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# Lecture Presentation

PGE368 Fall 2001 Semester September 24, 26, and 28, and October 5

## Electrical Properties of Porous Rocks

Carlos Torres-Verdn, Ph.D. Assistant Professor

Porosity
Definition:
The volume fraction of the rock occupied by pore space

= Vp / VR * 100 %

Water Saturation
Definition:
The fraction of the pore space containing water Sw = Vw / f

## Composite Porous Media

Spatial Scale is Important!

THEORY

REALITY

## Wilcox Sand Oklahoma City

1 cm Clay Close-Up

Thin Sections

1 cm

POROSITY

## TOTAL POROSITY? EFFECTIVE POROSITY?

WATER SATURATION

TOTAL WATER SATURATION? BOUND-FREE (MOVABLE) WATER? IRREDUCIBLE WATER SATURATION (i.e. clay-bound water and capillary-bound water)?

## DIRECT: Core Analysis INDIRECT: Well Logging (In Situ)

Electrical Resistivity Spontaneous Potential Acoustic Velocity Radioactive Emissions Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gravity Etc.
EFFECTIVE MEDIUM THEORY

## DC ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY EXPERIMENT Approximate Equivalent Circuit

V + Rm
Rock Matrix Pore Fluid

Rf 1 1 1 = + R Rm Rf V R= I

## Several Water Saturation Models

Shale-Free Electrical Model

## Laminated Shale Electrical Model Poupon-Leveaux

Double-Layer Dispersed Clay Electrical Models Waxman-Smits Dual-Water Mixed Dispersed-Clay / Laminar-Shale Electrical Model Patchett-Herrick

## ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF CLEAN POROUS ROCKS

Archie (1942)
In clean sandstones with saline brines, the resistivity of the rock is proportional to the salinity of the saturating brine. The constant of proportionality is called the formation factor. F = R0 / Rw . The formation factor varies as the inverse square of the porosity. F = 1 / 2 . The saturation index in a reservoir (IR = Rt / R0 ) varies as the inverse square of the saturation. I = 1 / Sw2.

## Archie may be written in terms of electrical conductivities

Standard form

In conductivity notation

1 1 m n n t = w Sw = w Sw F a

Archie 1

Archie 1

Archie 2

Summary Archie 1
Archie valid at high salinities > 100ppk at 200F Archie also valid if there are no conductive materials (clays). In very fresh water surface conductance of ordinary grains can also be a problem

## Archie 1 OK in Clean Sands

General form
where a ~ 1 and m ~2

## m is called the formation factor exponent sandstones a = .81,

m=2 or Humble formula carbonates a = 1, m > 2

F=

## Archies First Law

Ideally the Formation Factor is purely a function of pore space geometry. It is giving us information about porosity and the porosity distribution. In practice ionic conduction is dependent on ion-type, concentration and temperature. In shaly rocks we do not measure the Formation Factor and are dependent on a rock model eg. SEN (1986)

## m in carbonates, vugs and fractures

3 . 0 1 . 2 0 . 5 2 . 5 1 1 i 2 . 0
s

2 . 0 . 5

2 . 5

. 0

1 5

. 0

vugs

fractures

1 0

. .

0 5 0 .1 8 2 , 6 p o 8 r 1 o 0 s i 2 t 0 y 3 04 5 0 0

## General form of Archie 1

Formation Factor generally, the m exponent are often a function of porosity. Variable m technique has been successful in carbonates.

Carbonate Texture

On the left, a crystalline dolomite with = 47% and m = 1.95. On the right, a moldic bioclastic packstone with = 36% and m = 3.27. This large variation in m illustrates the importance of rock texture on petrophysical evaluation. Environmental scanning electron microscope images, scale bar is 100 mm at left and 200 mm at right.

## DC ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY EXPERIMENT Low Frequency Behavior of Heterogeneous Media

Spatial Scale of Measurement Becomes a Central Issue Effect of Clay Component Effect of Clay-Bound Water Effect of Capillary-Bound Water Anisotropy

V + I + + + +

?
R

V R= I

Water

Oil

Matrix

Dry Clay

ClayBound Water

Mobile Water

Hydrocarbon

Oil

Water

Matrix

Dry Clay

Mobile Water

Hydrocarbon

## Matrix and Fluid Distributions

Heavy Oil ClayBound Water CapillaryBound Water

Matrix

Dry Clay

Mobile Water

Solid HC

## Matrix and Fluid Distributions

Matrix

Dry Clay

ClayClayBound Water

Mobile Water

Hydrocarbon

Vugs

## The Effect of Wettability and Surface Texture on the n Exponent

Data from Sweeney and Jennings (1960) Data from Diederix (1982)

Archie 2 Summary
In water-wet rocks estimations of water saturation from resistivity logs are generally pessimistic

## AC ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY EXPERIMENT Frequency Behavior of Heterogeneous Media

Spatial Scale of Measurement Becomes a Central Issue Effect of Clay Component, Clay-Bound Water Capillary Effect Anisotropy

V(f)

I (f)

+ + + +

?
Z(f)

## Electrical Impedance (Ohmic conductivity + dielectric permittivity)

LABORATORY SAMPLES
Brine-Water Saturation
Fine Grains

Coarse Grains Coarse Grains and Dispersed Clay Super-Fine Sand Grains

Stacked Grains

## Photograph courtesy of Prof. Jon Olson

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Baker Atlas Schlumberger Tony Bermudez