it is a clot of
1

For they were

It

scents

would lead me too and unguents, which

far afield to enter into a discussion of the use of is closely related to this question.

15

228

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


i.e.,

menstruous blood,
inversion of cause
that conferred

that the tree


effect.
It

is

woman
The

"

is

probably an
to the

and

was the value attached


tree.

gum
is

animation upon the

rest of

the legend

merely a rationalization based upon the idea that the tree was identiThe same criticism applies to his further fied with the mother-goddess.
contention (p. 427) with reference to

"

the religious value of incense"

which he claims
s

to

be due

to
it

the fact that

"

like the

gum

of the

amora
it is

(acacia) tree,

...

was an animate

or divine plant ".

but

the development of tree-worship, the origin of the sacredness of trees must be assigned probable to the fact that it was acquired from the incense and the aromatic

Many

factors played a part in

woods which were

credited with the

power

of animating

the dead.

But at a very early epoch

many
"

other considerations helped to confirm

and extend the conception


life of

of deification.

When

Osiris

was

buried, a

sacred sycamore grew up as


Osiris "."

with life-giving

the visible symbol of the imperishable But the sap of trees was brought into relationship water and thus constituted another link with Osiris.

sap was also regarded as the blood of trees and the incense that exuded as the sweat. Just as the water of libation was regarded as
the fluid of the body of Osiris, so also,
tion, the incense

The

by

this process of rationaliza-

came

to possess a similar significance.

For reasons precisely analogous to those already explained in the case of libations, the custom of burning incense, from being originally a
ritual act for

animating the funerary statue, ultimately developed into an act of homage to the deity.

But

it

also acquired
3

gods developed, be regarded as the vehicle which wafted the deceased's soul to the
4

a special significance when the cult of skyfor the smoke of the burning incense then came to

sky or conveyed there the requests of the dwellers upon earth. "The soul of a human being is generally conceived [by the
Breasted, p. 28. Religion of the Semites," p. 133. For reasons explained on a subsequent page (246). 4 It is also worth considering whether the extension of this idea may as a not have been responsible for originating the practice of cremation device for transferring not merely the animating incense and the supplications of the living but also the body of the deceased to the sky- world.
y
1

"

The

This, of course, did not happen in Egypt, but in some other country which adopted the Egyptian practice of incense- burning, but was not hampered by the religious conservatism that guarded the sacredness of the corpse.

INCENSE

AND
;

LIBATIONS

229

Chinese] as possessing the shape and characteristics of a human being, ... the spirit of an animal is the and occasionally those of an animal

animal or of some being with human attributes and speech. shape But plant spirits are never conceived as plant-shaped,, nor to have plantwhenever forms are given them, they are mostly characters
of this
. .
.

represented as a man, a

woman,

or a child,

and often

also. as
it

an animal,
to

dwelling in or near the plant, and emerging from

at times

do

harm, or to dispense blessings. ... Whether conceptions on the animation of plants have never developed in Chinese thought and worship
before ideas about

human

ghosts

had become predominant

in

mind and custom, we cannot say

"

but the matter seems probable (De Groot, op. cit. pp. 272, 273). Tales of trees that shed blood and that cry out when hurt are common in Chinese literature (p. 274)
:

also of trees that lodge or can change Southern Arabia] into maidens of transcendant beauty (p. 276).
[as also in
;

It is

further significant that


their residence in

amongst the

stories of souls of

taking

" a fox, a dog, an old being is usually a woman, accompanied by " raven or the like (p. 276). Thus in China are found all the elements out of which Dr. Rendel

up

and animating

trees

and

plants, the

men human

Harris believes the Aphrodite cult was compounded in Cyprus, the animation of the anthropoid plant, its human cry, its association with
a beautiful maiden and a dog.
2

The immemorial custom of planting trees on graves in China is " the desire to strengthen supposed by De Groot (p. 277) to be due to
body from corruption, for which reason trees such as pines and cypresses, deemed to be bearers of great vitality for being possessed of more shen than other But may not such trees, were used preferably for such purposes".
the soul of the buried person, thus to save his
beliefs also

grave is ceased ?

be an expression of the idea that a tree growing upon a developed from and becomes the personification of the de-

The

significance of the selection of pines

be compared

in Babyand Phoenicia, and the myrrh- and frankincense- prolonia, Egypt, ducing trees in Arabia and East Africa. They have come to be
1

to that associated with the so-called

"

and cypresses may


"
cedars

"

The Ascent

of

Olympus," 191

7.

collection of stories relating to human beings, generally " dwelling in trees, see Hartland's Legend of Perseus ".

For a

women,

230

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


"
soul- substance,"

accredited with

since their use in mummification,

and

as incense

and

for

making

coffins,

has

made them

the means for

attaining a future existence.

Hence in

course of time they

came
"

to

be

regarded as charged with the spirit of vitality, the


substance
In
".

shen or

soul-

China

also

it

was because

the

woods

of the pine or

fir

and the

Cyprus were used for making coffins and grave- vaults and that pinewas regarded as a means of attaining immortality (De Groot, op. cit. pp. 296 and 297) that such veneration was bestowed upon these " At an early date, Taoist seekers after immortality transplanted trees. 1 that animation [of the hardy long-lived fir and cypress ] into themresin

selves

by consuming the

resin of those trees, which, apparently, they

looked upon
in

men and animals (p. 296). Thus in the Far East there
all of

as coagulated soul -substance, the counterpart of the blood "

are found

iij

intimate association the

one with the other

the bizarre assortment of beliefs out of which

the Cypriote Aphrodite is supposed by Dr. Rendel Harris to have been compounded, as well as those which the ritual of incense and
libations

was

responsible for originating in


in these

Egypt

Elsewhere

Mother
which

"

Goddess

"

pages

it

is

explained
distinctly

how

the vaguely defined

and the more

anthropoid

Water

"

God,"

originally developed quite independently the one of the other, ultimately came to exert a profound and mutual influence, so that many

of the attributes

which

originally

belonged to one of them came to be

shared with the other.

Many

factors played a part in this process of

blending and confusion of sex.

As

shall explain later,

when

the

be regarded as the dwelling or the impersonation of Hathor, the supposed influence of the moon over water led to a further assimilation of her attributes with those of Osiris as the controller
to
of water,

moon came

which received
link that
is

definite expression in a lunar

form of Osiris.
this

But the
address
is

most intimately related to the subject of

incense- trees.
1

provided by the personification of the Mother-Goddess in For incense thus became the sweat or the tears of the
that the

The

fact

fir

" " and cypress are hardy and long-lived

is

not the reason for their being accredited with these life-prolonging qualities. But once the latter virtues had become attributed to them the fact that the " " trees were hardy and long-lived may have been used to bolster up the belief by a process of rationalization.

INCENSE
Great Mother
of Osiris.
just as the

AND

LIBATIONS

231
fluid

water of libation was regarded as the

THE BREATH OF
Although the pouring
of

LIFE.

libations

and the burning

of

incense

played so prominent a part in the ritual of animating the statue or the " mummy, the most important incident in the ceremony was the opening of the

mouth/* which was regarded as giving it the breath of life. l Elsewhere I have suggested that the conception of the heart and
life,

blood as the vehicles of

feeling, volition,

and knowledge may have


or under

been

extremely ancient.

It is

not

known when
"
life*'

what circumentertained.

stances the idea of the breath being the

was

first

The

fact that in certain primitive

systems of philosophy the breath

was

beliefs

supposed to have something to do with the heart suggests that these may be a constituent element of the ancient heart-theory. In
of the rock- pictures in

some

air-passages are represented leading to the heart.


little

America, Australia, and elsewhere the But there can be

to the ideas regarding the

doubt that the practice of mummification gave greater definiteness " " " and heart breath," which eventually

led to a differentiation

between

their

2 supposed functions.

As

the

body they " life'*. The breath was clearly could no longer be regarded as the " element" the lack of which rendered the body inanimate. the It was therefore regarded as necessary to set the heart working. The
heart then
that feels

heart and the blood

were obviously present

in

the dead

came

to

be looked upon

as the seat of knowledge, the organ

and

wills during
to

the

body seem

as expressions of

waking life. All the pulsating motions of have been regarded, like the act of respiration, " the vital principle or life," which many ethnological
"
soul substance".

writers refer to as
joints

The neighbourhood

of certain

head,

where the pulse can be felt most readily, and the top of the where pulsation can be felt in the infant's fontanelle, were by some Asiatic peoples as the places where the could leave or enter the body. possible that in ancient times this belief was more widespread
life

therefore regarded

substance of
It is

"
2

Primitive

Man," Proceedings of the British Academy, 1917,

p. 41.

the interrelation between complexity and intricacy of " " " the functions of the breath is revealed in Chinese heart," and the

The enormous

philosophy (see de Groot,

op. cit.

Chapter VII. inter alia).

232
than
it is

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


now.
It

affords an explanation of the motive for trephining

the skull among ancient peoples, to afford a more ready passage for " " to and from the skull. vital essence the " The Socratic Doctrine of the Soul," Professor In his lecture on
l

John Burnet has expounded the meaning of early Greek conceptions of the soul with rare insight and lucidity. Originally, the word V^X 7? meant "breath," but, by historical times, it had already been
the

mean courage in and secondly the breath of life, the presence or place, absence of which is the most obvious distinction between the animate
specialized in
first

two

distinct

ways.

It

had come

to

and the inanimate, the "ghost" which a man at death. gives up the body temporarily, which explains the phenoit may also But quit

"

"

menon of swooning (knro\\ivyLa). was also the thing that can roam

It

seemed natural

to suppose
is

it

at

large

when

the

body

asleep,

and even appear to another sleeping person in his dream. Moreover, since we can dream of the dead, what then appears to us must be These considerajust what leaves the body at the moment of death.
tions explain the

world-wide

belief in the

"

"

soul

as a sort of

double

of the real bodily

man, the Egyptian ha? the


is

Italian

genius, and the


in

Greek V^X

?-

Now
feels

this

double

not identical with whatever


life.

it

is

us that

and wills during our waking be blood and not breath.

That
their

is

generally supposed to

What we
belong to

and perceive have the body and perish with it.


feel

seat in the heart

they

It is

only

when

the shades have been allowed to drink blood that

consciousness returns to

them
to

for a while.

At

one time the


it

i//u ^77

was supposed

to dwell with the

body

in

the grave, where


vivors, especially

had

be supported by the

offerings of the sur-

by

libations (\ocu).

Egyptian psychologist has carried the story back long before the times of which Professor Burnet writes. He has explained " his
conception of the functions of the
1 *

An

heart (mind) and tongue

'

'.

When

Second Annual Philosophical Lecture, Henriette Hertz Trust, Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. VII, 26 Jan., 1916. 2 The Egyptian ka, however, was a more complex entity than this
comparison suggests.

INCENSE
the heart.
It is

AND
who

LIBATIONS
brings forth every issue
"

233

the eyes see, the ears hear, and the nose breathes, they transmit to

he (the heart)

and

it

is

the tongue which repeats the thought of the heart/ "There came the saying that Atum, who created the gods, stated

concerning Ptah-Tatenen

'

He

is

the fashioner of the gods.

He made Then the gods


That
Osiris

likenesses of

their bodies to the satisfaction of their hearts.

entered into their bodies of every


"

wood and

every

stone and every metal/


these ideas are really ancient
Isis is
is

shown by the
3

fact that in
life

the Pyramid Texts

represented conveying the breath of

to

The ceremony of by "causing a wind with her wings". the mouth" which aimed at achieving this restoration of "opening the breath of life was the principal part of the ritual procedure before the statue or

mummy.

As

have already mentioned

(p.

5),

the sculptor

who

causes to live,"
that

modelled the portrait statue was called he who " " to fashion a statue is identical with and the word

"

which means "to give birth ". The god Ptah created man by Similarly the life-giving sculptor made modelling his form in clay.
the portrait which

existence,

when
and

it

was to be the means of securing a perpetuation of " was animated by the opening of the mouth," by
Egypt a vast

libations

incense.

As

the outcome of this process of rationalization in

crop of creation-legends came into existence, which have persisted with remarkable completeness until the present day in India, Indonesia,

China, America, and elsewhere.

A statue of
is is

stone,

wood, or clay
to

is
it

fashioned, and the ceremony of animation the breath of life, which in many places

performed

convey to

supposed to be brought

down from
In the

the sky.

Egyptian

legends that

beliefs, as well as in most of the world-wide were derived from them, the idea assumed a definite

form that the


substance," or
1

vital principle (often referred

to as the

"
soul,"

"

soul-

"

double ") could

exist apart

from the body.

Whatever

Breasted, op.

Op.
4

cit.

W.

J.

cit. pp. 44 and 45. 3 45 and 46. Ibid. p. 28. pp. has collected the evidence preserved in a remarkable Perry

series of Indonesian legends in his recent book, ture of Indonesia ". But the fullest exposition of the

"The

Megalithic Culis

provided

in the

Chinese literature

whole subject summarized by de Groot (op. cit.).

234

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


it is

the explanation,
vital principle

clear that the possibility of the existence of the

apart from the

body was

entertained.

It

was supposed

could return to the body and temporarily reanimate it. It could enter into and dwell within the stone representation of the " " Sometimes this so-called soul was identified with the deceased.
that
it
T

breath of

life,

which could enter

into the statue as the result of the

ceremony
It

of

"opening the mouth".

has been commonly assumed by Sir


accept
his theory of

Edward Tylor and


of the

those

who

animism that the idea

"soul" was

based upon the attempts to interpret the phenomena of dreams and shadows, to which Burnet has referred in the passage quoted above.

The

fact that

when a

people and

of

person is sleeping he may dream of seeing absent having a variety of adventures is explained by many

peoples by the hypothesis that these are real experiences which befell the "soul" when it wandered abroad during its owner's sleep. man's shadow or his reflection in water or a mirror has been inter-

But what these speculations leave out of preted as his double. account is the fact that these dream- and shadow-phenomena were
probably merely the predisposing circumstances which helped in the
of (or the corroborative details

development

which were added

to and,

by

rationalization,

incorporated in) the

"

soul-theory," which other

circumstances were responsible for creating."


I

have already called attention

(p.

of the psychological speculations

in

195) to the fact that in many ethnology too little account is

taken of the enormous complexity of the factors which determine even the simplest and apparently most obvious and rational actions of men.
I

of

must again remind the reader that a vast multitude of factors, many them of a subconscious and emotional nature, influence men's deci-

sions

and

opinions.

But once some


he will

definite state of feeling inclines a


call

man

to a certain conclusion,

stances to buttress his decision,


rationalization.

up a host of other circumand weave them into a complex net of


it

Some
"

such
"
;

process undoubtedly took place in the

development of
1

animism

and though

is

not possible yet to

See, however, the reservations in the subsequent pages. The thorough analysis of the beliefs of any people makes

this

abundantly clear.
this (op. cit.

De

Groot's monograph

is

an admirable

illustration of

Chapter

VII.).

Both

in

the significance of the

shadow are

later

Egypt and China the conceptions and altogether subsidiary.

of

INCENSE
reconstruct the

AND

LIBATIONS
growth
of the idea, there

235
can be

whole

history of the

no question that these early strivings after an understanding of the nature of life and death, and the attempts to put the theories into
practice to reanimate the dead, provided the foundations

have been

built

up during the

last fifty centuries

upon which a vast and com-

plex theory of the soul.

In the creation of this edifice the thoughts

and the

aspirations of countless millions of peoples

have played a

part,

but the foundation was laid

down when

the Egyptian king or priest

claimed that he could restore to the dead the "breath of life" and, " 1 by means of the wand which he called the great magician," could

The wand is supposed by some enable the dead to be born again. scholars to be a conventionalized representation of the uterus, so that
power of giving birth is expressed with literal directness. Such be" " are found to-day in scattered liefs and stories of the magic wand localities from the Scottish Highlands to Indonesia and America.
its

In this sketch

ception of vast complexity.

have referred merely to one or two aspects of a conBut it must be remembered that, once the
to play with the idea of a vital essence capable

mind
of

of

man began
an

of existing apart from the


life,

illimitable field

body and to identify it with the breath was opened up for speculation. The vital

principle could manifest itself in all the varied expressions of human Expersonality, as well as in all the physiological indications of life. " of dreams led men to believe that the soul" could also leave perience

the

body temporarily and enjoy varied experiences. But the concreteminded Egyptian demanded some physical evidence to buttress these

intangible ideas of the wandering abroad of his vital essence.

He
was

made

a statue for

it

to dwell in after his death

but such a view

only because he had already convinced himself " " that the life- sub stance could exist apart from his body as a double " " twin which reproduced the form of his real self. or
seriously entertained

Searching for material evidence to support his faith primitive man not unnaturally turned to the contemplation of the circumstances of his birth. All his beliefs concerning the nature of life can ultimately

be referred back to the story of When an infant is born it


placenta to which
it is

his
is

own

origin, his birth or creation.

accompanied by the

after-birth or

linked

prehension of the significance of these structures


1

by the umbilical cord. The full comis an achievement of


op. tit. p. 59.

Alan H. Gardiner, Davies and Gardiner,

236
modern
marvel.

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


science.

To

primitive

man

But once he began

to play with the idea

they were an incomprehensible that he had a


could leave the sleeping

double, a vital essence in his

own shape which

body and lead a separate


tangible evidence
1

existence, the placenta obviously provided


reality.

of

its

The

considerations

set

forth

by

Blackman, supplementing those of Moret, Murray and Seligman, and others, have been claimed as linking the placenta with the ka. Much controversy has waged around the interpretation of the

An excellent Egyptian word ka, especially during recent years. of the arguments brought forward by the various disputants summary " up to 1912 will be found in Moret's Mysteres Egyptiens ". Since then more or less contradictory views have been put forward by Alan
Gardiner, Breasted, and Blackman.
It

is

not

my

intention to inter-

vene
ture
;

in a dispute as to the

meaning

of certain phrases in ancient litera-

but there are certain aspects of the problems at issue which are

so intimately related to

my

main theme as

to

make some

reference to

them unavoidable.

The development
two
bodies, his actual
his
vital

of the

custom of making statues

of the

dead

necessarily raised for solution the problem of explaining the deceased's

mummy

and

his portrait statue. in

on earth
occasions

principle dwelt

the former, except

During life on those

when

the

man was

asleep.

His

actual

pression to all the varied attributes of his personality.

body also gave exBut after death

the statue

became the dwelling place

of these manifestations of the

spirit of vitality.

Whether

or not the conception arose out of the necessities unavoid-

ably created by the making of statues, it seems clear that this custom must have given more concrete shape to the belief that all of those elements of the dead man's individuality which left his body at the
time of death could
shift as

shadowy double
is

into his statue.

At

the birth of a king he


all

exactly reproducing

his

accompanied by a comrade or twin This double or ka is intimately features.


in the life to

associated throughout
fare.

life

and

come with the


"

king's

wel-

In fact Breasted claims that the

ka

was a kind

of superior

" Some Remarks on an Emblem upon Aylward M. Blackman,


of

the

Head

Ancient Egyptian Birth-Goddess," Journal of Egyptian " The Pharaoh's Archeology, Vol. HI, Part 111, July, 1916, p. 199- and Placenta and the Moon-God Khons," ibid. Part IV, Oct., 1916, p. 235.

an

INCENSE

AND

LIBATIONS

237

fortunes of the individual in the heregenius intended to guide the " he had his abode and awaited the coming of his there after"
.
.

earthly companion 'V

The ka death the deceased "goes to his ka, to the sky". he brings him food which they controls and protects the deceased
At
:

eat together.
It is

important clearly to keep in mind the different factors involved


-

in this conception

(a)

The

statue of the deceased

is

animated by restoring to

it

the

breath of

life

and

all

the other vital attributes of which the early

Egyptian physiologist took cognisance.


(b)

At
"

the time of birth there "

came

into being along with the

child a
(c)

twin

whose

destinies

were
the

closely linked with the child's.

As

the result of animating the statue the deceased also has

restored to

him

his character,

"

sum

of his attributes," his indi-

viduality, later raised to the position of

a protecting genius or god, a


2

Providence

who
or

watches over
I

his well-being.

The
breath of

points that
life,

want
is

to call attention to are,

first,

that the

animus,
;

not identical with .the ka, as Burnet sup-

poses (pp.
of the

ka

secondly, that the adoption of the conception as a sort of guardian angel which finds its appropriate habitacit.

supra)

tion in a statue that has

been animated does not necessarily conflict with the view so concretely and unmistakably represented in the tombpictures that the

ka

is

also a double

who

is

born along with the indi-

vidual.

This material conception

of the

ka
is,

as a double
as

who

is

born with
3

and closely linked

to the individual

Blackman has emphasized,

very suggestive of Baganda beliefs and rites connected with the placenta. At death the circumstances of the act of birth are reconstituted, and for
this rebirth the placenta

which played an

essential part in the original

process

is

restored to the deceased.

May

not the original meaning of

the expression

"he

goes to his

ka" be

literal

description of this

reunion with his placenta ? " Breasted denies Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt," p. 52. that the ka was an element of the personality. 2 For an abstruse discussion of this problem see Alan H. Gardiner, " Personification (Egyptian),'* Hastings* Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, pp. 790 and 792.
1

Op.

cit.

supra.

238

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


"

Blackman makes the suggestion that on the analogy of the beliefs entertained by the Hamitic ruling caste in Uganda/' according to " the placenta, or rather its ghost, would have been supposed Roscoe,
1

the Ancient Egyptians to be closely connected with the individual's " he maintains was also the case with the god or propersonality, as " 2 of the Babylonians. Unless united with his twin's tecting genius

by

{i.e.

his placenta's] ghost the

dead king was an imperfect


lacking."

deity,

i.e.

his

directing intelligence

was impaired or

In China, as the quotations from

de Groot

(pp. cit. p.

396) have
is

shown, the placenta


welfare.
In

when placed under


life

felicitous

circumstances

able

to ensure the child a long

and

to control his

mental and physical

view

of the claims put


it is

the placenta with the ka,

of interest to

forward by Blackman to associate note Moret's suggestion

concerning the fourteen forms of the ka, to which von Bissing assigns
" puzzled to explain what possible connexion there could be between the Pharaoh's placenta and the moon beyond the fact that it is the custom in Uganda to expose the king's placenta each new moon and anoint it with butter. To those readers who follow my argument in the later pages of this discussion the reasoning at the back of this association should be plain
1

Mr. Blackman

is

enough.

The moon was regarded

as the controller of menstruation.

The

placenta (and also the child) was considered to be formed of menstrual The welfare of the placenta was therefore considered to be under blood. the control of the moon.

The anointing with butter is an interesting illustration of the close connexion of these lunar and maternal phenomena with the cow. The placenta was associated with the moon also in China, as the following quotation shows.
" in the Siao *rh fang or According to de Groot (pp. cit. p. 396), Medicament for Babies, by the hand of Ts'ui Hing-kung [died 674 A.D.], it is said The placenta should be stored away in a felicitous spot under
'
:

the salutary influences of the sky or the moon ... in order that the child may be ensured a long life ". He then goes on to explain how any interference with the placenta will entail mental or physical trouble to the child.
'

The
it is

facilitate parturition, to

etc." (p. 397).

It blood, gives rest to the heart, nourishes the breath, and strengthens the tsing" (p. 396). These attributes of the placenta indicate that the beliefs of the Baganda are not merely local eccentricities, but widespread and sharply defined in-

used as the ingredient of pills to increase fertility, bring back life to people on the brink of death and " in medicines for lunacy, convulsions, epilepsy, the main ingredient " increases the
placenta also
is

terpretations.
*

Op.

cit. p.

241.

INCENSE

AND

LIBATIONS
He

239

the general significance "nourishment or offerings". puts the " the elements of material and whether they do not personify question
intellectual prosperity, all that
is

necessary for the health of

body and

"

spirit

(pp. cit. p. 209).

The

placenta

is

credited with

all

the varieties of life-giving potency


It

that are attributed to the Mother-Goddess.

therefore controls the

welfare of the individual and,


ensures his good fortune.
derivation from

like all

maternal amulets (vide supra),


its

But,

probably by virtue of
it

supposed

and

intimate association with blood,

also ministered

to his mental welfare.


In

my

essential
I

Rylands Lecture I referred to the probability that the elements of Chinese civilization were derived from the West.
last

had hoped that before the present statement went to the printer I would have found time to set forth in detail the evidence in substantiation of the reality of that diffusion of culture.

Briefly the chain of proof

is

composed

of the following links

(a)

the intimate cultural contact between Egypt, Southern Arabia, Sumer,

and El am from a period


;

at

least

as early as the First

Egyptian

(6) the diffusion of Sumerian and Elamite culture in very Dynasty early times at least as far north as Russian Turkestan and as far east

as Baluchistan
turquoise,

(c)

at

some

later period the quest of gold,

copper,

north as

and jade led the Babylonians (and their neighbours) as far the Altai and as far east as Khotan and the Tarim Valley,
pathways were blazed with the distinctive methods of and irrigation (d) at some subsequent period there was
;

where

their

cultivation

an easterly diffusion
of

of culture

(e) at least as early as the seventh century B.C. there

from Turkestan into China proper and was also a spread


;

Western
I

culture to

China by

sea.

have already referred to some of the distinctively Egyptian traits in Chinese beliefs concerning the dead. Mingled with them are other
equally definitely Babylonian ideas concerning the liver. It must be apparent that in the course of the spread of a complex of religious beliefs to so great a distance, system only certain of their
features

people, each of

would survive the journey. Handed on from people to whom would unavoidably transform them to some
Western
beliefs

extent, the tenets of the


of their details

and have many excrescences added

would become shorn of many to them before the

Chinese received them.

In the crucible of the local philosophy they

240

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


until the resulting

would be assimilated with Chinese ideas


assumed a Chinese appearance.
reinforced.

compound
is

When

these inevitable circumstances

are recalled the value of any evidence of Western influence


to the ancient

strongly

According and the shen.

Chinese

man

has two

souls,

the

kwet

The

the more ancient of

former, which according to de Groot is definitely the two (p. 8), is the material, substantial soul,
terrestrial part of the

which emanates from the


of yin substance. and on his death
in his grave.

Universe, and

is

formed
of

In living
it

man

it

operates under the

name

p'oh,

returns to the earth

and abides with the deceased

The shen

or immaterial

soul

emanates from the etherial

celestial

part of the cosmos and consists of


actively in the living

yang
it

substance.

When
"

operating

human body,
it

is

called

khi or

breath," and

hwun ; when
spirit,

separated from

after death

it liv.es

forth as a refulgent

styled

ming?
also, in

But the shen

spite of its sky-affinities, hovers

about the

There may grave and may dwell in the inscribed grave-stone (p. 6). be a multitude of shen in one body and many "soul-tablets" may
be provided
for

them

(p. 74).
is

Just as in

Egypt the ka

said to

"

"

which
shen.

(Moret, p. to the ethereal part of the food as its khi,

resides in nourishment

symbolize the force of life 2), so the Chinese refer


1

i.e.

the

"breath"

of

its

The
forth
of

careful study of the


in his great

mass

of detailed evidence so lucidly set

by de Groot
superficial

many

monograph reveals the fact that, in spite differences and apparent contradictions, the early

Chinese conceptions of the soul and its functions are essentially identical with the Egyptian and must have been derived from the same
source.

From
pages
it

the quotations which

have already given

in

the foregoing

appears that the Chinese entertain views regarding the func-

tions of the placenta

which are

identical with those of the

Baganda,

and a conception

of the souls of

analogies with those of Egypt. shed any clearer light than Egyptian literature does upon the prob-

presents unmistakable Chinese beliefs do not Yet these

man which

lem

of the possible relationship


1

between the ka and the


Groot, p. 5.

filacenta.

De

INCENSE
In the Iranian

AND

LIBATIONS

241

domain, however, right on the overland route from the Persian Gulf to China, there seems to be a ray of light. Accord" The later Parsi books tell us ing to the late Professor Moulton, that the Fravashi is a part of a good man's identity, living in heaven

and

reuniting with the soul at death.


it

It

is

not exactly a guardian

angel, for

shares in the development or deterioration of the rest of

the man."
In fact the Fravashi
is

not unlike the Egyptian


'

ka on

the one

side
'*

and the Chinese shen on the


*

other.

"
(p.

They

are the

Manes,

the good folk

144)

they are connected with the stars in their

capacity as spirits of the dead (p. 143), and they "showed their paths to the sun, the moon, the sun, and the endless lights," just as the
.kas guide the dead in the hereafter. The Fravashis play a part in the annual All Soul's feast (p. 144)
precisely analogous to that depicted
2

Egyptian of the Middle Kingdom.

by Breasted in the case of an All the circumstances of the

two ceremonies are

essentially identical.

Now

Professor

Moulton

suggests that the

derived from the Avestan root var, " " birth- promotion mean 142). (p.

"

to impregnate,"

word Fravashi may be and fravasi


this

As

he associates

with

childbirth the possibility suggests itself whether the "birth- promoter"

not be simply the placenta. Loret (quoted by Moret, p. 202), however, derives the word " ika from a root signifying to beget," so that the Fravashi may be

may

nothing more than the Iranian homologue of the Egyptian ka. The connecting link between the Iranian and Egyptian conceptions

may be

the Sumerian instances given to

Blackman

by Dr.

Langdon. The whole idea seems


the

to

have originated out

of the belief that

sum

of

the individual attributes or vital expressions of a man's

The contempersonality could exist apart from the physical body. of the phenomena of sleep and death plation provided the evidence in
corroboration of
this.

newcomer came into the world physically connected with the placenta, which was accredited with the attributes of the
birth the
life-giving

At

and
1

birth- promoting

Great Mother and intimately related

Early Religious Poetry of Persia, p. 145. 3 Ibid. p. 240. Op. cit. P 264.
.

242
to the

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


moon and
in

concerned

the earliest totem. It was obviously, also, closely the nutrition of the embryo, for was it not the stalk
fruit

upon which the latter was growing like some was a not unnatural inference to suppose that,
personality

on

its

stem

It

as the elements of the

were not indissolubly connected with the body, they were into existence at the time of birth and that the brought placenta was
their vehicle.

The
show
custom

Egyptians'

own

terms of reference to the sculptor of a statue

that the ideas of birth


of

were uppermost
first

in their

minds when the

statue-making was
cit.

devised.

Moret has brought

together (pp.

reaching

supra) a good deal of evidence to suggest the farsignificance of the conception of ritual rebirth in early
religious ceremonial.

Egyptian

With

these ideas

in

his

mind the

Egyptian would naturally

any

attach great importance to the placenta in attempt to reconstruct the act of rebirth, which would be rein

garded

literal

sense.

The

placenta which played an essential


role in the

part in the original act


ritual of rebirth.

would have an equally important

THE POWER OF THE


the eye
it

EYE.

In attempting to understand the peculiar functions attributed to


is

essential that the inquirer should

endeavour to look at
After mould-

the problem from the early Egyptian's point of view.


ing into shape the wrappings of the

mummy

so as to restore as far as

embalmer then painted eyes upon the face. So also when the sculptor had learned to make finished models in stone or wood, and by the addition of paint had enhanced the life-like appearance, the statue was still merely a dead
possible the form of the deceased the
thing.

What were needed above


words, to animate
it,

all

to enliven

it,
;

literally

and

actu-

ally, in other
artist set to

were the eyes


skill

and the Egyptian


justification for

work and with

truly marvellous
5),

reproduced the ap-

pearance of living eyes (Fig.


this belief will

How

ample was the

be appreciated by anyone

who

glances at the remarkable

1 The photographs recently published by Dr. Alan H. Gardiner. wonderful eyes will be seen to make the statue sparkle and live. To the concrete mind of the Egyptian this triumph of art was regarded

"

New

Masterpiece of

Egyptian
I,

Sculpture,"

The Journal

oj

Egyptian Archeology, Vol. IV, Part

Jan., 1917.

FIG.

5.

STATUE OF AN EGYPTIAN NOBLE OF THE PYRAMID AGE TO SHOW THE TECHNICAL SKILL IN THE REPRESENTATION OF LIFE-LIKE EYES

INCENSE
was considered
to

AND

LIBATIONS
The

243
artist

not as a mere technical success or aesthetic achievement.

and actually converted it into a selves were regarded as one of the

have made the statue "


living

really live

in fact, literally

image

".

The

eyes them-

chief sources of the vitality

which

had been conferred upon the This is the explanation of


upon the making of
responsible
for
artificial

statue.
all

the elaborate care and

skill
it

bestowed
largely

eyes.

No

doubt also

was

the

animating power of

development of the remarkable belief in the the eye. But so many other factors of most

diverse kinds played a part in building up the complex theory of the eye's fertilizing potency that all the stages in the process of rationalization cannot yet
I

be arranged

in orderly sequence.

refer to the question here

and suggest
merely

certain aspects of

it

that

seem worthy some student


1

of investigation

for the

of

early

Egyptian

literature to look into

purpose of stimulating the matter

further.

As
eyes

death was regarded as a kind of sleep and the closing of the


distinctive sign of the latter condition the

was the

open eyes were


life.

not unnaturally regarded as clear evidence of wakefulness and

In fact, to a matter-of-fact people the restoration of the eyes to the

mummy
At

or statue

was

equivalent to an awakening to
reflection in

life.

a time

when a

a mirror or in a sheet of water

was supposed
individual's

to afford quite positive evidence of the reality of

each

"
life,"

"double," and when the "soul," or more concretely, was imagined to be a minute image or homunculus, it is quite
eye
dwelling within "
it.

likely that the reflection in the

"

"

soul

may have been interpreted as The eye was certainly regarded


It

the
as

peculiarly rich in

soul substance ".

was not

until Osiris received

from Horus the eye which had been wrenched out " combat with Set that he became a soul ". 2
It
is

in

the latter's

a remarkable

fact that this belief in the

animating power of
as far west

the eye spread as far east as Polynesia as the British Islands.


1

and America, and

probability the main factor that was responsible for conferring such definite life-giving powers upon the eye was the identification of the moon with the Great Mother. The moon was the eye of Re, the sky-god. J Breasted, "Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt," p. 59. The " " a soul here would be more accurately meaning of the phrase rendered " reanimated ". given by the word 16
In all

244

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


Of
course the obvious physiological functions of the eyes as means
their possessor

of

communication between

and the world around him

the powerful influence of the eyes for expressing feeling and emotion

without speech

the analogy between the closing and opening of the


all

eyes and the changes of day and night, are


literature.

hinted at in Egyptian

But there were

certain specific factors that

seem

to

have helped to

give definiteness to these general ideas of the physiology of the eyes.

The

tears, like all

the body moisture,


in

came

to share the life-giving


it

attributes

of

water

general.

And when

is

recalled

that

at

funeral

ceremonies,
of
it

when
is

natural

emotion found expression


to

in the

came tears, shedding with all the other water-symbolism of the funerary ritual.
not unlikely that this
literature

be assimilated

The
by
Isis

early

of
in

Nephthys
Isis

Egypt, the reanimation of Osiris,


life

in fact,

refers to the

part played

and

when

the tears they shed as

mourners brought

were

life-giving in

But the fertilizing tears of back to the god. the wider sense. They were said to cause the
soil

inundation which fertilized the

of Egypt.

There

is

the further possibility that the beliefs associated with the

cowry may

have played some

part,

if

not in originating, at any rate


I

in emphasizing the conception of the fertilizing powers of the eye. have already mentioned the outstanding features of the symbolism In many places in Africa and elsewhere the similarity the cowry.

of

of

the cowry to the half-closed eyelids led to the use of the shells as " " Thus the use of same shell to symin mummies. artificial eyes
bolize the female reproductive organs

and the eyes may have played

some part in transferring to the latter the fertility of the former. Might not the confusion gods were born of the eyes of Ptah.

The
of the

eye with the genitalia have given a meaning to this statement ? There is evidence of this double symbolism of these shells. Cowry shells

have

also

been employed, both

in the Persian

Gulf and the

Pacific,

to decorate the

bows of boats, probably for the dual purpose of reThese facts presenting eyes and conferring vitality upon the vessel. to suggest that the belief in the fertilizing power of the eyes may admitted some extent be due to this cowry-association. Even if it be that all the known cases of the use of cowries as eyes of mummies are
relatively late

and

that

it

is

not

known

to

have been employed

for

such a purpose in Egypt, the mere fact that the likeness to the eyelids

INCENSE

AND

LIBATIONS

245

so readily suggests itself may have linked together the attributes of the cowry and the eye even in Predynastic times, when cowries were placed with the dead in the grave.

Hathor's identification with the

"Eye

of

Re" may

possibly

have been an expression of the same idea. But the role of the Eye " of Re was due primarily to her association with the moon (vide
infra, p. 246).

"

apparently hopeless tangle of contradictions involved in these " For no eye is to conceptions of Hathor will have to be unravelled. be feared more than thine (Re's) when it attacketh in the form of

The

Hathor" (Maspero,
in course of time,
it

op.

cit.

p.

165).
to

Thus
its

if

it

was

the beneficent

life-giving aspect of the

eye which led

identification

with Hathor,
lost sight of,

when

the reason for this connexion

was

became associated with the malevolent, death-dealing avatar of the goddess, and became the expression of the god's anger and hatred
toward
his enemies.
It is

not unlikely that such a confusion

may

have been responsible

for giving concrete expression to

the general

psychological fact that the eyes are obviously


for expressing hatred for

among
"

the chief

means

fellows.

[In

my

and intimidating and brow-beating" one's lecture on "The Birth of Aphrodite" I shall exin addition to the

plain the explicit circumstances that gave rise to these contradictions.]

widespread belief in the embodies the same confusion, the expreseye" in a multitude of legends it is the sion of admiration that works evil
It
is

significant that,

"

evil

which

in itself

eye that produces


the dead

petrifaction.

The

"

stony stare" causes death and

become transformed
S.

into statues, which,

lack their original attribute of animation.

These

stories

however, usually have been

collected

by Mr. E. There is another

Hartland

in his

"

Legend

of Perseus ".

possible link in the chain of associations


fertility.
I

between

the eye and

the idea of

development

of the belief that incense,

have already referred to the which plays so prominent a


is itself

part in the ritual for conferring vitality

Glaser has already shown the anti properties. incense of the Egyptian Punt Reliefs to be an Arabian word, a-a-nete,

with animating
1

"

upon the dead,

replete

'

tree-eyes

(Punt und

die Siidarabischen Reiche, p. 7), and to

lumps ... as distinguished from the small round which are supposed to be tree- tears or the tree-blood." drops, i Wilfred H. Schoff, "The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea," 1912,
refer to the large

P 164.
.

246

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


THE MOON AND THE
SKY- WORLD.
for believing that the chief episodes in

There are reasons


dite's past

Aphro-

point to the

Red Sea

for their inspiration,

though

many
traits

other factors, due partly to local circumstances and partly to contact

with other
of the

civilizations,

contributed to the determination of the


of love.

Mediterranean goddess

In Babylonia

and India there


It
is

are very definite signs of borrowing from the

same

source.

im-

portant, therefore, to look for further evidence to

Arabia

as the obvious

bond

of union

The
Assyrian

claim

both with Phoenicia and Babylonia. made in Roscher's Lexicon der Mythologie that the
the

Ishtar,

Phoenician Ashtoreth

(Astarte),

the

Syrian

Atargatis (Derketo), the Babylonian Belit (Mylitta) and the Arabian

Hat (Al-ilat) were

all

moon- goddesses has given

rise to

much

rather

aimless discussion, for there can be no question of their essential

hom-

ology with Hathor and Aphrodite.


all

Moreover, from the beginning,


1

goddesses

and especially
for

deities

were

most primitive stratum of fertility obvious reasons intimately associated with the moon.
this

But the

cyclical periodicity of the

moon which

suggested the analogy

wjth the similar physiological the association of the moon with women.

periodicity of

women merely explains The influence of the moon


its

upon dew and the

tides,

perhaps, suggested

controlling

power over

water and emphasized the life-giving function which its association For reasons which have been with women had already suggested.
explained already, water
zation

by

the male.

was Hence

associated

more especially with fertilithe symbolism of the moon came to

include the control of both the male and the female processes of re2

production.

The
1

literature relating to the

development

of these ideas with refer-

am

their
'

home became
2

not concerned here with the explanation of the means transferred to the planet Venus.

by which

In his discussion of the functions of the Fravashis in the Iranian Yasht, the late Professor Moulton suggested the derivation of the word from the " birth Avestan root var, "to impregnate," so that fravasi might mean " Less easy to ". But he was puzzled by a reference to water. promotion
is their intimate connexion with the Waters" (" Early Religious But the Waters were regarded as Poetry of Persia," pp. 142 and 143). " the This is seen in the Avestan Anahita, who was fertilizing agents. "

understand

presiding genie of Fertility and

more

Phythian-Adams,

"

especially of the

Waters

(W.

J-

Mithraism," 1915, p. 13).

INCENSE
He
shows that
there
is

AND

LIBATIONS
for believing that

247
1

ence to the moon has been summarized by Professor Hutton Webster. "

good reason

among many

primitive peoples the moon, rather than the sun, the planets or any of the constellations, first excited the imagination and aroused feelings
of superstitious

awe

or of religious veneration ".

was first devoted to the moon when agricultural men to measure time and determine the seasons. pursuits compelled The influence of the moon on water, both the tides and dew, brought
Special attention
it

within the scope of the then current biological theory of fertilization. This conception was powerfully corroborated by the parallelism of the
of

moon's cycles and those


garding the
functions.
of the

womankind, which was interpreted by

re-

moon as the controlling power of the female reproductive Thus all of the earliest goddesses who were personifications powers of fertility came to be associated, and in some cases
with the moon.

identified,

In this

way
i.e.

the animation and deification of the


first

moon was brought


the attributes of

about

and the

sky deity assumed not only

all

the cowry,
troller of

the female reproductive functions, but also, as the con-

water,

role of Osiris.

many of those which afterwards were regarded The confusion of the male fertilizing powers of

as the
Osiris

with the female reproductive functions of Hathor and Isis may explain how in some places the moon became a masculine deity, who, however,
still

retained his control over

womankind and caused


12

the phen-

omena
fied in

of menstruation

by the

exercise of his virile powers.

But the
personi-

moon-god was
Thoth.

also a measurer of time

and

in this aspect

was

The
ably

assimilation of the

moon with
the

these earth-deities
first

was prob-

responsible for the creation of

sky-deity.

For once the

conception developed Osirian beliefs associated with the deification of


the

of identifying a deity with the

moon, and the a dead king grew up,

moon became

the impersonation of the

spirit of

womankind, some

mortal

woman who by
Rest Days,"

death had acquired divinity.

After the idea had developed of regarding the


1 -

moon

as the spirit

"

New

York, 1916, pp. 124 et


fertility

seq.

are found, whether in Egypt, BabyIonia, the Mediterranean Area, Eastern Asia, and America, illustrations of this confusion of sex are found. The explanation which Dr. Rendel Harris
these deities of
offers of this confusion in the case of

Wherever

Aphrodite, seems

to

me

not to give

due

recognition to

its

great antiquity and world-wide distribution.

248
of a

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


dead person,
stars
it

was only

natural that, in course of time, the sun

and

thought, and be regarded

should be brought within the scope of the same train of as the deified dead. When this happened,

the sun not unnaturally soon 'leapt into a position of pre-eminence. As the moon represented the deified female principle the sun became

the dominant male deity Re.

The
of

stars also

became the

spirits of

the

dead.

Once

this

new

conception

a sky-world

was adumbrated a

luxuriant crop of beliefs

grew up

to assimilate the

new

beliefs with the

old and to buttress the confused mixture of incompatible ideas with a

complex scaffolding

of rationalization.

The
clouds.

trolled not only the river

Osiris consun-god Horus then became the son of Osiris. and the irrigation canals, but also the rain-

The

tions of the worshippers

fumes of incense conveyed to the sky-gods the supplica" on earth. Incense was not only the perfume

that deifies," but also the

means by which the

deities

and the dead

could pass to their doubles in the newly invented sky-heaven. The sun-god Re was represented in his temple not by an anthropoid statue,

but by an otelisk, the gilded apex of which pointed to heaven and " " drew down the dazzling rays of the sun, reflected from its polished surface, so that all the worshippers could see the manifestations of the

god

in his temple.

These events are important, not only


mere
pillar of stone,

for creating the sky-gods

and

the sky-heaven, but possibly also for suggesting the idea that even a

whether carved or uncarved, upon which no attempt had been made to model the human form, could represent the " " to be animated by the deity, or rather could become the body
2

god.

For once

it

was

admitted, even in the

ideas concerning the animation of statues, that

home of these ancient it was not essential for


for less
skill

the idol to be shaped into cultured peoples,

human

form, the

way was opened

who had
"

not acquired the technical

to carve

statues, simply to erect stone pillars or


1

unshaped masses

of stone or

Das Re-heiligtum des Konigs Ne-woser-re ". Borchardt, " For a good exposition of this matter see A. Moret, Sanctuaires de 1'ancien Empire t,gyptien,"t Annales du Musce Guimet, 1912,
L.
p.

265.
'

It is

possible that the ceremony of erecting the

played some part in the development of these beliefs. Moret, "Mysteres Egyptiens," 1913, pp. 13-17.)

dad columns may have (On this see A.

INCENSE
wood
for their

AND
when

LIBATIONS

249

gods to enter,
1

the appropriate ritual of animation

was performed.
in stones

This conception
place where

of the possibility of gods,

men, or animals dwelling

spread in course of time throughout the world, but in every the methods of it is found certain arbitrary details of
all

animating the stone reveal the fact that

these legends must

have

been derived from the same source.

The complementary men and animals has a


It

belief in the possibility of the petrifaction of

similarly extensive geographical distribution.


If

represents merely an abbreviated version of the original story.


after

man

death could be reanimated and " writers call his soul," could then take up
short-circuiting
2

"
his
its

life," or

what most
it

residence in a stone,

was merely
into a stone.

this process to

transform the

man

directly

THE WORSHIP OF THE Cow.


Intimately linked with the subjects
I

have been discussing

is

the

worship of the cow.


1

It

would lead me

too far afield to enter into

Many other factors played a part in the development of the stories of the birth of ancestors from stones. I have already referred to the origin
of the idea of the

The

place of the shell

cowry was

(or some other shell) as the parent of mankind. often taken by roughly carved stones, which of

course were accredited with the same power of being able to produce men,
or of being a sort of egg from which human beings could be hatched. It is unlikely that the finding of fossilized animals played any leading role in the development of these beliefs, beyond affording corroborative evidence
in

support

of

them

after other circumstances

had been responsible

for

The more circumstantial Oriental stories of the originating the stories. splitting of stones giving birth to heroes and gods may have been suggested
themselves regarded already finding in pebbles of fossilized shells as the parents of mankind. But such interpretations were only possible because all the predisposing circumstances had already prepared the way for

by the

the acceptance of these specific illustrations of a general theory. These beliefs may have developed before and quite independently of
the ideas concerning the animation of statues
;

but

if

so the latter event

would have strengthened and


story.
J

in

some places become merged with the other

For an extensive

collection of these remarkable petrifaction legends

in almost every part of the world, see E. of Perseus," especially Volumes I and HI.

Sidney Hartland's

"The Legend
be

These
all

distinctive stories will

found to be complexly interwoven with


address.

the matters discussed in this

250

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


by which
the earliest Mother- Goddesses
so closely associated or even identified with the

the details of the process

cow and why the cow's horns became associated with the moon among the emblems But it is essential that reference should be made to of Hathor.
became
certain aspects of the subject.
I

do not think there

is

any evidence

to justify the

common

theory

that the likeness of the crescent


for the association.

moon

to a

cow's horns was the reason


clear that both the

On

the other hand

it is

moon

and the cow became

identified

with the Mother-Goddess quite inde-

pendently the one of the other, and at a very remote period. It is probable that the fundamental factor in the development of
this association of

use of milk as
this

cow and the Mother-Goddess was the fact of the food for human beings. For if the cow could assume
the
of

maternal function she was in fact a sort of foster-mother of man;

kind

and

in course

time she

mother

of the

human

race and to

be regarded as the actual be identified with the Great Mother.


to

came

Many The use of

other considerations helped in this process of assimilation.

cattle not merely as meat for the sustenance of the living but as the usual and most characteristic life-giving food for the dead

naturally played a part in conferring divinity

upon the cow,

just as

an
re-

analogous relationship

made

incense a holy substance and

was

sponsible for the personification of the incense- tree as a goddess. This influence was still further emphasized in the case of cattle

because they also supplied the blood which was used


purpose time upon the gods
of

for the ritual

bestowing consciousness
also, so that

upon

the dead, and in course of

they might hear and attend to the

prayers of supplicants.

Other circumstances emphasize the significance attached to the cow, but it is difficult to decide whether they cpntributed in any way to the development of these beliefs or were merely some of the
practices

which were the

result of the divination of the

cow.

The

custom

of placing butter in the

mouths

of the

and

India, the various ritual uses of milk, the

dead, in Egypt, Uganda, employment of a cow's

hide as a wrapping for the dead in the grave, and also in certain 1 mysterious ceremonies, all indicate the intimate connexion between
the

cow and
I

the means of attaining a rebirth in the

life to

come.

think there are definite reasons for believing that once the
1

cow

See A. Moret,

op.

cit.

p. 81

inter alia.

INCENSE
became
the
first

AND

LIBATIONS

251

identified

with the Mother-Goddess as the parent of mankind


in the

step

was taken
as

development of the curious system


I

of

ideas

now known

"
is

totemism".
a complex problem which

This, however,
discuss here.

cannot stay to

When
moon was

the

cow became

identified

with the Great Mother and the

goddess, the Divine

regarded as the dwelling or the personification of the same Cow by a process of confused syncretism came to

be regarded as the sky or the heavens, to which the dead were raised When Re became the dominant deity, he Aip on the cow's back.

was
as

identified

with the sky, and the sun and

moon were
Mother

then regarded

his eyes.

Thus
the

the moon, as the Great

as well as the eye

of Re,

was

bond

of identification of the

Great Mother with an

This was probably ye. of the Giver of Life.

how

the eye acquired the animating powers

A whole
diffusion of

volume might be written upon the almost world- wide these beliefs regarding the cow, as far as Scotland and

Ireland in the west, and in their easterly migration probably as far as America, to the confusion alike of its ancient artists and its modern
1

ethnologists.

As
fessor

an

illustration of the identification of the


I

cow's attributes with

those of the life-giving Great Mother,

might
to

refer to the late

Pro-

Moulton's commentary
flesh
is

on the ancient Iranian Gathas, where

cow's
*'

given

to mortals

by Yima

make them immortal.

it with another legend whereby at the Regeneramake men immortal by giving them to eat the fat of the ... primeval Cow from whose slain body, according to the " Aryan legends adopted by Mithraism, mankind was first created ?

May we

connect
is

tion

Mithra

to

See the Copan sculptured monuments described by Maudslay in " Salvin's Biologia Centrali- Americana," Archaeology, " Stela D," with two serpents in the places ocPlate 46, representing cupied by the Indian elephants in Stela B concerning which see Nature, November 25, 1915. To one of these intertwined serpents is attached a cow-headed human daemon. Compare also the Chiriqui figure depicted by " by MacCurdy, Study of Chiriquian Antiquities,*' Yale University Press,

Godman and

1911,

Early Religious Poetry of Persia," pp. 42 and 43. a But I think these legends accredited to the Aryans Op. cit. p. 43. owe their parentage to the same source as the Egyptian beliefs concerning the cow, and especially the remarkable mysteries uppn which Morel has

"

fig.

361,

p.

209.

been endeavouring

to

throw some

"

light

Mysteres Egyptiens,"

p. 43.

252

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


THE
In these pages
I

DIFFUSION OF CULTURE.

ing

and

intricate
I

have made no attempt to deal with the far-reachproblems of the diffusion abroad of the practices and
discussing.

beliefs

which

tions of

But the thoughts and the aspiraevery cultured people are permeated through and through
have been

with their influence.


important to remember that in almost every stage of the de" velopment of these complex customs and ideas not merely the finished " but also the ingredients out of which it was built up were product
It is

being scattered abroad.


I

shall briefly refer to certain evidence

from the East and America

in illustration of this fact

and

in substantiation of the reality of the


beliefs
I

diffusion to the

East of some of the

have been discussing.

The
strikingly

unity of

Egyptian and Babylonian ideas is nowhere more demonstrated than in the essential identity of the attributes
It

of Osiris

and Ea.

affords the

most positive proof of the derivation


source,

of the beliefs

from some

common

and reveals the

fact that

Egyptian and Sumerian


lonia, as in

civilizations

must have been

in intimate cultural

contact at the beginning of their developmental history.

origin of life

"In Babywere differences of opinion regarding the Egypt, there and the particular natural element which represented the
"

vital principle."

One

section of the people,

who were

represented

by the worshippers of Ea, appear to have believed that the essence of The god of Eridu was the source of the life was contained in water.
*

water "

of life

Y*

Offerings of water
2

and food were made


they might be

to the dead," not, as

Mr. Mackenzie
the living,"
1

prevented from troubling with the means of sustenance and to but to supply them
states, so that

"

Donald A. Mackenzie,

"

Myths

of

Babylonia and Assyria," p. 44

et seq.
2

" some Dr. Alan Gardiner has protested against the assertions of influenced more by anthropological theorists than by the unEgyptologists, " ambiguous evidence of the Egyptian texts," to the effect that the funerary rites and practices of the Egyptians were in the main precautionary measures " "
senring to protect the living against the

dead (Article Life and Death (Egyptian)," Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics). I should like " to emphasize the fact that the anthropological theorists," who so frequently " some forward these claims have little more justification for them than put

INCENSE
these

AND

LIBATIONS
It

253
belief that

reanimate them to help the suppliants.

is

common

and other procedures were inspired by

fear of the dead.

But

such a statement does not accurately represent the attitude of mind of For it is not the the people who devised these funerary ceremonies.

enemies of the dead or those against whom he had a grudge that run and the more deeply he was a risk at funerals, but rather his friends
;

attached to a particular person the greater the danger for the latter. For among many people the belief obtains that when a man dies he " will endeavour to steal the soul -substance" of those who are dearest

But as him so that they may accompany him to the other world. " " means death, it is easy to misunderstand soul- substance stealing the such a display of affection. Hence most people who long for life and
to
]

hate death do their utmost to evade such embarrassing tokens of love

and most

appeasing ethnologists, misjudging such actions, write about the dead ". It was those whom the gods loved who died young. Ea was not only the god of the deep, but also " lord of life," king
Osiris

*'

and god of creation. Like and sunburnt wastes through rivers and
of the river

"he

fertilized

parched
the dead

irrigating canals,
.

and conferred
water

upon man the sustaining commanded her servant


In

food of
'

life

'.

The goddess of

to

sprinkle the

Lady

Ishtar with the

of life*" (op. cit. p. 44).

Chapter

III.

of

Mr. Mackenzie's book, from which

have

just

Careful study of the best evidence from Babylonia, India, Egyptologists '*. Indonesia, and Japan, reveals the fact that anthropologists who make such " claims have probably misinterpreted the facts. AncesIn an article on

by Professor Nobushige Hozumi in A. Stead's Japan by the Japanese" (1904) the true point of view is put very clearly "The origin of ancestor-worship is ascribed by many eminent writers to the dread of ghosts and the sacrifices made to the souls of ancestors for the purpose of propitiating them. It appears to me more correct to attribute the origin
tor

"

Worship

"

of ancestor-worship to a contrary cause. It the dread of them" [Here he quotes the

in corroboration] that impelled men to worship. celebrate the anniversary of our ancestors, pay visits to their graves, offer flowers, food and drink, burn incense and bow before their tombs, entirely

and Confucius

was the love of ancestors, not Chinese philosophers Shiu-ki "

We

from a feeling of love and respect for their memory, and no question of " dread' enters our minds in doing so (pp. 281 and 282). 1 For, as I have already explained, the idea so commonly and mistakenly " soul- substance" by writers on Indonesian and conveyed by the term Chinese beliefs would be much more accurately rendered simply by the
*

word

"

life," so that

the stealing of

it

necessarily

means

death.

254
quoted, there

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


is

an interesting collection of quotations clearly showing

that the conception of the vitalizing properties of the

body moisture
in

of

gods
lonia

is

not restricted to Egypt and Osiris, but


India, in

is

found also
also in

and

Western Asia and Greece, and

BabyWestern

Europe. It has been suggested that the name Ishtar has been derived from " " Semitic roots implying she who waters," she who makes fruitful 'V The beginnings of Semitic religion as they were conceived by the
'

Semites themselves go back to sexual relations ... the Semitic conembodies the truth grossly indeed, but never. ception of deity " theless embodies it that God is love (pp. cit. p. 1 07).
.

'

2 Throughout the countries where Semitic influence spread the primitive Mother-Goddesses or some of their specialized variants are

found.
tinctive

But
traits

in

every case the goddess

is

associated with

many

dis-

which reveal her

identity with

her homologues in

Cyprus, Babylonia, and Egypt. " Among the Sumerians life comes on earth through the introduction of water and irrigation". 3 "Man also results from a union

between the water-gods." The Akkadians held views which were almost the direct
of these.

antithesis

To them

"

the watery deep


is

the order of the world,

due

to

disorder, and the cosmos, the victory of a god of light and


is
;

spring over the monster of winter and water 4 by the gods ".
*

man

is

directly

made

account of Beginnings centres around the production by the gods of water, Enki and his consort Nin-ella (or Dangal), of a great number of canals bringing rain to the desolate fields of a dry
continent.

The Sumerian

Life both of vegetables

and animals follows the profusion


life's

of the vivifying waters.

...

In the process of
is

production besides

Enki, the personality of his consort

very conspicuous.

She

is

called

barton,
2

op. cit. p. 105.

The

evidence

set forth in these


:

are not restricted to the Semites

pages makes it clear that such ideas nor is there any reason to suppose that
in

they originated amongst them.


3

Albert

J.

Carnoy, "Iranian Views of Origins


.

Connexion with

Similar Babylonian Beliefs," Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 1916, PP 300-20. 4 This is Professor Carney's summary of Professor Jastrow's views as

XXXVI,

-expressed in his article

"

Sumerian and Akkadian Views

of Beginnings ".

INCENSE
Nin-Ella,
'

AND
Lady

LIBATIONS
'

255
great
).

the pure Lady,'


'

Damgal-Nunna,
'

the

the Waters/ Nin- Tu, Enki and Nin-ella was

"

Lady

of

the

of Birth

(p.
1

30

The

child of

the ancestor of mankind.

"

In later traditions, the personality of that


of Ishtar,

have been overshadowed by that


"

Great Lady seems who absorbed several

to of

her functions
Professor
so-called

(p.

30

).

Carnoy

fully

"Aryan"

beliefs

demonstrates the derivation of certain early from Chaldea. In the Iranian account of

the creation "the great spring

Ardvi Sura Anahita

is

the life-increasprosperity for

ing, the herd-increasing, the fold-increasing


all

who makes
is

countries (Yt. 5, 1)
. . .

...

that precious spring

worshipped as a
stately

goddess

and

is

personified as a
tall of

handsome and

woman.
is full

She

is

fair

maid, most strong,

form, high-girded.
still

Her arms
She
thinks that
birth.

are white

and

thick as a horse's shoulder or

thicker.

of gracefulness" (Yt. 5, 7, 64, 78).

"

Professor

Cumont

Anahita

is

Ishtar

she

is

a goddess of fecundation and

Moreover in Achaemenian inscriptions Anahita is associated with Ahura


Mithra, a triad corresponding to the Chaldean triad Sin-Shamash-Ishtar. 'Adeems in Strabo and other Greek writers is
:

Mazdah and

"
treated as 'A^poStrT;
(p.

302).

But

in

Mesopotamia
statues

also the

same views were entertained as

in

Egypt
'

of the functions of statues.

The

hidden in the recesses of the temples or erected on


*

'

sented."
op.
cit.

Ziggurats became imbued, consecration, with the actual body of the god "
the summits of the

by

virtue of their

whom

Thus Marduk

"

they repre-

is

said to

inhabit his image

(Maspero,

p. 64).
is

This
present

precisely the idea

which the Egyptians had.

Even
2

at the

day it survives among the Dravidian peoples of India. make images of their village deities, which may be permanent

They
or only

temporary, but in any case they are regarded not as actual deities but " " as the bodies so to speak into which these deities can enter. They
are sacred only
1

when they

are so animated

by

the goddess.

The

Langdon under
~ I

Jastrow's interpretation of a recently-discovered tablet published by the title The Sumerian Epic of Paradise, the Flood and

the Fall of Man.

have already
also.

(p.

233) mentioned the

fact that

it is still

preserved in

China

256
ritual of

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


animation
is

essentially identical with that found in


;

Ancient

Egypt.

Libations are poured out

incense

is

burnt

;
1

the bleeding

right fore-leg of

deity

is

a buffalo constitutes the blood -offering. When the reanimated by these procedures and its consciousness restored

by the blood-offering it can hear appeals and speak. The same attitude towards their idols was adopted by the PolyThe priest usually addressed the image, into which it was nesians.
'

imagined the god entered


are of peculiar interest.
referred
to the

when anyone came

to inquire his will."

But there are certain other aspects

of these

Indian customs that

In my Ridgeway essay (pp. cit. supra) \ means by which in Nubia the degradation of the oblong Egyptian mastaba gave rise to the simple stone circle. This type spread to the west along the North African littoral, and also to

the Eastern desert and Palestine.

At some

subsequent time mariners

from the
[It is

Red Sea

introduced

this practice into India.

circles

were invented.
itself,

important to bear in mind that two other classes of stone One of them was derived, not from the
but from the enclosing wall surrounding
it

mastaba
Ridgeway
p. 510,

(see

my

essay, Fig.

for illustrations

13, p. Figs. 3 and 4, of the transformed mastaba-\y^o). This type


1
,

53

and compare with


in the

of circle (enclosing a

dolmen)

is

found both

Caucasus- Caspian
this encircling

area as well as in India.

A highly developed A

form of

type of structure
s tup as

is

seen in the famous rails surrounding the Buddhist

third and later form of circle, of which and dagabas. is an example, was developed out of the much later New Stonehenge

Empire Egyptian conception of a temple.] But at the same time, as in Nubia, and possibly in Libya, the mastaba was being degraded into the first of the three main varieties
forms of simplification of the " 1 The Village Deities of Henry Whitehead (Bishop of Madras), Southern India," Madras Government Museum, Bull., Vol. V, No. 3, " Dravidian Gods in Modern Hindu1907; Wilber Theodore Elmore, of the Local and Village Deities of Southern India," ism: Study University Studies: University of Nebraska, Vol. XV, No. 1, Jan., 1915.
of stone circle, other,

though

less drastic,

Compare

"

the sacrifice of the fore-leg of a living calf in Egypt

A. E.

P. B.

Weigall, Arch<zology,\Q\.\\, 1915, p. 10.


lonia suggest that a similar
2

An Ancient Egyptian Funeral Ceremony," Journal of Egyptian


method
"
Early literary references from Babyof offering blood was practised there.
I,

William

Ellis,

Polynesian Researches," 2nd edition, 1832, Vol.

p. 373,

INCENSE
mast aba were
upon
taking
place,

AND

LIBATIONS
Egypt
itself,

257
but certainly

possibly in

the neighbouring

Mediterranean

coasts.

In

some respects the

least altered copies of the

graves" of Sardinia But the real features


"

mast aba are found in the so-called " giant's and the "horned cairns" of the British Isles. of the Egyptian serdab, which was the essential
"
of the Levant,

of the part, the nucleus so to speak,

the so-called
India.
Britain.]

holed dolmens

mastaba, are best preserved in the Caucasus, and


West, as
in

[They

also occur sporadically in the

France and
1

Such dolmens and more

simplified forms are scattered in Palestine,

but are seen to best advantage upon the Eastern Littoral of the

Black Sea, the Caucasus, and the neighbourhood of the Caspian. They are found only in scattered localities between the Black and
Caspian Seas.

As

de Morgan has pointed

out,

their distribution

is

explained by their association with ancient gold and copper mines.

They were

the tombs of immigrant mining colonies

who had

settled

in these definite localities to exploit these minerals.

Now
these

the same types of dolmens,


in

also

associated

with ancient

mines/ are found

India.

There

is

some evidence

to suggest that

degraded Egyptian mastabas were introduced into India at some time after the adoption of the other, the Nubian modification of the mastaba which is represented by the first variety
types of
of stone circle.
I 4

have referred

to these Indian

dolmens

for the specific

purpose

of illustrating the complexities of the processes of diffusion of culture. For not only have several variously specialized degradation- products
of the

same

original type of

by

different routes
1

and

at different

Egyptian mastaba reached India, possibly times, but also many of the ideas
1'exploration recente," Paris, 1907,

See H. Vincent, " Canaan d'apres

p.

395.
2

"Les Premieres

Civilizations," Paris, 1909, p.

Delegation en Perse, Caucase, Tome I.

Tome

VIII, archeol.

404 Memoires de la and Mission Scientifique au


:

3 W. J. Perry, " The Relationship between the Geographical Distribution of Megalithic Monuments and Ancient Mines," Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Vol. 60, Parti, 24th Nov., 1915.

The evidence for this is being prepared for publication by Captain Leonard Munn, R.E., who has personally collected the data in Hyderabad.

258
that

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

of which the developed out of the funerary ritual in Egypt mastaba was merely one of the manifestations made their way to

India at various times


expressions of

and became secondarily blended with other the same or associated ideas there. I have already
the
the

referred to the essential elements of the Egyptian funerary ritual


statues,

incense, libations,

and the

rest

as

still

persisting

among

Dravidian peoples.

But in the Madras Presidency dolmens are found converted into 1 Siva temples. Now in the inner chamber of the shrine which in place of the statue or represents the homologue of the serdab bas-relief of the deceased or of the deity, which is found in some of

them

(see Plate

I),

there

is

the stone linga-yoni

emblem

in

the posi-

tion corresponding to that in


locality

which,
is

(Kambaduru), there
earliest

the later temple in the same an image of Parvati, the consort of


in

Siva.

The

deities

in

Egypt,

both Osiris and Hathor, were


In the case of Hathor,

really expressions of the creative

principle.

the goddess was, in


reproduction.
creation

fact,

the personification of the female organs of

In these early Siva temples in India these principles of


their literal interpretation,

were given

and represented frankly

as the organs of reproduction of the

illustrations

were symbolized by models in of the same principle are witnessed in the Indonesian " dissoliths ".megalithic monuments which Perry calls

gods of creation Further stone of the creating organs.


sexes.

two

The

The

later

Indian

temples,

both

Buddhist and

Hindu,

were

developed from these early dolmens, as Mr. Longhurst's reports so But from time to time there was an influx of clearly demonstrate.

new

ideas from the


of

fications

the

architecture.

West which found Thus

expression in a series of modiIndia provides


contact.

an

admirable

illustration

of this principle of culture

series of

waves

of megalithic culture introduced purely

Western

ideas.

These were
into a dis-

developed by the local people

in

their

own way,

constantly inter-

mingling a variety of cultural influences to


1

weave them

Annual Report
for the year

of the Archaeological

Madras,

1915-1916.

See

for

Department, Southern Circle, example Mr. A. H. Longhurst's

photographs and plans (Plates I-IV) and especially that of the old Siva, temple at Kambadurn, Plate IV (b). 2 W. J. Perry, "The Megalithic Culture of Indonesia".

INCENSE
tinctive fabric,

AND

LIBATIONS

259

which was compounded partly

of imported, partly of

local threads,
cess of

woven

locally into a truly Indian pattern.


effects of

In this proaccretions

development one can detect the

Mycenean
;

(see for
its

example Longhurst's Plate XIII), probably modified during and also indirect transmission by Phoenician and later influences
Egyptian, and, later, art and architecture in directing the course of Persian
of Indian culture.

the more intimate part played by Babylonian,

Greek and
development

The
and

ideas which

grew up

in for

association

with the practice of

mummification were responsible


its ritual

the development of the temple

the conception of deities. For the But they were also responsible for originating a priesthood. of the dead king, Osiris, and for the maintenance of his resuscitation

and

for a definite formulation of

existence

it

was necessary

for his successor, the reigning king,

to per-

form the

ritual

of animation

The

king, therefore,

and the provision of food and drink. was the first priest, and his functions were not
to the

primarily acts of worship but merely the necessary preliminaries for


restoring
sult
life

and consciousness
his advice

dead

seer so that

he could con-

him and secure


It

and

help.
of

was only when

the

number

their ritual so
bility for the

complex and elaborate

as to

temples became so great and make it a physical impossi-

king to act in this capacity in all of

them and on every


of his priestly func-

occasion that he
tions to others,

of the royal family or high officials. In course of time certain individuals devoted themselves exclusively to these duties and became professional priests ; but it is important to

was compelled either members

to delegate

some

remember

that at

first

it

was

the exclusive privilege of Horus, the

reigning king, to intercede with Osiris, the

dead king, on behalf of men, and that the earliest priesthood consisted of those individuals to whom he had delegated some of these duties. " "
In the

Migrations of Early Culture

(p.

14)

called attention

was poured upon the head was inspired by the Egyptian mummy. procedure idea of libations, for, according to Brasseur de Bourbourg, the pour" ing out of the water was accompanied by the remark C'est cette eau

to the fact that


of the

among
This

the Aztecs water

ritual

que

tu as rec.ue en

venant au

monde ".
in

But incense-burning and blood-offering were also practised


17

260
America.

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


In
1

an interesting memoir on the practice of blood-letting by piercing the ears and tongue, Mrs. Zelia Nuttall reproduces a re" markable picture from a partly unpublished MS. of Sahagun's work
preserved in Florence ".
'

man whose body

is

of the sun is held up by a and two men, seated opposite to partly hidden,

The image

each other in the foreground, are in the act of piercing the helices or
external borders of their ears."
ings to the sun,
like censers,

But

in addition to these blood-offer-

two

priests are

burning incense in remarkably Egyptian-

and another

pair are blowing conch-shell trumpets.

But

it

was not merely


wholly

the use of incense

and

libations

and the

identities in the

arbitrary attributes of the

that reveal the sources of their derivation in

American pantheon the Old World. When


traces of a

the Spaniards
tismal rite

first

visited

Yucatan they found

which the natives called

"
zikil, signifying

Maya

bap".

to

be born again

At
"

the ceremony also incense

was

burnt."
fingers

The

forehead,

the face, the

and

toes

were moistened.

After they had been thus sprinkled with water, the priest arose and removed the cloths from the heads of the children, and then cut off

with a stone knife a certain bead that was attached to the head from
childhood."
3

The same custom

is

found

in

Egypt

at the present day.

In the case of the girls, their mothers

"

divested

them

of a cord
loins,

which was worn during

their

childhood, fastened round the


('
*

having a small shell that hung in front venia a dar encima de la parte honesta
this signified that

una conchuela asida que les The removal of Landa).


East Africa
at

This custom
present

they could marry." is found in the Soudan and


is

the

day/

It

the prototype of the girdle of


all

Hathor,
the

Ishtar,

Aphrodite, Kali and


It is

the goddesses of

fertility in

Old World.

an admirable illustration of the

fact that not

only were the finished

products, the goddesses

and

their fantastic repertory of attributes trans-

mitted to the

New

ingredients out of

World, but also the earliest and most primitive which the complexities of their traits were comAncient Mexicans/' Archaeological and Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Vol. I,
II,

pounded.
1

"

Penitential Rite of the


of the

Ethnological Papers No. 7, 1904.


2

Bancroft, op.
3

cit.

Vol.
4

pp.

682 and 683.


5

Op.

cit. p.

684.

Ibid.

See

J.

Wilfrid Jackson,

op. cit.

supra.

FIG.

6.

REPRESENTATION OF THE ANCIENT MEXICAN WORSHIP OF THE SUN


sun
is

The image

of the

held up by a

man

in front

of his face

two men blow conch-shell


blood-offerings by piercing

trumpets; another pair burn incense; and a third pair


their ears
after Zelia Nuttall.

make

INCENSE

AND

LIBATIONS

261

SUMMARY.
In these pages

groping in

have ranged over a very wide field of speculation, I have the dim shadows of the early history of civilization.
I

been attempting to pick up a few of the threads which ultimately became woven into the texture of human beliefs and aspirations, and to
suggest that the practice of mummification

was

the woof around which

the

web
I

of civilization

was

intimately intertwined.

have already explained how closely that practice was related to the origin and development of architecture, which Professor Lethaby " matrix of civilization," and how nearly the ideas that has called the

grew up in explanation and in justification of the ritual of embalming were affected by the practice of agriculture, the second great pillar of It has also been shown how support for the edifice of civilization.
far-reaching

was the

influence exerted

by the needs

of the

emb aimer,
plan and

which impelled men, probably


carry out great expeditions resins and the balsams, the

for the first time in history, to

by

sea

and land

to obtain the necessary

wood and

the spices.

Incidentally also
to exert a pro-

in course of time the practice of mummification

came

found

effect

upon the
all

means

for the acquisition of a


it.

knowledge

of

medicine and

the sciences ancillary to

But

have devoted

chief attention to the bearing of the ideas

which developed out of the practice and ritual of embalming upon the spirit of man. It gave shape and substance to the belief in a
future
life
;

it

was perhaps

the most important factor in the develop:

ment

of a definite conception of the gods

it

laid the foundation of


:

the ideas
in fact,
it

which subsequently were

was

built up into a theory of the soul connected with the birth of all those ideals intimately

and

aspirations

which are now included

in the

belief

and

ritual.

A multitude of other trains of thought were started


theory.

conception of religious

amidst the intellectual ferment of the formulation of the earliest concrete system of biological

The

idea of the properties and


in

functions of water

which had previously sprung up

connexion with

the development of agriculture became crystallized into a more definite form as the result of the development of mummification, and this has

played an obtrusive part


ever since.
in

in

religion,

in

philosophy and

in

medicine

Moreover

its

influence has

become embalmed

for all time

many

languages and in the ritual of every religion.

262
But
liefs,
it

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


was a
factor in the
ritual,

development not merely


it

of religious be-

temples and

but

was

also very closely related to the

origin of
beliefs.

swastika and the thunderbolt, dragons and demons, totemism and the sky-world are all of them conceptions that were
less closely

much The

of the paraphernalia of the gods

and

of current

popular

more or

connected with the matters

In conclusion I should like to express in too apparent to every reader of this statement.

have been discussing. words what must be only


I

It

claims to be noth-

ing

more than a contribution


in the history of

to the study of

some

of the

most
ill

difficult

problems

human
I

thought.

For one so
it

for a task of such a nature as

am

to attempt

calls for

-equipped a word of

explanation.

The

clear light that recent research has shed

upon the

earliest literature in the

world has done much

to destroy the founda-

tions

up.

upon which the theories propounded by scholars have been built It seemed to be worth while to attempt to read afresh the voluof old

minous mass
formation.

documents with the illumination of

this

new

in-

The

other reason for making such an attempt

is

that almost every

modern scholar who has discussed the matters


beliefs

at issue

has assumed

that the fashionable doctrine of the independent development of

human

and

practices

was a

safe basis

upon which

to construct his

am I an unproven and reckless speculation. convinced it is utterly false. Holding such views I have attempted to read the evidence afresh.
theories.

At

best

it is

THE POETRY OF
BY
C. H.

LUCRETIUS.
M.A., Lirr.D.,

HERFORD,

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER.


Dedicated
to the

IN

THE

RT. HON. VISCOUNT MORLEY, O.M.


Chancellor of the University of Manchester,
" Lucretius stands alone
inspires him,
in

the controversial force

and energy with which the genius

of negation
is

into sublime reasons for firm act, so long as living breath the thought that the life of a man is no more than the dream of a shadow."

and transforms

ours,

Lord Motley's " Recollections

".

I.

was a time when

the

title
if

of

THERE
Lucretius

been received as a paradox


terms.

paper would have not as a contradiction in


this

Lessing,

as

is

well known, declared roundly that

was

"

versifier,
critics.

not a poet,"
It
is

and Lessing was one

of the

greatest of

European

easy, indeed, to see the reason of


It

Lessing's trenchant condemnation.

reflects his implicit

acceptance
valid

of Aristotle's Poetics,

which he

said

was

for

him as absolutely
is

as Euclid,
tion

and therefore
action.

of Aristotle's doctrine that poetry

imita-

of

human

Lessing's

insistence

on

this

doctrine

was
status

extraordinarily salutary in his day,


of the dubious kinds

and

definitely

lowered the

known
the

as descriptive,

allegorical, satirical,

and

didactic poetry, in a

century too

phrase of his about


correct, well-defined,
sue,

imitation of
safe

much given to them all. That human action marked out a

and

channel for the stream of poetry to pur-

rills of his generation improved chance of survival by falling into it and flowing between its their But Lessing did not reckon with the power of poetic genius banks.

and some

of the slender poetic

to force
1

its

own way

to the sea through

no matter

how

tangled and

An

elaboration of the Lecture delivered in the John Rylands Library


263

on 14 February, 1917.

264

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


nay, to capture from the very obstructions
it

tortuous a river-bed,

over-

comes new splendours of foam and rainbow unknown perhaps to the In plain language, he did not reckon with the well-regulated stream.
fact that

a prima facie inferior form, such as


its inferiority

satire or didactic,

may

not only have

may
thus

actually elicit

outweighed by compensating beauties, but and provoke beauties not otherwise to be had, and
obstacle, but

an instrument of poetry. Nor did he foresee that such a recovery of poetic genius, such an effacement of the old boundaries, such a withdrawal of the old taboos, was to come
wrote.

become not an

with the following century, nay, was actually impending when he Goethe, who read the Laokoon entranced, as a young student

at Leipzig,

honoured

its

teaching very

much on

this

side of idolatry

when he came to

maturity.

As a devoted

investigator of Nature,

who

divined the inner continuity of the flower and the leaf with the same penetrating intuition which read the continuity of a man, or of a historic city, in all the

phases of their growth, Goethe was not likely to

confine poetry within the bounds either of humanity or of the

drums
which
him-

and tramplings, the

violence,

passion,

and sudden death,

for

human
self

action in poetic criticism has too


of

commonly
"
that

stood.

He

wrote a poem
a

noble beauty on the


suffices to

(1797)

poem which

show

Metamorphosis of Plants'* it is possible to be poeti-

cally right

while merely unfolding the inner truth of things in perfectly 1 cannot wonder, then, that Lucretius and the adequate speech. " poem On the Nature of Things*' excited in the greatest of German

We

poets the liveliest interest and admiration.

On

the score of subject

But he alone he eagerly welcomed the great example of Lucretius. saw that Lucretius had supreme gifts as a poet, which would have

and which, far from being balked by the subject of his choice, found in it peculiarly large scope " and play. What sets our Lucretius so high,*' he wrote (1821) to " what his friend v. Knebel, author of the first German translation,
given distinction to whatever he wrote,

him so high and assures him eternal renown, is a lofty faculty of in sensuous intuition, which enables him to describe with power
sets
;

Goethe probably never heard of a less fortunate adventure in that kind by his English contemporary Dr. Erasmus Darwin, the Loves of the Plants, which had then been famous in England for ten years a poem which suffices to show that it is possible to exploit in the description of
;

natural processes

all

the figures and personifications of poetry, and yet to

go egregiously wrong.

THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS


addition, he disposes of a powerful imagination,
to pursue

265

which enables him

depths of

what he has seen beyond the reach of sense into the invisible But while Nature and her most mysterious recesses/*

Goethe thus led the way in endorsing without reserve the Lucretian conception of what the field of poetry might legitimately include,
he contributed
to the discussion

nothing, so far as

know, so
*'
:

illu-

minating or so profound as the great saying of


is

Wordsworth

poetry
all

the impassioned expression which


".

is

in the

countenance of

sci-

For Wordsworth here sweeps peremptorily away the boundmarks set up, for better or worse, by ancient criticism - he knows ary he finds the nothing of a poetry purely of man or purely of action
ence
:

differentia of poetry not in


field of

any particular choice of subject out of the

real things, but in the

impassioned handling

of

them whence-

soever drawn, and therefore including the impassioned handling of reality as such, or, in the Lucretian phrase, of the nature of things.

What

did he

mean by impassioned ?
to effect

Something more,

certainly,

than the enthusiasm of a writer possessed with his theme, or even of

one eager, as Lucretius was,

in the clotted soul of a friend.

by its means a glorious purgation We come nearer when we recall the

" earth's tears and mirth, profound emotion stirred in Wordsworth by *' her humblest mirth and tears," or the thought, too deep for tears,"
given him
is

by the

lowliest flower of the field.

Such passion

as this

it implies something that we may call paron the one side and response on the other. The poet finds ticipation himself in Nature, finds there something that answers to spiritual needs

not easily analysed, but

of his

own.

The measure

of the poet's

mind

will

be the measure of
poet will people

the value of the response he receives.

small

Nature with

fantastic shapes

which

fancy or his self-centred desires. Nature, but putting one into her mouth
bustling conversationalist
cuts
it

nothing but his capricious That is not finding a response in


reflect
;

a procedure like that of the "

who, instead

of listening to

short with a

"

You mean

to say

your explanation, whatever it suits him to

suppose.

But the poet

of finer genius will neither seek nor

be

satisfied

with such hollow response as this. If he finds himself in Nature, it his shallow fancies or passing regrets that he finds, but his will not be
furthest reach,

and

loftiest

be said

to

"

appetency of soul.
to

He

will not properly


it

subdue things

the mind," as

Bacon declared

to

be

'ToKnebel,

14 February, 1821.

266

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


of,

the characteristic aim of poetry to do, instead

like

philosophy,

subduing the mind to things.

But he

will

feel

after analogies to

mind

in

the

universe

of

things

which mind

contemplates

and

interprets.

Such an analogy,
the changing
tinuity of our

for instance, is the sense of

continuity underlying

show

of the material world, corresponding to the con-

own

self-consciousness through the perpetual variations

of our soul states.

The

doctrine of a permanent substance persisting


its

through the multiplicity of Nature, and giving birth to all

passing

modes, belongs as much to poetry as


the

to philosophy,

and owes
the

as

to impassioned intuition as to a priori thought.

Under

much name of

the problem of Change and Permanence and fascinated every department of Greek thought it properplexed voked the opposite extravagances of Heracleitos, who declared change the

"

One and

"

Many

to be the only form of existence,

and

of the

Eleatics,

who

denied

that

it

existed at all
of the

but

it

also inspired the ordered


'

and symmetrical
feel

beauty

Parthenon and the Pindaric ode.


"it
;

When we

the
the

poetic thrill," says Santayana,


concise,

is

when we

find fulness in

and depth

in

the clear

and

that seems to

express with

felicitous precision the genius of

Hellenic art."
the discovery of infinity.

A second
ease
in

such analogy

is

Common
its

sense observes measure and rule, complies with custom, and takes

but we recognize a higher quality day's work is done the love that knows no measure, in the spiritual hunger and thirst

when

its

which are never

stilled.

Therefore, at the height of our humanity,


it

we

find ourselves in the universe in proportion as


for

sustains

and gives

an endlessly ranging and endlessly penetrating thought. scope The Stoics looked on the universe as a globe pervaded by what Munro unkindly calls a rotund and rotatory god ; at the circumference
of
;

which

all

existence,

including

that

of

space,

simply

common sense revolts, but imagination is even more rudely stopped balked, and we glory in the defiant description of Epicurus passing beyond the flaming walls of the world. Yet we are stirred with a far more potent intellectual sympathy when the idea is suggested, say
by Spinoza,
or
that space

and time themselves are but


an
infinite

particular
of other

modes

of a universe

which

exists also in

number

ways

when,

in the final

cantos of Dante's Paradise, after passing

up

from Earth, the centre, through the successive ever-widening spheres

THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS


that circle

267

round

it,

till

we
as

reach the Empyrean, the whole per-

spective

and
real

structure of the universe are


centre,

suddenly inverted, and


".

we

see

the

God,

single

point of dazzling

intensity,

irradiating existence "through

and through

Then we
is

realize that
illusive

the space

we have been

laboriously traversing

only the
for the

medium
and

of our sense-existence,

and without meaning

Eternity

Infinity of divine reality.

This example has led us to the verge of another class of poetic ideas, those in which poetry discovers in the world not merely
analogies of mind, but

mind

itself.

This

is

the commonest, and in

some
ideas.

of

its
It

phases the cheapest and poorest, intellectually, of all poetic touches at one pole the naive personation which peoples

earth and air for primitive

man with spirits whom he seeks by ritual and magic to propitiate or to circumvent. The brilliant and beautiful woof of myth is, if we will, poetry as well as religion the primi;

tive

and rudimentary poetry of a primitive and rudimentary religion. Yet it points, however crudely, to the subtler kinds of response which

a riper poetic insight


of

may

discover.

If

the glorious anthropomorphism

has faded for ever, the mystery of life, " in man everywhere pulsing through Nature, and perpetually reborn and beast and earth and air and sea," cries to the poet in every

Olympus and Asgard

moment
if

of his experience with a voice

which will not be put by, and


to

the symbols from soul- life


it,

by which he seeks

convey

his sense of

they often read

human

personality too definitely into the play of


it

that elusive mystery, yet capture something in

which escapes the


with

reasoned formulas of science, and


to

justify the claim of poetic experience

be the source
no
less

of

an outlook upon the world,

of a vision of

life,

than with those reached through philosophy and religion, civilization has to reckon. The poetic consciousness of soul has thus left a deep impress upon the medium of ideas through which we currently regard both Nature

which,

and Man.

It

has imbued with a richer significance and a


I
;

livelier

spoke but bare conceptions of continuity and substance into Wordsworth's

appeal those analogies in Nature of which

turning the sublime

something more deeply interfused, or Shelley's Love through the web of Being blindly wove ; turning the abstraction of infinity " " which Browninfinite passion into limitless aspiration, or into that
. . .

ing

felt

across

"the pain

of finite hearts that yearn ".

268

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


On
the other hand, in
its

interpretation of

Man,

the poetic soul-

consciousness, so extraordinarily intense


tive side,

on the emotional and imagina;

prominence illuminating and sustaining everywhere the impassioned insight which carries men outside and beyond themselves, in heroism, in prophecy, in creation,

has

lifted these aspects of soul into

which makes the past alive for them, and the future urgent them to a vision of good and evil beyond that of moral to the perception that danger is the true safety, and death, as codes " " Brooke said, safest of all which in a word gives wing and Rupert scope and power to that in man which endures, as the stream endures
in love
;

which

lifts

though

its

water

is

ever gliding on, and makes us


".

"

feel

that

we

are

greater than
I

we know

have
is

tried

to sketch out

some

of the

ways

in

which a

scientific

poetry

possible without disparagement to either element in the de-

scription-

Let

great poet of

me now proceed to apply some of science who is our immediate subject.


ii.

these ideas to the

In this assembly

it

is

unnecessary

to

recall

the

little

that

is

told, on dubious authority, of the life which began a little less than a hundred years before the Christian era, and ended when he was not

much

over forty,
life is

when

Virgil

told of his
philtre,

the story

was a very young man. All that is that he went mad after receiving a loveof his great

"

composed the books


in

"

poem

On

the Nature of

Things
It is

his

lucid intervals,

and

finally

this

into his

which Tennyson with noble poem. We need not here


tradition
in the

died by his own hand. great art has worked up


discuss the truth either of

the tradition of madness or of that of suicide.


that

What
own

is

certain

is

no poem

world bears a more powerful impress

of coherent

and continuous thought.

While

the poets of his

time and of the

next generation, though deeply interested in his poetry and in his ideas, know nothing of the tragic story which first emerges in a testi-

mony

four centuries later.

Lucretius called his

poem by

the bald

"
title

Of

the Nature of

Things".

term or phrase can describe the aims which, distinct^but continually playing into and through one another, compose
single

But no

the intense animating purpose of the book. may say that it is at once a scientific treatise, a gospel of salvation, and an epic o

We

THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS


nature and

269

man

yet

we

are rarely conscious of any one of these


rest.

aims to the exclusion of the


Lucretius wholly original.

In

none

of these three aims

was

In each of

among

the speculative thinkers

and poets
of
;

them he had a great precursor of Greece. His science


Democritus
;

roughly speaking
salvation

was

the

was the creation work of Epicurus

his

gospel of

poem on

the nature of things,

and the greatest example of a before his, had been given by Empe-

docles, the poet- philosopher of

made

the

mouthpiece of
In his

his

Agrigentum whom Matthew Arnold grave and lofty hymn of nineteenth-

century pessimism.

country his only predecessor in any sense was Ennius, the old national poet who had first cast the hexa-

own

meter

in

the stubborn

mould

of Latin speech, to

whom

he pays char-

generous homage. atomic system of Democritus, which explained all things in the universe as combinations of different kinds of material particles,
acteristically

The

was a
its

magnificent contribution to physical science, and the

fertility of

essential

idea

is still

unexhausted.
art,

It

touched the problems of


in so far as
it

mind and mind and


Epicurus,

life,

of ethics
its

and

only indirectly,
functions of

resolved

all

activities

into

matter

and motion.

on the other hand, a

showing the

way

to a life

saintly recluse, bent only upon of serene and cheerful virtue, took over

the doctrine of the great physicist of Abdera, without any touch of


dispassionate speculative interest, as that
relief

from disturbing

interests

and

cares,

which promised most effectual and especially from the dislife after

turbance generated by fear of the gods and of a

death.

He
who

might have gone


think

to the great

Athenian
whether

idealists of the fourth century,

the immortal masters not only of those

who know,
in

but of those

and labour and


But
his

create,

science or in poetry or in

citizenship.

aim was precisely

to liberate from these distract-

weary generation from the forum and the workshop, even the studio of letters or of art, and the temples
ing energies,

and

allure a

of his garden the garden of with innocent and beautiful things. What Epicurus added of his own to Democritus' theory was an accomand the measure of his modation not to truth but to convenience of the gods, into the choice seclusion

a soul at peace, fragrant

scientific

ardour

tions of the

vention of

given by explanasame phenomenon, provided they dispense with the interthe gods. While the measure of his attachment to poetry

is

his easy toleration of conflicting

270
is

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


it

given by his counsel to his disciples to go past ears, as by the siren's deadly song.
It

with stopped

adopted by Epicurus in the interest but of his gospel of deliverance from the cares of superstition, that Lucretius took over with the fervour of discipleship. He was not, like Pope in the " Essay on Man," providing an
this scientific doctrine,

was

not of

science

elegant dress for philosophic ideas which he only half understood and

abandoned

in

alarm when they threatened to be dangerous.


it is

He

was

the prophet of Epicureanism, and

among

the prophets of the


to the

faiths

by which men

live

and die that

we

must seek a parallel

passionate earnestness with which

he proclaims to

Memmius

the

saving gospel of
later
It

Epicurus,

to that

same Memmius who a few years

Epicurus' memory by destroying his house. was the hope of pouring the light and joy of saving truth upon the mind of this rather obtuse Roman, his beloved friend, that Lucretius

showed

his piety to

laboured, he

tells us,

through the

silent

watches of the night, seeking


things clear.
1

phrase and measure which might make deep and hidden

also as a poet and in the temper of his pen to a good cause, nor turning He was not lending poetry. Greek science into Latin hexameters in order that they might be more

But Lucretius

felt

and thought

vividly grasped or

more readily remembered.


;

He

was conquering a
foot before

new way
his

in

poetry

striking out a

virgin path

which no

had

trod.

calls

on the Muses

For Empedocles had had far for aid with as devout a

narrower aims.

And

he

faith in his poetic mission

in the great

adventure as Milton had


to

when he summoned Urania


"

or

things unguide while he attempted What we admire unreservedly attempted yet in prose or rhyme ". in him, declares a great French poet who died only the other day,

some greater Muse

be

his

Sully- Prudhomme,

is

the breath of independence which sweeps through

the entire

work

of this

most robust and precise

of poets.

the poet at the outset, in the wonderful transfiguration which the gentle recluse Epicurus undergoes in the For it was of this enemy of disardent brain of his Roman disciple.
see the temper of

We

turbing emotion, this quietist of paganism, this timid and debonnaire

humanitarian,
portrait

that

Lucretius

drew the magnificent and


of the
is

astonishing

which immediately follows the prologue

De Rerum
the heroic

Natura.

The

Lucretian Epicurus

Prometheus,

M. 140

f.

THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS


Greek who
tyrant
first

27!

of mortals

Religion to her face.

dared to defy and withstand the monstrous No fabled terror could appal him, no
;

crashing thunder, nor the anger of heaven

these only kindled the


first

more the eager courage of So the of Nature's gates.


and
tell

his soul,
living

to

be the

to break the bars


;

might of

his soul prevailed

and he

passed beyond the flaming walls of the world and traversed in


spirit

mind

the immeasurable universe

returning thence in triumph to


into being
;

us

what

can, and what cannot, come

under
in turn

foot Religion

who
up

having trampled once crushed mankind, and lifted mankind

by

his victory

to the height of heaven.

One

thus ardently proclaim


springs of poetry
;

might well surmise that a philosophy which a poet could was itself, after all, not without the seeds and

and that Lucretius

in

choosing to expound
of

it

in

verse

was

not staking everything on his

power

making good

radical

defects of substance
sions.

by

telling

surface decoration or brilliant digres-

recognized, no doubt, a difference in popular appeal between his substance and his form, and in a famous and delightful

He

passage compares himself to the physician who touches the edge of the bitter cup with honey, ensnaring credulous childhood to its own
So, he tells Memmius, he is spreading the honey of the Muses good. his difficult matter, that he may hold him by the charm of verse over
until the nature of things
is

have grown clear to

his sight.

But Lucretius

here putting himself at the point of view of the indifferent layman, and especially of the rather obtuse layman whose interest he was

with almost pathetic eagerness seeking to capture.

One

guesses that

Memmius,

wood
like

was by no means reconciled to the wormwas prefaced with honey and modern critics who^ Mommsen, condemn his choice of subject as a blunder, come
like the boy,
it

because

near to adopting the resentful boy's point of view.

But

in

the

splendid lines which immediately precede, though they form part of the same apology to Memmius, the poet involuntarily betrays his own

The hope of glory, he says, very different .conception of the matter. " has kindled in his breast the love of the Muses, whereby inspired
I

am

exploring a virgin

soil of

poetry hitherto untrodden by any foot.

the joy of approaching the unsullied bprings, and quaffing them, the joy of culling flowers unknown, whence may be woven a splendid
for

wreath

my
;

withal before

head, such as the Muses have arrayed no man's brows first because I am reporting on a great theme, and

272
undoing the then because

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


tight
I

knot of superstition from the minds of men and convey dark matters in such transparent verse, touching
;

everything with the Muses' charm." Here, in spite of the last words,

Lucretius clearly feels that his

matter

is

honey

something more than the wormwood which he overlays with it is a vast region of implicit poetry which he, first of poets, is

going to discover
subject matter

and annex

and he

rests his

claim to the poetic

wreath he expects to win,


itself,

theory would suggest,


it,

in the first place upon this greatness of the and secondly, not as the wormwood and honey on the ingenious fancy which decorates or disguises
it

but on the lucid style which allows window, upon the ignorant mind.
in.

to shine in, as through a

Let us then consider from


Lucretius.

this

point of
it,

view the subject of

This
it is

subject, as

he conceives

has two aspects.

On
crude
of

the one side


religion

negative

an annihilating

criticism of all the

founded upon something after death

fear,

fear of the gods, fear of death

and

criticism delivered

with remorseless power and

culminating in the sinewy intensity of the terrible line


'

Tantum
once

religio potuit suadere

malorum,'

which

transfixes

for all the consecrated principle of

tabu every-

where dominant
ice,

in the primitive faiths, the

product of

man's coward-

as magic

is

the product of his pride.


is

The
tual

other aspect

constructive
of a

the building up of the intelleclife, by setting forth the and the development of

and moral framework

worthy human
life,

true nature of the universe, the history of

man

in other words, the story of his struggle through the ages, with

the obstacles opposed to

him by the power

of

untamed nature, by
of

wild beasts, storms, inundations, by the rivalry and antagonism


other men, and
as clearly as
in the

by the wild unreason in his own breast. Lucretius saw any modern thinker that man's conduct of his life, whether
circle of

narrow

larger sphere of civic polity,

domestic happiness and personal duty, or in the must be based upon a comprehension of
of the past

the external world

and

through which
for his

we have grown

to

what we

are

and making allowance


1

more

limited resources

and

1.

922

THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS


his \nore confined point of view,

273

he carried
in

it

out with magnificent

power.

So

that

if

his

poem remains

nominal intention a didactic


it

treatise, in its inner substance

and purport

might better be described


for its protagonist
;

as a colossal epic of the universe, with


of the
for
its

man

and the

spectres vanquished gods the heroic exultations nor the tragic dooms, neither the melancholy over what passes nor the triumph in what endures, which go to the

foes

and wanting neither

making of the greatest poetry. These two aspects criticism and construction
intimately bound together
apart.
in

are thus most

the poem, but can yet be considered


its

And

to each belongs

own

peculiar and distinct vein of


first

poetry.

On

the

whole

it

is

the former, at

sight

so

much

less

favourable to poetic purposes, which has most enthralled posterity. For the voice of Lucretius is here a distinctive, almost a solitary voice.

The

poets for the most part have been the weavers of the veil
visions
in

of

dreams and

walked
veil

whose glamour the races of mankind have but here came a poet, and one of the greatest, who rent the

asunder and bade

men gaze upon


has in
it

the nature of things naked and


illusion
thril-

unadorned.

And
.

his austere

chaunt of triumph as he pierces

and
ling

scatters superstition,

something more poignant and

than
after

For

a new

a song of voluptuous ecstacy or enchanted reverie. the passing of an old order of things and the coming of all, has always at least the interest of colossal drama, and cannot

many

leave us unmoved, however baneful

we may

hold the old order to

have been, however we may exult in the deliverance effected by the So Milton's celebration of the birth of Christ only reaches the new.
heights of poetry
divinities
:

when he

is

telling of the

passing of the old pagan

The

oracles are

dumb,

No
Runs

voice or hideous

hum
words deceiving.

thro' the

arched roof

in

Apollo from his shrine Can no more divine,

With hollow

shriek the sleep of

Delphos leaving.

No

nightly trance, or breathed spell,

Inspires the pale-eyed priest from the prophetic cell.

274

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


The
lonely mountains o'er

And

the resounding shore,

A voice of weeping heard and


From haunted
Edged with poplar

loud lament
dale,

spring and
pale,

The parting genius is with sighing sent With flower-inwoven tresses torn The nymphs in twilight shade of tangled

thicket mourn.

Through the Christian's exultation there sounds, less haps, but more clear, the Humanist scholar's sense
In

consciously perof tragedy

and

pathos. Hyperion, even more, we are made to feel the pathos of the passing of the fallen divinity of Saturn and his host and Hyperion
;

himself, the sun-god of the old order of physical

light, is

more

magnifi-

cently presented than Apollo, the sun-god of the


intelligence

new

order of radiant

and song.
sublime

Lucretius, as

we
;

shall see, brings

back the old

divinity in a

way

of his

own
and

but he feels the beneficence of

the

new

order of
of

scientific vision

inviolable

have any sense


caprice.

pathos at the passing of the reign of superstition

law too profoundly to and


the wrath

He

is

rather possessed with flaming wrath as he recalls the

towering

evils of

which that old regime had been


truly divine in
spirit

guilty

of a prophet,

more
is

than the divinities he assailed,

as Prometheus

more divine than Zeus.

Again and again we are

reminded, as

read his great invectives, not of the sceptics mocking all gods indiscriminately in the name of enlightened good sense, but of a Hebrew prophet, chastising those who sacrifice to the gods of the

we

Gentiles, in the

name

of the

God

of righteousness

who

refuses to

be

worshipped with offerings of blood. There is surely a spirit not far remote from this in the indignant pity with which he tells, in a famous

and splendid passage, the

sacrifice of Iphigenia at the divine bidding,


its

as the price of the liberation of the Grecian fleet on

way

to

Troy.

How

What

often has fear of the gods begotten impious and criminal acts! else was it that led the chieftains of Greece, foremost of men,

foully to stain the altar of Artemis with the blood of the maiden Soon as the victim's band was bound about her virgin Iphigenia?
locks,

and she saw her

father grief- stricken before the altar,

and

at

his side the priests concealing the knife, and the onlookers shedding tears at the sight, dumb with fear she sank on her knees to the

ground.
die
first

And

it

up by

to call the king by the the hands of men, and

availed her nothing at that hour that she had been name of father for she was caught
;

borne trembling to the

altar

not to

THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS

275

have a glad wedding hymn sung before her when these sacred rites were over, but to be piteously struck down, a victim, stained with her own stainless blood, by the hand of a father in the very flower and all in order to procure a happy deliverof her bridal years So huge a mass of evils ance might be granted to the captive fleet.
;

has fear of the gods brought forth!

[l.

84-101].
is

Thus

the crucial proof of the badness of the old religions


in their

de-

rived from the hideous violence done


beautiful pieties of the family.

name

to the natural

and

Yet, with
feels

all

his fierce

aversion for this baneful

fear,

Lucretius

His intense imagination enters into profoundly how natural it is. inmost recesses of the human heart, and runs counter, as it were, to the
the argument of his powerful reason riveting upon our senses with almost intolerable force the beliefs which he is himself seeking to dis;

pel

so that
his

though there

is

no

trace of

doubt or obscurity
refute.

in his

own

mind,

a plea for
rision

words need only to be set in a that which he is using them to


the Stoic doctrine of an

different context to

become
very dein

Thus

his

of

all- pervading

God

is

conveyed

anguage
'

of

what one

is

again prompted to call Hebraic magnificence.

What power

can rule the immeasurable All, or hold the reins of


?

the great deep

with ethereal
sky and
of the

fires ?

thrilling

who can revolve the heavens and warm the earth who can be everywhere present, making dark the " it with ? [v. 234 f.] Do we clashing sound
.
. .

not seem to

listen to

an echo of the ironical questions of the Jahveh

Book

of

Job

only scorn for the believer, in spite of his involunBut in another passage we see tary imaginative hold upon the belief. the poet himself shudder with the fear that his logic is in the act of
feels

There he

plucking up by the roots

When we

gaze upward

at the great vault of

inlaid with shining stars, then the dread will start

and consider the paths


into
life

heaven, and the empyrean of sun and moon, within us lest haply it be the

immeasurable might of gods which moves the blazing stars along their diverse ways. For the poverty of our reason tempts us to wonder whether the world was not once begotten, and whether it be destined to perish when its ceaseless movements have worn it
out, or
all

immortal life glide on perpetually, defying the might of time. then what man is there whose heart does not shrink with terror of the gods, whose limbs do not creep

endowed with

And

18

276

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


with fear,

when
of

and the roar

the parched earth trembles at the lightning stroke, thunder rolls through the sky Do not the
!

peoples shudder, and haughty kings quake with fear, lest for some foul deed or arrogant speech a dire penalty has been incurred

and the hour be come when it must be paid ? For when the might of the hurricane sweeps the commander of a fleet before it along the seas, with all his force of legions and elephants, does he not approach the gods with prayers for their favour and helping winds and all in vain, for often enough none the less he is So caught in the whirlpool and flung into the jaws of death ? utterly does some hidden power seem to consume the works of
;

man, and his wrath

to

trample and deride

all

the symbols of his glory

and

[V.

1194

f.].

But beyond the fear of what the gods may do to us on earth, the dread of what lay another more insidious and ineluctable fear, befall us after death. It was a main part of Lucretius's purpose may
to meet this

by showing
;

that death

meant

dissolution,

and

dissolution

unconsciousness

but

men
and

continued to dread, and


brilliant,

this is

the reason:

ing, equally inconclusive

with which he confronts them

Therefore since death annihilates, and bars out from being altogether him whom evils might befall, it is plain that in death there is nothing for us to fear, and that a man cannot be unhappy who does not exist at all, and that it matters not a jot whether a man has been born, when death the deathless has swallowed up life that dies. Therefore, when you see a man bewail himself that after death his body
jaws of beasts, his profession does not ring true, and there lurks a secret sting in his clearly heart, for all his denial that he believes there is any feeling in the dead. For, I take it, he does not fulfil his promise, nor follow out his principle, and sever himself out and out from life, but unconFor when as a living sciously makes something of himself survive. man he imagines his future fate, and sees himself devoured by birds and beasts, he pities himself for he does not distinguish between himself and the others, nor sever himself from the imagined body, but imagines himself to be it, and impregnates it with his own feelHence he is indignant that he has been created mortal, nor ing. sees that there will not in reality be after death another self, to grieve as a living being that he is dead, and feel pangs as he stands by, that he himself is lying there being mangled or consumed.
;

will rot, or perish in flames or in the

Then he

supposes the dying man's friends to condole with him


shall

Now

no more thy glad home

welcome

nor sweet children run to snatch


secret delight.

thee, nor a beloved wife, kisses, touching thy heart with

No more

wilt thou

be prosperous

in thy doings,

no

277 THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS cruel day has taken more be a shelter to thy dear ones. A
single,

from thee, hapless man,


they forget to

all

the need of

life.

So they

tell

you, but

add

that neither for


[ill.

any one of these things wilt thou

any longer

feel desire

863].

IV.

So much then
criticism

for

the

first

aspect of

Lucret Jus's poem,

the

of

"
poetry

"

the old religions.

Most
But

of the recognized
I

and famous

of the

book

is

connected, like the passages


I

have quoted, with


to

this negative side of his creed.

am more concerned
and

show

that

a different and not

less

noble vein of poetry was rooted in the rich


;

positive appetencies of his nature


in the vast

in his acute

exquisite senses

and sublime ideas which underlay


his intense

his

doctrine
;

of the

world

in

apprehension of the zest of

life

and, on the
the texture of

other hand, penetrating, like an invisible but potent


his

spirit

reasoned unconcern, his profound, unconfessed sense of the pathos of death, his melancholy in the presence of the doom of universal dissolution

which he foresaw
first

for the

world and

for

mankind.
;

Let us look

at the

main constructive idea

the atomic theory

of Democritus, taken over

for

by Epicurus and expounded by Lucretius. For this theory was in effect, and probably in intention, a device overcoming that antithesis of the One and the Many, of PermanI

ence and Change, of which

have spoken. The Eleatics had declared that pure Being was alone real, and denied Change and Motion
;

Heracleitus declared that nothing


perpetuity "flux".
*'

His

rival

Change, and the only Democritus showed that it was posreal but

was

sible to hold, in the phrase of

Browning's philosophic

Don

Juan, that

there

is

in

that shifting

things change, and permanence as well," by supposing and unstable world of the senses, where all things die and
all

are born, to be composed of uncreated and indestructible elements.

Underlying the ceaseless fluctuations of Nature, and life as we see them, lay a continuity of eternal substance, of which they were the one of the greatest of philosophical conceptions, Mr. passing modes
;

Santayana has called


fically poetic intuition

it,

which

but one also appealing profoundly to the speciI have described. Whether the permanent
flux of sense

apprehended through the


Plato's ideas, or Shelley's
it

be a

spiritual

substance like

"

white radiance of eternity," or whether


of the flowing river, as in
it

be the constant form and function

Words-

worth's

Duddon

sonnet

or whether, as here,

be a background

278

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


combining and resolved,
;

of material particles perpetually

we have
"

the

we discover sweep kind of intuition which gives the thrill of poetry in the concise, and depth in the clear," infinite perspectives open out in
the

moment and

in

the point, and however remote

the temper of

Spinozan mysticism
light of eternity ".

may

be,

we

yet in some sort see things

"

in the

In

Lucretius this conception

found

a mind

capable of
it

being

ravished

by

its

imaginative grandeur, as well as of pursuing

indefatig-

The contagious ably through the thorniest mazes of mechanical proof. fervour which breathes through his poem is no mere ardour of the
disciple bent

as his hexameters leap forth glowing

on winning converts, or the joy of the on the anvil

literary
;

craftsman

it

is

the sacred
nature,

passion of one

who
It
is

has had a sublime vision of


it

life

and
to

and

who

bears about the radiance of

into all the

work
at

which he has

set his

hand.
in

not because of anything that Lucretius adds to

Epicurus

theory

he

really

adds nothing

all

that the im-

by his poem differs so greatly from that of all we know in fragments and at second hand, it is true of Epicurus *s own writings. The ultimate principles are the same, but the accent is laid at a different point. The parochial timidities of Epicurus have left their traces on the Roman's page, but they appear as hardly more than rudimentary survivals among the native inspirations of a man of
pression produced

heroic mettle

and

valour,

Roman

tenacity,

and native sweep

of mind.

cannot quite break free from some speculative foibles which show the Master's shallow opportunism at its worst, such as the

He

lamp hung a little but he becomes earth, and daily lighted and put out himself when he lets his imagination soar into the infinities of time and
is
it

dictum that the sun

about as large as

looks, a

above the

It is a triumph space which his faith opens out or leaves room for. of poetry as well as of common sense when he scoffs at the Stoic

dogma

Space which abruptly comes to an end when he stations an archer at the barrier and ironically bids him shoot his arrow
of a
;

into the nothingness

Or in more sombre mood, how grave beyond. an intensity he puts into a common thought, like that of the end of
life,

by the sublimely
:

terrible epithet

immortal which he

applies to

death

Mortalem vitam Mors cum immortalis ademit


or into a

[ill.

869].
us,

mere reminder

that birth

and death are always with

by

THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS


making us
feel

279

the endless concomitant succession through the ages of He acfuneral waitings, and the cry of the new-born child [ll. 578].

cepts without question the swerving of the atoms, devised


child

by Epicurus

and man
;

of genius at

once

to refute the

Stoic

dogma

of

necessity
intrusions

existence,
of
life.

mind and imagination is not these but what of caprice but the great continuities and uniformities of which follow from the perpetual dissolution and remaking
possesses his

"
of

Rains

die,
;

when

father ether has tumbled

them

into the

lap

mother earth
fruit
;

laden with
cities

but then goodly crops spring up and trees and by them we and the beasts are fed, and joyous
of

teem with children and the woods ring with the song
[I.

young

birds"

250

f.].

Only, as such passages show, Lucretius grasps these uniformities

and

continuities not as theoretic abstractions, but as underlying con-

ditions of the teeming multiplicity

and joyous profusion


intellect,
;

of living Nature.

His

senses,

imagination,

and philosophic

acute and alert, wrought intimately together

all phenomenally and he enters into and

exposes the life of the individual thing with an intensity of insight and a realistic precision and power which quicken us with its warm pulse,

and burn

its

sciousness that

image upon our brain, without ever relaxing our conit is part of an endless process, and the incidental
an
intrinsic

expression of an unalterable law.


individuality
is

Every being has its (terminus alte haerens). The very stone, for Dante, cleaves to the And the Roman as well as the philosopher in spot where it lies. Lucretius scornfully contrasts with this Nature of minute and ubiquitous law the fluid and chaotic world of myth, where anything might

For him, indeed, as for Dante, law, and law of individuality. part " place and function, its deep fixed boundaries"
of

become anything

[cf.

V.

126

f.].

V.
conception of the nature of the process itself does In the mind of an exponent so richly insensibly undergo a change.
less, his

None

the

endowed and

so transparently sincere,

the hidden flaw in his system

could not but at some point disturb its imposing coherence. Atomism could not at bottom explain life, and life poured with too abounding a
tide through

the heart

and brain

of Lucretius not to sap in

some de-

gree the authority of his mechanical calculus, and to lend a surreptitious

280

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY

persuasiveness to inconsistent analogies derived from the animated soul. Without ostensibly disturbing the integrity of his Epicurean creed, such
analogies have, in

two ways, infused an


will,

and

alien implications into his thought.

such abounding natures

that life

alien colour into his poetry In the first place, he feels, as " "

the mere living


its

is

some-

how

very good,

in spite of all

the evils

it

brings in
it

train,

and death

When he world cannot have been made by gods, he is demonstrating that the set forth its grave inherent flaws of structure and arrangement with
pathetic in spite of all the evils

from which

sets us free.

merciless trenchancy

tantd stat praedita culpd [v. 99] and like Lear, he makes the new-born child wail because he is come into a And no one ever urged with world where so many griefs await him.
1
;

more passionate eloquence that


the
less,

it is

unreasonable to fear to

die.

None

escape him.

To And

phrases charged with a different feeling about life continually He speaks of the praeclara mundi natura [v. 157]. " " rise up into the divine borders of light begin to live is to [l. 20].
secondly, despite his philosophical assurance, incessantly repeated,

that birth

" Alid ex alio death of something else, " gigni patitur, nisi morte adiuta aliena

and death are merely different aspects of the same continuous mechanical process, and that nothing receives life except by the
reficit
[l.

natura, nee ullam


etc.],

Rem

264,

he cannot supis

press suggestions that the creative energy of the

world

akin to that

which with conscious


tions of

desire

and

will bring forth the successive genera-

Man.

And

so, in the

astonishing

and magnificent opening

who was about to demonstrate that the gods lived remote from the life of men, calls upon Venus, the legendeternally ary mother of his own race, as the divine power ever at work in this
address, the poet

teeming universe, the giver of increase, bringing all things to birth, from the simplest corn blade to the might and glory of the Roman Empire r

Mother

who under

Roman race, delight of gods and men, benign Venus, the gliding constellations of heaven fillest with thy presence the sea with its ships and the earth with its fruits, seeing that
of the

all the races of living things are conceived and come being in the light of day, before thee goddess the winds take flight, and the clouds of heaven at thy coming, at thy feet the brown earth sheds her flowers of a thousand hues, before thee the sea breaks into rippling laughter, and the untroubled sky glows with

by thy power

to

radiant light

[l.

f.].

So grave and impassioned an appeal cannot be

treated as

mere

THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS


rhetorical

281
of the kind

which
for

is

not a

ornament. "

If

we
"

call

it

figure,

it

is

figure

poetical

substitute for prose, but conveys something

of

which no other terms are adequate. Lucretius, the exponent doubtless intended no heresy against the Epicurean Epicurus,
;

theology

but
to

Lucretius, the

poet,

was

carried

by

his

vehement

an apprehension of the creative energies of the world imagination so intense and acute that the great symbol of Venus rendered it with

more

veracity than

all

that calculus of atomic

movements which he
with perfect

was about

to expound,
it

and by which

his

logical intellect

sincerity believed

be adequately explained. Far less astonishing than his bold rehabilitation of the goddess of Love is his fetishistic feeling for the Earth, the legendary mother
to

of

men.

For him
"

too,

as

for

primeval myth, she

is

the

"

uni-

versal
tree,

mother,

who

in
;

her fresh youth brought forth flower and

and bird and beast


;

from whose body sprang


us

finally the race

man itself wombs rooted


of

nay, he

tells

how

the infants crept forth,

"

from

and how, wherever this happened, earth " her pores a liquor most like to milk, even yielded naturally through as nowadays every woman when she has given birth is filled with sweet milk, because all that current of nutriment streams towards the
in the soil,"

"

breast
It

[v.
is

788

f.].

true that elsewhere Lucretius speaks with rationalistic con-

descension of the usage which calls the Earth a mother and divine, as a phrase
like

Bacchus

for

wine or Ceres
is

for corn,
it
[ll.

permissible so
f.].

long as no superstitious fear


plain that the Earth's

annexed

to

652

But

it

is

motherhood had a grip upon his poet's imagination quite other than could be exerted by any such tag of poetic Doubtless the fervour with which he insists on it diction. There'

fore again

brought forth the race of


season,"
is

and again Earth is rightly called Mother seeing that she men. and every beast and bird in its due
not wholly due to poetic motives.

He

is

the Stoic doctrine that


in

men were sprung from


it

heaven.

eager to refute But the poet

him
is

is,

all

the same, entranced by the sublimity of the conception

he

urging,

and he describes

with an

afflatus

which dwarfs that

Stoic doctrine,

and makes the splendid legend of Cybele the Earth elaborated by the Greek poets, seem puerile with all its Mother,
"
In the beginning Earth hath in herself the elements

beauty.

whence

watersprings pouring forth their coolness perpetually

renew the bound-

282
less

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


Sea, and

whence

fires arise,

making the ground

in

hot,

and belching

forth the

surpassing flames of /Etna.

many places Then she

bears shining corn and glad woodlands for the support of men, and rivers and leaves and shining pastures for the beasts that haunt the
hills.

Wherefore she

is

called the mother of the gods and mother of


f.].

beasts

and men."

[ll.

589

This all-creating Earth is far enough no doubt from the benign Nature of Wordsworth, who moulds her children by silent sympathy.
not so remote from the Earth of Meredith, the Mother who " " her great venture forth, bears him on her breast and brings Man " more than that embrace, that nourishment, nourishes him there, but

But

it is

she cannot give ".

He may He may

entreat, aspire,

despair,
his

and she has never heed.

She drinking Not his

warm

sweat will soothe his need,

desire.

Meredith too sees man,

in

dread of

her, clutching at invisible powers,

as Lucretius's sea-captain in the storm

makes vows

" " her laws is no less Meredith's thought that man rises by spelling at But Meredith's story of Earth is full of hope, like his Lucretian. It is perpetual advance. of man. With Lucretius it is otherwise. story

to the gods.

And

For the Earth

is

not only our Mother


is

she

is

our tomb

[ll.

11

48

f.].

And

the eternal energy of creation

not only matched

by

the eternal

energy of dissolution, but here and now is actually yielding ground to The Earth, so prolific in her joyous youth, is now like a woman it. " who has ceased to bear, " worn out by length of days [v. 820 f.] In the whole universe birth and death absolutely balance, the equation
of mechanical values
is

never infringed

the universe has no history,

only a continuous substitution of terms.


history,
it

But each

living thing has a

knows the

exultation of onset
is

and the melancholy


fact,

of decline

and
very

its

fear of death
in

not cancelled by the knowledge that in that

moment and
be bora.

consequence of that very

some other

living

thing will

And
us,

thus Lucretius, feeling for our Earth as a


issues of our existence are

being very near to

and with which the

involved, applies the doctrine to her without shrinking indeed, but not

without a

shudder. The Earth had a beginning, and ineluctable reason forces us to conclude that she will have an end, and that

human

not by a gradual evanescence or dispersion, but by a sudden, terrific catastrophe, as in a great earthquake, or world conflagration [v. 95 f.].

THE POETRY OF LUCRETIUS


And
doctrine,

283
its

he

feels

this

abrupt

extinction

of

the Earth and


is,

in-

habitants to be

tragic,

notwithstanding that extinction


of

by

his

only

the

condition

creation,

and

that

at

the

very

moment
birth.

of her ruin,

some other earth him a

will

Earth has
is

for

life-history,

be celebrating its glorious a biography, and he forgets

strictly but a point at which the eternal drift of atoms for a time to a cluster, to be dispersed again. Thus we thickened

that she

see

mechanical system, ardently embraced by a poet, working freely upon him, and itself coloured and transformed by his mind, stirred in him two seemingly opposed kinds of poetic emotion at once
this

how

the sublime sense of eternal existence, and the tragic pathos of sudden

Lucretius goes along with an " " Nevermore of enormous sense of life. To say that he puts the " " romantic sentimentality in the place of that dispassionate give and take
of mechanics

doom and inexorable passing away. Hence the melancholy that in

would do wrong knows

to the

immense

virility

which animates

every

line of this athlete

among

poets.

Of
cheap

the cheap melancholy of


satisfaction of

discontent he

as little as of the

ency, or of that literary melancholy,

where the

sigh of

complacHorace, or

Ronsard, or Herrick, over the passing of roses and all other beautiful things covers a sly diplomatic appeal to the human rosebud to be
gathered while
is
still

there

is

time.

like that of Diirer's

"

No, the melancholy

of

Lucretius

Melancholia," the sadness of strong intellect and


it

far-reaching vision as

contemplates the setting of the sun of time


of

and the ebbing


mournful music of

of

the tides

mortality

or

like

Wordsworth's
the

dissolution,

only to be heard by an ear emancipated


or like the melancholy of Keats,

from vulgar joys and


veiled goddess

fears

who

hath her shrine in the very temple of delight,


Lucretius's

the

amari

aliquid, in

own

yet

more pregnant words,

which

lurks in the very sweetness of the flower.

Thus our
unique

way

appears in an extraordinary if not to have united the functions and temper and achievement
scientific

"

"

poet

of 'science
set

and poetry.

He "knew
lofty joy as of

the causes of things,"

and could

them

forth with marvellous precision

and resource

and the know-

ledge

filled

him with

welter of doubt and fear in

one standing secure above the which the mass of men pass their lives.
pinnacle of intellectual security seemed

To

have reached

this serene

to his greatest follower Virgil a happiness

beyond the reach

of his

284

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


tender and devout genius, and he

own more
Goethe
:

commemorated

it

in

splendid verses which

Matthew Arnold

in

our

own day

applied to

And
His

he was happy, if to know Causes of things, and far below


feet to see the lurid flow

Of
There
inhuman,
is, it

terror

And
may
in this

headlong

and insane distress fate, be happiness.

be, something that repels us, something slightly


little

kind of lonely happiness, and Lucretius does

to

counteract that impression

when he

himself compares

it,

in

another
of

famous passage,

to the satisfaction of

one

who

watches the struggle

Yet a storm-tost ship from the safe vantage-ground of the shore. Lucretius is far from being the lonely egoist that such a passage might
suggest
to his
;

his

poem

itself
:

own
1

security

was meant as a helping hand to lift mankind he knew what devoted friendship was, and we
of

have pleasant glimpses

him wandering with companions among the mountains, or sharing a rustic meal stretched at ease on the grass by 2 a running brook. Lucretius like his master had no social philosophy,
and
it is

his greatest deficiency as

a thinker
to

but he was not poor in

social feeling.

His heart went out

men,

as a physician, not coldly

diagnosing their disease, but eager to cure them.

And

so his feeling for Nature, for the universe of things, though


scientific

rooted in his

apprehension,

is

not

bounded by

it.

He

seizes

upon the sublime conceptions which his science brought to his view,
the permanent substance amid perennial change, the infinity of space

and

time,

and

his vivid

mind

turns these abstractions into the radiant


of heavens, as the old poets

vision of a universe to

which the heaven


veil ".

had conceived

"
it,

was but a

But he went

further,

and

shadowed

forth,

if

half-consciously and in spite of himself, the yet

greater poetic thought, of a living

power pervading the whole, draw-

ing the elements of being together by the might of an all -permeating Love. And thus Lucretius, the culminating expression of the scientific

thinking of Democritus

and

of the gospel of Epicurus,

foreshadows
faintly

Virgil,

whom

he so deeply influenced, and prophesies

but

perceptibly of

Dante and
love.

of Shelley

as his annihilating exposure of

the religions founded


religions of

upon

fear insensibly prepared the

way

for the

hope and
1

IV. 575.

*
II.

29.

THE QUINTESSENCE OF
BY

PAULINISM.
D.D.,

ARTHUR

S.

PEAKE, M.A,

RYLANDS PROFESSOR OF BIBLICAL EXEGESIS IN THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER.

WHEN

we

speak of Paulinism

we

imply,

first

that

Paul had

that

a theology, and secondly that this theology was so distinctive we are justified in using a specific name for it. Both

contentions are exposed to criticism.


injustice to describe

Some would deem

it

a grave

He was [rather a prophet, Paul as a theologian. or even a poet, who felt deeply and had a keen insight into religious experience but was careless of logical consistency and indifferent to the
creation of a system.
mystic's vision,

Now
in

it

is

true that

Paul was

gifted

with the

and that

moments

of ecstasy his utterance

glows with

a lyrical rapture. But it is part of his greatness that his thought is set on fire by noble emotion, and that emotion is redeemed from vagueness and incoherence

by thought.

Indeed the belief that Paul was

a seer but no thinker, could hardly survive a careful study even of

one

of his
in

more

characteristic writings.

But,

it

may be

retorted,

Paul

was

a sense a thinker, the sense in which a debater must be a


In other
skill

thinker.

words he
in

is

master of the argumentative


objections to

style,

and
his

shows great
opponents.

marshalling

the

position

of

He
I

is

a pleader
is

rather than

a philosopher.

For

my

own
mere

part

believe that this

a profound mistake,

Paul was not a

who took the arguments that might be convenient one antagonist without reference to their consistency with those he had used against another. Behind his occasional uttercontroversialist
for disposing of

ances there
thought.

lies

He
is

a closely knit and carefully constructed system of moves in his attack with such speed and confidence a standard to which he relates each

because he
1

in possession of

new

An

elaboration of the lecture delivered in the John Rylands Library,


285

11

October, 1916.

286
issue as
it

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


confronts him.

No

series of

hastily extemporized defences

could have produced the same impression of unity and consistency But in saying this I desire to unless they had belonged to a system. " " from any unfortunate association. It system disengage the word be a serious misapprehension were we to think of Paulinism as would
representing for
its

realm of religious
of his

author a complete and exact reflection of the whole He was indeed so convinced of the truth reality.

Gospel that he did not shrink from hurling an anathema at any, though it might be an angel from heaven, who should dare to contradict
it.

But

his certainty as to the truth of his central doctrine did

not blind him to the imperfection of his knowledge, or quench the


sense of mystery with

which he confronted the ultimate


all

realities.

He

the regions which he had explored and beyond charted there stretched an illimitable realm, the knowledge of which
conscious that

was

was not
only in

disclosed in time but

was reserved
free

for eternity.

could prophesy only in part, because he


part
;

was aware
and

that
in

Here he he knew
the rare

and though he
"

soared,

daring,

atmosphere of speculative thought, he veiled


of the ultimate mysteries.

his face in

the presence

wisdom

the depth of the riches both of the of God ! how unsearchable are His judgand the knowledge

ments, and His

ways

past finding out."

Paul, then, believed himself to be in possession of a system of

interdependent facts and ideas, arranged in due proportion and conHis epistles do not present us with a number trolled from a centre.
of

detached and independent ideas,

still

less

with

fluid

opinions,

fluctuating in response to changing conditions.

He who
"

builds on

the Pauline theology, be that foundation false or true, ample or inadequate, is building on firm granite, not on sinking and shifting sand.

But some
is,

will

challenge our right to use the term

Paulinism".

It

of course, true,

they would

say, that Paul

consistent,

and

true system of thought.

had a coherent, selfBut this was just the same

body
in

of revealed truth as is present

everywhere, explicitly or implicitly,


in

the

New

Testament, or even
is

the whole of Scripture.


it

The

traditional attitude to the Bible

everywhere says substantially the same thing on matters of doctrine, and that differences of expression involve

that

no material disagreement.

Now

it

may be

argued, and

with some measure of success, that beneath the various types of theology we find in the New Testament there is a fundamental

THE QUINTESSENCE OF PAULINISM


harmony.

287

But the science

of

Biblical
It
is

Theology has demonstrated

that these various types exist.

accordingly our duty to study

and estimate each

of

them

for itself before

we

try

to

work behind
distinctive,

them
there

to a
is

more fundamental
fully

unity.

There is no type more

none so
term
of

worked out as Paulinism.


"

The

"

Paulinism

might, of course, be used to cover the


;

whole range

Paul's teaching
it

but

am

concerned specially with

those elements in
interpretation of

which were Paul's peculiar contribution to the That contribution had its source, I the Gospel.
which Paul passed.
affected,

believe, in the experience through

But he owed

much

to other influences.

These
less

however, the distinctive


dwell

elements of his teaching


his fellow-Christians.

much

than those which he shared with


the subject
I

On

this part of

will

briefly,

since

it is

rather

my
is

purpose to disengage

from Paul's teaching as a

whole that which


influences

most characteristically his own.

Of

the external

which originated or fashioned his doctrines I think we should attribute more to Hebrew, Jewish, and Christian theology than to It was inevitable that he Gentile philosophy or religious mysteries.

should be profoundly impressed by the Old Testament. Apart from It is the indeed, his theology could not have come into existence. it,
basis
cast,
itself.

on which

it

rests, it

largely supplied the

moulds

in in

which

it

was

and the substance

as well as the form of

much

the teaching

Old Testament, and regards his own it. When he became a Christian, he did not abandon the religion of Israel, but he saw in the Gospel the Yet it is a mistake to over- emphasize fulfilment and expansion of it. Testament factor in the origin or formulation of Paulinism. the Old
presupposes the
doctrine as in continuity with

He

Indeed that theology in one of its leading features is, from the Testament standpoint, a startling paradox. The estimate of the
in the

Old

Law

The
tion,

from that given by Paul. Law inspires the Old Testament saints with a passionate devoas we may see from the glowing panegyric in the latter part of
is

Old Testament

strangely different

the nineteenth psalm, or the prolix enthusiasm of the hundred and nineteenth psalm. The ideal of the righteous man is the student

whose

delight
night.

is

in the
It is

law
of

of the

Lord and who meditates upon


It

it

day and

the safeguard and guide of youth, the stay of


age.
;

manhood, the comfort

commanded more than

sober

approval or quiet acceptance

it

drew

to itself a passionate loyalty,

288
1

-:
1

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY


love,

.11.

an enthusiastic

which nerved martyrs


But

to face the

torture for its]sake.


self in his earlier

how

different

it

is

with Paul,

who had

most exquisite himcountrymen,

days experienced the same fervour as


in his zeal for
it.

his

and indeed surpassed them


the excellence of
its

It

is

true that even as

a Christian he]admits the sanctity and righteousness of the

Law

and

purpose.

He
joy,

recognizes
it.

in

his for

philosophy of

history a Divinely appointed function for


is

But

him the

Law

no fount

of refreshment

and

it

is

which the Christian


blessing but a curse.
that
fatal

rejoices to
It
is

be

set

a yoke and a burden, from free. It brings with it not a


sin,

the instrument of
strength.
It

from which indeed


life

tyrant

draws

its

breaks up the old


;

of

innocence by creating the consciousness of

sin

it

stimulates antagonism

by

its

prohibitions,

which 'suggest the

lines of
hostility.

opposition along which


It

the rebellious

flesh

^may express

its

was

interpolated

between God's gracious promise and its glorious fulfilment, that by its harsh and servile discipline men might be educated for freedom.

So

foreign, indeed,

is

the attitude of Paul to that of the

Old

Testa-

ment and Judaism,


scholars -feel
it

that

hard to

one can easily understand how some Jewish admit that anyone who had known Judaism
criticism

from the inside could ever have written the

of the

Law,
I

which

we

find in the Epistles to the


is

Romans and
is

the Galatians.

believe that this

not so
;

difficult
it

if

the problem

approached from

the right starting-point


of the

but

Pauline doctrine.

emphasizes the revolutionary character Similarly I regard it as a serious error to

interpret Paul's conception of the flesh

by

that

which

we

find

in the

Old Testament. In the latter case it stands for human whole, the weak and perishable creature in contrast to
immortals.
this is

nature as a
the mighty

The

contrast gains occasionally a moral significance, but


In

wholly subordinate. physical we have an ethical


for

Paul, however, instead of a meta-

contrast.

The

flesh

is

not the synonym

man

in his creaturelyj infirmity,

whose moral

lapses are indulgently


so

excused by
frail

God

as simply
It

what must be expected from a being

and evanescent.
is

stands for one side only of


evil

human
is

nature,

that

the lower.

It is

through and through.


sin, it
is

It

so irretriev-

ably the slave and instrument of

entrenched

in

such deep

will, that no redemption or even must be put to death on the cross of improvement possible, Christ. To reduce Paul's doctrine to the Old Testament level is

and abiding

hostility to

God and His


it

of

it is

THE QUINTESSENCE OF PAULINISM


to miss its tragic intensity

289
signific-

and

eviscerate

it

of

its

bitter

moral

ance.
If

from the Old Testament

we

turn to the contemporary Judaism,

there also

we

are constrained to admit a measure of influence on the

had been a Pharisee, trained by Gamaliel. Naturally he did not break completely with the past when he became a Christian. He brought over current Jewish ideas and modes
apostle's thought.

He

of argument.

His Rabbinical

interpretation of Scripture has

been

long familiar, but it is only within recent years that a fuller acquaintance with Jewish literature has revealed more fully the affinities he

Few things in the Epistles has with contemporary Jewish thought. have been more richly illustrated from this source than his doctrine of
angels and demons, which

now

stands before us in quite a

new

light.

disposed than some scholars to rate the influence of contemporary Judaism high, at least so far as Paul's central doctrines are have all too slender a knowledge of Judaism in concerned.

But

am

less

We

Paul's day.

The

literary sources for the study of

Rabbinic theology
far

are considerably later,

and the question

arises

how

we may

use

them

for the reconstruction of

a considerably earlier stage of thought.

It may be plausibly argued that we can confidently explain coincidences with Paulinism much more readily on the assumption that Paul

was

the debtor.

It

is

unlikely that the Rabbis consciously adopted


this

Christian ideas.

But
which

by no means

settles the question.

The

amazingly rapid spread


atmosphere,
in
it

of Christianity quickly created

a Christian

would not be unreasonable

to

suppose that

Judaism

We know that there itself experienced some modification. was considerable controversy between Jews and Christians. And we may well believe that its inevitable result would be that where Christians fastened on the weak points of Judaism and demonstrated
Jew would be
naturally

the superiority of the Christian view, the

tempted change views were his own.

to

his

ground and persuade himself that really these It is also possible that we have commonly overto

estimated the hostility between the adherents of the two religions, and

unduly underrated the extent


early period.
In this

which friendly

relations existed in the

way

Christian influence

may have

filtered into

have, however, a number of Jewish con