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Havighurst theory. The second theory pioneered by Havighurst, is again a collection of stages of vocational development.

Each stage implies appropriate kind of development on the part of the child. The first stage is that of identification which runs roughly from age five to ten. During this period the boy identifies himself wit the worker in the family who, in most cases, is the father. As the boy begins to understand that will grow into an adult male, he realizes that this role requires going to work regularly and supporting a family. Structural theories. Three theories were developed to explain the process of vocational development that is about the structure of the world of work toward which an individual will gravitate. In the broadest sense, these theories explain why an individual ends up in a particular occupation. 1. Roes theory. Is an earlier researches, she discovered that every individual spends his energies in an way that is dependent upon his innate inclination. This inclination, she found out, is influence by his childhood experiences. Knowledge of this inclination and childhood experience permits prediction about the kind of work he will be in. Roe individual early childhood experiences in those which take place in a psychologically warm home as opposed to a cold home. A home may be designated as one in which the parents accept, neglect or eject the child. In a home where the child is accepted, the parent child relationship maybe casual or loving. In a home where acceptance is in the form of much emotional concentration on the child, the relationship may be either overprotecting or overdemanding. In a home where parents avoid the child, the relationship may be one in which the child is neglected or rejected. The child motivated to seek occupations that require working with other persons if he comes from a home where the climate loves, overprotecting or overdemanding. Examples of such occupations are those in service, general, cultural, or arts and entertainment. Conversely, a home where the attitudes toward the child is casual, neglecting, or rejecting will lead him towards occupations that do not call for socialization such as in the fields of science and technology. 2. Hollands theory. Holland postulated that the personality of an individual can be characterized by its resemblance to one or more personality types, and that the closer the persons resemblance to a particular type, the more likely it is that the will exhibit the traits and behaviors associated with the type. He also theorized that the environments where people live can be characterized by there resemblance to one or more model environments. Fir he, the pairing of personality types and environments leads to several outcomes which can be predicted from the knowledge of personality types and the environmental models.

The six organizations or types into which Holland divided personalities are the realistic, intellectual, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic. The realistic type is characterized by aggressive behavior, capabilities in motor coordination, and masculinity. The realistic person tends to act out his problems and avoid task involving interpersonal and verbal skills. He seeks concrete rather than subtract problem situations. Such people tend to be low on social skills and sensitivity. The intellectual person tends to think rather than to act, to understand rather than to persuade, and to avoid close social constructs. The social type gravitates towards teaching and other close personal relationship. He avoid occupations requiring intellectual problem-solving or physical skills and seeks out occupations calling for skillful interpersonal relations. 3. Supers structural theory. The last important figure in the structural approach group of theories is super. He related personality structure to occupational choice. Drawing from self-concept theory and career patterns, super claimed that a person strives to implement his self concept choosing to enter the occupation he sees as most likely to permit him self-expression. Although there are obvious reality limitations to an individual choice as far as possible, he will select that occupational role which permits him to be what he sees himself as being. Vocational development the becomes a process of developing and implementing a selfconcept. Local studies From the review of related literature, it can be seem that there are enough theories which can fill in an ideal vocational guidance programs. The following where studies made about the implementation of vocational guidance in region 6: Labayandoys study. Labayandoy noted that her schools vocational program was a problem in itself because it was not working as it should. In her study of her school located in Iloilo City, she checked the administrative set up of the school to see the place of vocational guidance program and the personnel related to it. She, likewise, surveyed the existing vocational guidance program. Her study related that to have an effective guidance program, the following were needed. 1. leadership and continues support for the program from top school officials. 2.enlightement of teachers as to the importance of the program so that they would be able to give their support for the program

3. qualified teacher in terms of education, training and personal qualities to help the guidance counselor direct the schools vocational guidance program; 4. a guidance service center equipped with physical facilities (chairs, tables cabinets, etc.), all types of test (intelligence, aptitude, interest, personality), all records of students (cumulative, autobiography, anecdotal) newspapers and books; 5. a research service; and 6. an evaluation program)self-evaluation by the guidance committee, and formal evaluation by the school administration). Gargeras study. Two hundred senior students randomly chosen from eleven high schools in Guimaras were studied effect of sex, mental ability, birth order, income level of the family, and the educational attainment of parents on their career choices. While the study confirmed that sex and mental ability affected the career choices while the study confirmed that sex and mental affected the career choices of the students, Garganera, however noted that the students lacked exposure regarding career opportunities. The students career perceptions generally depended on the perceived earnings that the occupation could offer. In her recommendations, she stated that: 1. school administrators and guidance workers should intensify and strengthen career guidance in secondary schools; 2. guidance programs should expose students to various occasional fields; 3. students should be assisted in making intelligent choices by holding regular convocations and career orientation in school, by inviting resource persons to talk on different careers and career opportunities, and by integrating career education with regular instructions especially in social studies and practical arts; 4. students should be encouraged to select occupations that can be obtained at minimal cost and at the same time offer them gainful employment; and 5. scholarships or sponsorship should be extended to poor but deserving students. The Relation of the Reviewed Literature and Studies to the Present Study After having reviewed what theories could be included in a vocational guidance program, and having reviewed how vocational guidance programs should be implemented in local conditions, the researcher attempted in this study to find out if vocational guidance program in the high school curriculum in four selected municipalities of Banga, Kalibo, Makato and Numancia in the province of Aklan has relationship to employment characteristics of career people.

CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES

This chapter presents the methods and procedures employed in the systematic collection of data needed in the study. It discusses in detail the method of research used, the setting and timetable, the selection of the respondents, the data gathering, processing and analysis. Method of Research The research methodology adopted was the ex post facto, descriptive research employing the personal interview technique and a researcher-constructed questionnaire in data gathering. Ex post facto means from after the fact.18 In simpler terms, ex post facto research is an analysis of past events or of already existing conditions. This type of research is especially appropriate for inquiries where the researcher has no direct control of the independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred.19 In this particular study, the already occurring independent variable was vocational guidance in high school which had already taken its value (with or without) long before the survey started. It is investigated if such has relationship with employment characteristics.
18

Consuelo G. Sevilla, et al., Research Methods (Manila: Rex Bookstore, 1992), p. 148: citing L.R. Gay, Educational Research (Columbus. Ohio: Charles E. Merill Publishing Company, 1976), p. 85
19

Ibid.: citing Fred N.. Kerlinger, Foundations of Behavioral Research (New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1973), p. 57. The Setting of the Study The setting of this study was limited to the four selected towns of Banga, Kalibo, Makato, and Numancia in Aklan. These four towns was chosen due to their representativeness, and in order to ease the conducting of the survey, the respondents had been identified as college and vocational school graduates and undergraduates who were employed at the time of interview. The Timetable of the Study The whole project starting from the preliminary research to the submission of the final report took 51 working days. The timetable of activities was as follows: preliminary research and writing the thesis proposal days data gathering computer coding and processing 20 8 days 2 days

data analysis and interpretation finalizing report presentation of results final revision of the report binding of the report submission of the report

4 days 6 days 1 day 7 days 2 days 1 day

Prior to writing the thesis proposal, a preliminary research was undertaken regarding the topic. All available sources of information were scrutinized for possible inclusion in the report or as reference in doing the study. Preliminary research was followed with the writing of the thesis proposal. The whole phase took 20 days. Data gathering took 8 days to finish. After data gathering, computer coding, editing and processing followed. Although manual coding , editing and processing were sufficient for the purpose, computerizing them reduced the risk of computational errors, facilitated cross tabulation Data gathering took eight days to finish after data gathering, computer coding, editing and processing followed. Although manual coding, editing and processing were sufficient for the purpose, computerizing them reduced the risk of computational errors, facilitated cross tabulation, permitted back tracking and verification of data, and sped up the operation. Data analysis and interpretation took four days insofar as this phase was about rationalization of findings and their relationships. Finalizing the thesis report, presenting the results, revising and submitting the final version took 17 days. In writing the thesis, a word processor was used. A word processor made typing and editing of the manuscript fast and easy, and produced a professional looking report. THE RESPONDENTS The respondents for the study were 203 randomly selected college and vocational school graduates and undergraduates who were employed. The sample size of 203 respondents was determined using the standard formula in computing sample sizes (see Appendix A on pages 95 and 96 for the computation of the sample size and the allocation of the sample respondents). Their ages ranged from 25 to 50 years. The choice of the lower age limit (25 years old) was based on the idea that by that age, employment characteristics could already be drawn from the respondents employment status. The choice of the upper age limit (50 years old) was based on respondents willingness. From the researchers experience, the persons over 50 years old were usually not willing to be interviewed. Sampling Design

In selecting the respondents, multi-stage sampling composed of stratified sampling in the first stage and cluster sampling in the second stage was used. This sampling design was favored because it was more efficient, less expensive, and easy to implement. Multi-stage sampling was done in this manner: Stratified sampling. First, the researcher classified the poblacion and the barangays of the town into three groups or strata according to income and progress as per municipal hall records and estimates: very progressive (stratum1); moderately progressive (stratum 2); and least progressive (stratum 3). Second, from each stratum, he drew the barangay or poblacion (locality) that presented the stratum. In every town there were three localities where the researcher ran the survey. Cluster sampling. Third, from the locality that represented its stratum, the researcher selected randomly (by lottery technique) a point where to begin the survey; then he progressed to the next houses successively until the required number of respondents from that place had been attained. In order that bias be minimized, only one respondent per house, and one house per family compound wer allowed to participate. Instrumentation As mentioned earlier, the instrument used in the study was a researcher-constructed questionnaire (see appendix B on pages 97 to 99 for the questionnaire). Among several instruments of gathering data, the questionnaire was prepared by the researcher due to its well structuredness and completeness which made its administration easy, and thus, speeding up coding, tabulation and analysis. Another consideration for the choice was the relative impersonality it possessed that encouraged respondents to answer candidly the more personal questions. Moreover, it gathered data from relatively large number of respondents, as well as kept the respondent focused on the subject. To add more, it was relatively objective and less expensive. The questionnaire has two parts: (1) the questions covering the respondents initial employment, his career development, and his satisfaction with his job; and (2) the personal data part. Getting initial employment was about the number of years after leaving school that the respondent spent before finding a job; about the relatedness of his course to the job; and about the appropriateness of his qualification to the job requirements meaning he must not be overly or less qualified for the job. Career development covered career path and career growth. Career path referred to pursuing ones career in just one field, or shifting from one field to another. Career growth

referred to promotions obtained, training and seminars related to work attended, and further studies relevant to employment undertaken. Job satisfaction was based on how happy the respondent was about the pay, working environment, the extent of self-fulfillment felt, and the prestige and the status that the job brought him. In the construction of the questionnaire, some principles were observed. Such that the respondent would be cooperative in answering the questions, the number of questions was limited to 11, excluding the personal data part. Furthermore, all answers to the questions were just to be chosen from among the choices by ticking the corresponding box. The significance of including personal data part was that it provided additional information during analysis of result. Before administering the questionnaire, it was pretested for reliability by uncovering structural and logical errors, and by identifying areas of confusion and multiple interpretations. Several of the researchers friends who were representative of the target population were requested to try out the questionnaire. Based on their comments and suggestions, the questionnaire was subsequently modified. In testing the validity of the questionnaire dummy tables were constructed to check whether the data that would be gathered could answer the problems raised. Data Gathering Data gathering was done on Saturdays and Sundays so that the target respondents would be in their homes. The researcher had an opportunity to establish rapport with the respondent, explain the purpose of the study, and elaborate on items that may not have been clear to the respondents. This increased the rate of responses and also reduced misunderstanding of the questions on the part of the respondents.

Data Processing and Analysis As soon as the data gathering was completed, the responses were coded for computer processing. The data were summarized using the descriptive statistics of frequencies, percentages and ranking. Tables were constructed to facilitate analysis and interpretation. The chi square (x2) test was used to find out whether vocational guidance in high school of selected career people had any relationship with their employment characteristics. The test was done at 0.05 level of significance.

From Pagosos book20, the chi square formula for more than one degree of freedom is as follows: (fo fe)2 x2 = fe while for one degree of freedom, it is: ( fo fe - 0.05 )2 x2 = fe where fo = the observed or obtained frequency fe = the expected or theoretical frequency
20

Cristobal M. Pogoso, George Garcia and Cynthia R. Guerrero de Leon, Fundamental Statistics for College Students (Manila: Sinag-Tala Publishers, Inc., 1992), pp. 229 241.

CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the findings of the study. These are presented in tabular form or in formal tables, then analyzed and interpreted based on the appropriate statistical tool. The specific questions that were answered are the following: 1. What is the distribution of respondents when classified by sex, age and degree earned? 2. What are the employment characteristics? 3. What is the relationship between availment of vocational guidance and each of the employment characteristics when respondents are classified by sex, age and degree earned? The null hypotheses that were postulated are as follows: 1. Availment of vocational guidance in high school has no significant with each of the employment characteristics when respondents are classified according to sex. 2. Availment of vocational guidance in high school has no significant with each of the employment characteristics when respondents are classified according to age.

3. Availment of vocational guidance in high school has no significant with each of the employment characteristics when respondents are classified according to degree earned. DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS By sex. The results below shows that the females were twice the number of males. FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Males Females Total 67 136 203 33% 67% 100%

By age. As can be seen from the tabular presentation that follows, the 25 30 years bracket has the highest percentage of respondents at 37%. Following very closely was the 31 - 40 years age bracket at 36%. The 41 50 years age bracket had the least number of respondents at 27%. FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 25 30 31 40 41 50 Total 76 73 54 203 37% 36% 27% 100%

By degree earned. The tabulation below reports that most respondents were academic degree holders at 68%, followed by the post secondary course graduates at 23% and undergraduates at 9%. This stresses that educational attainment is a factor in getting employment. FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Academic Degree Holders Post Secondary Course Graduates Undergraduates 138 48 17 203 68% 23% 9% 100%

The Employment Characteristics The employment characteristics of the respondents are presented in table 1 on pages 49 to 51. Number of years after leaving school before getting a job. Eighty five percent (85%) of the career people got their first jobs within two years, twelve percent (12%) within three to five years, three percent (3%) after five years. It suggests that more career people obtain their first jobs in two years time. Relatedness of first job to a course taken. when the respondents joined their employment the first time, a little more than half of them (53%) had very much related to the courses they took in college or in post secondary. More than one-fourth (27%) had first jobs slightly related to their courses, and one-fifth (20%) not related at all. Appropriateness of qualification to nature and requirements of first jobs. Eight out of ten (83%) career people started their employment with sufficient qualifications in doing the work. But one out of ten (11%) was overly qualified, and another one (6%) was less qualified. Career path. Two in three (66%) people stuck it out with their chosen fields of career. The other one (34%) tried other career(s). Career Growth. Nearly half of them (42%) had never had any growth in their careers, they had not been promoted, had not attended any seminars, conferences or training related to their employment, nor had undertaken any further studies relevant to their work. From the remaining more than half (58%), 41% had attended seminars, conferences and training; 28% had been promoted; and 19% had taken further studies. (The percentages do not equal 58% because a respondent may not only have seminars, etc. but also have been promoted and taken further studies.) Job satisfaction. When the degree of satisfaction was asked concerning each of the four aspects of employment which were pay and other benefits, work environment and conditions, self-fulfillment in employment, prestige and status that employment brings them, the respondents answers were similar for all the four, ranked from highest to lowest, as: satisfied, highly satisfied, dissatisfied, highly dissatisfied. When considered individually, self-fulfillment had the highest satisfaction at 97% (34% highly satisfied and 63% satisfied), followed very closely by work environment and conditions at 96%, then by prestige and status at 91%, and by pay and other benefits at much lower, 80%. It implies that career people were satisfies more with the work they performed than the pay they received.

TABLE 1 Employment Characteristics Of Career People Characteristic A. Finding Initial Employment 1. Number of years after leaving school before getting a job a. 0-2 years 1 b. 3-5 years 2 c. over 5 years 3 Total 2. Relatedness of first job to a course taken a. very much related 1 b. slightly related 2 c. not at all related 3 Total 3. Appropriateness of qualifications to nature and requirements of first job a. sufficiently qualified 1 b. overly qualified 2 c. less qualified 3 Total B. Career Development 4. Career Path Frequency % Rank

173 24 6 203

85% 12% 3% 100%

108 54 41 203

53% 27% 20% 100%

169 22 12 203

83% 11% 6% 100%

a. had no career change 1 b. had career change 2 Total 5. Career Growth a. had been promoted 28% 3 b. had been sent to seminars, conferences, training related to work 2 c. had taken/ still taking further studies relevant to work 4 d. none of the above 1 Total TABLE 1 (continued) Characteristic C. Job Satisfaction 6. Satisfaction over pay and other benefits a. highly satisfied 2 b. satisfied 1 c. dissatisfied 3 d. highly dissatisfied 4 Total 7. Satisfaction in terms of work a. highly satisfied 2

133 70 203

66% 34% 100%

57

83

41%

38 85

19% 42%

203

100%

Frequency

Rank

35 128 31 85

17% 63% 15% 42%

203

100%

48

24%

b. satisfied 1 c. dissatisfied 3 d. highly dissatisfied Total 8. Satisfaction in terms of self-fulfillment a. highly satisfied 2 b. satisfied 1 c. dissatisfied 3 d. highly dissatisfied 4 Total 9. satisfaction in terms of prestige and status brought by job a. highly satisfied b. satisfied c. dissatisfied d. highly dissatisfied 4 Total

147 8 0 203 0%

72% 4% 4 100%

69 127 5 2

34% 63% 2% 42%

203

100%

85

42%

203

100%

Table 2 Number of Years After Living School Before Getting First Job By Sex

Sex With Voc Guidance Male Female W/O Voc Guidance Male Female

0-2 yrs

3-5 yrs

>5 yrs

Total

31 57

2 5

1 4

34 66

28 57

5 12

0 1

33 70

Total

173

24

203

df = 2, level of significance = 0.05, critical X = 5.99 Computed X for the males = 2.42, not significant Computed X for the females = 4.57, not significant

2. By age. Table 3 shows that in any age brackets, there was no relationship between vocational guidance and the number of years after leaving school before respondents found their first jobs.

Table 3 Number of Years After Living School Before Getting First Job By Age

Age With Voc Guidance 25-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 year

0-2 yrs

3-5 yrs

>5 yrs

Total

31 30 27

3 1 3

1 3 1

35 34 31

W/O Voc Guidance 25-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 32 35 18 9 4 4 0 0 1 41 39 23

Total

173

24

203

df = 2, level of significance = 0.05, critical X = 5.99 Computed X for the 25-30 years olds = 3.56, not significant Computed X for the 31-40 years old = 4.86, not significant Computed X for the 41-50 years old = 0.77, not significant

3. By degree earned. When respondents were grouped according to the degree earned as in Table 4, there was a positive relationship between vocational guidance and the number of years after leaving school before finding first employment among the academic degree holders only.

Table 4 Number of years After Leavinf School Before Getting First Job By Degree Earned

Degree Earned With Voc Guidance Academic degree Post sec course No degree

0-2 yrs

3-5 yrs

>5 yrs

Total

67 17 4

4 0 3

5 0 0

76 17 7

W/O Voc Guidance Academic degree Post sec course No degree 53 23 9 9 7 1 0 1 0 62 31 10

Total

173

24

203

For academic degree holders and post secondary course holders df = 2, level of significance = 0.05, critical X = 5.99

Computed X for academic degree holders = 7.21, significant Computed X for post degree course holders = 5.26, significant

For undergraduates df = 1, level of significance = 0.05, critical X = 3.84 computed X for undergraduates = 0.98, not significant.

Relatedness of first job to a course taken 1. By sex. Among the male there was a significant positive relationship between vocational guidance and relatedness of first job to a course taken as revealed in Table 5.

Table 5 Relatedness of First Job to a Course taken By Sex

Sex With Voc Guidance Male Female

Much Related

Slightly Related 11

Not Related 5 8

Total 34 66

18 43

15

W/O Voc Guidance Male Female 10 37 8 20 15 13 33 70

Total

173

24

203

df = 2, level of significance = 0.05, critical X = 5.99 Computed X for the males = 7.75, significant Computed X for the females = 2.24, not significant

2. By Age. Classified by age, the 31-40 year age bracket exhibited significant positive relationship between vocational guidance and relatedness of first job to a course taken.

Table 6 Relatedness of First Job to a Course Taken By Age

Age With Voc Guidance 25-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 year

Much Related

Slightly Related 9

Not Related 5 1 7

Total 35 34 31

21 23 17

10 7

W/O Voc Guidance 25-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 17 20 10 14 8 6 10 11 7 41 39 23

Total

173

24

203

df = 2, level of significance = 0.25, critical X = 5.99 Computed X for the 25-30 years olds = 2.75, not significant Computed X for the 31-40 years old = 8.46, significant Computed X for the 41-50 years old = 0.77, not significant

3. By degree earned. In Table 7, post secondary course holders demonstrated positive relationship between vocational guidance and relatedness of first job to a course taken.

Table 7 Relatedness of First Job to a Course Taken By Degree Earned Degree Earned With Voc Guidance Academic degree Post sec course No degree 49 11 1 Much Related Slightly Related 17 6 3 Not Related 10 0 3 Total 76 17 7

W/O Voc Guidance Academic degree Post sec course No degree 36 11 0 14 12 2 12 8 8 62 31 10

Total

173

24

203

df = 2, level of significance = 0.25, critical X = 5.99 Computed X for academic degree holders = 1.05, not significant Computed X for post sec course holders = 6.47, significant Computed X for undergraduates = 3.04, not significant

Appropriateness of qualification to nature and requirements of first job. 1. By Sex. The males showed positive relationship between vocational guidance and appropriateness of qualifications to nature and requirements of first job.

Table 8 Appropriateness of qualifications to Nature and Requirements of First Job By Sex

Sex With Voc Guidance Male Female

Much Related

Slightly Related 2

Not Related 0 1

Total 34 66

32 60

W/O Voc Guidance Male Female 22 55 7 8 4 7 33 70

Total

173

24

203

df = 2, level of significance = 0.05, critical X = 5.99 Computed X for the males = 8.62, significant Computed X for the females = 5.30, not significant

2. By Age. The 41 50 years age bracket indicated positive relationship between vocational guidance and appropriateness of qualifications to the nature and requirement of first job.

Table 9 Appropriateness of Qualifications to Nature and Requirements of First Job By age

Age With Voc Guidance 25-30 years 31- 40years 41-50years

Sufficiently Qualified 32 29 31

Overly Qualified 2 5 0

Less Qualified 1 0 0

Total

35 34 31

W/O Voc Guidance 25-30years 31-40years 41-50years 29 30 18 6 7 2 6 2 3 41 39 23

Total

173

24

203

df=2, level of significance =0.05, critical X =5.99

Computed X for the 25-30 years = 5.28, not significant Computed X for the 31-40 years = 2.02, not significant Computed X for the 41-50 years =7.43 significant

3.By degree earned. Table 10 reveals positive relationship between vocational guidance and appropriateness of qualifications to the nature and requirements of first job among academic degree holders. Table 10 Appropriateness of Qualifications to Nature and Requirements of Job By Degree Earned

Degree Earned With Voc Guidance Academic degree

Sufficiently Qualified

Overly Qualified

Less Qualified

Total

69 Post sec course 17 No degree 6 W/O Voc Guidance Academic degree 46 Post sec course 26 No degree 5

6 0 1

1 0 0

76 17 7

12 1 2

4 4 3

62 31 10

Total

173

24

203

Df=2, level of significance = 0.05, critical x for academic degree holders = 7.05 significant Computed X for post sec course holders = 3.06, not significant Computed X for undergruates = 2.99, not significant

Career path 1.By sex. There was no relationship between vocational guidance and career path when resp

Table 11 Career Path By Sex With Voc Guidance Male Female 16 48 18 18 34 66 Had Career Change Had Career Change Total

W/O Voc Guidance Male Female Total 16 53 133 17 17 70 30 70 203

Df=1, level of significance =0.05, critical X = 3.84 Computed X for the males =0.02, not significant Computed X for the females =0,04, not significant

2.By age .No relationship emerged between vocational guidance and career path when respondents were grouped according to age.

Table 12 Career By Age

Age With Voc Guidance 25-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years

Had Career Change

Had career Change

Total

24 25 15

11 34 31

35 34 31

W/O Voc Guidance 25-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 28 26 15 13 13 8 41 39 23

Total

133

70

203

Df = 1, level of significant = 0.05, critical X = 3.84 Computed X for the 25-30 years olds =0.05, not significant Computed X for the 31-40 years olds =0.015, not significant Computed X for the 41-50 years olds = 0.91, not significant

3.By degree earned. Table 13 shows no relationship between vocational guidance according to degree earned.

Table 13 Career Path

Degree Earnd With Voc Guidance Academic degree Post sec course No degree

Had No Career Change

Had No Career Change

Total

45 12 7

31 5 0

76 17 7

W/O Voc Guidance Academic degree Post sec course No degree Total 39 22 8 133 23 9 2 70 62 31 10 203

Df =1, level of significance = 0.05 , critical X =3.84 Computed X for academic degree holders = 0.07, not significant Computed X for post sec course holders = 0.09 not significant Computed X for undergraduates = 0.24 no6t significant.

Career Groth. 1.By Sex. Table 14 demonstrastes positive relationship between vocational guidance and career growth among the females.

Table 14 Career Growth By Sex

Sex

Promoted

Sent to 2 Semnrs

Taken Further studies

None

Total

W/O Voc Guidance 16 Male 16 Female 34 17 21 88 11 7 13 47

W/O Voc Guidance Male Female 14 11 14 24 4 10 13 38 45 83

Total

57

83

38

85

263

Total may exceed the total number of respondents because some the respondents may have been include in more than one category eg . , respondent may have been promoted and also sent to seminars. Df = 3, level of the significance = 0.05, critical X = 7.81 Computed X for the males = 1.27, not significant Computed X for the females = 9.22, significant

2. By age there was no relationship between vocational guidance and career growth when respondents were group according to age as shown in Table 15.

Age

Promoted

Sent to Semnrs

2 Taken Further Studies

None

Total

With Voc Guidance 25-30 years 7 31-40 years 10 41 -50 years 15 W/O Voc Guidance 25-30 years 31- 40 years 41-50 years 10 9 6 12 16 10 4 4 6 24 18 9 50 47 31 20 9 7 51 16 12 10 48 9 3 17 36

Total

57

83

38

85

263

Total may exceed the total number of respondents may have been include in more than one category eg , . a respondents may have been promote and also

Summary he time the study was conducted were randomly selected using a combination of stratified and cluster sampling methods. The respondents were from the 25 50 years age-bracket, and living in the municipalities of Banga, Kalibo, Makato, and Numancia in the province of Aklan. The methodology used was the ex post facto, descriptive research. A researcher-constructed questionnaire was utilized in data gathering. To obtain quantitative descriptions of employment characteristics, and to test the relationship between vocational guidance and each of the employment characteristics, the responses were summarized in tabular form and formal tables as frequencies, percentages and ranks. Specifically the chi square was used to test at 0.05 level of significance the relationship between vocational guidance and each of the employment characteristics. The findings are as follows: 1. Two-thirds of the respondents were females 2. Thirty seven percent (37%) of the respondents were in the 25-30 age-bracket, thirty six percent (36%) in the 31-40 age bracket, and twenty seven percent (27%) in the 41-50 year age bracket. 3. From the total number of career people, academic degree holders comprised 68%; post secondary course graduates, 23%; and undergraduates, 9%. 4. As for the typical employment characteristics: a. Most career people (85%) got their first jobs in two years time. b. A little more than half (53%) got jobs which were very much related to the courses they took in college or in post secondary. c. Eight out of ten started with their jobs with appropriate qualifications in doing the work. d. Two in three career persons remained in their chosen fields of careers. e. Almost half (42%) had never had any growth in their careers like having been promoted, having attended seminars, conferences or training related to their employment, or having undertaken further studies relevant to their work. f. About total job satisfaction, majority were satisfied, dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied with their situation. Particularly, self fulfillment had the highest satisfaction at 97% while pay and other benefits had the lowest at 80%.

g. positive relationships were found to be present between vocational guidance and:

1. The Males a. about the relatedness of their first job to a course they have taken; a. about the appropriateness of their qualification to their first job; c. about satisfaction due to pay and other benefits; 2. The females a. about career growth; about satisfaction due to work environment and conditions; 3. The 31-40 years olds a. about the relatedness of their first job to a course they have taken; b. about satisfaction due to pay and other benefits; c. about satisfaction due to work environment and condition; 4. The 40-50 years olds a. about the appropriateness of qualification to first job; 3. The academic degree holders a. about the number of years after leaving school before finding first employment; b. about the appropriateness of qualification to first job; and 4. The post secondary course graduates a. . about the relatedness of their first job to a course they have taken; 5. The undergraduates a. about satisfaction due to pay and other benefits.

Conclusion

Base on the findings, the following conclusions were draw:

1. vocational guidance in high school curriculum had been more effective to the males than the females in: a. pinpointing the right course to take in preparation for the kid of job that would be entered eventually ; b. acquiring the appropriate level of qualification necessary to the nature and requirement of the job. c. attaining satisfaction in terms of pay and other benefits. 2. vocational guide in the high school curriculum had been more effective to the females than the male when growing in a career and when attaining satisfaction in terms of work environment and conditions were considered. 3. vocational guide in the high school curriculum had been more effective to students who took academic degrees when the following were considered. a. the number of years after leaving school before finding first employment. b. acquiring the appropriate level of qualification necessary to the nature and requirements of the job. 4. vocational guide in the high school curriculum had been more effective to the older generation than the younger generation. This might be due to the fact that younger generation had massive exposure to the different channels of mass communication radio, TV, newspapers, etc. where vocational guidance could be obtained. The availability in abundance of resource persons they could ask about different occupations could be another factor.

Recommendations Considering the foregoing, the following recommendations are made: 1. School officials and the DECS should make vocational guidance programs in high school compulsory. 2. School officials, the DECS, and the guidance counselors/teachers should update or tune up vocational guidance program trough: a. taking up in more details careers for the females; b. taking up the details post secondary courses (i.e., technical and vocational courses)

c. providing services beyond what the mass media and local resource persons could provide the students (e.g., testing the students aptitude, personality, etc.). 3. Guidance counselors/teachers should upgrade their skills and competencies on vocational guidance. 4. A similar study be made in other locations.