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I
The natu velopment and
developmen 5
I!Hi lll illlloc\ucLion
hi I h!', I ill II 1)1 ' Ll1l' hook explore and comment on two do"ei" Ii 11 kl'l l
II" 111 1, ,1, il ll .! I,rl lgl\'" 0 1" dcvclll pment st udies as a di stinct avenue (lfclllJuiry; and
I, 1"1'11 1' 11 1 11'l' 1I hI.' ddlncd and (onccplualLLed, 111 respl:ct of the lirs! Il l" two 1111'
, " " I " Ii I,1111 III rl.'" Ihl' ongins of the First, Second and '1 h ird \"'odds in the pol it k til'l Ill'
it "w.! Ih, 1,'Il' 1 110011 ,i lion to a Nnrlh- Snut h dichtJt omy following thl' Br;lmit C0I11111I1>SI(l I1 .
Ii, Ilill' ;/1.11 IW ill IIH' Ikr li 11 and the Il car total dem ise of t he s('l ciJli5t Thi rd World, il is IIOW
11,,1 1. 'II oC 'devei oping and even more so perhaps, ' poor nation, ',
, Hi \ i.II' "I .r 1' \'l'IIII' lnl' J11 withi n the field of development studies undo ubwdl)' t'<ltd,
'I Iill ,\li d imita ti ng, th e '''Vest: The fai lure or development il1 so-called '1IIini
Id "11 111 1111'\,, Illgdht:r wi lh the pnstmoJcrn crit ique and trends o f' globali zation, arc
.1 .1. " , 1\ 11. 1\' in!!, given rise t\l a mujor impasse in deveiopmenL st udi es in the 19H(h,
I I" 1I ,I\t.: IWl 'l1 mo re libera ting in tenns of the world views :lIl d
JF' I I ' " 1]<, 1(1 link dl'vdll pment with cul tw'al studies, for exampl e, i n r,'spl' d " I tI ll
it! It 1111' " I 1'",l lIlO(krn i ty all d t he vital natu re of issues of peace and security, Furt hn, t h,' I 1('1 I! I
1I,1"II("lIi ll ll. Iltl' reduct ion in the importance of t he ,tate. and the associated alien.llllIl ; IIr lil
I, 11'!l1l ': I\' iIsell il'l y.. all 111 Col II th.ll dcvel upment st ud ies face a batt ery of issues. not It.\,,,1 \\' I wi
ilu!.!" .lJL' I"L'"I and ilH.scapi,blc phenomena, or co nstructs designed to legitimi ll' Ihe 11Igil "I
IIIOlr kl'l
I! 11111 11 111'. 110111 til l',\? various tTends. since thl' earl y 19905, it has become increasingly
il I.' 11 111< Ill' 'Wesll' m' dl'\'dopment imperatives, and this has given rise to OJ variet) of wh.] I (, 111
11 1( 1 11 d ill ." including pust-development, anl-ideveiopmcnt and beyond del""
il!lH'iil , 111 I I tl lh. til est: should not be secn as new, but rather as ioinlng earlier tvlarxist
! ! I rlOlli, 1 I riti LJlIl';" or the sl at u.' quo lutUTe of development. Further, some would argue tl101,
Ii lil' \ ,' , II, , i I " , the 'Lk'Vl'lllpmelll project' has brought financial <lid and technological assistance,
hid, 1111\' ,out- ht 10 ;.,tandards (If livi.ng i,n the South, even if they have only been successful
'" 11m' .I I h ;11 ill'l\ k ch nologies wilJ afford poor countries the chance to catch up in ways
itli 111 111" " thosl' III the pits!.
Ii d" ,' IIII""I' 11 is ddi lled i ll t!: r11l S orpoor coun tries, an enduring I>roblem remains the need to
pnl'l'rly, Th i, especiall y so today, with poverty 'aUeviation' and 'elimi-
I'" ' 1'oId I11 1l1 , ' S, ,lI1d I hl' cl lI 'li cul lil.'s of ill'avil)' indebted poor countries (H[PCs) being
.J 1, \ JlnVl:rty means that in spite of overall global
",I i l ' Iill 11I ,l l t l' l ' wlll'rl' )'011 lil l , i,"" il rill I intn the poorest third or so of people.
" I' fll I It'l ,i r." ,\ rri<. 1 ,11 Iii '\si,l. \<id I I ... 11)\ I" I\, <' II rI L' I I\lil e'S I' ol it ie;1 1will, <l nd many would maill
" , 111." II "" l('ill,l i ", till' 1",11 I I ', .I, HIIIJ HIl L'1 11 II " \ll lIcnni um Development Goals are
1/111 fl l.1", III II ', th,11 .II I' l lI'i ll)! Ihl w i l li development targets
I iii, 1\\'1"1 11 \ 111 I ,,'lI t ll! I'
" ,',l l . " Il l \\'111 ' h ,I f' W\\ \ '"1,( " ,I I, ,11 '1""'11 1..,1", lw i llL hll k till' fdLt lhnllXonomic
,\\ 111 I ,I " "(,,, .. 111, 111 11 !lilt ' 01 11 11111 11 1 \I,,,fiiliP!! ( .. , dl".I"I' '' II''!. \\lfh( 11I1 IL:\li'lril' lIlion Clf
lid" " , il1,1 \\I "dtll. II IL'I Ii\ ,tilli,'," :111' 1'-' 11\ Iflllhfd 1111 1 lilli e 1\ 11111111 nidl.l]H' Ih,1I it i1>
1111" I"l1l1lj , d,,1 I1I11 i , Ti,l", !i, \, 101'11 11:111 11111 ', 1 I,
1111111', Wll h ,.d ,.lIll
111 1111,111 '111, 111 ', 1111 1",",".I II, '" 11..11 Iolil n 'I'
Illtl hlll'l." II I, [,C... 1I 11 1C
!ll lll ,d <tll'll "' " I,. ',jIlI .1 poll III '1'.1 11 11 ; ' 1'1,11111111" I
\'11,1 1 1""'I\III'" k, ill pill"ticuiar, ill
III llll' v, dll J,.' .. 1' inLi igl'l lll U, l' llfwkd
1.1 The Third World. d ntr 5, the South. poor
countries
Kl aus Dodds
I he power of words
III Octoher 2001, British Prime Mini ster Blail', while addressing the La bour P::trty
,Ir\ l ribed J\frica as ' the scar on the conscience of the world', He pledged to make 'Al"ricl .1
IIIII development policy priori ty for his second term of aciminis traliolJ . Over the next live YCi lr\,
IIII' Hlair Government prornoted all i ncrease in overseas a:id spending, debt l'educticlI1 and tl.ldl'
Id"rlil in an attempt to promote the Millennium Development Goals, which include rcd ll lillf,
, \ 1Il'I1le poverty, halting the spread of HI V/ A1DS and providing universal primary cd uCill ill n. ,lll
1' 1 I hl: t<ll"get date of 20 l5. With his own uniquc brand of perso nalized dj plomacy, Pri me [vI
1I1.l ir th e G8 summit in Jul)' 2005 to push for further progress towards debt [nrgivencs<, ,11 1.1
"I ITSC,\S aid increases. Unfortunatel y, the L01ldol1 bombings 0]) 7 Jul y rather (lvershado\Vnl 1111
.1111\ I;1I1CC of the summit, and critics contended that the febrile allllOuncements Oil deht dill.
1111 11 rather over-egged tbe scale of the gesture - the deal only i ncludes some of th e debts or
1'1101 countries. It will release about $1 bil
1
liol1 a year to combat poverty, compared to the mill ill 1!1 1l1
II I 'j, 10 billion debt cancell.It,ion per year needed to help developi,l1 g countri es achievl' tI ll'
f\ lillt'lIl1iulll Development Goals. However, a new Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, bas I,;
I , ' I' Ihis issue hi gh on the internatiollaI agenda.
I hne is a long way to go bcfore we wi tl]ess either widespread debt canceliati'oll or "id
1"'l lIling at approximalely 0.7 per cmt of G OI-'. Britain and the United States have yet lo It liioll
lol l with regard to overseas aid and indeed t.here are many commentators who IIIil 1
1I1I 1",lsing aid spending is not necessarily a \vortbwhilc objective. Euro-Ameri can t rllci l' 11l,lIlwl
IIlId 1 ill' role that agricultural subsidies play therein deserve more critical attent ion. ,\1 ,Ie,
I II '\ I' llIber 2005 meeting of the World Trade .organization in Hong Kong, deveJo pinf.\ Wlill i II'
IlI lInl little ["rom the smaJJ concessiom made by richer nations such as the UnitlXi :'1.11,' 111\1
IIlllll l>l'rS of the European Union. J3jJled as the 'devel opment round', critics of the I 1:,,11"
" " "IllIg coillplained that the concessions to the poor countries, includjng most oj' Al m ,1 \VIr,.
III , 'I h'st ,1Ild usually followed by demands by tbe wealthier nations and grouping, eXpl'l ll ll!', 1111
II" I "I'CIlings in the markets oftbe Global South.
While it is now commonplacc to comment on Millennium De\re!opment Goal ... , ti ,e W' llloi
I,d,!, (Irgallizaliol1 ,lIl d the ' Doha Round' of trade tali,s, 60 years earlier such terms ;HId il1 ,ti lll
111111' , did not exist. inste,lcl, the term 'Third World' had been coin ed to signi fy a De w il j, ,iI
CI)IIIFllhl lioll based Oil geograpby of global politics divided into three camps - t.he L]n it t:t! ."'I .,I. ",
HI d Ih ,lilies, lhe Soviet Union and the Communist world and a 'Third Worl d' of post n ,J llrli,tl
11 10' " ill /\lricl, Asia alld I.atin Alllerica,
I o..: hapl l'l to rl'lllind readers of" Ihis peri od, ci1;) r,\ct Cl"i zed by cold war ,lil t!
,"' IIj,, 'Iilion, dlld con,.,idn how the r,l h: " I' IIII' Tllir,1 World h,)s thc mid I\W IlI I,' fll
" 11 1,11 )' , Wil h Ill<: endil lf, of 1Ill' cold \V,lr, if W.h \\1 1.1"1 ) 111>1'(' 01111.11 '" .1, >, ,' 1
lIj1f llC' lll,I"I Wll y 1'('.111<11(111 ,l ll ti deht ,.I I1l ,' II.III' 11 11\111 1111 "Idll\ ,I f,' .... pmllk ,'1\ ". 11.1"
i To "11.11 I,i, ' wd, Inll It,i." 11.1( "'d III II IL' 1'1(1111 ' 11 1,1 lllll"" 1'''1,, '. 1 hI' hI III, il l' ill.l il'I"",
Illd III 11 11 ' Iltil'.! \<Vllc hl ,lI ,d Ie. ""wl \1 :' " ,( 11 Ih, 1<',\' 111 l' I("IlU lIl ), llilll l III ali i!
l i'llk,J -",II .... 11' 1111 .1 '1,,1 ,,1. ,11 \', 111111 10 ''' " 1'', is ", 'II 1\', dill ,' ",..I 11' (\ IIUII ' 111111 1, 11111111.1
, 11 ,1 11)\'" III II" ,: 1,' 111' 111.1 , 1<11.1 11 1111 1 111;Ii ,llI'" Iii 111,:,1 lidl" hll "' 1' d.11I

\ 111, 11 1.\ 11 I'T Hli lli, , ,llr i", 'l ',,'d IIlj 1';\[I[(I.1,ill,."II1 lid liI(,\lo, '1 1. 1 ',11, 11 Ih, \ll oI ti k
1:1',1 oIlld I ,' lll r,l l \, i, l, .lll d \.l lI ll p.lI .1 IIV,ly 111(1(1.:.,1 11 1111111111" .. 1 illl!lililtl ItI,t! ill' l' "
,J, .II III l' lk'd illill ,\1 1" ,I ' " llIl'oII"l'd to Ih l' II lili tal rIlI ldgcl '-lIi")l'" I,)' 111[' I\' Wotg'" 1.
The invention of the Third World
1111111.; ;Ii"t l'r math " r the "O/"l.\\11 ((111 ilill ( I YSO-53, .lI1d .I new bCllpol iticaJ imag
IIl oI l il ll1 Ill'gan 10 l' lll crg<! as the c(Hln ict hetween Ihl: "'ov iCl Uni lill alld the Unltcd States spread
,II"ulld thc globe. Key geographic<ll sllch as 'FIrSt World ' and 'Third Worl d', were
,l.-l' lp)lcd by Western socia l scienti sts ill an attcmpt to highli ghl the profOLLlld differences bctweell
"IV Un ikd Stales and the Soviet Uni on, Newly decolonized cOlll1 tries in South Asia , Afr ica Asia
11l'/1' secn as providing ror bot h to project inIl uence, extell d trading opport u
"il it' s and recruit for the purpose of defending particular parts of the ean h's surf<lce from the iJlflu
(If' the ideologjes of either Com I1l unism (i n the of the Soviets) or liberal democracy d.l1d
l .ll' italisll1 (ill the case of the United States). 13illions o[ dollars alld roubles were spent over the next
" 0 years in pursuil of that geopolitical objective, Both sides usee! tbe existence of this col d W tl r to
1'1.111 .Ind ill1pl ement development programmes, aid ass istance, volun teer groups, trade st imul a
I io n, academi c exchanges and/or <ll'll1 S sales.
I luring the cold wa r, th e experiences of the Tllird World were never ull irorm, wi th some CO UIl
tl ic!> and regions receiving greater attention dl<lJl others (Westad 2005), Ln the case of Latin
!\ll1eri ca, fo r instance, US admini strati ons were adamnnt (par ticul arly [ollowi ng t he 1959 Cullan
I{L'voluti ol1 ) thaI they would not tolerate any fu rther socialist governm en ts in the hemi sphere,
I'residcnt Johnson ordered 20,000 US Marines to overthrow the government of the Domi nican
1{\,' I'ubli c ill 1965, and President Nixon <l ppnwed Lhc overthrow of the sociali sL Pres ident of ChiJ e,
.... ,tl vadnr Allende, on II September 1973, Duri ng the countl ess eflort s were made either to
,1" .I\\inat(' or overthrow Cuba's Fici ci Casl ro, especially ill the after math of t he Bay of Pigs [jasco,
li lli, h witnessed US- backed an Li-Castro forces being rou ted by the <trill ed forces loyal to the S(lci al
1\ 1 "' ;Idel'. When the United States was not attempti ng lo promole revoluti on and/or t ur mo il, it wa!)
, ,,""'nt to suppor t violent anticommuni st military regimes in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and
I ln lgLI<l y. III other parts uf Lhe worl d, regional alli es such as Israel, SCHill, Korea ,uld
i.l ilV:l n received substantia l ti nancial ilnd m ili tary forms of assistan ce because they were judged to
It" \ ig nifi(ant in the wider struggle LO prevent the Soviet Union from eXlending global influence,
Whil e cl'l'tai nl y not un ique to the United States, the Soviets were al so engaged in a programme
.,1 aid, de\'clnpmellt and intervention in <In attempt to project a global co mmuni st revoJution,
.... !lII1l' Third World states welcomed Soviet largesse - India was one such beneficiary and many of
citi /ell s were subsequently t rai ned in Soviet universities and institutions, Soviet alli es sl1 cb as
( li b" also <.l ssisted in this global mission - Cubans were based ill Angola and pl ayed a vital role in
dle national security capabi lity of the country in th e 1970s, when it faced South African
I, III who used SOllt h West Africa (Nami bia) to launch covert rai ds agai nst the country, which was
'tl li',lll lled or civil W<.lI [or IllLlch of its post -colonial existence, Elsewhere, the Soviet Uni on pro
, lil ... l \ UPport for revolutionary movements in Central America, Sou th East Asia and sub-Saharan
\ 1, I, ,1 1'1 II' III lIch of the cold wa r period,
t-, pl m,my members of the expanding Third World did not welcome Lhe ill tcnsi fi -
II iotll IIi' t he cold war. In 1961 , the Non-Ali gned Movement (NAM) was created after an earlier
\ 1111 A,i dn cOll fcrence in Indonesia, NAM was impoltlll i ill so fa r it signclll ed a resi 'i t;lnc,' to the
"111 11.11' sl ri et ures ofthe cold Wil r. Recent ly dC(ll loni zcJ st" tl'S ;t lid rC'i isted p reSS L1 (rPIll
1111 , ulH.' rpmvcrs 10 ali gn wil h nne side or thl: nilwi 111<'1'111 1'"'' II I t\ Wil, \0 IInJ " ' third \,.I},',
11 1.1 11 111.' wh idl IIH:ir 11> 1111 ' ,I I 11,' 11 111111, 11 Ilillll"/1\ 1.' , II 111 1' (('
II ll ltl' .] vis ill il or .t l'vl' I'l jl ll ll'lll "1.1 {l it ;( !I' III 1111 .. 1111. 1111111 d l1d 1", It IlI'(III',ll .tI
, iI 1\ 1'1 N,\,\I 11' 111' ,1 1, \
Ht l l{,lI , , 11'.1', . I 11' ." "" 1111111, 1. 111 11 ,,: I
r
' li!u
l
"II '" "' t "
f II New Inl"II1 ,111 " \I II h ,IIIII'"1I
' '' !f,) \" " 11 111"d"lIl \,( ',1 1'" .1:; lidl
II .. \ ,1"1 11,1111 ,1 1101 till'
I" 11 1.11 , 1II ,lddll'"'' Ihe dlI II .lI ll lk
III .. it II' II ,,, ,til ,. 1111 ,ill \; I H ),
I! W, I\ ,,1 ,," n 1", '111 Ill' lil l' lillier st.lge,\ II I 1111' lOl l.! II If 11,,11 11/1' 1hi I'd a
1111 11' "I , "lllI ll i\'\ Ihol l hol d l'njo},(..'d Vl' r\' l lill "ll' lll t! \, Vdll jl llwll t ' I h ... IHllll il.tI nil
IIII!!I, 10 '11 01 111 1111 III tid producing states c,uch Nige ria, Arabia and Vent/.llll" d iff, I ... .!
!l' , . iii " " 11" \11 SOIlIIl Fasl Asian states slIch as Sillgapore al1d Tai wan, Sub-Saharan 1\'-1' ;":,1 ,!l Id
1111.1 1 \lI llll,.1 1'1"011,,111)' co ntained ':) O IJ]C of tbe poorest states in the world, whicb
III d,lI1101 gil1g IVars and/or damaged b)' corrupt and violent dicta lorshi ps II li d 111 11 1
1\' Iil\l li iL: ;, I Ill' wid Will' provided an opportuni ty fo r these and III Ill'
"llliltld 1'1 I ii" ridl Wlllllrics as they sought to extend ideologi cal and ecollomic inJl UL'I1 Ll".
I! lil\it" tl ly, 111111 pl' rishcd as basic needs such ;] s access to clean drinkj ng water proved pll l j I
.I II' lil lr. II I,, \' 1",," exl' cnditure 011 the latest tan k. shi p or missil e,
II Hi SoUl h
II I/ill I I ",, tl l l,tllt'd ing or despa ir and pessimi"m among mall )' development advocates and l'i1l1d
111 1, t ,I, ,/, 1"111 iL \, t hI! Unil ed NaLiol1s-sponsored Brnn dt Comm iss ion reported on the sIMI.' () I' Ihl'
IIi h ' I' IH{) ,Itld 19K3, Significantly, the COl11mi ssi ()n depicted a world divided between Nor th IltI "
!IH!' tl l,I 1101 .1 Fir\ l, Se((1nd and Third World. in other words, whatever the ideological difli.: rU/ u \
!WI ' II til ' .... lIvil'l Union and the United States alld their respective aJJjes, the world rl". tll )
I' vllhl I h't \\ 1" '1 1 I he ri ch I'. orth and poor South, The Commission calJed forthe North, in p... r! iUJid l
it ; i'r"l 'I Ih,ll I Ill' \\Iorld was more i nterdepcndent th<lJl evc r (global izatio'll had not heen wi
i.1 i i'-I I!) I " .11 I il lld to promote a more equ itable fOf m of global poli tical economy. Thl: I1ll, ..
i l i lt ' 1\1'" I, 'I" lib, .tI t hOll gh hard -h ill ing and si gnifi cant, a victim of geopoJitical tim i 111:\.
\\ iil ! II ", "" viel invasion or Afgha nistan in 1979, t he cold war appeared to have en lert'd,/ 111 :\1
li li !!I'!!' phase, A new US presidenl, Ronald Reagan, was commi tted In collllllillill
Ii i( 110 .1, <,, 1il"'d <IS lhl' 'c\'il empire', American and Soviet military speDdi,ng ,Ill.!
i .. , ' I, .tli 1111.111, iid <lS,i "UlllCC was used to fund anti-Soviet fO'Kes in Atghanistan and <l nlkllll1/lll l
I ' Iii 'I ' 1111 ' 11 I \ i /I as I\' icaragua, The decision to fund anti- Soviet lo rces in t I
, J' II I" 1Il.lIl y "i gll ili e lll t alld contribulcd to -the of the AI-QacJ" (clllll' 111' 1
1'1 I, ' I' I h,' I ;t IHI I 'NOs ( Jolt I1son 2(00) , What all thi s mea.nt fOf the Sout h was fa ir!) ,t I 01 IF III
1.11\\,11, 1 .\IIWli L',11I .lllel S(lviet energies were directed towards thi s global struggl<: .ll1d ,Ill
til .... III'1 1i ,d Ihe world cC(}J]omy or pursuing gl obal developmenlt WoI ', ,1 11
"to k \ III'"
Ih' Iii I.' l' lh" I'IXlb, IIH' Soviet lJnion was bankr upt and regimes in and Ccntl'alllJltlpL
I I II III" 1I1 i'., III I<IN'J , { ;l'nna li S on bot h sides of the divide tore down t he Herl ill Wall . till' IIHhl
11 1",1 11 d ,III.1 wll d.oli, Ill' di vided Europe, The so- called Velvet RC\' o.luliol1 led IlIl h,'
illiI,'II ' r" .. I ,lillliil \l' I( lrl11lT Ul l1llll un,ist ill dlldi ll g the 111 0re hrulal oncs ill I{OI1l .lI lloi
,i;l J ', I I'l lltldll ). t ISl'wlH'rc, in J ,llil1 /\ II I' wnc crumhli ng <lIld dCllI l1d,lI i1.
I/If lll lll l ll l', "IIIl'I Mell. Ihe end il1g L11 Ih,' " Id 1\.11 \1, 1', ,1j '1 ' ,ll l'l1 lly Wll lll tl w "" ' I' llI I
1' 111' II, "d, "''' III I')' ) I , "l)lI le ,11 I,d '. \1" I, I r,illo.I ' I III 11\ 1111. 1, W, ' Il' \wi nIII <l cd,II',' ' 111l' l' nd III
Ip',/t ll I 111 ,, 1.1\ .1\ il \ig ll ,t lk'd 11,.. 11 i\i ll ll,It ,t! /tl ''' :' I,I,!t;I '''U,l d' \ ,1/l 11I1 ,IIke t l'oIwd
1, ' 1, ,. o. 1111'.111,11 1.1 FIII\I,d \ 1I IIIII ltllll'I1I (llllil1)'Il lIl li IVIWI \\ h, Ih, I II/ IIl1t IItIiI d ll llli \\ .1' 11I ,. lill
hi II " ' lj,I II I)' ,ill l",(l ld\I';II .""I "'f',llIltlj,i'illll llllit l \ nli li ," ti l'" II, llilll l lh,l l h.l d l l. li lllLt! II,il
;,111\, , il llI'II;',"I" "'I' \\ .1 1',
i ji i fll] 1'1'111, \\,:1', \\ i. l. '," " Itl 11 1.1 IIwl ' d , .. III
"IW,' i1k I , 1', 1111 ,"111 1,1,11,(\ IIIHt ,

Poor countries
NullVilli,ldll J ill ),l \"x l'rcs"iilllS of 1lI'till1i", " rq,;,iltlllll; .1 1' 1..1".1 <I<"II II " '.1lii ICI'ulutioll, the 1')l)Os
10 Ihe rmc a slark reaJi7.atiol1 - Lhe luglil)' di vided, despite all the attemp ts
.. I !" uvc rn menls and policy advocates to promml' til' wl opll1 cnt. Even if the cold war did not help
.I! 011<.: le vel, it did nonetheless provide both superpowers with an added incentive to chaMel aid
Ili d ;Issistancc to their favoured allies. More broadly, endeavours to promote the reduct ion of
I'(lvert y and inequalities were modest in scope and extent. Since the mid-1980s, far morc attention
1i,IS bcen devoted towards inequaLiti cs and mal -development, but the r('sults have been mixed. On
Ihl' (Inc hand, international organi zations such as the International Monetary Fund (I MP) have
prol1loted structural adjustment and good governance in return for economic assi stance and aid
,pending. The 1996 initiative designed to promote debt relief for a select number of highJy
illdebted p oor countries (HIPC) was critici zed for demanding a range of measures, such as priva
Iization, in return for modest d.ebt cancellation. This has led to accusations that these agencies are
,'xlTcising a neocolonial influence on countries in the Global South. On the other hand, there have
IIl1questionably been improvements in the basic conditions of many peopl e, includi.ng access to
.Irinking water, improved life expectancy and. poverty reduction. It would be foolish to pretend
"thenNisC' , even if profound inequalities remain stubbornly in place.
While access to Northern markets is not the panacea for poverty reduction , i l clearly does not
Ill'lp poor countries if access to consumer markets is hindered by trade barriers and subsidies given
to Northern producers, especially (Gowan 1999) . T he World Trade Organization (WTO)
LOntinues to attract considerable criticism from antiglobalizat ion protestors, especially in the after
Illath of the Seattle meeting in November/December 1999. However, a credible WTO, with the
willingness to tackl e trade inequities and Northern domi nance, would help to create conditions
1I1Or(' favourabl e to the Global South. Notvvithstanding unfair subsidi es and trade barriers, Global
South members of the ""TO also face a further profound disadvantage: it is expensive and time
onsLlllling to attend \NTO summits and meetings, and small states with modest reSOlIrCt'S simply
do not have the same access to knowledge networks and negotiating teams that countr,ies such as
:hl' United States and groupings such as the European Union take for granted. This is profoundly
Illlportant in of who participates and what gets discussed at each summit. There can also be
IIwr J000 ,>VTO meetings ever year, and these include discussions on dispute settlement, interna
li.II1<11 standardization and trade liberali zation. David Harvey has argued that these institutions
('Ilcilurage 'accumulation by dispossession', by forc ing open markets while simultiineously refusing
III 'oflen up' domestic markets (Harvey 20(3).
While we often talk of i.nternational bodies such as the WTO and the IMF having a profound
illlpact on the poor i.n the Global South, it is also worth noting that those sam E' communities have
,Ibo been aided and abetted by theiJ respective diasporas. In London, for example, it is estimated
111;11 there are over SOO,OOO West Africans, many of whom are sending monies and other objects
1),1' k 10 their famiLies across the region. Globally, it is est imated that over 1 million Ethiopians are
,.1',11 '1llllributing remittances to their home country and families therein. There has been a great
tl l:; d ,II research on the rol e of overseas remittance and tbe contribution it makes to farnilil's around
ti l,: lliorld, including the Caribbean and South PacifIC (Conway and Connell 20(0). Ul timately, it
1111\ wdl be th(:se modest Oows of money and Slippol-I Ihill Ill ,Ii<.e a more meaningful difference to
11 111 11" ili7.l'm in those poor countries.
onclusions
IIt .T" is .1 l'.re;11 d... tI 111'11',' te, Ill' "" Inl'li, t ljHI iI, i t li dl' I,'r 11,1' ,lid\, 11111.111'.1 1111 11[1"' .. 1.1
11, 11 II rietlt' ,,1.11' \1' 1"1" 1\('111 111,1 ti lt, ' iI" "I'!CHI "jj;l l. d 'dll - I'. IIVI " " N'1I11t ,II,.I "' .. II !], (I 'I ' II" I
l iJ\J) I lit , "11 .11111', "t til ' , lIld \\, 1' ,lid I II I 111 11m till' t'I"lli ll1"I . It .lI I) '.' ''' 11t.11 111 111\ ,:,III ' I' ,ii t" II"I"
IH' p, ,I 111 1 j il l 1'1"" I II f '11 1.11 1I l.tI 1101'. ) I 11 111 i '-I I" I t1I m- Ii ' ll I l ' II Illi I jI "I II rlilt I II, II iII II.tI IJ ;ILk ,II IIj
I'j, 11111, ,1, 11 \ 11'ti lilli uI I. AlIl lgl" ll, tli /,l iill'II.'ldl-"liH" l;I!l, .. 11 , 11 .1... 1\1.11.1.:
I I 111,1 111 1' Il illli.'l' ( "llll j1ai!:\l1 , II, IV!. 1I1.'lp'c( 1i' ,1 . ,11 1111 ' <; f!J,. I,.r1'I1I'di. 1 .1I1d
10' ilklll 1',I'\-"l lI lI ll' lll, ill l.. making 1111 ,1.1.\ 11 1111 Illd ,lid s ll<'ndlng, 1(OWl'Y!'I, Ill .. ".,
1"1" .11 1 " '",llIy and arc ,If 1.'1 1JI1111 11ll'll tIlt Il' ll .mJ (lI1d il iOIl , .1 1l;l l lwJ 1\1 . 11"
II! tklll ',; 111, ,'ILlli,,".
11, (1 Will ' ' 11 1Il'Il (1r nOlv preoccupies the Ullited Stales, and mal)), count ries arc on the J'O.'CI ldllg
1111 ,, 1' 11.1 '"ld L'speciaJi y when they are judged strategically significallt with rcgan l I"
Id 1I1p. fllllltn Inror ,II ucks on the Un.ited Slates (Gregory 2004). The cnl d war m ;IY h1: OW l,
" I IIl1d.11 of labelling some parts of the GBobal Soulh more lIseful thull ()l IH: rs (lHlli li
rl h, il "}'.. Ii LI hackdrop informed by a fea r of Islamic militancy rather tha II ..
111\1111111'" 1 Wlli k Amcrica is preoccupied wi th terror networ ks, i t is ,al the same ti ml: seeking 10
1"." i!"I , " vi (' L!I V(; lorlll of international order, which takes seriously in tellectual properly
III uti ,lIld natural gas, and trade tariffs, but i;; less inclJi ned to w() rry when hUl11,1I 1
[III " 'II\nl, hy cithn the US or its allies in the Global South. This selectiv", approach Clilic'
tI. !I 11 1]111"111 dallgers and docs noth'ing to enhance America's reputation in Ithe wi der wutid
IllIf illll "" 1,lIl ll y. lilr p()or countries in th.e Global Soutb, a rules-based intcmati onrrl order I',
It j ..1i 1I,.j\" , III i. t1 in l'nsuri ng that poverty reductjoJ] a.Dd cleveJopmen t (hm"ever modest ) Cilil g.1 ill
liil, filii "I II II lIlIl'nl Uill. Very few political ileaders (sudl as Hugo of oil -ri ch Vcllt'Zlll'l, l)
tli(1]11 ' III I' III ca lling the President of the United Stales ,1'devil', or t.he time to rcad NII.IIII
1iIl ' I1. it l ' I( l"lIl1'!..y 2(01).
II :;, "), l oIllIl l',l1id"IO devciopmelll the geopol i tics ,,"l' I'owI I ,
.' IIl!! I /.' , 111I1I11;lIg /)CFc!O/'I1iCI/! C; e,)grapilies, LC)Jlcion: Routledge.
11 , 111 ,11 ' ,,""1 1111 hl' il11paCl of the col d war on tbe Third World can be fOund in W....stad, O. (2(10 ,I I I"
1""' / ' ,' 1, / \1 11,,1 :dlllhridgc: Cambridge University Press,
It , 111'1 ' h I "I lit., war nil terror and its cOlllnecTions 10 ol der patterns of colonial viol ellce, Set Crq'.'" I', I
iiti II III, "/"";"II'",,.,!,"!, Oxford : BlackwcJl.
'd\ , II..
,1\ 11",1," 1': WWW,lll'lkepovcrtyhistory.org
fit! 1f .! III I i q'..1I11/,llitlll: \Vww.,,,lo.org,
I ' 11(1 II 'J /1, N.'I\' York: Seven Slories Press,
"
iI', I' ""I. ""11<'11, I. (2110() ) ' Jl..ligralion and remittances in isl and microstate's : Acomparol ivc Pl'l
1.1 Iii ","tI, 1',1< ill' ,11111 lit .. ' ;;Iribbcan', 11I 1. 'mlll ;I/ III1I /r1l1r11111 ,,( Urho!! olld Rcgior1l11 Rc.'mrcJ" I l{ 11: 1.' 7X,
J '11'!II',i'l u , 1' 1.1'1 >(11) ''1'1,., "111,1 (II' TIl " Nll li"II"IIII /."," I, SII I1l IllL'r. dV;lila hlc .11:
ill 111 ,11
t I I ')' 1'1 I 1/1" 1;1"/,,,1 (;,11111,",: \ Ii, ,1I' " I ,/,,{,.t! 1
1
" "1111111' ''' ', 1.I1 I1 ,h lll: \':1: 1'''.
I' ( '!Ifi l l 1/1,' " ,0/"";1111'11""111 , 11\ 111 101 HI,,,_, I" II
<1, , 1 I '''iIIl l lil,'I ""I ,I. III,' \ "" ", ,,".1 t , III' '1 / 1 I1"111 \ ) I, ,II
,,1'. \ , "Ii III ',' ,"'1111/' /1 ,,: 1', I ,Ii 'I"'I' II I ; .. " .;/ill >l"
!4t1 , t, I '1111 '.1 i/" ,I"'htl I n'il \\ ,, ' I l" llothl!,.


1.2 Current trends and future options in development
studies
Bj orn Hettne
Development st udies in ret rospect
,\1 I ill' heginning of the twent }'-first century we are in an era which, rather depressingly for devel
1I1 ' I11l' nt theorists, has been described as ' post-devel opment' (Escobar 1995). There is a need to
purpose, content, agenc)1 and context in a reconstituted Geld of development studies.
I he dassical discourse, which had its roots in the lat e 1940s and was institut ionalized in the 19505
,II1d 1960s, assumed the possibili ty of an autonomous, (inter )discipli naq' fLeld, cont aining a set of
I ile(lro.:tical cores witb development economics as a respected member of the family. The rel evant
Illemeti ca l schools, competing, yet in dial ogue, were: l11odemizntion, structuralism, dependency and
. ,I/IO/!Ier develupment', all normati vel y concerned with the spec itlc problem of national develop
IIl l'llt in the so-call ed 'Third Wo rld'.
' I'lle reconstruction of war-torn Europe prt)Vided the model for state-directed modernization of
I ht' 'new lIations'. in this model, development was Jargd y sociological and political in ll<1tmc, and
IIl1derdevcloplllent was defined in terms of di ffcrences between rich and poor nations.
I kvcloplllcnt implied the bridging of the gap by means of an imitati ve process, in which the less
ikwloped countries gradually assumed the qualities of the developed. Marxist theory essentially
,hared thi s perspecti ve. For structuralism, which dOJ1linated the early phasc of developJ1lcnt eco
1I0111i..:s (still influenced by KeyoesianisJ1l), a certain amoLU1t of interventi on was considered neces
' . .II}" dlle to institutional conditions whi ch made growth in the poor areas less automatic than it was
.I" lIIlH:d to be in t.he so-call ed developed countr ies. From the late I 960s, moderni zation theory and
', I luLl ural ism were chall enged by the Latin A.rne ri can dependencia selioo!, whi ch, together with the
Illore global world system theory, artiCllla ted the weak position of Third World countries
III I lie world sys tem. The or ' neo-Marxists', asked for a radical poli.ti cal transforma
lioll wilhin these cOllntries, as well as a 'de-linking' of their cconomies from the world market
[Hlol11striilll and Hettne J984; Kay 1989) . With its fOCllS on state-driven indust riali zation, depcnd
"II l}' thcory did not differ much fram the modernization ami structurali st schools with respect to
IIl l' content of development. tn contrast, 'a nother development', a counterpOiJlt to thjs modernist
I lew, was defi ned as need-oriented, endogenous, self-reliant, ecol ogicall y sOllnd and based on strllc
Iliraltransformation (Nerfin 1977). HO\vever, the main concern for this and subsequent ' alternative'
,I!,!,roaches was tbe many probl ems created in the course of mainstream development, and what to
" " witli people who were excluded from development. Here the illl pcrati ve of intervention reached
I degree of utopiani sm, but stiU it can be argued that the norma tive basis, aga inst ioequality
111 , 1101' emancipation, remai.ns significant for development studies (Schuurl1lan 2000) .
Ilt'velopment and gl obalization
IIII' il1te rveJ1tionist approach was challenged by the rise of neoli beralism in the ,I Ih m rl'li
" t! , hill .hsoci'ltcd wi th a deepenil1g or internati onali zation (gl oba lization ) ,mel n: kr l'l' d III .1 ' the
" IIllIller revoilition' in development l'(onnmi(s Cltl}l\' I<JH7). This was ;1 I'lirilkd II L'I1, 1. "'.1,. 01 .Ii .;
10 whic h deve lll pl1ll'l1t ildll'll'III I), ;llId iIlL I'C,lS iII Fh .1"1. 11" ,,
" IIllIi, !'IIIUV,. I )[' vl'IIII'"I"111 ,', (\lI "t lli,', \\ I tilll , ,I , 1" 1\".\ "I ill, ,1 1111111 11, 111111', -. 1.111, , ,,"I i , 11111 \,'"
111>111 Ih,' 1III t'ltil'" 11,1111.11 1 t. \ttll h I hl tI , ,, /111' 1111'111 1"I "dl'llI 11';1', .1',' " ,,', 1"1 .. 1.u i" . I"'IIn lh,
, " .11<', I I 1l! I, 1 '1'1, 1, ill!': 11111<',1 lit I,ll , .lIld I III' ill" pili, i \. willi.", Id 11111 .11 .il l 1' "1 Ill. II H \\01 101
\ ,II'L II ' . \II ,IIIIl' l plUl' km wil h Il wll ld upitlll .lt!; w, \ tlul 111.1 fd,.!"t!lIcd Wll t ld, ,Ill!
II ,Ui '"1 ,I Iil' 110 lOll ,\{i tlJ tn lt hr dtlllllltl 'l l 1" IIII:,'w,.. d. iill (1'111\ I". ,I lid .Id ill l\. I kVI.' I' IPl1 lllll
IWIIIY 1( lUnd ltsl' l( ill ,I n jl1lp.1SW, imd lh, '.t tl, '1\ , 11 111.1, l"t\l ,i1 'I" II I"'.ll' ill g il (Bonll1l 'Jfh)
of'wh at 1l l,'W is I II II" 1,\ 11\1' 1, 11 1 'II' I" ,ll I:/"!,,ili2!1li(lll. This i" dl'.lI ly
III lIg- ler m hi stori Gt\ process, but at tilL' ' ,III I\' lilm' ,I linv Hill" ill the scl1:.e 'lt tl l il is
t"" ln l by new and com I11U 11 icatioll Il' li1l1ll lngil's .\II d.1 l1e\V o rganil<ltiona ll"giv lid
!lIking (Ca:.tells 1996). r he global and the local are enmes hed ,ill n shrinki ng w(,rld. t\ rd,ll,'cl
11IIu' nsioll of import ance is the rise of supraterritor ialit y (Scholte 2000 ).
I Ilnbalizatinl1, as influeIJced by neoJiberaJ economi c policies, has become the new wiJl'd 1"1
1,II I1';[ream dcvelopmeJ1t. Glubalism as development idcojogy impli es the growth of a worl d It "If
I, I11creasingl y penetrating and dominating ' national ' economies. In contrast wjt h the inlcn'I'1I
1' II.. t bias of thc classical discourse, (ideological ) gl obalists consjder 'too 111llch governmcnl' .1' i
"'Ill ic fa ult. Good govcn Jance is thus defined as lesb government. in accepting this I III'
1', the disciplini_ng spokesperson of global economic forces, rat her than the prllll',lnl
I1ml these forces. It is not !11 um of an exagge ration to sa)' ttlat, whereas a fi ve-year plan pre
Itlll, ly a must for a developing count ry cxpecti.ng international assistance, after the 'COLI ntl'r rC: I
1lIllil n' it would have disquali fied tb at col.lrrtr}, from recei ving aid.
I II1ll1 this perspective, classical development st udies stands o ut 3 $ a non-staTter, and as 11,,\\
"" rcacbed a hegemonic po:;ition, tbe classical olle ebbed away. Postl1l odcr n critil:s CVI' II
1.lIllll't1 that what they referred to J S 'the modcrn project' uad collapsed. Others wanled til it
1,'II111g for a ret urn of the polit ical in some l.ra.nsnational form. According to thi s approach, w i
filii; III must be analysed wi thin a larger space than the nat.ion and meJ' ged wit11 the intcrnnlioll,d
1'11111" ,11 l'conomy ([PE) . Thh coul d amount to a 'counter cotUlter- revol lJltjo n' (Krugman jl)lPI
n" It of the modern project. MOl.ny doubts remain, however.
v" lopment and security
II, ,1.1" it"t! discourse on devdopmellt and security viewed global poverty and
Ih'I! I' . .1 threat to the Jjberal wor,ld order in the context of the em erging cold war (f k til l" '111 11,
I lli . \ .1', " hierarchical world order of centres aDd peripheries, which, logether wilh hip,, 1. 11
h,'I"" ,Itt' genera! pattern of conflict, a struggle for p()wer and at the same time" (1I1t1I"'lIill'
i
'i
tw. , II different socio-economic systems. None of the theories constitUting this d isl<lltlW .111 11
ii l ' ,f .Ihllve, proved to be of much instrumental value for development ill the poor till lilt III.
I lit'\' \\I n Idtimat d }, replaced h)' the policy of structural adju51I11eH(, a pur itl cd modernizil l iPIl P; II
li ltl l! ti l disciplined ('wl1omic devel opment, completely di vorced [rom security
iii C, I)" I l"l I' I'ca red soon enough i 11 the form of food ri ots (tbe ' 1M F riots ' ), but also in mon' II ,II'
\ 1', of societal stress and violence. This disturbi ng reali ty has been referred to 'PII,I
In il ","flilt ', ' nl'o- lllcdiaevalisll1' or 'durable disorder' (Cerny 199R; Duffi eld 199:-\) , ,\
11" "",11 III which could indicate a paradigm :; hift in the refl ccting all
1,01 I, dII" '] . lh;!ol ic world. The new ' political economy of Wil rlordism' can be r(l\1 nd ill 11 1< 1'(
I 101 11,1' Will'll!.
1,.11 , IOlild Ill" 111l ' 1I1l';!lIillg Ill' dc\'clol'llh.' nl in ,I Iwr\ d where the , tll te is ;lbdil ,lling.
,I! I 111 .1 \' .I l1 ll1 nl, WhCH' gillhal ill l.'q ll ;dili,'" .I ll' in, II .l , illg, wlJl'fe ' new nluJl j"l}, .1111 11111'
, I >' I" " hl" 11 1III dl'wlllpu 1,'111 ,I id h.I ' h,'( II " 'd 111 .' '] I t1 .1 I 1\ II Ii >rill III' i11 ll'rVl' 1l [i on i It .. o llif >I n
I->i II 1. 11 1.111 "III"I !',\' II' i".,' i I .. till' '1Il1hlllhllll l I I' W, ,li',i nlq; r,lIill11 111' lit" Il.I d ,
I ii!'! ""I., 1111"''111' 11 11)" 11'1I1 dnl'illl II II' III I j" I pll.,d .II\\IIII!', .1111 11 11" i, 11t .ll dl'ldOl J'
11. 11 '\ " ,II ILl ', III 1111 "1.1," I11 of Ii, 1111.1111)\1 111 ' 111 11 II i cllpl' " I" II Il III1.J1 i, ,' III,' '. ill l,IIII'11. 1:111 Itlln
I j ' 111111' " 1111 1''' '\ I' ldl ll'
... _...... , . . III, I)' '! 11111 1'1' III \\ ," II "I' Ii 'IIIIi1
III' I"'I I" II ,\ l' l il"li" (1I I1 jClII 1111111',_11111111, 111 ditiWlilHlI!I iidl"IUII ,," ,1I 1111, I. 11111 )'
II" IIill':1 ,, \1"1 ' II I . I" II, , II III . I' .ISIl IH !'.h}l1,d ci'd"-,,l U' Irfill !I(,Ii Il g , 1,1) Ihillg thilt thl' Ull1ll'I' l 'II'
.I, \1 1111 ' 1111 '111
I)evploprnpn t and cu Itme
n il ,' 111 1'111, 11< ,.I W<1 \ of 1111' II\,!II' IJIIU'I I.liIlI II'S i\ postmoderni sl1l. Devel opment
111; 111 " IllIdllll hll'dly.1lililt! 01 IIl v I'.nli ght l1 111 I1.' 1I1 , (lr Ihl' ' lll11dl'rn project', that is, the increas
ill
g
" '1"," II ) I" sOLil' lies in il ccord'lIl cc.: wi th r,ltionalist principles. The credit for having
.1"' <111\ 11111 It'd lilis 1l1. lgn ifi ct; 1l1 myth, or gral1d narrative, shared between feminism, post mod
'111 1',1/1 .lIld , 1I11111;tI sludil's, ell1erging trends with a great deal of overlap.
I h, IIltl"dll' li l lil ol lultmal studi es to the study of development marked a significant change,
1.11 til e: 'lltltural 1:lctor' in development (Tucker ]996). The cultural approach aJso
illll ,I,, t! .1" ,'l OIiSI rlill ion of'developmcnt' and the 'Third World'. Post11lodern theory, which dom
" hi ll" I. 1111111 ,11 :.1 1II1 is relal ivi zing the whole business of development theorizing, thus making
11 11 l'I IIIl'l l III 'uevcl() pment' rather senscless. Other theorists reject the rel<1tivism of postmodern
Itl ld look lill' a cOl1lbination of political economy and cultural studi es in order to get rid
, 01 Illl h. llli w,lkl bUI kl'cp the baby. The significance of culture and identity in develop ment has to
.I ,. 11 ,)1 \1/ 111111 it wilh lhl! <.: ullural in the process of development, as wit h abandoning
I III"" I1II i, lil'wl"l"ll ell l Ihinking (i.e. de\'Clopll1{,ll t as catching up and imitatiolJ)' and instead
l ""l "I\i ll ) ', ,11111 dl'velopmcnt as lln inclusive, liberati ng process, in which di fferent
II " tI ,1 \ ,Ill' ,lc( ol1llllodatcd and constilutc a dial ogical proccss (Munck and O'Hearn 1999).
I II I \I' (I n UilI Llrl' has t:lr-rcaching impli cations, and m,IYCOllslitute till' greatest chal
1' " 1\1 III III" Il' titinking or developl1lcnt. 'llle carly develo pment theorists were not self-critical
Il" " WIt " " Illi , I\SlIl', inler alia ncglccting thc that development is necessaril y culture- <md con
"1"" Il le ,111.1 I IMl th e conCl'ms thc observer as well. Today, however, few social sci
, lllh l . \\',1\11.1 Ihal s()Li.t1 theori zing wiU be significantl y marked by the par ticular
',liI,III'1 III,tI ,111.1 1'1', I<.: ti ., .t1 conl ext rrom which it emerges.
Dl'vC'lopment and worl d orders
(, II\I., tllI,11 i,," the 'unbundling' of t radi tional state functions, a changed relationship
It, 1\\" "'11 Ihl' \ tutc ;111.1 civil solidy, and, in particular, a te.ndency .for the state to bccome increas
,ti ll' ll.l lr, 1 11'<1111 ci\' i1 socidY In thi s process of cbange, legitimacy, loyalty, identit y and even
:,'11, " 'Il',I II ) ,III' Ir,lll., krn:d lip llr dowil in the system, to political entiti es ot'her than the state (i.c.
I.. 11 1,11 fli or IIlino-l'oliti('s)' at present witb the latter predominating. Taking these diverg
1111' 11< lid" ,I', ,I I' (l illt "f lk' parlure, (lnc can think of three major routes towards a new world order.
11 11 \ .I" 11,,1 ,kIL'l llliIlL' uHltl'nt, but provide different global contexts, enabling some and exclud
lilt' "I il l'( " ,llIlioll o,. I':al'il "I' lhem thus con 1<1 ins variations on the main theme.
I II .' III "t IOil '" is :.onl(' surl of regression in to pre-West phalian is m (which in mos t of the Third
\1111.1 , , ' I1"' 1" II \( h t" '11 ft. r olonia I') - a wo rld "rdn with a d ras ticall y reduced role for the nati on
1.111 01. 11 \ I, III)W II . .Ilid IiII Ie "I rom pcn sal(' lur I I I i.. I at Ihe glohal level. Th us it does n ot per
11 111 1\, <III' ,' !'I 11,!>:tI rq,; II!. lti llll . Thi s rOIl I..: ";, 11) hr li l, ,.kd illl'l Iw" ,PIlI J' :I sling forms: one l11 alevo
f. " I, IlIq oll'ill ). 01 ,I if lll .,, ,11111 IlIIbllk' l1 l "1,11'111 .. I .llIlltll ,i l\ ill sometimes
1,, 1, 11 \ " ' IIII "' lili'lll ; ,md ,)(It' li,1l 1 VO,," III . ill ll'l) ,I i!i ll IllIIIli kvd order with a l
Itli llj' 1, \" .1 1'. 1" " I It, 111,,,1, "I dl' ld"I' III ' llI I'"' 1,,1,,' ill II" 1,, ;: 1 I II l1l l'\ t 111. 1\ he sunil.: ) ( I rl , )(
1" 11 ,111 11, ", 1ll l'l"o'iil ill , . 1, 1,11 11 illlll lt' . til "III1I :lsI, IhcbcoI'V
'01"111 ti ," ,' III I,dl /l" l 11111.1"1 11' (1 111 " 111 1)/' I " "' 1111 '1I 111 11 1,lIil'I 11,1111 '1 ,,1011'\,.:1"1'11\\'11 1, ill, Ili d
;111' l"tlli 'l llt ll l "I 1111 " 11'11111, I", " !lI' l 11"11 fll,"pi I!! II I 1111 11 1 ,lIb'I. IIII1II,II illk l. .I,.
",bill', ,I lt 1, 11 1 III 111,1111 ,I " .11 ' 1ti l ,, 1"1'111' III
111\' " :UI II , I 1',.1 " ," Wnll'irlt ii.lli tJJill " n'illllllrd IlIitlIi!JlhIUH', lullu; r ill ,I 11 1:"11'01111 11,'\' 1 I
"'111 III 11\ .1 111' "" 1'1I 1,,, I\' ,lIg: llI i/.cd ,-,,"(\.Ii "I lill!!I'II,;." j'.'IVO. , "" .1 1111111,'. il 1l' 1'1I111i.!gl: III
!l! lr l 1, 1111 ' III 1'1' r,'I, III ,( ,It,JI '"" \', JlIII ' hVl.llI" Inc II l,fol iii! II,d , I t. I, 11111,1 01 II, \\'1," 1.1 (Oil
id i't' IIII' " '"1 1'" ,I' II .., hl,'lIl'llIll'l!1 l,iIlO. III " '(,(1 llll tl' l' 1;11 I. 1lll lhl'lI llll ll\ ,Ill
1111 (' would 1''''li,:II,.IIII'" ,,I'll"! 01 (I ll' \o\(\l ld ,
Ii" 111 ,,01 i, .1 ;"10'1 11,1111[', 11'1 ... " , Iii I' hll ll , L11 "ow!.: r Ill' ) .11 l ilt:
1I 1, 1I'(ll(1n,tI !t: vd . The state call l'illll' l Ill' \l lhsl iI Uil'" hY.1 order of I II
i 1.1" 1I !',IIt"IIl:d civil society, in hot h Iqlre'>Cl1 lj ng <l step tow,u'ds supran,lli PlliI l gov
ill 'II " ,,Iltn lin d regional or a global IeI'd (I leltne cl al. 1999; Nedervec n Pit' tersl' 20()()). 1\,, :
1.111 tI ." 'prO:1 l h cllnta ins both negative and positive COJl11lJ llll itarian forJJls; t he coslllllpnlil ,111,
IllIlIl) .111 dllr;ll'tiVl' Illodel, so far lacks bot h sup porti ve insti tutions and eml,,1 tionaJ lI ndcrpi ll
' II " " I "Ilid lit .. lwo mcet and merge?
III'W sta rt?
UI " t' I"l oI "111 in understanding qualitatiVe/str uctural change in the globalizd conditi () n is , I I.l d
t " 'I II PI'II,ltl' slIcial scicllcc terrninology. The nation-state system and the establishmenl \1f'1 11'1
, II I II I I}"l' 10;1 conceptual fra111el vork devoted to the analysis of national space and - 1,111ll"
III " ldlll!)11 inkrnational (interstate) relations, creating the great debate between .111 01
11!!1.I IIIIII,d ' dl11'wachcs to the international system. The recent po pularity of tbe wo rd 'gloh,"
11I r,,, ' 11111 ',1 Idles Ihe disturbing lacLina with regard to appropr.i ate concepts rel evan t for Ll l1 dl' l
1,lI i.l IlI )' ,""ll'l1ll'orar y structural change and providing a scien ti5c basis tor grasping a
I. , I II/Ill Ihl' current turbul ence. This conceptual p()verty also i mplies a lacl< of polit'icd , 0111
III pi in the realworl'd ' out there', since the novelty of the situation is (J Ot even
II" I... dl .dlcnge for all social sciences, but for development studies in particular. Thi s fi eld 1t .1 '
1"lilll. d III "vLT)l thing cxccpt its normative concern with emancipation .from in eq ualit y ,111 .1
I''' ' II \ II ... cllIl'I' ging 'lpproach can be described as transcendence: development studies as a pH'
<I I .. I " I . 1 ' 1I1l'I'rchensivc alld universall y valid hi storical social science, devoted to the conlexlll,lI
! ' Id \. , 01 01 tYl'cs of societies in di fferent phases of development, struggling to iIII prow litl' iI
Jilt, t ' li t! I'mi Iillll wi th in thc con strai nts of one world economy a nd one, albeit mul liI,I }'CI'l' d ,
iu l" ,,1,1"1 . hll'llll'rll1orl', development theory nceds to be reconstructed in terms of conlo.' l1 l :.,
i ll ' ,,,"11 ' "I IIH' huilding blocks for a reconstitution, uJtimat ely contributing to a uni fied hisl( ll
II ,I oIlh l '"ltlj'rchl'llSive social scicnce, or 'global social theori , @s di scu,<;sed i; 1bov(' , arc: cl'rl. lill
II " "\ II I 1l1io'IIt;ltioll<li political cconolllY (lPE) theory; ;J theory of the new develop mt: nt-n.: I;\(l'l l
1.111.1 lillks hctwecil peace and devel opmen't) ; a .new emphas is On cu'ltura'l stndiL's;
(l'di.-GIIIII', lit,' r... ll'v;llllC (If alternative thinking) a continuing concern for the excl uded (inl' lud ll lt',
i,."dill i, II Ii (If \Vh,lt the excluded shall then be included ,in), The question or c1cw lOPIl Il'11l
IIl hr. l. (111 till', III" I('Llled III the issue of world order, since the framework withiJ) w hich dcvd llr ll ll' lIl
IIl i d}',.... 1,11111 ,It 11'11011 will no longer be the nation state only_ The natmc of t,hi s Ia.-ljcr fro lll'"
' " I, .11 11 "1' '': 11, \JIll IIndollbtcdly of great il1lportance for the future of devcl() J1 mc nl. C;I"I ).( I
l!'h lilj1 i"' ll l l. l11 Ill' "clinl'd itS improvemenl ill lilt' 'IlI ,dit )' "I' inlernational wliliid
II !flii!'(' " '.1 I"lI i',IIt,,'lIill )', or Ihe \Vel LIn' Uilll l' lI ;,iOIl', II I \'i (ll ld 1l1'L1l'r the or gl,,",,1 11il hli.
1111 1, ' 1'111'. ;:'I,d IV," (:xl'n:ssl'd in thl' 1(1(1() 0\1 11 1"1 1111111 11 Ij,., 1. 1I ,ll i')II .. thl' ITk:vall\:l.: or whie ll ....1',
11111"1 1111 , 01 dl.llIl.lli, ,dly "y Ihl' 1111'1': ;11 II I "'11 ,111'0 111 , ti ll I '-" I'll llI l), " II Il w f liII'.

.
II.. 1,.tlIII'ti " 1, ' .11, '1"1'''' ,", l'III 'tlit ii, , h.II" IIII'
j '" l1 I,,, '! , \ 1 tI "III,II11"!'. 11' IHII I I", /, '/I1!1I' JII l!i,, /l./,, J/,{rWI' iJj'j M, ' ,ll1dlll'Ii",,1
11"" / 1\,,,1,111, ,/' ," 1, I,,",[i '" _____________________________
1..,. " 11 ], "'<I r II'I! dl LUl , SIIII.tlh' ll l ,111111'l ltl li' llt Illd
Iil v i l1,1" .. it .. d,.\)' ' In Ii
1\",,111 I I ( 1'1)\ ,I ", I, 1" 1"' " ,II Itiltil'/li 'i ll\j! I" i'"l j,I ""L, I I " "" I I,T"/"r'll/rlll, I 1t i' 1:
,. 1H
,;'.1"11,, 1\ 1. 11'1'/101 l 'fI,'I IN' "I ii ,, \ II I i / /" 1"/1"1"" 111 111 ( h lllrd: Ill ack"dl.
, I I 11 \ ' , 1'.( .. ( I J 'N':IIIIIni ic' v, Ii is"" civil 1\' " I ,II " I I I" II' " ,, ' , '" 11 I 01 li l'1l III !.I : ( ;IIII"llil.a l ion <l' dllrar;1c di sor
01 " 1', ( 'i l'i/ 1\1, (1 .' I ( I ): .1 6 (, I.
1, ,,111<'1" "I. ( ll)')X) ' I'osl Illlllkrn conilicl : \1\ ,HIord., , 1' '''1 aci jllstnl <:nl slalcs alld Pri va le PrOleClioll', Cil' il
1\ ',II ., I( I ):6:l- 1() 2,
I s, "h,II ', /\ . ( IYl) S) 1:I1COIlI1/ crillg [)cveiup nte/l t: Thr Makillg an d UII/'/wki ng of fhe Third \\forld, Pri nCelo n, NJ:
1' 1 il ll l' lull Universil Y Press.
I l d lll '." , II, (2001 ) ' !)iscoul's<:s Oil peace allli Progres5 i7lDcve/opmcl1tSlildies 1( 1): 2 1- 36.
I 1<' 11 Ill, 1\" IIlC/t ai, }\ . alld SUll k<:l, 0, (ecls ) ( 1999) Glo/JlIli$1I 1 lIlId Ihe Ne w Regiona /isr/'!, London: Macmill all.
"-, I)" I :, ( I '.lIN) !.lIlill / l l1Ieri((l11 Theories of Develop/l1C/l 1li nd Underdevelopment, l.ondon: RouLicdge,
I IlIglll ,ln, I'. ( I ':192) I01l'lml (/ Counter COl/nter-revolut ion ill Dt!Vclopmellt Theory, Washi ngton, DC: World
ILl Ilk,
' '' rrl t:k, It and c)' lleam , D, (cds ) ( 1999) Cri tical DeJlelopl1lent Theory: Con tri /Jllt ior/s 10 " New Para digm,
I oll doll: Zed Books.
N!'d" l'\ l'cn i'i ('[crsc, 1. (2000) Global FUl llres: Shoping Clovn/izcll iol1, Lo ndon: Zed Books.
Nl' llirr, 'II. (cd. ) ( 1977) A/lOther Developmelll : Appronc/IC$ (Illd Strmegies, Dag Hal1ll1larsk01d
Iollll(j,llion.
"" 1,,,IIl', J. A, (2005) G/obalizatiun: A Crili(olll'llroductioll , secon d edi ti on, London: Macmill an,
"" Irlllll'll"''' , I'.J. (20(lO) ' Paradigms IOS1 , parad igm, rega ined? Deveiopme nL in the twent y- firsl CCI1
Thi rd World Quarterly, 21 ( 1): 7- 20.
' I"y(', I. ( 1% 7) Dilemmas of DeJlelopll1(!lIt: Ref/ect/orts Oil I he COIl Illt'rrellol uti(Jr/ itt DCl'elopnt<'llt Theory ,///(I
I'o/icy, Oxl(ml: fl as il Blackwell ,
I", k,'r, V. ( I \J\J6 ) ' Jnl rodlictioL1: A cultural pcrspeci ive on del'elopment', c liropellll fOl/ mal (II Development
1- 21.
1.3 The impasse in development studies
rrans J. Sch uu rman
Illlroduct ion
11(,1' <; I"prnL' llt stud ies is a rel<ltivciy nelV branch of the sodaJ sciences. Coming into being in the late
IIj hl h .11 Id l '<lrl )' 1970s, it inherited many features of post-Second World W,lr developments within
IIii' ' oil( i;d s( iCI1(cs. Modcrni 7.at ion tJlcory contributed to its developmental ori entati on and its
' ,I(IlI' ,II,lli vc II1l'l hodology, From dependency theory it inheritcd i ts nonnat ive and progressive
1',, 1111, .rI, Il " rilrlcr alld it s interd j'icipli ndry conceptual frame works ,
III 1IIl ' 1l)7(b , with dependency theory denouncing llloderl1.i zat ioll theor y itS crypto-imperialist,
,,".1 Ililld lT l1 il.;ltinll Ill wrist s hitt int; back by accllsing dependency or being populis t
I"'i 1101" dL'vci opmclll found fertile ground and grew imo an illl.: rcas ill gl y
I" l' I' l l ',I II ,'W dl\Cl I, l inl' ,, 1'1], <: social Universities - often llnt\..: r rrnm k l li'i! pro
t',""II' , .lI ld , 11 11 1l'll l S l rl" l l l' d Til i I'd Wil l 1.1 ( :C II I rl''i , 1 k h" Il " ,Ib! l lii I he na I II rc lind i111 (l.IL I III .II 'w i
ill' I""1I1 ,1, .. " , 1 I Ill[ Ill" dli ll 1''' 1' 11 1:11 , ,11101 {I" c)' isi l'ml I ii 111.(11)' di ( lal ori,,1 rl' gi l1l l '), itl !ll,
h i 11111 111' 1'111 " " lid I I ill ' "11 1111111 1.' .... IIl li l\ ' Nnrlil 11111" I IIHIj IIIi ll: ,... sl,lr k li hi
""11 h ' l l ,111.111, \ 1IIII ,II u I " I II, il LI! ,J .."hIC, \\' llt, I I II ill h, 01 , ,11 1\\111 1III til
II
,,'
i ! III'
1'1. led ill,l 11 IIIIL.I '.\, tccli li U\\1111 111 lin .'\i '.l.1 1 ,lilli' 111,1111 111, " 11. 11 11 111 ' f,ld
Ir il dlol l d n l'l ol' ll lI'1I1 ill dWhL'I! "\ '1 1 .1 , ..: 1,1 1,1 ,Lilli l 'I " I'"' l l lIlIIS "i'II
ill!! . i;,fl IItI C\ "1 iv ..... IIII'qU,Itl'lv "\1",1\11 ('\ 1" 21 ,. 1,i lll l"l'tlll'l ll .ll llllllllll',dC\ d il l'
I II ti,[(' II ,,' II ,,' llli' d il111dl'tlli /.lIil1l1 t\U.' lit It'S ,,., 11 (,' '' \1. 11 \1', 1 d C'I'l 'lhl <; IKY II ll'lIt " "lit
1III'Ii\i:[ iI 11 11 ' 11 111'" I WI'L. \o'i ing (lUi III 111 11, .. II I IIH'II l'>" II!.\II i1lory IHIWt'r I mil l lit. 11 11,1
,L, Ii " ,II ' ,dl n l ill dl' vdopl11l.' lll W.I' t,l lked alwul. The III
' II , 1'. 1. 1"'<1 lor lite flr.':i t timt: in . 1 SClllinJI art icle by Dalid \3oot h in I Wl:o 111 1111
!. 1"11"",,,1 ,111 ,I' t '(1I1110/', c() ntinued the discll ssion, which too kOD nCII dil1h:nsillm lI'ilh
"Id \\', 11 . 11 11 1 til l' debate 011 globaljz ation,
', ;I II hi 11 <:1 <1 Il" Jlomihlc fo r baving cbanged the panorama fo r dCl'('top mcllt
I i ."1,
1"1" '"
1" ",1. 1111
!"jli lh III
1,111 il l II il ",',I IL' d this th eo reti Gl \ impasse. Chrono logically 1hey were: (j ) Illl' ( ,li lt tl
I II ill III,' "oillit "!lei the growing diversi ty of (linder )develop ment exper ic:nl.l" ; ( III
I lIl li 'l lll' Oil Ihe soc ial sciences ill general and on the normalive
,llIoi ll" ill 11i1rliL li iar, <I nd, fina ll y, (iii) the rise of globali za tion in its
1_ ," 111,,1 111'1 1,t1 , IPl'l',lI'i Il1 CC , b l Ch or these issues is considered in the account (hal ftllll1ws,
,I rI ,'VI '111111 11 1'11 I in the South
i lI i/
l

"11111 I I I<.: dl'v4:i oping co un trics rea lized awmge improvements in Hfe expcd.mq,
I l lrll1 )' " I,.I lil " I .I.! }, I,IIL' .... . more recent statistics have shown tha t these improvernl.'nh Wt' r,
Ill!! I II, 1111I 1f(' ,\ 1 01 these COli Il tries ,md. more speci Gcall)'. for the I OWE'sl income groups III
(')1\ 11 1111 ' 1" rewl's,l! i n 50n1.e of the devel opmenl iDc\ icators.1t was r eal ized Ih.lt
IliWlh ' ,I Iv , "I' tl1 <1l it would take another 150 years fO r Third World counlm:.' hi
II h,dl II,, ' JIlT (,lp itd i ncome of Western COllJl U'ies. Modernization theori es f;lIkil II.'
III III, !II ,,,:, and of a growth (a much favoured 1:II Ih:'!I'i
llh'I I ) , dL'vclll pi ng w UJ11ri es were IIp to Iheir ears LIJ debt, wbid) served to (1,11 \11
IIlil
,I' ,m I, 01'; IIl1 l'1ll111 (IYl11l' !lt , poor hOllsing, hllll1an rights offen.:es, poverty and I.mdli:!.s
, '" q'
I iii II "
'" Id'
II I
ii I .
!,gi,

dli I. 1'1 1"
Il j,dl l I
"" ,IoIll r , ,I I .i1.lrlll i l1 g r,lt es. UNICEF estimaled a fa ll of 10-1 5 per cent in the "i
11111 " \Vllrld 1%3 and 1987. 111 1978, the Third World received 5,5 pl.'! H ili
1111 II IIW; in I':IK4 I his had (allell to 4. 5 per cen t. The ' trickle- down' process (,UHlI hl' l
I I" 101 111l1,iL- rn if;! 1 i OIl ) had [ailed m iserably, In 1960, the income r:Jtio belwl'ul 111.-:
II LIo ,III1II' ''!11 ll,ull lries was 20: 1; in 1980 it increased to 46:1; and in J989, the ralll) W,I', as
\ Ihell!') (' uJd certai.nly not be accused of dJ l over-optill1istk view {fill
I! 11 ' 1' 111< ' 111.11 jlll t"llli;l ls or developing counui es, it could 110t rea ll y aCCOli ll1 fllr Ill'
III I1\\' \' 1\ ' I il irdW(lrl d cm tn lri clo. nor were thl" developmental experienccs Ill'
I II 1111 1in 1' 01 11 ill ti 'II'I" efl vli abk In add il ion, 1\oI(lrxist a110 nco-Marxist developl IWIlI
I. ,III ,I Iw, l vl ' hl ow \Vlll' l1 Ih c 1.1 1101' Ihl' IIL' d i n Wa ll l1l eJll1 the dclcgill lll il,lli ' )1l III
Ii iii ,11 '1 " ,111]1 ,'\ "I'llll'l i IJ I' so l\'l ll f\ Ilk IHOIrII' 111 1) II IlHit-rtil'vl' lnplllcnl.
(lII JI I IW, I ,; , 1\11.1\ if' ill 1\ 1[' '.,! 1( 1<11 ',1.11'11"
til " 1111, ,-.: 11111' ,Idl , II " . :1111:11 1 0 1 1" .ISII)llfUUIII Ii! Wi llll ;1 111 (;' ",I( i,1i ICIIU'''', h l lllf,III '-' Wl l h
'lie 1.1 dl\l..l1l1 l.,CS01' 11 11 til l' 1011, , ,1;1 u d
le, lh,' 1!" lit'l}, .l i:l'lIlY 1, 1, LId, II' lit , 1'" ,lllI ildcrIl logi(, <I sound The
1' lIli); itl , jj llll'lIl id,',t! "I lit c l' I1l.tl ll,ip, IIIOfl "lllIlnl;1l1il}, I' h;lIl'd loy ll1oderniz,ILi on <lllddcpcndeJ1cy
tI' l l'l \ ,tl il-l') 1"I(III"t hl.:e ll achieved , not' liluld it be ad Ii,:",'.!. III <lddition, in its quest"f6r hidden
1I1l11l 1'1 11I1 ." 111 , P1IS111l1 )dl.: rn met hod of deconslructioll I'l' Il"l lcc! that the noti on of developmenl
,IIII.II IW" .1 Illf illher of hidden and unwarra nled evoluliol ll."l, uni versalist and reductionist dim el1
lilli '" witi . It would defi n il ely lead anyone working with thi., nOli on down tbn\frong path. As such,
Ii i \I 'I IlPII ICll t stud ies bccame a direct target for a wide range of views furthering lhe nolion uf
tI"' I II .11 ivc deVl' lopment '. Under postmodernist , or perhaps better put, <ln timodernis1 pressures,
III ' <1' 111 1<11 ilhjl'll of devel opment studies - unequal access to power, to resources, to a humane
l' I ,I,' ll ll' - became increasingl)1 substituted by someth ing like socio- economic divers ity.
\1 '1'.1 It'll ll y, the notion of diversily was considered to avoid the hidden universalist (read: Vlestern
III and reuuctionist dimensions which inequality brought with it. At the same time,
. ,111l '1, lOllsidercd this swilch to a voluntarist and plurali st approach to the development problem
11111 "Idy dildtilelll a, but also inferior to a universal istic emancipation di scourse.
Ldfl lt. ili / dtili ll
I i i II II 1')lIIh, Ihe forces which had led to the impasse in development thcories wcre joined by the
011'''' ' 1\11',( Ilil globalization. Although the most recent factor, it probably represents the most
i.III''' I 1.1111 positive chall enge to development studies. Whether globalization is a real phenomenon
I I 111, 1 ,Ind Thom pson 1(96), or nothing more than a discourse to legitimi ze neol i_beral market
I, 'I I' !I i., undeniable that it has had a major influen ce on development st udi es in the 1990s. To
11, ,, 1, ,,1.111.1 wh)' this is so, it is import ant to reali ze thc signifi cance of the (nation) stalc [or social
' " I " " 1IIl'ories in general, and for development studies in particular.
II '" IIll' declining, or at least changi ng, position and status of the (nation) state which has
1.1t II I, ,II III still is, at thc core of the literature on globali zation. As an interdisciplinary branch of
tI " ,'" i,d sciences, theo ri es within development studies try to connect cconomic, political and
' Idllll',t! ,Ispects of inequality and development trajector ies. The connection betwcen these
,1"I"'ds is reali zed by using the (na ti on) slate as a,linchpin. As such, theories of economic devel
"l'tlll' lll became focused on the workin gs of the nati onal market and on economic rela tions
1II IIVl'cn coun tries. In theories of political development, the role of the state and the process of
1l.llloll-building were ceot ral objects of st udy. In more culturalist ic development theories, the
",,11011 of II nati onal identil y ,vas cruci al in understanding the dirrcrences between development
1I''ll'dories. This importance of the (natiun) state became visibl e in moderni z:1tion theo ri es, in
111 '11 I'vlarxisl and Marxist development theories alike. Globalizat ion changed all that. Many
,llIlltors wriling about globali zation agree on the decreasing, or at least the changing, economi c,
I,plilieal and cultural importance of (nation ) states. The central role of lhe state, it is sai d, is
I"'l lI g hollowed out from above as well as fro m below. In a political sense, there is the increasing
111I1'0001<1I1Cl' 01 in lcrnational pobtical orga nizations which intclfere politically and also militarily
III 1' ;lrliudar slates. In this way, they rel egale to the past the Wes tphaliao princj ples aboul the
of (nalion) sta tes and lheir monopol y on Ihe usc of institut ionalized violen ce within
1I It' Ir horders. Thc l1aliQn:l1 slale is hollowed IH,I fmlll hclow by the grow ing phenomcllo l) of
, I" ''llr:tlil.;llioll ;Jilt! I(lca l gllVcrn IllCIl I
1',l lllllllllil'ally, Ih t' is SCCII .1' . III '"" ll1llli, oil 1111 litroll gh priVa li / <1linll sup
1"' 1 Ii''' hy f\l slI , there i, tlt e )',111 \\ 11 11. 1I1 1J"" I II I I Iii III, .'.IIII"tI lill;III,i,tI III a rkl'l , wilere
''' '"111 '!. I;,()()h ill i,," i" hiftl"d,liI Y,IIOIIII.t 1111,'1-\1,11" ' "1 11 1,111\ ti l' l,k. ,"III,llilllldl idl; lllily",thl'
,"1111,11 I'!rIIl,'111 ill id"II ItI \,I UIl "IIIILl ill ll lll' 1" JI" , I IYIltld ill g, ill l.tvOlIl" oi'
,!, .It Il )I" ,ItI. III I'. 11I '>lIIII L' ,'III It.llld .t1l, 1/", ( li JlI Ii 1'!<-lIli
II, 111 1ti ll ul l'l l
II Ib 1I111'1ll 1)' ,1 1.\1 III< 1',IIIIt, tl l/ ,IIi llll ,1.' ''.11 (' 1'1\'('110 hJ!lii li i" tl l,l l III" 111 /, II I (11 .11111 1
(m: h,l', " n il , ,11 11 1 ,.till hil i ,tI \ II 11\,,1, 1\ Iltl ' (Urltll 'j l OlJ illlhl l\ \
(" . 1"II11will )', lit l' sp,tl i" l .lI1d till l' 1'. ltll 1 .01 IlII IIIIIII\ Ilt llily ,11Il1 Oil 11' 1111 11
II,' ii lll'lti l\l il'lill,lt" y , II .II";ll k!" of lll il UY it II l'vl'I"1 III II II I til'" II \ \\, 1', 1, ,1'(\1- Ill'CIl n' l,tll.'d Ii}, "
It: \1 11 11 11\, ' d) 1I,lIl1
i
, ' (d -. /\pp;tdurai I)C\'I.'h'PI lI'llt )'l:i to ih phj l'l l ,lI hl
I" 11 111'" I ,1\ it,1\'1.: Ih t' ollicl' social - , i, a-vi, gloh,\lil,alion, but thi s qll e:. l 1l1lll Ii
iii''' ' "1 ,,, It,dll'lI gl' Ihan lhe fo rmcr impasse ever did.
,
II
11111 ,1 ' '1 III dl'vcill plllelll studies (an in fact be traced back to a crisis of paradigms. Th\., 111I l'l'
,!I , . Willdl Wl're Illcntilmed as bcing responsibl e for the impassc and its deepenillg - Ihe
I" . 1,11'111,'111 and il1creasing diversity in the South, the post modernist criti que 0 11 'gr and Il an','
,'11.1 i! III LJ .t!i/ation - challenged, respectively, three post-Second World War develup nH.' nt.tI
10111' 111' " Thcse were:
ill. ", , "lI liali / ;llion or Third \Vorld and its inhabitants as homogeneous entities;
II" ' \I II "Ilditional belief in the enlightenment concepts of progress and the ' makeability' of
'110 , 11111 '''II;II1Ct' of the (nati on) sta te as an analytioJ frame of reference and a pol itical and
illli ll u,nii ckllce in lhe state to realize progress.
,t il 1.<1 f1aradigms came in for criti cism, one after the oWer. Developmcnt theories relall'"
dll"" li ,ll,ldigllls (s uch as modernization and dependency theories) became aUlomatkallv
j l1 ( 01 II' IVIII, initiating thc so-ca lled impasse in development studies.
'1 .. \\0 H'I, ill .' pit t' of lhis impasse, an important number of authors i.n the tJ eld of dcvelopnll'1I1
ii,", . h oi\,(, t'( lIltinucd their work, some using more grounded theories, others trying to el abor:!t,
!I """ ,""C(: l' ls like civil society, global governance and global social movements. Many fed 111,11
II I illl'quality bct ween, as weUas within, North and South is enough of a reason to lllll
11i'! lfl Willi developlllent studies. 10 fi t this effort in with the new reality shaped by globa li /.l tiCl Il
pine ti l', ., IIl'W ,lIld exciting chall enge, and one which relegates the impasse to the past.
,..

,Ii";.j ! .. . .... . ( 1'11" 1) '1\larxislll, post-Marxism and the geography of development', in It Peer and N. 11,1111
1.-, 1. , .'V,. ". i\ 1", 11'1, ;11 C:cography, Vol. I, London: Unwin Hyman, pp. 224-54, Identifies and ciabo['JIl" " "
Ii i" , .tllll, millil s ill Booth's critique of nco-Marxist development i.e. essentialism, C(:Ol lllllll',1I1
ill.,I,
' The irrelevance of developmellt studies', Third ttl/orld Quarterly, 11 (1): 11 (,- >1,.
Iii'''' ''' I,," dl' wloPIlll' llt theories from the point of view of the pl.1lc titi ollCr.
I"", I I{ .llId ( >'I it-am, D. (cds ) ( 1999) Crincal VevelopmclIl Theory: Contriuut ions to a Nell'
1"", 1,, ": l ed IIII"ks.
111111111 /.111 , I.J. (cd .) ( 1'1'):1) Ilc}'rJ/1'/ II/(' /111/'(/ 1\(': N ,'l i' /)ilt'<'I;,,"s ;II/Ic, 'c/op".,ml Theory, London: Zed Bnoh.
,',,,\ "I.... , I nClIl'l';ti OVl'I'vil'W "r 11,,' dilll<'lI ' ,illll' III 1111 ' ill'l"""" ;'11 .1 Ih,' altlClll plS to develop /l (' W llll'III it",
I ".. 11 .1'. IIII.' l' IIIIoI "III S"lid I"", ihiltl i,'" "1,1,,. , ,11,,"11'1''' .
,,,',," . I' .11',( N,I '-"I"I I, i\. (",( ,) ( 1')'1" 1 11"" /"/ 'II "'1f1 of It., "" , ,fII.! /'rlld;('. ( .'"nl'l,t /h.'I'(I; I,'" 0111
i', ",I, ,/,,","t fill.! / 1, ' 1"'/"1'1 11"1111 '" " / " i ,II'''I/ 11,,1,1\\ "lIl f'I ''' III
,' 11 .1 , ',1, I', ,111,( \\ , 1" 1 /j ,,1 i, , 1' '1 ,,,''"1 .., ,,,Ill):\" 1"")'"ld 11., illl!"I ",' , \\(11/'/
,/1, 1'("1,,,,, '11 1, Itdll) ' hNI ') 1, I lI llJ 'n" l tll B",dl i I_il ! '.l ll
., 1 "- t 11 " ', III, III IIIII III V IHII Illl 111'1 111\ I d III ,L l-' IJ IJl r II! 1, 1 II' , p , 11\ Id ,1"\'1'\''1'111)'.' 11111111 1(' .1111
tlllllll"J I .I l' llt lllllll.lll iT ',
il li llt. t I ' , jlj ,I f I" 11/" \ d'II/ I' " I!." /i I
REFERENCES
11'1" ,,111',11 , iI, 11'1'111 : I ,IIHI di ll"ll' lll'" in tlll'1;loi>,tl ill M, 1,', 1. )
I ,{, '{ I"{ (11/11 /1" N II Il I' IJ i/{ /SIII, I ,/"/IIi /UIl/(l J/ !Iutl A!odcmi/)', Lu ndo!l: Sage, pp, 2,) 5 J II,
11, !t <!}" II, ! I'JIb ) ' Mal \ I"n and development fn tl' rprcting tJ1C impasse: \\i(lrld Dev.:i opll1enr, 13:
, .I 11
II II \1, I'. ,Ilid 111(l IHI'WIl , C, ( I')96 ) C/o ha/iz<ltJ(l1/ i n QuestiOli , Cambr,iuge: Poli t}, 1'n::,
1.4
Ja mes D. Si.daw ay
Instead of the kingdom of abu ndance prornised by tbeorisLs an d politicians in the 1950s, the
discoarse and st rategy of development produced its opposite: massive underdevelopment
:llld impoverishment , untold eX[Jloitatioll and repressioll , The debt crisis, the Saheli an
famine, increasing poverty, lTd llUrri rion, ,lIld violence are onl y the 1l10st pathetic signs of t he
U re of fo rty years of development (Escobar 1995: 4).
Devel opment occupies tlw cent re of ,ill incredibly powerfuJ semantic constellation .. , at tbe
sa me Li me, very fe\v wo rds <Ire as feeble, a.s fragil e and as inclpnble of giving substance ami
mcaning to thought and behavior ( Esteva 1992: 8).
Along with 'anti,-developlncnt ' 3.nd 'beyond devc.! opm elJ t', post-devc] opment is a radical
reacti on to the of devd ofJ rnen l. PerpleXit y and ex.treme dissat isfaction with \Jlls i
I1css-as- uswll and standard deve lo pment rhetoric au d pract ic(' , ,wei dis illusionment with
altnnJti vl' development -H'l' keynotes of tbis per specti ve. Development is rejected because it
is the 'new religion of the VVest'... il is the imposition orsci ence as p(lwer it do cs not work.. ,
itmeal1S cultural Wcst<:!miS<lti()o and h(1ITIogenisati()n...and it br ings (' nviron1l1ent aJdestrllc
litJll . it is rejected not ml'rdy on account of its rC" lI lts but because of its in kntions, it> wo rld
I'in\' ancl mindset. The economic m indset impli es a reducti on ist view of existen ce, Thus,
<Iccorci lll g to Sachs. 'i t is nol Ihe fail ure of develo pmen l wh ich has to be fea red, but its SlI C
((55' (1 992: 3) (Nedcrvccl1 PiClcrse lono: 175),
1,11/ N l'cicl'V(' Ctl Picicrsc goes (I n to explain how, [rom these criti cal perspect ives, 'develop ment'
,>11 1.'11 rcquires the luss or 'i ndigt'Il(lliS' culture, OJ' of environ mentally and psychol ogically I' ich and
I,'w.lrdi ll g. modes {) r li fe. Devl'lopmcnt is also seen as a partiC1l lar visi on, and one th(l t is n either
11' ll !",n nor innoCl' nt.ll hil i is never entirely beyond prior colonial disC'OUf$eS (see Kothari
'11 0', I, Ikvelormcnl LOlll pri,c\ ,I \1f knowledges. inter venti ons and wo rld views (i n short, 'd'is
lII1 1,'l"1 whi ch ;[rl' ,li s(J 1\1 1ll lervene, to rl' ansform and to rule. It em bodies a geopolitics,
II I II I,ll it s (l li gins arc hound U fl \V itil Wes lern power JJ1d strategy for the Third World, enacted and
thr" 1I t:. 11 JIII.. dl (-n" SIJtl'f IY93), Westel'll agenci es. charities :lnJ tonslI JLlIl ts
II tll' ll '[01 11111 ,11\' II" , .1).;"1 1<1,,\ I'," /,1. ,<II! 2fJ () 5),
111'\"111 1'1 11< 111 , ,II I" l" llit' It III 11 11111 J Ilil d ''\'lII ld .111 1'1 1'),1'1, ,1' ;1!'l lwcr(LJ I ... ol1 tl lill.llipll lIl l,"1
i, \ Ii h ll il ,,", 1 !!l lti i I ,1 .' lldIl 11\ ' ' 1111 t'l li lit, llI dl ll ll l , lit , 1'd ll l;l lIg r,, 'i! with gJll lltl ll /ll ":1I1 1" ,',111 )',
111 ,111 111 d ,11 1>1 ['1 I, II' ,iI , IIJill el'tl" II ,Ii I" ' ''lI l1' p l s ,,1, 11111.1. '\,1111'1111 II! 111.\
1',,'1 tlltllli d " I",',l dLi\'c/"i11l1( 1J 1 tih.;Vf ti ll , p ,Ill ' qlh "I II I) .,li ill .l:,fd ,i ,'.II 111 I'I"'I"
In:'11i 1'I III.I',"i!i, \\ II'! II I" k"" , 1IIII uld i ll'"' il iii ,' I" 1111\,1111"' 11 11,1 ' IIii!' " d l,"II I, I, I, I
,,<1 1.11 11) iI ,Hl :d"" J" II \"' II Illr 1I, " t1 111, iihllU i Ilil Ih,llIlI 11\ 1" , ,tI ,III.] Iqti l, n,i\ , /"\ ,'1111 '
1ill'111 ill l,rdl lj\'l.I: ' IIl'IiI'I )l'I .11 III J \Ve .. 1I- 11I 1'11 11' ,',,' /.M I 1I,'II,d.!"11 1 lOW.),
I d'II I "' , ,I ' , ,I nl I11 1111.: r (I I j'c ll pk have f111 111 Inl '1111, 11101 11\' 'I I \ II ''" u it iq lies ICPfC'iC111 fL" I11 11111
I,IIIIIII K 'It 0.' 1'111iSIII ' '[Ild 1I1tl' l n:lli vcs tl lal 11:IVl' 11l1lt\ h{'I'l l l \id... 1I1. !\.ll:()rciill g In MJ. rsitu l1 lkrlll Hl
I I'!M \j, "II 1'\ ,IIll I' Il" i\ Ii'l l' Il lylh of hiU:;t, which ( n ,p, ll l' rq)L'.J.tcd ly ill L. LJl t lln''o.
, H ,! I! \' II" \\I " ll \,1dcvdllJ1 lhl worJd and hut Ill W;;L also Jcstroy all L11:1I ill IIi, Ij, 11i 11<.1
til ' ;! ,1 11d ,til wh" ",o uld rG,ist him, The myth of Faust, who se!b his soul for t he ,\ /1 thl ) 11(1\\'ll
',1 1" 1' , I() a v(,ry long history of crjtics of progress and modernil y. Thwuglt llii t
Ilf' IWI' ,IlI. '1II \ ,, "111 I)" popul isl ide<ls ofs,M- l'elia nce and fulfilling neecb' have i1I S\I hl'(.' n
II Iii I" ,I\!\ il l 111l' cl"ilm (If del'elopment, p <lrticuJarJ y when tbe laller takes the rorm5 <1 f indll'
\l i ',it 111 11.1 " .I III h.. 11 i!.<ll ion (see Ki 'lchj ll g 1989), Subsequen IJy, the his lory of ideas ot dl'pemk'nl \
IIU'i l. il1l'. HI, ;1r,' il'cti oll of Western c1 al1l1s of development as a Ull iversal panacea Ie) Ile il lll) /'
111.'.1 II I ;11'.1,11['11" Thil' u World, From Latin American roots (see K8Y dcpenden, v
II." 1ll ill di Cl i very WJddy, an d someLumes look til e form of a rejecticm
' Hh ':" III\Il'l1l .I S(OITL!I' lillg (lIld destructive (.'iee Blomst rom and j-Iel tne 19H4; Ll'}'s 19l)(l; l{i .1
, ." , I , ,I " '111 i nllCl I ion (l ( colo niill forms of doIII iJ1 ati on (Rodney 1972), In pa rt inll;l r, w Ii1"1
III i11,1 1111 Y1.... 1:1 mic cOLmtries (nwstnota bl y Iran) saw the obsession witl1 dcvclor mc il l ,I '
I ",! I I il ti ;'(1I.t"nl ' iIltoxi licaLion' \\I'ith the West (SCI.' Dabashj 1993) , Li kewbe, l110re Cll!WI.!OI illllal
I Pi ' 11 111 11 :> hdl'C long pointed t o the 'combined and lIneven"character or develOPl11ll lt d lid
1111'.111\, fl) llr,ltlillorv' cOllScqueJlces (see Lowy 1980), Feminist writings have al so criti c ized Illl
II! ,,, IIII II liJe 'iI) (:tIled 'Third World womalJ' is represented as needing 'd,evcJopmcnl ,!IlL!
It ' ll .1\ I, libl'I"l lion' (\1ohant y J981\ ), ,wd have opeDed \JI[J alternative ''lays of con Cl TIll. tl I
lil r l IIIIUlIl lL ,Irr d so'cial change of 'devdopmcnt'.
I ' Ii' ,I Ii I. " II.I\'\' lJllplaincd that 'post -development' is /J ot reaDy bt:'yond, ()lIhllk III
I'I f;' ql I" t1"\TI"plrWI1 1 di'icoll rse. In t111$ view, post-development is merely the Ll lel,l 1','1,1101 ,
\ ,I , Iill, i.',IIIS 111,11 Ildve IOll g been evident W;tflil1 writing an d t hinking " bo ut J t.'Vdll llll h'1I1
j I! ') ' I. I 1111 Y '> 00.\ ). I bas bee'll about choices, wi th losers, winn.:n. dri'l"
111 .1 ,11, 11 11 . li.III, ,IS well , JS creati ve possi biJ it y. C"vin Kit ching (1989: 195) , who is WlI lI'll lI I
il Iii' I ',, '" 'II< I Wmid War debates about development into 11 IOll ger hislur ica.l [WI' 1" I 11\1
j ll " I" IW III .,\, ,i1S() rq)rodllce even ol der narratives from the ni.neteenth cen tul)' )' ,J( !'1Il"
I[ ' ll llI )' \It' \\ 111<11 IhI' h'lrciesl and cicarestthi nkiJ, g about devehpmcnt always fCW,i1 , t1101 111101
i!11Ito; ' -,1 ',\ ,1I1',I\(,/,j 1](1 p;1Il3Ceas whether these he 'de-linkjng; ' iIld u5Lrialization', 'nil ,i\ 111\, I
Iji i Ii i: III ' ''1 '1'" (: 11 i, ill' tcch 11()logy; 'pnpular pilrlicipatiol'l', 'basic needs', 'social ism' III IV 11. 1i<"\. I
! 11 1' \ ' h,ld, II I ,I',i, III I() ,dY rl'peat edly in , pe,lki 11g on and aboutthis book, dewk)pmCl1 ll '\ ,II I
li d1'1 fll ' " . II 1.1 lilStIIlI)', andi mportalJtl y, in its lIwfu lness.And t haI is perh cl ps why Illy I1l IJ,1
11.11" ':'-1,1 IIr .J p,"I l'll'III'i ;lrc reserved for tho.se, whetthe r they be Marxist- Leninis t.." KOrl': 1I 1
" >II I II t, II 11i.Ii" who, wil,ltevcr else they may do, recognize u]is and are rrc pJrcd In ' I'-'_L' pt
L, !!11I1 Ii 111I1d l\ ,lI illl ]'i , My mus t critjcaJ rdlcclicHls are rese rved for whdht: r Ihcy Itt
I' III I" In ,J! I,ld h "I' ; \ fri c.lTl bUj'(\1 U(r,1I ic e litcs , d(H II)l, ;md t herc(on' :I void or I.'\ ,it Iv
ill, il l'! "I, ,"Ill,,, ,II I,] wilh Ihcm thcil
1" ,1 1"1"" 1,"',1 i> ,111,11 \ 111)\'1' 111111 1\)1' ih '(l'pl il il> 1l1 I'IW<.I I'(\' W,ln,] 11,11
Ii ,,' finl, t qll
t ill'
" I dI \. I, 'i' 11 )1'11 1, 111 11 I" 1 ! 111' 1\ " "II,' II' II II,; In" (1111 .11 I. t! ) n I di"... 1111 \\' /1 id l II [-" 1" fl '
f' 111 rj,,"II'1I 1, III / I11f', II ,,",,' I," 1' 1,',1 lj,.nII'llf 1li 'I I \" 1Itl"' , 111 11 111111 ;]I' C' tl ll' I" ' llIl l',I ' ) illl ,W( t;,
1/"11 "I .1" \',,1" 1'1 11"111 ,l ll'lrilf I,,:, III. iI .kflld ll >'II .lIHl/( 1l 1"1.',1.',1 ,
,I " " 111 1,, I "I Ii 1111 " IlIl1d,1I 11' 11.111 f,. Pd',1 ,1,,\ ,' I' ll' lI ll'l ll . J ,I" llb l ;, 1II, tI II
', I " " "''' U' 11.1 1!>I QI\, III 1If,lltllr <l iil ! "'\'iI" ,' I, II" ,1 j "111 1/ ,,,1 11'"1\ i tl l, 11 li lt ,!
Int i h" "' INI, 1"11 I'j:t' ll ., II 1'11'1:1 ..ill lit ,II 1',!l0 Hlli ll' il r. 1,,111 11 Ii. ,1 11 Iklf 1" 1'1 11, III h
Ii "" 1.1'1;11 III ,I I, III II, III ,II t,!! 11 11I1' ri al ;ldVil ll(l'll ll'lI t alld t
,,' I .. II.\"HIt Iii , II , ll t,il 'I Ii! Itl ;.' !\i,ilill health , wealth ;llI d I11 dl cri ul IVt' 1i hl' lIlg
til 111 101 1' 111" I i . ', ,,1' 111 III 1' .11 '" 1\( 111, ' ll llI cl \\'''lld, !llIldl ,1\ )oulh East Asia (Rigg 20(3). Moreo\'cr,
<11\' ItIPllli III II ,I II I ' , ',11 ' ill kd . 11111 , .111 ,11 11 1' IIiY III ' lili ngs (see Wi iliams 1':176), thaCinalysts
III ", II Illh' lln 1ft. ,tl ll lIll wlt,11 lit q ll l1 '.t11 Ihe.I' ( 1.11 111 to bl' ant i- or posl-development.
III 11 1f" '"ll t"\ I, 1,\"il,II " ( I'N51 work. II I 1',lIlil:III111 I, uften criticized, One object ion is th at be
1I1 i11<: 1', 1. 11\ " Ihv 11I1tl'll li,tI Ilir l it ,1I1 gl' wit hin dl'Vrl lll'lllVlll discourse (sec Brown 1996). Escobar's
\'11 1 I I ' 'Ikd, 111 " l'\ I1l' li"Ill l!' ,1\ a11 ani hr(l pologi,1 III l (' 10mbia. As a renditi on of Colombi a, a soci
(1\ ," viol en l Li\I" war and I()reigll intervcl1tioll, whose main export (by value) is cocaine,
1", ,, 1''; 1'., , tl li qlll' ,.1 dl' w loplllent would seem suggestive. But perhaps there is a risk that it
I,l,. c111 1'" li n , I i\ y 1d c'xperieIKC$ of development, not all of which are as problematic and con
II.I.! "II>I I ," liI ,' l :I)lllIlIilidll experience.
w, 'lIld oilj n l illn il1volves rejecting as yet another intell ectual fad, of
1111111 ", 1 11 11 11(1 ) rl' II'I' ;lII(l' to Ihl' poor in the Th ird Worl d. Somebmes this objection draws atten
11')11 I" III<' I.ld Il hll flld ll Yof those who write about or disseminate post-development ideas li ve
1" \'\ h,'I ) litl' cos mopolitdn, middle-class, relatively affluent lives that deyelopment promises to
dl lll l' I, ';lIl.11 l'arallc i th e critique of post -colonialism as aD intellectual fashion most use
1111',1 lite ofVVes lLrn-hased intellectuals.
I I' IWL'\C\ ,I few ( o linlLr-argulllL'llts <Ire in order here. First, a whole set of writings and ideas are
',ltllIl'l'.I I(1)1,t: thn llltdn til l' rubri c ofpost -devclopment. M ichael \Vatts (2000: 170) explai ns:
I ltl'll' i\ III' wurse a pvly phony of voices within this post-development community
V"lld,lIld Shiv,t, Wolfgang Sachs, Arturo Escobar, Gustavo Esteva <md Ashisb NaJldy, for
I'\;j 11 '1'k, 1' (( lIP), quite dilferent intellectual and political location s. But it is st riking how
illll'lkllllais, ,tdi\' ists, practitioners and academics within thi s diverse communit y p::t rti ci
1 . II l! d ill a debate.
it i." important to point OLlt that for Escobar (\9,)5) and others exploring the
It\\" lil"dili,s Ill' development, to criticize devel opment is not necessa rily to reject change and pos
,il,,1 11 \ ICllltn, it is to Ill<lke us aware of the consequences of fra ming th is as 'development'.
\ 110'1 IIdl ive vi ,\iol1s, cons idering, ['or example, democracy, popular culture, resourcefulness and
,- III II 1111111,'11 t,Ii iIII pact s, would tra nsform the imagined map of more or less developed countri es.
Ik. ll1',llilinn that devel opillent is but one way of seei.ng the world (and one which carries certa in
"I I'l' '1 III' II I l'S '11ll1 ;lSSLlmptioIlS) Gln open up other pers pectives. \Alhat happells, ('or example, to
lit, ' IH'rn'l'lillll 01 Africd when it is seen as rich in cultures and li ves whose di versity, wealth and
II lit Iit ,\I'l' Ilot adequately (;] pttlred by being imagined as more or less developed? Alternativel y, why
,Ii<' i''' vc: rty ;lI ld dCl'riv,ltioll (o r, for tlt:lt matter, excessive consumption among the amuent) in
'"1111111'" like Ihe USA or Ih e UK Ilot issli es of 'del'elopment' (see Jones 20(0)? What is taken for
)',1.IIII, d wit l'll the kllll 'dl' vl'lnpl11ellt' is IIsClli It oft ell seems that, in Escobar's (1995: 39) words,
.il- l'I'l')I"III'llt It", \ Tl',llcd ,I SI',l((, in ",hill! 1II Ii >. n'rI'lil1 things coul d be sa id or even imagined'.
1''' ', 1 d, ' vclllpllll'lll lil l'la llll'l" leadl liS 11111 I;l kl' Il li, \p, ll'C' and its contours for granted.
- 1
1
) 11]:a ' il) jJjjI 3iljIJ" "]JmW
111 , '11 , J. 1, '.1 ,) ( 1'11)" 1/''''' ','1 IIIII"I "'I"I "lIi II' i 11111 1" " lI\l i Nnl York: Ro utl edge. An introd uclion and (oll t:c
11""11111 "-. ',, 1)'\ 111.111'\,111111" ' 111 ,' I'"" " , .\ I"
1.11111 ', I II 11t '. 1 ',4,1,1111111 III 1'I,dd' ,I' , III H 1I 111!!. [ q !d I11 I III' t'Vl'rly, disl) rdcr <llld
r 11111 , .II" t III . II dlll l , IIIII ' ,
" ,d,,11 \ 11' I" 'i 11/,,'111/',, 1111: / 1,'1'0/"/'1111"" II" - "it'''I]I,"'/ I 'n/" o/!/1I.1:,,!IIII ' l'itilr/I \',"/" , i'li( " , I,,".NI :
1'1 1111,11111 \ I'H \ '_1 II , 1' 1. t" ' j ( II I 1111 !: 111(1 . 11 111.11
.i1 l1ll i \' II' li d, ,11"" );\" ,, '.. liI'ij\ tii l u!e", i, 1 " II, ,,,dl I,. '1 11 .1, 1,1 111'\
01, , " '1 ""' il l." . . , .I ", 11 111 " ,II" III "'I ,.f' III' .f' 1 I "iI li d >I ,ll '\\',.;,10' 111' iq\""' ,II 1111111, I'"\V"I ,111.1 I. IIllwl" "1:\':,
I " . ", I ! 1'1'111 1 /III IlIl i 1'"lili.. , t\ I"rllllf" "11" ,',' /i'jlllI , 'II II,, ,.llIi'l ,lfIP /} ,,"r1 l:fl l t'illf"illl l /'" ,, <'1 III
,/:11'1/,,,. 1 ,II" I"l oI r:": ( " . l li'l 1"''''.II, II II'.I .. ,,( ..
"I ,t.- vd"I'" 1l' 1I1 1V1il tl,' l1 hI' all 11 I', I,, .. in its ..:I,lilll ' 111all l'""I,,\r, I)J 1I
I 1"'1' \1.\'''1'(' ill ih argulllent s. Sub.lnlllclll II,'Xh hy Ihi , aUlhor, (;Ioblll Sl wd(II"': :\lricII in til"
""Ii /" I " I 1\ ,"lrI ( Ii./I ' ,. r anJ fXfJcOill iom oj' Modem;,)': (llId [V{ei'lltillS'; of Url'/II 11./<' UII III.'
;11"/'1"" f " I'I" 'II1t'l 1(Il)l)l) ), arc also rew,uding.
11111(1 11 ,1 f\ t .'II,II:,IWlrl'l',V. (cds ) ( 19')7 ) ThrPosl-Devclopl11l!nIReadcr, London: Zcd Books. An inl l'l1dll l >
li"'1 1'1 " , 1111 uliliprising 37 shorl extract.s (<lnd an afterword) from ' Ili d
' 1\ ,,1, \\,1,,, 1'1' .hleill al ill' dl'l'L'loplll ent. Each reading has a short introducti on that helps to cnnlc\HI, JI
II "1 ,,1\1'11 hy I il L' editors). Thi s is probably t be bes t place to start.a course of fur lher reading an,lh ll lIS
,11.1111 111 "I
kd, ) (.!1 )(1 2) /-(' 1 If if7 is( I'OSI - [)C1T!OP/l/('ff1 nlO/fgllt: RClhi nking iV/ademir)', ,,111/
1/'" " ,,(, 11 /11/1 , LlIndon: Zed Books. Sc\'Cnt<:lT\ essays examining intersections between felllin bn) i''''' ,
Itl ll1l11 '11 1 ,llId 1'1IS1-(()lonialislll.
I" 'I, [\ 1 I I'l l{ 1) /\/1 rIli/t is ,Solid M elrs In to Air: The [xperiellcc of M oderuity, tonLi (m : Ve rst).
1\ 1,,11 11 II. ,11,,11 klllll'.II. ( IIJ04 ) /) Cl'ciOP'TfCI1 1 Theory in Transition: The Dependency De/wl e alld /in'Off r/:
'., { I.<llldoll: Zed Books.
,, _ 1 I I ' J'l(t 1' 1 )l'lullStl'lKting dcvl'i0Plllcllt: Al tcl'lla tive on the hi,hJ I'Y of IHl idea', JOllflJif / ,,!
I'"i,"" ''/ (,,II!:I11I,I,.1', 22 (3 ): 333-IJ.
I ' tlt l \) 'i\ llIVillg beyond p_osldcvcloplll cnt: hlcili Ldti ng indigenous al ternat ives [or "developrTwll l"',
, I tI
"I
"""" " ''' 'I '! :111/'/I)" 7IJ(4): '105- 23.
I I I I 'i'l \ I rItC(//oSY 0/ I)iswli lent : The Ideological FauI'I (/a[io ll or the Islamic RcmluriaH itl Irilll, N"II
,",11 (111.11111: Nl' wYork Uni versit y
.1,1" ' 11 \ (-' IIOfl ) ' I'crl (lrilling regions: Terr itorial development and culiural politi cs in a ELlrol'Coj 11 ..
",Ii t III 'I/,II IIII('{/l (/ 11" !'III/flling J\, 3R( II ): 2075- 92.
,I 11 , I 1' 1'1', 1 1:111 /)C1 'cl op11lcllt: Ti, e Maki ng arId Um,;akillg of fhr: Third World, Princ(; tlll1, NI
I Il f i , I 1' !11 I Press .
! , ', ' I"" '1 ' 1 h'I'I'I"I'IlIl'nl: in 'vV. !)achs (cd.) Tile Developlnent Dictionary: A Gllide 10 KII" wlt' I!.':' "
I " lidll w I' ,d Ilouks, I'P. 6-25 .
I I 1 '/ 1((', ) 1"<, C/oIJrl /i zers: DCI,e/opl11clIl Workers in f lct ioll " Baltimore, MD: Jobns 1J ol' klll\
!t!\' i", II \ I'll' ....... ,
, 1111 111 1 ' WI,v i, il alri ghl to do dc velopl11ent "()ver there" bUI \lol "hepe"? ChJllgiJlg lI lI.!
'11111 11 ' II ." IoI l,',: 'L" ," i Ilcili Sillll across the "First" and "Thi.rd " Wor.lds', Area, 32{ 2): 237-4 1.
, I '/ 1\ '1 1 1,,1111 .I /II..,-i(ll ll rIl l'o ries oj' Developmellt and UlfderdevelopmCr7t, London and Nl'W Y' lI k
I Ull ll l t ,IH'
I I 11l"1 III>' 1.,,1 tvlll !'l' "I'I bl' noble savage? A crit ical accounl of posl -cjevdopDlen t: Elll'Opl' elff i fl ill lilll
"'f.,I,' !I/ /Idll I" "' I'II"'{', II ( 1.1 : .\0- 55 .
!lfllL " I 1'1 ,, '1 1I 'i'l'I'IIII'"I1',,1 ,,".1 U"r/cnit' l,d"/!lIIt'''1 i" Ilisl on e,,1 Persp.ective: PO[Jlf lisl'll . Nc""""fI!i, 1I1 I/lir/
'f"I"'." lli/. lIl '"II, ,,vi ....d ,'rlilillll , l.ullllllll ,lllri Nn\ V" . I. : I(IILllkdgc.
iit ." I I "III il ' 1111111' " IIIlIi,11 oI dlJlilli sll,ll i,II I I" .1" 1" 1"1"11"111 ',\I"l i,": "\ posi -co ion ia l niliql.1I.' nr tlw III ,
i", ,. 1 d,\. I"I"" '1I1 \llId il ...., ill U. /.. .\ 1 \ U" ,II,,, III I,I" / I' ,,/I)''I' e' I''I ''' '''1I1 SllIdie." 11I, l il'lrlIIII I"
, III " 'ri 01 11 .11,1""1":: 11",, I II II rill II : 11 '.1, 1' 1' I 1,(,
, , 1'1' 11,( 1/, .. /" , ,' ""11/;, /1 1,11 '1'1 '1'/1'1'"1, III 11'11'11 IIIIIIIi , ,1 I , 1Ii! " 1 11 11")'.
1\ t r i IJ rJ, tli I I! I l'f l'III !. (., 1 II I/I'll/It'll dfl,/l l'tll"I/'" ,,' II 1I J f ll 'f ll j' (If l'I '/ II/ III Ii 'IIJ
"" I\II i : roll' \\ I , II I:,,,, I '.
I, .>' ,1\', ,_,i: I I' 'PH i . I 'II , I, , 11'1'\ I " I j I I'l" i' IIIIU t" h .. 1 1"1 ' ii ii . "k.,-,, " .11 " "1 11' .' ; , I i'III/II' 1 Ii' 11',,11 I
H
,h , " : " p"" i f '111111 1 \11 ' 1,,.,.1 ,h'\l h'l'lIllIl I , lilll,/l\,i/i.lI ,IiIIIII, ', h, ' I leL 17 , 'I I ,
I'ltll, I ,'111
11
1 "ilil"," I \ "I "" ' /I' tlll,,,, /""./;(li /' <!l1 ,\11',1",1/' ,,/1 "11 'lilt/ /J' 'l'dU/ lI lI l' lIl . l' dilillil .
I ." 1.1" " ,111.1 iJ, \. \, >1 I 1111 I. " Ii ',!"
11!.1 I. I I,,<) I IIIi 1/1 1"' 1 ,'I /1, ' 1'-/"1"11"111' 11"11/ \ \\-,"(' 111 (!ri,.; ill' io (;/o/Jnl F(fil/ I. Lond on : Zed Bonks ,
1:110111, :)", IV ( 1'1 " //, Il' / 11111/" I 111 /"1'/' '1"1'/''1 '<'</ ;1Ji"iClI . I.ondon: Boglc L'O ll VCi'l ure,
", 1, ,1'.11', 1.1' l 'lhl I '1 1':1,1", " I I'II'tl\.;\Iclll l' llll' llt : Progress ill UW171111 31(3): I - I . ,
,1 II, " II, 1"1'/ II I I" p'III ,,, l il 'lId i lll .J gin,il ion and the enframi ng of developrnent Lheory', 'Timlsnc/ioll s orlhl!
1",It/ III,' " / II Iil l, 1! ( " "',1,:1111,11, T,'. Nl'\\" Sl; ric,. 18 : 4 1':)- 37,
\\, 111 ' , 1\ 1 I ' 11I111 i l Il'I,'I"lliII CIl I: iii It l, It)hnson. D, Gregory, G. l'ratt and M, \Valts (eds) The Dict ionary of
11Hili II 1/ 111 '11 ,: 1011 '/11', ():-lol": 1\I 'lckwl'll. 167- 71,
1\ ,II"" " " It 11') , (, ) /" 'I'II 'OU/,<. 1.1l1ll1oll : rOIlI,lIla,
1.5 New institutional economics and development
Phil ipp Lepenies
111 ' lillllilll lo d n :un<llllics (Nih) stroll gl y influen ces current J evel opment theory <lnd poli cy, It
I' , .I II (' \jI,l ll , illrt ccom) lT1ic dwory and its meri ts sti:m frO Ill the fact that
II II ,J ', Id" lll ili.; d institutiolls to be a prerequi site fo r development.
Wlhlt IS NIE?
Ni l t( 1il1corporatl' a t heory of institutions into economics, It is a deliberate attempt to
1I1 d, I II 'p"l.l s, ica l el ollolll ic thc(wy more ' reali sti c: economic theory assu m ed tb at
iti11l1 11 Hl 11II11 IllI ws Ireely het wecn the aCLors ill com peti tive markcts ,md t.hat , as a result. institu
11'- ' 11\ d,. 1101 III aI l eI'. In w ill ra st, NLT:: postul ates that in for mation is distribut ed asymmetrically
i ll llll'lll Oltion ) ,1nd that market t ransact ions come at a cost ( i ,e, t he cost of gather
Ing 111 1,1I 111.1Iilln, !lI' Ir,ms,lct ion costs) , Consequentl y, instituti ons have to be formed to reduce
,,,, I , ,
'!\JII I L' l.lillS Illl' 'lsslI ll1pLions th at i ndividual s seck to maximi ze thei r utili ty rrom
.j ,lIl l ' 11''' 1111 ', ,'., 'tl h,cCI til budget constraints <lnd rklt col lective llllllf,>lll cS rcsi on t he choices
" "flk II)' 1.!Ii llll .d indivi duals ( i,e,methodol ogical lhe collcept
01111'. l r UIII l'nLd whi ch impli es Ihall hl' ,'\ 111.101"1, \, il ldi vi du<li ,Ire co mpletel y
1;111'\j'I,.dlk \\It l. ,til infll l1l1<11ioll 1'I.:'l dil y .1V.li l.l l ,!v III " \'<'11'1 11 1" ( 1"'111', 1 i l>l m lll ,lti() n) , t here is no
1111> "I I,lilll ), i ll lHlI11,1 1l Ill slil llli nn<, 'lilli '" " ",, 11\ Ili d ( hll r'1Cteri zc
.e
II I! 111' 1 lor .. l11 odili l: 11 1< 11l "I Ilt'llI II ' S'I,;' !\ Ilil:.1I1' 1' ''1 11flit' /. 1' 1111<11 so call ed social
. 111, 111" I" '. l l ll dol II Ii I Iw "\1' 1.1 i 11,'d 11\ i i , "'\1{ I. d "i klllIlLI \ I!ill , i ii I,II il' lI ' III \\, 11" " I hl' ( h, li c(' s madc by
I l' I' >1 l. d ykhl i ll lllll.II ,-,1 ' I III , II l lt 11 'II'> i ll lil..: COIScQf ll1,lrizet
111 1111.,, 111,1 1, ,III IlL' l,l IN'.! hy lli'I'.,i II\ C1';1; 1", ( i r H _" !litH}'. 1111111 ,III .. cl ivi l } whi ch does
I" I I , I


,hi;,,,ll ..
I I'II l1 l1 lill ll ) 'I IIII publi c
Ihli ll!trl: l lilld,,' d hy l i ll' mar kel). hUI also
111111 111. 1111111 Ilill rl dl > ;Jv,lIl. lil\v III
I,h ( I " , !1 1I 1I,IItgn liI ,,1 \l lh I1llwlI p.l r
11I 11I1dll \ ,1I 111L ,11/1( 1I j,II I )',',..
Ltl,li!".It,I.. 01 Ii I. " I wl!1I hI\'I' i!iUII
I; I), l! III.!!,"'1 I,ll ill' 11" '\ ,II:I III I il l. i I II it ' 1" Ii Liii' 11' P; h"" .1 'I " 1I 1l II" " l ,III 1I 11111l "II' .111
I Ilit !II,} I"jll ' 11'.:1 \ 10\11,'111 q!lh I Ih,ljl 1,1' 1' 1III I ,I'l l 1111"11,,11.
1>10: ,illl.I II II'I II i, 11 .. 11 I'IUI' I.I, lit, IIH.",I I.II II '.!Il ' ,vl " 'I'l'il} 1'.1I i' lI l.l l lI1 d' l l, hliJ
11i1 ro il, I,t! ,mc.J .JlI 11,11 11, li, "! 1",1, 111.111" 1
1
)'.15 )'/1. 111 1,11 1111 1011 '
Ill r iuk II I I I,.. ,:II IIIl' III w eir l )'.. ,lh.. dnl',,', l u . mt r ain ts 111,/1 ,lnl, l lI I l' 1111111.111
;.11111 j Itt) ,II( 1Il l1 1pm ed ()f I'llI' m,I I ruk.; (SI;1 II1I, LIlY, law. l'l.'gll l" UIlII\) . i ldl lll1l.t1
1!li-, 1I 1ll'IIlS or hehavi our and ill1posl'd rules ()i' l ondud ). ,.!lid Ihl
\iir ' jl , 11l 1I .ldl' l 01 hot h' ( North 1995: 23),
If! til i ll' ,l l lHI i"n,tI I." () 110m ics' was w i ned in the I 970s b)' Oliver Wi IIi'111 ISlI 11 III dj,I I II
h j , ''' 'II I ,I ll ,I II ClIlpt to incorporate instituti ons i nt o economic thcory ,It thc bcgil1llill 1;i
Iii' 1\,\' 111 ,, 111 11 '11 111 1y, t i l ,' so (,tiled ' (ol d ) il1sl.itlJlti onal wh ose main aUlhor, W,:II'
I , Ii' \' It/, " ,11 11 1 JIIII I1 R, Commons,
II I, "II, "1 ,1 , t! Nil l Olllll' in to hcing in 1937. whcn ROll ald C()asc cxpl'lined tbe ..,I
! , ,1111' ,I1h , Ill'l h I.I.'isic<ll t henry co uld not expl aill why Gl'IllSexisted and why 1)1 arkc l t I ."";t'
I, I ,dl "II I il ',l (llil siliel y by indi viduals, as Illethodologi cal imlividliaii sill ( 0;1\,:
( 11.\ 111, 11 1' Ill, ' W;dr.lsi.1Il nu liol1 or Ill,l rkct trallS,lCti ollS bei ng Illa ck COS\:less on t hc :o; pol ,Ill
ti!!r ,11Illiol1l'CI' ( i, e, the idea of perfect i nio[ ll1al i on). lnstead he ass lIl11l;'d 1\t ,iI
IIi" 1',1111 11'11, il i, I'rnfi1<1 hlc to establish a finn would secl11 to be that tbere is a cos t {Ii I"jllt(
III' , Ii II I "Ill' (( :,,;lsc I 93 7: 3':)0 J, Transactions tb us involve the cost of discovering ",h.ll tilt
!I II I" '" ,Il l '
ii \, lilli , . I il l' Iti,"1of transaction cos ts, pr obabl y the ;;i ngl e- most llll jlOrta n1 conce pt 01 NI l. ,
In', 1111 " Ii 1' 11 1h,T, Some au thors distil1gLl isb di f.ferenl lra.macti ml costs il l accord.mec wit h 1111
I', II I ,11I,d)' sis wi th i ll NIL - the market, the finn .md t.he state. Tb us there a rc:
ii,'11'i' 1 I! 11 1',, 1' I inn ( I1SI.o;. whi ch <'Ire t hose descri bed by Coase;
il!Jill II" IIII II I II ,11I 1o,1 ci ion wit bi ll a firm that come as a resul t of adm inistTativ(;
,,1111 ,'dIll, '.. ',II pl 'I IHl'ing :lIld supervision ol'the workforce;
IIHil lli " .j I I oll l \ .ll i ill n (llst s, \Vhich arc the cosl s of cstaillishiJ]g, enforci ng and lIli lizing d
1IiIIllll " ,1 ' ,I , k ill ,
Ii i," ,01 11 1111\ I ransaclillil (l)sts according to the process or transacti ng (i .c. informalion ,11111
1'1 I I .t " ,11'. 1, IIllll 'goli ali ng contracts and th e COSH of enfOl'cing them). Yet aJ[ tram.lLiul11
I I, "" III ,11111 1l 10n Ilwl t hey l'cl,JI'csen t resources lost due 10 Idck of i nformation' (Dahlm,l ll
' ''Hi ,
i , 111'1 '"1 1.1111 tl) poi nt out th<1t NTE is nM a homogeneous &chool of th ought. Rather, il LCl II
;1 , i 1', Ii Il'l y .. I' th,'!lI'ct ,i(al l " riLings by a lar ge number of diJJcrE'nt au thors, NIE il1l1uu, ..
i I, II ,>II I I .I lh.ll'1 ill 11 (OS[s, J.lol i ti od economy, cont ract theor y, property ri ghts, h ier archy .111.1
,i i i ,111111', l>ld,li l' (Iwicc and devd oplT1eJ1l.
NI' " ' Id development
ti ll 1'/
1
1(1 \ , Nil h,l\ h"d ,I IITll1cnll m" il11 l ' ,I L. 11I1I dcvdopill cilt pol ic}' and thc()I')_ Tbis
L ili..11 II .I It ,oI I I) 11'. 11ill g 011 1 l il l (lhvi(l\l,' i 1111 111 III l ' lit,1I NIF il: lS had on the WOl' ld B.lf\k, hy 1'1 C
111111, I J, 11 1)"1. 1.,, ( . Nor! It's Nil , impirl',j II It.'c" \ " I .1, ,\ ,' 1111'I l l" 111 ,ll 1{1by ns I he l'eIl'v,lIIu
,,) N i l 1,, 1 dll'l'li ll >lII I' ll l l'r ,ll l il i" 'lI' l
lilt 11111 1111 WI 1I 1,/ Ill ill f.
I. j" ,I "II I..
11 I1 11.1 1ill!: l' l'l' lI vi" ln'li ", III "b,I,1
j, III III! fl ilid 1'11111>1111 11I,1[1[(: Ir; III Illl' "II I" 1"" , 1\,1, ., II J delil y idl! l1lll l, 'd a ll
1111""I,llll iI\IIII.II,'1 111 1. 1111111. 1:''' ill', II! I' 1111Ih'd ,1I111f 1, 111'111
1111 1'1'''"11111111 1 Iii " Ii ),ill/ , ,I II 1liJl1f tll 6, i ..1 , II .W, II', , hid I,.' ulnomisl or the World
Ii,,, 11'I II 'llnl Ih " "I Nil : illl 1111' IHIIi ' ,r, 111 l'IXl>, Sligiiu. stated that th
Illlll' ,ld.""I. d \'\.l1l1 l l1 l1 i" \\Il'll il ItI, \".tl lt' I," 11 11' or developing coun
111 \11". 1" Ill' , 1111\\'l' d 111 ;11 ,I SYIll IlIl't l'l l.11 ili lilllllll jo ll PI I'I ,ti ll,1 ill ll1usl markets ( 1986: 257),
I,i,. "pdl ,I '" hid l'l llllllill isl of lhl' Wllrl d 11.11Ii-, Ill e 1' :1I1 k hl'g;ln to ddlile itself as a ' knowl
"I.. h.lll h was 10 gathcr and disscminate in formation Lranspareutly on a
', I,d ,d ,\,I !..:, '\II I d' " lIill,llcd Ihl' WJ) IZ I99H/I <)99, Kl1owledge(or iJeveiopmenl, which hi ghl ighted
Iill illl l"'1 Llncl' or overcoming aSYlllllletric,ll information in development. The i nfl uence
11 1-i'o: II IV." ,Ibo 1l l'violiS ill lhl' WJ) R I'-> 99/2000, En tering the 21st CenLll ry, which summarized the
k oll'lI l'lI I""ll1 IIIl' pll' violiS 50 years of gl obal development policy- One lesson plai nly read:
Ill ill ll'I"' ( World Ilallk 1<)99: I ).
, ... " l.lI ll il1 <) change and underdevelopment
\ 111 .1 jll' !>r,llllh or NII'. is collcerned wi th the allal ys is of insLi tu ti onal change and underdevcl op
1111 ' 111. I" promim' nl aUlhor is ])ouglass C. Norul , who added a historical perspecti ve to
1)1'11, 1.1"iL;lll'l0I10Illics, I Li sillricali)" societies had to learn how to solve the problem of scarcity.
lhe kl'Y " ,is lhe killd of leaming that organi sations acquired to sur vive, if the insLitutional
1,;( 1IIl'\\,' Irk made the highesl pay-olT ror organis<lti on's piracy, then organisational success and
',lIn' iv;11 di ct al ed lhal Ie,lrnill g lVould take the form of being better pirates. [f on the other
1,,111.1 I'rtldU(livily- rai sing actil'iti cs h,ld the hi ghest pay-off, then the economy would grow
1'1, In h, 1995: 21).
f I. ii '" oI1'wllll'lllenlal OUtcOllll'S in the world differ according to how people learn to cope with
,:iill I' ,," ourcl'S,
hll N'H,th, Ihe Wl'slcl'Il capilalist S),St(:JJl has been fl exible enough to adapt itsel f to the institu
II II II,d 1I1'l l'"siti es induced by the hi ghel- division of labour, minute speciali zatio n, i mpersonal
" \, 11 .llI gl' ,II III worldwide illtL'rdcpl'll(icncl' , However, in a country wi th inefficient institutioll s, only
,I or illll'l'll ;1i re-c(1ntrallill g ca n change the instituti onal sett ing. As long as those holding
lit , h,lIg,t illing p"lwr h;llT ;In illcent ive to defend the stat us quo, and ineffici enci es are perceived
I" I" Inl',ll'Ilill g,lltl' sill(;llion wililHlt improve (path dependence ), This is a major deviation from
III, ' 111'\ 111)1 it)11 or I, Ing-lerm equilibriulll - alld a lllore pessimistic one where underdevel
"1'111"111 111"' I,Llusihk,
II I!' III ,If III ,II I (' IC'V,illce 0f I'll EfO!" development
I III 1",11 II, ,d 1I 'I"I',lnn' Il l' NII': is t wolllld, concepts such as asymmetrical information, nans
1, 111 111, ",1,. ,I"vn,,' , t'll-dillll, 111111<11 h, lI.lrd ,(11.1 principal -agent dilemmas arc currently widel
Ii 1,'tI 1".. 1" 1111 " ' I ill ,' I'lllllllllil' ,1I1 ;dy, i" "1" -<> 11.1 , Ihey serve as the bas is for individual project
1,_'11' 11 III ,I il lilillll I,"ild illf', 11,1 ,, /' \'\,1 11 11 ' II... Idisol1 d'elre ofmany developmellt projects since
Ii i, 1. 11, /1/ '/11-.
l'III III I'-III' IIIII II:dl' linill <1 11111 III "I" 'lllr llo eslablish ' rul es orlhe game' and their
111"11,1 11 , "1 .. {I", II 11 ,'\' L1\\ ), '11111 1"11\ "I' governancL' slructures) G lTl ,-IIIISl'
I" ,'- :t: 1I ,I, ,III ' IJ'I "I. ,lllilli II I :1 /
/",11111111' 11 1', 1" \\' 11111 """ 1' 1 III II ,II ( II j II "I IIII' ,In. d I " . Ii l1 .tlh i.t! I I" I
il ll?1 "II I hc kll lilillj', 1,, 1 11',11 ti ll ,II" IIUI II(t', I i'lil.lll' 1. 1" IliI , ',I"lllI'illl'IlIlI ,II ' 1I1I 1
di,11 IIII II t', I I",IWI.'i'1i IIii' pI.I'"II,I! I'PI " I\\I 1 ,111 .1 1' llIk ,- -111\' I. IlIl f l
11 11 " 1,' 111 1Ii1111111. 11 11111 , III 11,, 11'1'" I" .III' . 1111111 11 1\\ PI' I',tllI "" , \\,1,,
I"l-j 1Il' 1 I" <' I' \,,11 11<' 11 ... III i" h'"1 ,', Itllli ,lid I' III' , ,1111 1111 II II l'l
Irlldu ,_.1l1l 1l11 .,1 1. II late till' II! d.' 1. 1I1/ 1 \ I I' ,,, II, , I<di t til t hl: illllll !l\.11 1'.
Ii II I il ) " II I , ,II " 1' .-1 II I 1. 1111 II \ give (1 11 I lll'd i i , II \i 1101 1" I. d 'l' rv icc" t (\ I Ir e PI " I I' ;11 I' 111 Ill' 1
11

1
(JI II III , 1(1, ,11. 1\ \' III Ill' ,Idd rcssed with "dl''1l1.1ll dl'si gn.
1111 " I lllil',it- ,II l'tlll-lt l'rit! , ror inst an ce, grollp -h;l sed le nding could he an im,li il ll jll ll. ll
1111\ II .' ,1\ \' 1< 0 111" lhl' I'rll11icms of aSYllJmetrical infofmatlllll . 13y illtroducing pn-r 11I11I1
, ,,, 1111111III l'l h,llli slll "I' thl' horrowcrs, and by liJlking Juture 10 grllll !, IIWI II
all ' I, P,II'I II "11 1 I' crioflllall (C or the cntire group dur ing mon itored weekl y 1111'
, , " 1'1' Ih, I,ll k ill ill lt'lI' lllation described above are minimized_
1,)11 I ,I'" N il ' I' ,I hl'lel'OgcneoLls theor y, tll cre is also no such thing as <1 clc.lr-1. 1I1 Ni l
1.11 ' J. \ ,' IIII'I II I'IIL I'n\ lkvciopment practitioners or theorists who lll ilke Lise (,f N it <till
,,,hi , (,lilli' 11 1"lIh l' lVt's as being 'of' the NIE'. Yet the fact Li1at element s of NJE arc lI\l,d '"
111 .11 illll'l)r\ ;) Il Cl' of instituti on -building hos been genera!! )'
111'1I!\I " 1 of how IllLlch N fE has already become commonplace in
IIHI conclusion
I,-,,1 I dllm i11 ;111 t role ascribed to the market" ,{by higblighting thatI nl'il lll!r k
I 11 11 ,I II ,ll>l y tlw hestll' ;l), in which to organise the provision of goods ail e!
iilll'lI l 1I1 ',II II!11I 11I S:m' lhe key t\l sLi ccessful development (Harris. HUlltcr a nd Lewis Iljlh' I)
11illill " d, "d,l.lltl' slrllll gl'stmcrit of NlE to have put the issue of insti tutions on d, vel
, Ii ,i)'.'" " LI
i" 11111 without limitations, As not ed before, NIE is on attempt to Ch,1I1)-;,' 111-"
" ( . ' 111111 1111' II lin I wil hill , This dhlll C is praisewor1l1Y. Yet, as it maintains the h, l,i,
tlill 11 1. 11 1" III ,d, r;llioll"li ), pursll e the lll axim i7.atioll of tbejr utili ty at aU ti mes, lillk ,;1 till
III ,II II' hl h.lviour which mi ghl not be guided by tJl e judivi dual's rali Cl nal\> ItI .1ll' d
1[,,, IIld ll l 1I1.1\ II11i "'11ioll. llence, NTE is stillil ot realisti c enougb as it maintains.1
"_'""1'" I, 11111111'101' 1'lll111 ;ln behmiour.
III ' Ii , ,11It'I 11. 111' III t\J IF, k il ill developmenl or elsewhere, is that III any cOllcepts of Nil .11 II II. I
,""11'1 illl l' .' "'I'l'n hard III defille, as ' a cle<l r cut dcfuJition of transaction Co, l, ,\t,II 11111
. II ...1111 I'll)!) : I,l l, hlllll th is dl'l'i \'cs tbe difficulty in measuring exacll y Wh,l! 11,111 ,,I ' IIlIi I
I I'll -"H il l' .Ipplies III lhl' notion of asymmetrical info rmation, or the simpk 'I "' '"' -11 1,
Ii -,' ,11 1,"111. 11 lilli' IIl e,11lS whcn oll e laj<e1i in to accoun t that 'infor mati on' 1111';1 11
lI il' " II I I" di i'kn' nl 11coPil'. Research which uLi lizes concepts of NIF Jl) ight thus 111 ill;', Inl l"
I" 1.11 "I'L" lo ti l ."l' , Nl'wrthl'.icss, it is of len not comparabk with other fi ndings, ,I
1
1
101 Ii ,1 \, Nil " hi , Ioril ;d or development <ln d inslltulti () llal change rejects thl'
('11 11 ,1 11 , I .II iVl' lI ill'ililuliol1;11 progress, AlI lhc the attempt to explain
lil l""' II I J,I ,III,d ) ii' .1I1d how have used reSources efu cientl y in lhl' pasl io; IIIl I
1I ,'i ; 1,,1 0> 111, 11.1 ,I', il /\ Illdj"r J.'l'llhkm clri.s('s out of the \vay in whi ch hisl tll- y i, jlll ,'1
I H_I.: '! , 111 11, 11 111 1IIIITPfl' (;llillll " 1)1' Ill l' p;lsl Illi )!. ht give rise to in lerprcl ali
r
) Il 'i III llll' plI.'O,
il f' I'" I dh Ihe rl' ,I " ll1o; Ill!' 1II1dl'nkvd"I'Ill CIlt. I'hncforo:, a h islor ical inl n prl' l;lt ill ll
!I!lr1l1l 11 11 1h,' , h,II,' ,1 liv I'W!V(\II I' ,/\ II YIli , ,," i, .d ,III,11Yl, i.. i, (11,1 0111' point of ,1I1\l JIl)!,
iii 11 11 il l11 I ;
I.I! rl", ili I I')') 'l ' 'I'I,Ii I, I, II , III, 11' .1 ',1 ,,1'0 111 1 1'1 ' ,I ,11' 111 ,Ire hy ,l o,' IIIIIJ ' li'lli
iil" _''''' 1' \ ,I' Ih. IUI\\, I I' \ II III , t it"", 1"l lI" II I '"l il">, 111 .11 h,IVI' ,11111 11, '1
I ii ' j''; II" III .II III )', 111 "111' " ill 111 ', 111 '1 11," , ,-".1, -11 .... III 111,111 1111"11 ', , ,111 ': 1111'1).:1 \ 1' 1 Ilt l' Il,lt- 11). 11
I'!\ illI II ILII IIIII,I I III,lrlll d"I 111111111 11 I 1\111 .11 11 ' IIl It , ,111 111,11 PI 110 , "I'It, I j
1111 1 1' ,lId,_"LI III 11111.111. 1 I ,1'1 , I. 0> 1111' "1111 l' lll ll l it \' \d, .I,.t!
IOl lllllJIC . 111.1 1"dll ' I;. I\ [ l1l1i.h" tldll.; I', 1IIII il ll1 pi p.tlit , kl' l' ml
11..,', \\'i ll l 11 11 ' 1.1. I i l r,t:,' III :: 111 ,,1"1111111'11'\ " 1'-' 11 i ll Il l\'fI overl y
11 101 , 11 11 11I",.tl IIIII ), I)! , I, 11\ .II I I m dcvdllllllH'nt cooperatio l1.
IlI ldllll\lI\',1 1\ lI sdul cxpl nlliltorl' t<lols fur ,csea.rch. It has also
r iglil l F i. I" lIlill l 'lI IIt,tllllli,ll i I llIil d l ll 1-\ ,I' ' I ncccssary devdopmelll,d .1Ll ivity. 1\ocvertbcl ess, idenll
!YI' IIt' ,I 1'1111,1,'11 1 t li1! lIl gl , Nil inspil l' d ' 1I I1d}'Sls does not aUlomatiC<lll y lead lo infil llibl y designed
!1J'ltill l il/ tl'. j jll' ld oll', wht:n ali Clllp' s <i n; made at insl it ul ioll-bui ldi ng, GUll ion is advised when
[I" IIndy lrl'.llt'd 'ndl's II I ti ll' gUllle' prl'suppOse economically rati otHl1 and utili ty-focused behav
I' '11 101 t ill.' 1,Irw' t grllllJl. Ilutll >l lls do 1101 Ill'cessarily behave as assum ed in l1eocl assical econml1ics.
I 11, ' t.lke nOlI.' oC tlle complexities of human nature when desi gning institu
11. 111 .. , ,111.1 Iii" mort.:' Ihey I'arl (r' om ti1e asslIl11 ptiom about human behaviour underl ying NIE, the
prllh" blt: it will be that their i.mtitu li ons fLwct ion as desired. However, were it llot for NfE,
l1light stilillot bother abo ut instit utions at all .
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING
1" , ,,10,,111, 1.1;. and I{idllcr R. ( 1998) JlIs/'i tl.ltioIl S (l1It1 Ecollomi( Theoly. The COT/l ri/JlNiOll 0/ fil e Ne1l'
1" rU IIII ""tll I (OIlOlllies, I\Jl n Arbor: Michiga n Uni versity A. vel-Y lhol'ough and detai led analysi o or
I""" II, ,1111 ,til a'l'clts of NI E.
11'1'1 ) ' Social diic1110l<lS and rational indivi duals: An assessmenl of th e new institut'ionali sm', in].
II Ii " " I IllIlilcr 'lnd C.M. Lewi s (cOs) r ile New fllstitllriol1ll l EcolTol lTi cs alld Th ird World Developmel'l t.
t ' iI "I,," pp. 27-48.
I , ' " It ( I lil/) ' Th e nature oethe tl ll11: EUJl/virlicC/., 4: 386-405.
Il,li d, II "I, < . ( ) ') 71.} ) 'The of externaLit y; !0 "'I"I/,,1 0/ L" w and Eeollolllies, 22: 14 \-62.
i 'W,' 11',',1'11 , 1. ( 1I.}I.}tJ ) Feo /IOII/ i e i3ehol'ior lind i nstill/trails, Cambridgc University P I" CSS.
11, 111 1'" I, I III II ll'r, J. and Lewis, C. M. (1 995) ' Int rod uct ion: Development ,md significa nce 01" NlE', ill J. Ha.rris,
I, 111I1I1 .. r ;Jlld C. lvl. Lcwis (cds) The New Ills/iulliOll al Ecoll olllics and Third World DevelojJmen/, London:
1(""III 'dgl', 1'1', 1- 13.
N", 111,1 ),('. ( ILJ<;I5 ) The 1lL'\V institulion al economi cs and Third World development ', in J. Ha rris, J. Hu nk r
,111.1 < .i\ 1. lewi s (cds ) -rill' NClI' Ins/jlll/ioll(/l Economics and Third World Development , London: Ro utledge,
1'1' . 17 :'b.
II. I I <lX!) '1'The ill'\\' development economi cs', World Development , 14: 257- ,65.
\\ " tI.I 1',,1111, i I'!'Il l Worlti Ih'l'c/o{lIlI Cl/f Report 1997: Tile State ;/1 a Chall?:i ng Wo rld, Oxford: Oxford
tIn i l" '1 , il " \'It' "" ,
Wptl d 1:,1111, ( I'NI-l) l l'o ,!.1 /)c )'('lo/,l/ lI! nI f(upor/ 1998/ 1999: Knowledge lor Deve!0pll1.:n/, OX[0Id: Oxfo rd
I I" i \ , 'I '.i I \ ' 1) 1(",:,.
\\ " l id 1\.1111, ( I " ll'li \ Vo rlti />(,1'C'/"/)l/I('n / lIc/Jor/ 199912000: Ellferillg thc 21sl CClltury, Oxford: Oxford
1I'" ll " .,1 1
'l,," I I" i I'i,: \I' ': ';'llI'l.',c, 1illihis ,' ()lllrihlllilll! ,tI,' II". ,111111Or '$ own. Contact: philipp,lepcnies@iz[w.de
6 The measurement of poverty
1h,w,nd Whi te
1" 11t'H llIct joll
IU 1I 'II,ur t:IIKe or the task of poverty reducti on mea ns that we must be dear ' IS to ..... hd' WI.' I11l.1l I
I' i'" II y. who the pOOl" arC dl1d the best way to help them escape poverty, Th is d l.1pIL1 i, \ " I'
the first of these points - the meaning and measurement of povc rty. The (ir.; t ..L'l. li lln
Iliill( , l,l'Y COl1cepts which underpi n the various poverty measurements discussed ill till' SlIh"t, ..
"" Ii! I." li oll. Filially. some dat,) Oil povert y h'ellc!s an' presented.
VI' I tv concept s
1101 ,1), lIS,lge, the term ' povert)I' is synonymous with a shortage or income. But the li t'wllll '
It"l l IIlll. Il urc stresses the mulLidimensionality of poverty, In add ilion to mal eria'i cnnsu rnpliclil
ii !l! ,'.lII('lliol1, soc ial life, environmental quali ly, spiritual and political freedom ,rJl Ill,ltll'!
with respecl to anyone or these can be called poverty.
itJIIl1 dispute the use of multi dimensionali ty, arguing that i.ncome pove rty (j.e.lack of m.lll'.1 i, t!
II I.. I lLg ) is what rea lly matters. Argull1l'nts supporting this view include the high l.'1\lTd,tl in n
Iwri II income and other measures of well- being, such as health and education :llIillllI
111 .11 governments can do somethill g about income (i. c. support growth), but 11'... , ,Ihk i il
"I PII' " , pi ritual well-being,
ilCi I IltLTC arc good in defe nce of First, the corrl.J.l tllll i i\ i lil
WI!I1 ... Ilut thai strong (o r some indicators. Second, poor people th em,e.! vcs oftl'll lIi l ll'l
1111" ".lOllS as being more import ant than income. Most famo usly, lodha (l98!l1 shuw(,, 1 lV iii,
Itldi , I I d. II'1 that the welfare of the poor had risen by mcasures they cons idered imp'llt .lI11 1.1 1.1
IlI llIg shoes aod separate accommodation for people and [ivestock- lllil
"'f l r 10 have h1ll en. Parti cip atory approaches to poverty measm emcnl seck til ilil' llliI )' III
" iICIV' 11t"lmaller to poor people. Different perceptions matter sil1ce the pover ty COli, ' 1'1 1.J'lr' lt',1
III III II I Il' IlCe policy. When poverty is defi ncd solel y j n terms or inco me, tben it h If' I til/Ii
,IIII'II t1e growth is found to be the most effecti ve way to reduce poverty. But if oil" i. Ill'ld 011. It
III ,li llr .ll1d edLlcaliol1 arc valued, then the development strategy is li.kel y to pu t Tn ll.lL' [' 11 '1'1.
' ll I,d pol il)'l
hl' I' i"mthCl" cOllceptual i';suc..' r' arc: absolute versus relati ve pove rty; and te mporary \LI.... '" 1'<'1
ii II ,,:11 t l'0vcrt Y,I\ hsolule pOvert y is measured against some benchmark - such as the ,"ust "I w, t
I Ii III " II'lllgh fl lOti tn or being able to write your own na m e for l i leracy. Re laLivt I)OVl' I I) I,
iili';1' lIIed against sor ielal o;(;lIlcla rcb ; in ulv clopil1g (Cluntri e.<; the basket of 'CSo;l'l lliJI s' (,, / 1111 )11
j,,, It! ,111.1 a fl'W ilel llS /II' Liol hi ng, W!J l 'l"c\ l., ill dcvdllpccl countrics it indudct; Chrt:.; tl'll,\' l' n :';"III
1101 gllillg Ollt "III V;L !!1(1n th .
11IL' Il l 'l w\,\ '1I I lt l ' k llll"lI,11 il )' .111.1 I Ill.' 1'l'ITI1.lI lL'n tl ), jl,H,r i s lil lkt.'d 111 Ill l' n"ticIIi "I
Itlll l l ,lhdlt ) .111l' "ldlll'I,lltI" ,111'11 11 1\1 , II l i ..1 III 1.t1lill g illt() powr ty, Illhe rl.' ,ln' pO't.'rly 1I 'Ij ' ...
II, I, 1It,II 1111'" ' ''111'.'111 11 ' I. dl " illl" 1' '' '',' 11 \ liI" 1 . ltltllli !tc'l (l u t ,l g .lill - t hl' lllil l'IL ,I I,,,
1111 Ij 1" \"' 1 Iv illl\' r v " 111 11111', I" l'll '\\ II I ti ll " 1"iI'l 'c 111111',
l ite 1111:.'.1 '-' Hltt ll'.lll y 1l!lh HIl' d d,,\ ,'I' )1111 Il'lI l ,I ','H' IIII' '., ' ,NI' 1"'1" -:apila, \Vhilc a case
11\,' >" "" 11\11 11; (,iNP .1 , .III IIwl .II1 1,Il, I'. IlI ,', il I, Ilot a good mea,u re or
1'1 1\ , III l,tI 1\\11 Ie ,I "'11" 1,,,1 , ," ,III ,IH'r.lgl , 1111,1 ,1. 111 ,1 1' 1,11 .1' , l' II ,t.... lIlIl 11 or di stribut ion, l lence
l ' lI11l1lll" ', 11I h,w\.' ,Itt ' ,lll ll k wl (I I ( ,NI' 1ll'1" IJ' lt.l . lllillll \. r the two, a far greater pro
I'DlliPll .. I li lt' 1'1I1'1I1'l lio ll I.tl i the P" Vl' rt y "Il l' il Illl Ol,H' i, l:ljuall)' di stributed, Second,
eN I' j,.111 IlhOl ll l' !l l, ',l,url' which igll (l rcs olher dil ' ll'Jlsi(lIb of poverty,
I h, ' 11 111, 1 UIIl1I11<l 11 ill<'(lIll C- P(I\ l' rt y meas ure is the headcount , that is, the percentage of the
1" 1111 d, lliulI f.tl lillg " ..,I""", the pllw rty line, However, thi s meaSlue takes no account of how fa r peo
IliLIII' I I, IW 1111: jlllvnl)1 line - so thai a ri.>e in the iJ1COJ11e of the poor which leaves them in
1'11\''': 11 \ ,11'1' ..'.11' , h' 11; 1\-,, 11(1 dYed, Iknce allot ber measure, Ihe poverty gal', is often which
,l fl l", ill ll'rpn:k'd as the product of the he<ldcount <llld the average di stance of the poor
Ih' "lW til ..' I'l lI'I: f I yIiIll' (expressed as u pel'cen tage of the poverty Ii ne) and the benefit of perfect tar
(',1 1111 )\, pll verl) sevnil Y index is a sil11il <l r measure which puts greater wei ght 0 11 Lhnse furthes t
lil'I' I\\' lit e jloWII)' lilll' , Thl'se lhree l1l eas ul'I.:s - the headcount , 111e poverty gap and the povert y
"1'\ ,'1 11 ), IlIdl'x .Ire known ( ollccli\'ci y as the roster-G reer-Thorbecke povcrty measures, and
""will 'd 1'", PI ,ll ld 1' . !'l'sl,lecl il'l'ly,
( lwr Ihe YI:.II'S, ;t llulll hl'l' of composile meas ures of devclopDl ent have heen p roposed (a COI11
I',,, ill' I, d ll g ,Ill .lvl'I' age Ill' "I number of di ffercnt ll1easu res),A previous measure, th e physicaJ qual
,11 lik ilili u: ( P()I.I ). has been superseded in recenl years hy tbe United Nations Dl' veiopment
11 ,1! ',.,l lIl lll l\ (l iNI)1' ) h UI11,1I1 dcvclopment index ( l In T) . The HOI <I composite of GDP per
I .qnl. l. li k l'xpl:Ll ancy and a or cducational attai nme.nt (wh ich is all average or ljteracy and
.1I', I.lgl' \'lIrnlml: Jl l r.t\c 1'01' primary, and tertja ry educatio ll ), However, just as illcome
1" ' 1 "I J1 il;t lakes Il O ;]L'cou nl or di st ribution, neither does the HDl: schooling can show an increase
hv lit,' ,drl' ;ld ), wdl ,'dllcatl'd extending their uni versity educat ion, rather t.han access c)'-pandi ng
II Hh,' wi lh li llie 01' 11 0 educatio n, Howeve r, UNDP has also proposed a human povert y
11 1.1,,\ (111'1 )' whi , h IIlCli ses Oil deprivation, Spec ifi call y, the I lPI is calculated as the ave rage or the
1\1:1.... pi' 111l' pupulalion not expected to li ve to 40, the percentage who are illiterate and what
I' l. dlnll hl' \ "'pr i\ al illil in li ving standard' (the average of those wilhout access to water and health
' .II ,' , .1111,1 I il l' l'ercl'll lap,e or ullder-tives who arc under weight ),
1\lltto li git Itt l' 1" )\ is widely used there h<1 Vl' been cr iti cisms of its consLruction (whi ch are SU\11
111, trl /l'l1 ill ,I Il'dlll icd to the 1996 H,II1/all Developl/lent Report), one of wh ich con cerns
111 II I'\c'1 II!-. in There ,Ire three ma in problems: which vari ables to put in the index;
Ill<' drililr,lr )' -.twice of weighb in construct ing the average; and that information is los t
hI ' Ili llhill ili g Ih r.., or rour pieces of data into a si ngle number. Thu, it may be preferable t() report
.1 '.lILII [ LII I!;,' Il l' indi ca lors, such as li fe expectancy, inCant and child morta li ty, and literacy,
1,1111,' 1 1II, In .llknlj11 1\1 L(\ll1hine lhese in an owra!! pUI'e l' ly index,
rhe measurement of income poverty
II!! : 1'1' '11'11' PIIVl'll)' h(!aduHlI ll 11\ ( IlI'l ' I'I1\ dfll' II I IIII' l'O!,lIl.lli ll ll whose income is below the
jl'I\(!II\ IiiI<' , .. :l ILl lIal ill ll 11'.111 \,. 111 willi .\ dll' Itli l ,
1111, 1' 11\'1' 11\ III',', IlIlhl h..' ,t.- lilli" (II I' , 11, 111 ' 111111 III,ill1l " 10 lwo lin es) , which is (]one
. III" , ,II "," i1I Il' I)'. I'. ill, 1" I"It' Ill !' In II" 1,1) \1 (,I II \. lllli,1 "I l!"""", PI It l.llivl.' ly, to mC.1I1 income or
1, 11 ,1111 ,h.I II' III lit .. 1'"1'1 11.1 11 ' 111 II I li l( II , 11l t' 1' 'I' t' il l I." ,1 ,1 . ,III il,' , .II clilal ed l' ilhn
(Ihl "I ,11 11'111 IIIF ' .. 11.1111 1' " 1,1111 1 ,,/ I dill II I 111 ,' I,'ad, 1 ,01 1'. , ,,,,1, .III" III Ill(' firsl
1111111, lilt 11,"111 11 1; 11 11, (I,,,,t! I" , ;n l\" I!iH'l ia .-,\1. " ' m d .1 '. lit .. lilll: 111 1 till) ,'}i II "llI ,'
1.. ,1, ... 11" I h '\"110,-,<111 j,I II'111ill! f Ih,lllllli l' f l Ji ll' till ti ll' !hh"11I 1111"1 In gd
I'" , I 1\' III it'.
ill 'If'I '' rilll', 1" ,1','1 1), lilh. \IIIU IIIIII'!1I11 1 \1111 1111'"11\ IIwd 1.l tlll'! 111.11
' ''Ii. I iT., I, IS '01 11\' 1 " ' 1"'111\;-111 '1 1... \ .1 I II tI",t il.' 1 idl'<t III' tlll'il' l'XI" 1I ,l illll',
II III II" 11 1111 wl1l.'11 il 1<II1111 , 1111. .., illll,.,I 'll ld Il tI\ cOfisUmpllol) ( i,t' c'\"1!
1'''1111\1' 1 liflll'), , 0 th.1l <It any poil ll ill III Ill' I ,II I'- Ill 1I 111 ' 1I111ptillll i, likcl ), II' be:t 11 Ii II' " ,Ju 111,'[
lu",III I III wd l IKing than current illllll llt,
i ll 1'1 ". ll ll. da ta are co llected at the Icvd of the household r.llher th<ln the individual. Ill li ll" ,.1
' im. ' l'lllhlcms of intra-household alloca.tion, There arc no daw 011 the number "I' \\IOl llt'll III
l!I idl' II li ving in povert y (des pite the tendency of some internati o.nal organ i7.LJ(i(ms II) repor l ',11 , II
'"11 ), dala on the percentage of women and chil c1rC11 living in households wlwse IIl lllIll1
"' II IIll' Ii Ile, The use of household- level data introduces problems or 1I1111
I'll !lil li ' .II ILI " ill', J' lousehol d composition matters since the consumption requirements of "illt'l
HI 1".111III "",-, \,<lr y - specifically, children consume less than adults alld, more conI rowl" l,tl ll ,
"" ( 11 111 ,1)' Ilced to consume les$ tban men. Th is probl em is catered fo r by the li se o( 0111 ,llltdl
jI'" .1 1, II" which expresses the consumption needs of womell and children as a rr;i \. lillil "I
Ihll ' 1' 1 .111 III ale, Household size matters as there are economics of scale in houschnld 11111
lil!lJ ' llIlll thM is, two can live together more cheaply than ther could apa rt as there d
I 't ll .. " (living space, uti)ili es and mall)' household items), Fai lure to take JCCIlLJnl 01 dll': "
will O\'Cl'state povert y in lar ge households,
i ' 11 .1 11), !,ri(es V<1I')/ across time and space. Allowance must be made fo r these price Jifk'l'l'lIl1
11,1, I 1m lhe poverty line to be compalable, There are even greater difficul ti es in
1\\" ., Il 'Olilltries, p<1l'tl y sin ce market exchange rates do not refi ect differences il1 purr lt ,I' lllf',
I It lliler, f'urchasj ng power parit y (PPP) exchange rates should be used, which arlO IHI I 111 11
I,ilh II .. tI .lhlc,
[ .,llIjl. lrisllIl S across li111e and space also require that consumption is measured in .l l(lI II\,,11.1
II I W, II II S11fvey deSigns differ greatl y, then ' aggregate consumpt jon' may ]]J ean <Iuil!' dl!h ,. II I
II i, (ol1lf1lonl y rccogru z,ed that own-production should be measured as b .1111 1111""
.' ill 1' ,Ill lllilltai cons umption, But ' willd foods' (co ll ected in nature) and festi vals can . .1,(1 h'l I II "
HPII [i ,1 1I1 ,'Ill! rct: of food and are commonly ovnlooked, Simibriy, sources of iJl come 1111111 llllll '
IIIli ll " '''I'l'ny, or fh e provi sion of free social services, var y between countri es ant! \(1 1I111"dl,'
Hi ll" , . III1IU or incomparability,
IIIJI ,1\ 'cem rmf11 thi s discusSjOll thaI meas urement ofincoIlle povert y is so diffi clI llll ,.'1 II 111 ;1)
1".' 11" , 10 stick to some ot her measure, Certainly a small survey should stick to .1 plll'l Illi
11l1!1I1 ', Il l h <IS hou ,iJlg qualj ty and ownership of a few household it,ems, But olher in.!i , J IIiI ' .11,
11111 \\' 111 1111 11 problems; indeed data quali ty is far worse for many social indic.J to l'S lh<l11 il i .. I,"
ii, ; '"11'/ "\ !,"lIdi lu re,
Ift'it' dat a
!lll l"I,". III 'd"Il .lr a cla)I' povert y ,]re calculated onl y for th e dc vci oping world, Tbe propllrliOIJ III
... I\ I"l(lr ill developed by lhi' II H: a .';l!I'C is nil or Ilcgli gihk. [n lhc flgml.' .. hl/I.... lm
it OJ , \ ,0\ 11111111 "I 'd"lI'II' ada)" "c}Vnt y si 11(" : h.. 1..lll r 1')XOs , I hl' slriki ng Ire nJ is Ill<' ,II ,1111 .111 \
di III 1"l\l'll \, ill I ,lsI I\ , i.l , POWlT",1 laq,\.' ly hy lI dl l, l i"II', ill Iht' num her or p,,"r ill lit,' IVIIII, I ..
".I'! I 1'''1 ,"1"1 ,, l lllllllr }" ( iIill .l. hili ,,,,i,ll-Ii hI "1,, 1, " "' 111 .!, dilll" in Il cighh(luri ll !; Vil III.l1 1I
illl " 1, .1'.1""'11 ,I , ltHwl, 1,"1 , Iilllll .lr kltl. .! ", III " II I Ih. 1"''''' 1 I, hr. I'" IIllnl ill "'11111 " . i.I, illt hid
I" '" liIl II l ' lld '" ',1'< II II.! 1" lg, .1, IIlIlIt l') , 111,11 .' " r 1li elI .. 1 1' 1'111--, ti ll' 1.l ll' l" ,j"llill " \1''''' ' .\1 II llll'll!
I." III' ,Ih, nil ill 11111111".' 1 II I j'"111 I"' "P"" '" ,Illll ll .h;. j h' 'l il l 1111 1111 , \ '1. 11111" 11 1.1/"1" III ' 11 11 \,1
1.11 \1 , ri l"'\ "ll \ 11 ,.111, 1111 " ill 11" ,.lo ll IH "I il lI' 1.11 Il lilil lf; 11 11 1'1111'"
I'''''l I( i ' 11)(:ii . I,,'u ln l hI' [1 ...11.1" III it ' lli l iii If If hl ,,1 j,"\',' II\ 1.111 1, 11 11 ' ' " It, .I II/Ii 1;1/ 1 /1111 1111 III!IIII

------
--
---
1'1-,111)11'1' 1I!."'di 1I11111 1"' ""'1 11'"1" (I i I "-,plli',illlll All' , 'h ,l lI llllI ltlJur 111 pOlintly (111111 1<111" )
Hluw 1111; !1(IVI' II V IUIt
t1l to
110
30

20
till

20
d
!I <fJ
10[ ____
f lO
""1

0 ' "==4
198 1 1987 1990 1993 1997 1999 2001 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002
Key
o East Asia and Pacific

South Asia
1::::. Middle East and North Africa

Latin America and the Caribbean
.... East Europe and Central Asia 0 Sub-Saharan Africa
, ,, ,11,11 d day' poverty by regia!), 1983-2002
',I<IIIIi World 8ank dat a
\WI " 2(,.1 and 22.2 per cent respectively. That is, almost half the fall in poverty ca me fro m Chi lla
.dl ll l\: . I ndeed, sub- Saharan Afri ca, which has suffered econom ic hardshi p since t he 1970s, a
II',,' in illcome povert y, wit h cl ose to half the peop le on the subcont inent now li ving on less than a
d'lll Jr <1 day. Al'rica's poor perfo rmance lays behind the low overall fall in the number of poor from
I ,;: hi Ilion in 19R7 to 1.03 billion in 2002. Africa's share in this total rose from 12 to 30 per cent
" WI' Ihis peri od (whereas fell from SO to 64 per cent). The final trend of note is the resur
nf povert y in the formerl y centrall y planned econo mi es, foll owing the collapse of commu
IIi." governments, though th('re has been some remission since the turn of the century.
The Afri can ization of poverty is al so evident when consldering other poverty Health
i" 1.OJl1 ll1only measured by infant mort ality (the number of ch il dren who di e before their first birlh
t\, )V per 1000 live births) and child mortali ty (deaths between fi rst and fi fth birthdays per 1000 chil
drl' n); these two indi cators are combined to m<1ke under-fi ve mortality, The Unjted Ndtions
I"' [' lilalioll Division reports population data, incl uding mort ali ty, fr om 1950, with proj ections to
'1) 10. '1 he positive news is that , in li ne with the long- run improvement ill social indic<1tors acroSs
III!' ,kvdoping wo rld. mortality rates have been falUng (see figure showing 'child mortality ra te' ),
111" ugh some African cOlll1t ries experienced a reversal in the 1990s as a result of HIV/AIDS and
1\' 111 'l' ning heal th systems after three decades of economic decline. 111 Afr ica as a whole, the decl ine
111 1I 111 rl<11it y rates has been insufi cieot to keep up wi th popul at ion growt h, so that the number of
dC',1 1li s continued to rise. A turnaround is expected around the time of writing (2006) , bu t the
,1111.11 iOIl in Africa will improve less than elsewhere. so the continent will accolU1t for dose to t wo
I It II ,,'- the world's under-five deat bs in t he comi ng decades.
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING AND REFERENCES
,\1 . , .1 .iI Ihl! Jill'r Itm,' Oil fl]eJ Sl lrement Cll ll ccrns poverty, most cO l11prehensive. IhOllgh
1" lI l1k.rl,lr,.\ll lI l' II I ( 1992). A critjque ,, ( inco nlt> Jnc.l$II"C' gi Vl'lliJy I<lllb,1 .1I1 d
.1,1 1""1,,1"11,11 . IIL' I is ill Chdlld 'n s ( ll)Q'1l. \111 1' g,\l cr. 1i Ml. dysi 'i (1 1 1" ,111 LIIIIlTI'" .1 11 01111'."" ...;
1 11'.111.11.1, III 1I "l iI. 11 I 1'i ' I(, \. 1I1l 1\\' llilL' ( 1'1
1
1'1 I ,,, 1111'lollk', "V'I. I"," lpP\I.111 1,, 1. , . '1, . dl llll'
.1 " " !' IIII IIIIIIV 'l Il t'

ALi i,.!

---- LAC
-.
""''''
" -
" '-----------
I I I
tftl.C! IUlO 1980 1990 2000 2010
Nlln,I.", " I li lt. 1I11 death s
Key
Africa
Asia
---- LAC
..... .
....
-... .....
--..............
....................................
'---r-----t-----4-_____1
HJ'lO 1980 1 990 2000 201 0
'I, 'jill l) ,I "lldlU::' of infant
Key
III , (, . J
Africa
Asia
LAC
----,---
I 1990 2000 ?() 1[ )
hti''' ' 111 ,111.,11 1 ." ,,1 ,1111 >1 1IIIHl,ilit.y l ,iI" (Ill!' 101111

Ililo.lli tll/ilv I i i!
Koy
- - 1\1i1t:{J
.
- - ASI
---- LAC

........
........
....
1.5
-----_._-
1.0'
0.5
0 ' 1-----1
1985 1990 1995 2000 2 005 2011)
Number ot child deaths
Key
Africa
80
Asia
---- LAC 70
60
50

1
30
20
10

--
---------
____
1985 1990 1995 2000 200S Wllrt
Regional shares of chi ld
Key
deaths (%)
Arnc(1
90
Asia
60
40
30
20 -----------------
101------ -------------------.,-_____ _
70
60
---- LAC
1II" .i ' IIII' IIl t !li "I I ,,,n' l II 1'1 \11 II {111, ''11- I! t ill'il\\\" ,,,II'" ;,.. lti,/ I'IJI,it, ,.1 11, )'.1
1,.'I'l lllJIIl , 1 ,llfildJ III 011\ ' .'H""II .1110.1 '11i' i ,I'1 1 ] ':,),.11 ! l .i ,1\(!l oI . 1
I I ,. II I II Ii 01 I' >I ,"," 01'" iii, l , j , II" , Ii W il d" I I, ,'( I, .tll,n ll 1(1', 'I Ii' III,! II h ' WH I 1.1 j:'111 k" Worl" /.l('Id"/'llieli t
1".1,"""", [,.. III .11 \\llIdl ,11" ), ullil ,11 \'1 1.11"" I .11 I, 1II I Ii .. LIItCI .1.11 1. .1 ,1,' "" ( :1 )- I{OM ). Past of lhe
11 11/1//1'1 1I,\ , I"""I}"ll i (II/"'" L""I.,i,, .I" . ".. . '''11. "I Ii " \ '1 ,". 1" ",,[' \ ' '', induding the HD[ and
j 11 ' 1 ,llI li \1,1,,,, /1"I-,'/,I/ "I1"II1 II1"i"/1" ,, , ,,,,1.111" , 1" "'11 .1 '11 1"1111,, 1,,,,, "" dala SDurees. The World Bank's
I" ,\. , 1\ .1 .11.. ,I ,k i 111111 www ...... rldll ... lk. ... WI ......lly. wlll . llindudes many lIscfullinks to pove rt y
, ,1. 11 ,,01 "' hli.t!
II " 1"1I 1l1V1 1I 1'. 1,,, 1 Id" l t'llles 1'J("' id,' the h,lsis "II' i"urliln read ing.
1\ ,"I, Ii . I:. t 1'1'111 1' Ih" II l'W povl'rl y agl'J ldcl: J\ disputcd C\\nscnsus', [US 13ul/cti n, 27: 1-10.
Il L" I . " ,li l t! Wh il e, I I. 11 'Ior,,>:clill,l; /)[ 'Vc/OPIIICl1t: CritiCil/ Perspectives olllhe Mi /letlll iul1'l Dcve/opmC/l/
'Ii ',,,,. I 111 11 1''' 1;
I 11,111 1)" 1\. It ( I')'I :;) I"""'rry olld /'il'c1ili()or/s: IV/lOse Realil)' COllnts? Brighton: Institute of Development
'01,"111 '" I li ",,,.. ioll Il.l)",r J 47.
1,111011111.1 ' . ,11101 kn , l' (cds ) ( tL)L)L) ) {IIICrJWli olla/ Glos5ary 017 Poverty. London: Zcd Books_
I,,, 1i' ,I. \j '!. ( I 'IXX l' I '" w rl ) ddl"lc in Indi'l: ;1 minol-it)' view', Economic and Political Weekly. 22(45---47) : 2421-8.
111\' "I" ,n, i\ 1. ( 1 1')2) I'''I'I'II}, (,''' III/ )ori501l:;: / 1 C;lIidc 10 COllcepls (llId Aielhods, WaShll1gtoll , DC: Worl d Bank,
'
"I ,l lld,ml , SllId)', \Vorkil1f; Vapn HH.
'Vlllll, I I. 11'jl)'I ) ( ;1 1) 1"" P,lVLTII' IcciuCIIOI1: Arc IVC heading ill the right direction?'. jOllrlla/ oIltllcrnaliOlla/
111'1 ', '/"/'111' '1/ t, I I . <; 0:\ 1'1 _
1.7 The Millennium Development Goals
JlIIltl tl, an Rigg
'rlving the goals
1II I i\ li lknnilllll IJcvl'I II I'ml: llt (;oais (MDGs) were adopted by the General Asse mbl y of the
I ' 1I 11nl N ,II illll\ 1111 I X " cl'tt'llliJn 2000, <It til(" UN Mill.enniull1 Summit. Nearly 190 Coulltl'ies have
I II, " " glll'cilll' 10 I il L' resolut ion. The eight goal s, to be ach ieved by 2015, are Unked to 18 t<lrgets,
11 1.1 I ill' '' ' ', ill 111111, 10 indicators Crable I ). Whi le the indi vidual goals may not be new, th e col
1,, 11 \, ' .IW"'l' I I II'111 hy ,dlll"'t 19() countries to st rive to meet tllese goals was - ,md is - unprece
.1, "1 . ',1. rIiI' 1\ 11)(; .. ""ISl' !rolll" wi:; h, clearl y at the M ill ennium Su.rnm it, that at the turn
"I 1!1o' 1I1111"llIlilllll ).\11\, d illlL' nliOIl S had to be match ed by concrete actions. Under 'values and
1' 1111' 1),1, ,< IIII' Ll 'J agreed tl1"l :
\\, 11I1i, IT IIi.11 lli l ' [clllr,,1 ch"lIcngl' we 1: l l C IIIll.l y is 10 cns ure lhal glob,ll ization bemmes a
1"" 011 " .,' Illn l IIII' W() r1t1 \ loll 1\ 11 1110 r.loh"li / il lioll offers g reat opportunities, at
,'II ,"I 1l'.lwlldih an: I'cry I lI ll' I'!! III ) .. 11.lhd. \\' lld,' II ', l Ps ts arc ulwYenly distr ibuted".only
/1" ,,111. 11 l'III,ld ,lIl d <'u', I,lil1<'ci ,'llml'. I .. 'I<!.iI . , ,11 ,11.,01 I'lItun: , hased UpOIl our common
1I IlIll ,lIlll \ III ,III ih . Iil"i'si l y, "II I g l" ll' ''1 011"'-, iI. II ' Ilk 1IIIIy illlillsivt: lind eq uitabl e.
\\" II til '1' , 11 t ' 1111 [ ' 111111 I" 1,1" : 'ilil 1, 11.11 IIh ' li \\11111' II .111.1 l.hildrl'll from the abject and
1 , 111/ 11 1. ' 111 III" . 111 ' .1 / /1(1 1 h IIf , . \ I , ,' Ill": I"" ! II', I.. wl iil I, 1111 " ,. lit;lll ;I hilli on of (hem ,I re UII'
" l1lh "1,, , , 1, ,I ,\I, . 111.' , ,,",, " il l. ., II ' Jiltlhilill [[pil i III d' \'LI" pll1cllt rL',d il ) I," I'\" 'IY
,III, ,tlHI I .. 111 ' 111", till i ' "111.111 1,'11 1111111 Wi " " I III I I"II\\'",\\, LIII,I III '1 11II11. [ .. nlllii/
lI.. d,1I I I 1I 1I1 }. 11 l " ,') ' I 1,, 11
MI H"... H'I".\I, Ifl MI illdl ( '.i ul
iii 1111" IIIII Vf1rSil l
'"II'v l,d \l< .Jt iun
111111\" qr'll ci er
II ' .II' V , 11 1<1
4fqHIW"f vvornen
III' [' , Iliid
,n "I,l lIv
liiifll0v,' ll iolt crnal
,
' ," 1\1, ,, IIiV/AIDS,
10 1. 11.111,1 .1I1t! other
II" I'. ,",
1 ,, ) 111"
l' I IVI/ , IIIIIIt' nl,, 1
" ',1,111 ."It"lly
1.11 IIl't\ ( HI)
""JI \1 .. fJl' " ['lli,)11
f Il vllllt "" II ,11; ;10
a dol lar cI lI'IY
I . Reduce by hall t he proportion
of people who suffer from
hunger
3. Ensure that all boys and girl s
complete a full course of
primary schooling
4. Eliminate gender disparity in
primary and secondary
education, preferably by 2005,
and at all levels by 2015
5. Reduce by two-thirds the
mortality rate among children
under five
6. Reduce by three-quarters the
maternal mortality ratio
7_ Halt and 'beg,in to reverse
the spread of HIV/AIDS
8. Halt and begin to reverse the
incidence of malaria and
other major diseases
9 I ii .' 1' 1111" 101 , .. , "I
, ustaina[JI I' d. 'v, II/II/ ' " 111 1111"
l'tJUIIIIY I' , dl 'II'" f' .\
pIU('] I I.ll!tnll'\, II'V;; I ' , I" "I
' I1VII (' fI 'T"' l d.tI II " .IIIH
I"dl,t! , ,, ('III)
I'loplII\ IIII' of pop\ll.lt 1011 IlI'll"w
\. I (l'fJP) per ddy
/ POllerty gap I atl a. S1 pel (j dY
3. Share of poorest qutn ! ilo IJl natlo/l,,1
income or consumpti on
4_ Preval ence of underweight
chi ldren under fi ve years of ,1'11'
5. Proportion of the population UP/DW
minimum level of dietary energy
consumption
6. Net enrolment ratio in pri mary
education
7. Proportion of pupils st arting gr,jrif>
who reach grade 5
8. Li t eracy rate of 15 to 24-year l ) ld"
9. Ratio of girls to boys in prIm ary.
secondary and terti ary education
10. Ratio of literate women to men
15---24 years old
11. Share of women in wage employrr1l'1I 1
in the non-agricultural sector
12. Proportion of seats held by wom, 'I I
in national parliaments
13. Under-five mortality rate
14. Infant mortality rate
15_ Proportion of l-year-o ld chil drell
,immunized against measles
16. Maternal mortality ratio
17. Proportion of births attended by
skilled health personnel
18. HIV prevalence among 15 I
24-year-o'ld pregnant
19. Condom use rate of the
contraceptive preval ence r.II ll ,lIirl
population aged 15-24 yeilf' Wi lli
comprehensive correct knowll,dl ll
of HIV/AIIDS
20. Ratio of school att endance o !
orphans to sonool attendance 0
non-orphans aged 10- 14 years
21. Prevalence and death rates
associated with malari a
22_ Proportion of population in mil ld,,"
risk areas using effective malari d
prevention and treatment measut(".
23 _ Prevalence and death rat
associated with tubercul osis
24. Pr oportion of tuberculosis
detected and cured u1"I der direcI IV
observed treatment short (ours!"',
25_ Forested land as percentage Cl i
,)rea
) Roll io at area protecteu I [J
1'1,1I11'I"lfl ,
'It" 1, 1f t' ,H lhl
11l1"lIY .II!,ply (.'pp,II"1I1
' "O',IIIIIIIIIOfl , ,,,I"qI Il V,, I" ltI) 111'1
HIIlI.1li'I'I')
I; I),'V' Illp .. HI'l I),d
Ihlrll ll' r..l dr for
I h' Vi ' 1( 1111)1(>' 11
arbon dioxide emissions (per
IWllUtl by Ii ,dl tI", PrtJIHII IIO li '
" I Ill'ople' l/V ithr11 ,1 ',II',I.ll h,lblo'
.Iness 10 sare urinkll1tj I/V,H,"
11 Achi eve signi ficant improvement
i n lives of at least 100 million slum
dwell ers, by 2020
12. Develop f urther an open trading
and financial system that is rule
based, predictable and non
discri minatory, includes a
commitment to good governance,
development and poverty reduction
nationally and internationally
13, Address the least developed
countries' special needs. This
includes tariff- and quota-free
access for their exports; 'enhanced
debt relief fOI' heavily indebted
poor countries; cancellation of
offi ci al bilateral debt; and more
generous official development
assistance for countries committed
to poverty reduction
14. Address the. special needs of
landlocked and small island
deve loping states
15. Deal comprehensively With
developing (ountries' debt
rroblems through national and
international measures to make
debt sustainable in the long term
16. In cooperation With the developing
countries, develop decent and
product ive work for youth
17. In coopel'ation with pharmaceutical
companies, provide access to
affordable, essential drugs in
developing countries
18. In cooperation with the private
sect or, make available the benefits
of new technologi es - especially
Information and communications
technologies
capita) and consumpti on of ozone
depleting CFCs
29. Proportion of the population w ith
sustainable access to and improved
water source
30. Proport ion of the population with
access to improved sanitation
31. Slum popul at ion as percentage of
urban population (secure tenure
index)
Official development assistance (aDA)
32. Net aDA as percent age of
aECD/ DAC donors' gr05s national
product (target s of 0. 7% in total
and 0 15% for LDCs)
33. Proportion of aDA to basic social
services (basic education, primary
health care, nutri tion, safe water
and sanitation)
34. Proportion of aDA that is unti ed
35. Proportion of aDA for environment
in small island developi ng states
36. Proportion of aDA f or t ransport
sector in landlocked countries
Market access
37 , Proportion of exports (by value and
excluding arms) admitted free of
duties and quotas
38, Average tariffs and quotas on
agricultural products and textiles
and clothing
39. Domestic and export agricultural
subsidies in aECD countries
40. Proportion of aDA provi ded to help
build trade capacity
Debt sListainability
41. Proportion of official bilateral HIPC
debt cancelled
42. Total number of countries that have
reached their HIPC decision points
and number that have reached their
completi on points (cumulative)
(HIPC)
43. Debt s6l'vice as a percentage of
exports of goods and services
44. Debt relief committed under HIPC
inlitiative
45. Unemployment of 15- to 24-year
olds, each sex and total
46. Proportion of population with
access to affordabl e, essent ial drugs
on a sustainable basis
' II. relephone lines and cellular
per 100 population
, 1M , ornputers in use and
Inl l ' lIlI'lli sers per 100 populati on
',pill." 1:, 1'01.10" ,1/111 111,11'11:11 III I111 11 11J11/WWI/V,ilrl ( 011 Iii rrlll"l1I 1I i11i II II "iI',/lnd" x. html
N",," 111\( [ il 'IItI .., 1111' "' (' 1' 111' 1,1 "," I " II' 1' 'l f,I I.'., 1!l1'1 III lu dy IlIri,'IIiNI 0,)(j 1 I (li ' l: n
IIIIJ fllll l, 'li;'1I loll I'WII'fll'I.: r""I"'I,dl 'III ,!lId II,
',iI" 'l,\ I illi "' 110 I,t II IL' "llI lllloil, \ [11il'.! 'J.llh''' o, "it'd '(i,1 1 l "lit /\1111, 111 !,)lItr; lh ' \VI! w dl ll,l\' 1I1I1I
I,l , III\' ;" l dIL'I111lll lll I )cn'lol lI lI,'I I( i :",11 ,P, iilWlii, ,,,,.1 II . i ' l 1: \(' 11 <Ill lll d l\ hl ll"l
1t"l i ll" 11111 IIldy il WI: brl:lIk \\'Jl I, !l1I'11l
lowards the MDGs
III[ 111 111 ,d Wil ling (2()()6), more than II VI,: Yl::.lrs h'\'1: sin ce the Wen: ,ldo!' I,',j I"
I ,' l IIl. iI a sufficient pe.ri od of ti m e to whet her they IIkdy I II Ir.
,I . 11101 ",line, 'Ill Pllt.it arwther way.. is t here evidence that the world cOlllmllllil\ h, I' hiP
i ll i ' as usual ', as Kofi Annan exhorted?
llir I! I.1'11 11(' for llle<lsuriJlg progrress towards most of the targets 1990 and the '/.11,1
1111 ' III " II ' IHI ,1. <')11 this hasi.s, t he simple answer is tJlal whil e there bas beell signiCiGl ll! prugp' s
,(Il n -'I" " I III ,orlle () Cthe goals, an d jJl some parts orthe world, it is also necessary (0 ,1t/lllillh,l.
, ii i 1t,1S hel'n slow, h<lJLing and patchy, Table 2 summarizes progress in 20()'i l\l\o\.tril
01 I 1 ill kll n:gi olls of t he world. In only 55 instances are largets l.i.h'l y tl' be mel hy 20 I '; " I
II, 1, 1 ,iI ' prog res,,; in R 1 cases, the target is not expected to be mel given In'n.! '
ell ill ,:\.) cases there has actually been a deteriorati o.n in progress, Table 30 shows llt,11
II I', , ,\",11 kast ill terms of this level of aggregation - regional paillern 1'0 a chi.(' vel1l en I ,IIHI
hIlt' III .lIh :-'ah,]r,lll ;\Crica, South Asia , West Asia, Oceania and CIS Asia the bn!rulCc OCSHU,"
illi 111 \, ilion' targets wijjnot be met by 2015 (h an wijj be met , at [east given prevailing 11'1: 1111..
Ii I f',' i, t! S, II' j,lting to tjl e oerivatlof) of a global partnership for development ami iI"'O, I
',I ' 11 .1 1, .I Ill! target s, whi ch atten'lioll to t he responsibi lity of the wider in ll' n t:l
'I I . " "l l1ll1llil)' <lnd, particula rly, richer COu.Il1..riCS, Again, pr ogTess has been mauc, h ilt , II li lll
1"11 .' 111 .1 1011'> Il-el. Ilol suJficicntly f<l r or fa.st enough to meet the MDGs. Ai el ,it',
i ,. 'l ,tI\ 11111 lIot hy \'rade barriers remain .largel y in pJace, par ticularly 1;)1' pmd lr Ll
"1'" import ant to rich COUJ1II ri es (such as farm products); and whiil.' t ltt .I ,'h,
" .llil III 11L.,.rv il )' indebted countries in Africa has fallen , it remajns too high and ;111 illljIld ,
1111 IIi 1,1
11lr' i;ring the self-evidently desirable
I " " I, l ,Illitest thal the desires and objectives cOJ'iltained within the MDGs are lauLltlhll' IttI')
I\. ' \ Itll' lIt 'gllods', Pel'haps because of tb is, scholar" b ave tended to shy away from l ritiul iIII
I' Cill 111'\\\'wl. frolll tbe start, there have been critics who have questioned whet her, fllSI, I I I,
III i 1[ ' 111 1(1I' purpose; second. whether we have the available data to measure the ach ievl'lIll' l tt
! rI,,' 1,lIg,' I, i(ilontified; third, whetber the targets set adequately assess tbe goa ls tn be :JI., iI IClI."d;
1111 11111 11 iii , wltl'lher there is a mechruluslTI i n placc-- beyond exhortation ,md moral per<; u;l sioll
UPj " ,,1 ,lI ld propel the ,lchicvemc nt of the MDGs, especiall y i ll relation 10
1,(1 11; ) I,IIIII'S (2006) directs hi s criticism at what he perceives to be a failure I" J iSl i ll t',ll i!o0 11
1\\((' 11 /11,', 111', :llld ends. or bl 'I WCCIl acll/o/ 8chit'vt'1l1ent5 (ends) .mel po/ell/ill / ach iLlV('inl.' )II ' "
Ifl lt ' L'I 11,,' ""1 1)(; t:.lrgl'ts arc lTld\ IILlllikstl'd and ITlC,lslIl'ablc a1 thc Ic\'cl of the i ndi vi tiudl.l hi-.
Ilp i ll Iii, " \ ,lIlIl'ilo, tn the go.ds ' I. :) lind ,(, (a lJ hea lth relat ed ) flll e! al , 1) t,1I
I J 1111.1"1 !',o,d I (rderr ing til 11I1I1j:l.tl 1'<\'" I,rld,' I L 1;111 m .IIlY or the other gn: ds :In:, in 1;\111"\'
I II', r.ll ll l'l Ihull 111 1. II lI ltI\ III dl.IW\. 1 ,1, ,;ti IlCI i()n hl'l wCl'n (('Illp ll'l lng I'ri I11 .11\
"".. I I 1. 11 f',1' I i'l lIlliL- r go,d 1\ ,1I 1l!I l h "'111111 1111 ' \ 11 11 " .. , 1II I " " .V .lllttll lt i11lT:ll y_ Thl' l lIr l J\\:llllt l
""'! I'''' 11,,,01 111.1\ 11' ,1 .1 III 111, 1. 1111, I I1I II. \ III , I II IIII"'I.I( Y), 11111 il " Ioool ing" III. ILI,
11'1111 , .1 ' Ii ,II , )1"'11 1\ ill II IL'I '"II,.,,, i
11 11 it IlI t" ri llll I WI' 11 ,, 1,1,,1 11., IIII' '\"
"tI,1
"111111 jo, (Iii' li il" 1\0 I\' "",II ... ,I, III (11111'1 \\' Ll III'" l il ,
' H" I' l i lil I lil t'. Oi l ,I t I't','" '"11 \\ 1 ,111" i l ,'d , lid .. I
' if ,i. l. 1J1!' f,' "1 111, , 11,, 111 1111 Ill, 1111111. III ... II, ,,'
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-:;;.---
I"
(,., II
Number 01 h' IlIII II ((,ho, .o,V (uul of ten world regions)
' .(l llI rI Mtll "tlllllll l1 Development GOil ls: Progress Chart (2005.) http://www.un.org/milienniumgoals/
,, "In I ir"l I \('p l. pJf
No, "pril i ' [\ 'fl ICln,' prQgress IS IIUI. assessed under some of these targets because of insufficient data.
il ll".I 1.11 "1 t\ ti,) 11 ,)\ conform l O those agreed at the UN Millennium Summit and list.ed in Table 1.
III til I. Il ll' ill l/ri . IIIl.lIh, h,I\I'd ,1 1'1'111.1\ 11. il I!.IS hcvll suggested that cross-country <lata are
111'101,. ItII I , tI \\,1\ III I.. "11, 1, .illd 11,.,1 '.. " /r IIH. lIl s- hascd mt'asun:s arc <1 bw.. d alld
'1'111, .1 111 .II 'I
,
Ia, dill IlIl it , ,1I<I , IIIII \I II I"', , 111 "1\' ;lrl' n:;I, OIlS 10 hc lil lll l"I1 .. . 1:01'
liI'Il\. " I"liI ,1 It.". I,, , II r;;' I'II ' II[ ,tI ,,,"[ hnl ,. I w, 111 \/1 ' ld lilil'lIll}, robll 'ol doll. l 111. 1,., ,'. Iii I'
II I,if \', Ill. III n I II. : IIi i' J.:,:tr. 1\ Ild. ,1 "III " , 11i, .,Ii I 'I" . II IU"'I.I .1.11.1 i, p.1I III 1,1 ", ' h' 'I " " '
,,,til 1'1(.tp .... , .1, .11 11,1' 11' 1/1''' '
wi 1I1I"t
(;11(1' .)
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T,11 (I " l 1\11 I '.11
Li tl5t' 1,. hdl'[J
ITI<" I'
1
0
3
2
0
0
0
2
3
3
14
"
fIII Ii ' 'I Ilul No progr(s\. ,
to bp detclIOrJ (I On III
III
,"', If pr evailing reverscl j in tl ,, 'l h
Ill.. nti-. [11'''1\( (rends persi st
III 2 0
0 4 10
5 5 1
6 5 1
2 10 2
4 5 4
2 4 6
5 6 1
4 4 3
3 3 5
41 48 33
.t,.,\1 R.!llI; lJy Ila lr the
1,,111tI1111l1i o f people li ving
llIi II"'. 111,111 d doll ar a day
:11011 1 Rpe/li ce by hall the
fJPJp..III,I" (I I people who
", dh" "oin hunger
ill.11 Lmule tha l all boys
ifil l qll h romp lete a fu l l
' 1'11 \1 ' til pri mMY school ing
C,tMI J I linli nate gender
11"1 ,." " V i f! pll mary education
(',f""" by t wo-thirds
1111 Illllnl, 11 11' l ale among
-I" II/ I "I! ImOtlf five
111011" M,'.,.. lo'\ immunization
f"ml', Ht'c.hlCl by three
' l'I, u l,! '. II ,, Irldtcrnal
lilli' I.II,I V ratio
,0.11 (j II .JII and begin to
t i ll ' of HIV/AIDS
GO,I! 6 H"l l and begin to
,, \1.,.. 1111 inci dence of
II",lw l.-1
C;016 110.1 11 and begin to
lI ,v,rr,l Ihe: i ncidence of
I IIIII' I(\
(,0.11 7. loss o f f orests
iO(l1 7 r{ pd lice by haIr the
1' 11\\101110 11 Qf Wit hout
.11'.1 .11 1111 1./" acceSs to s<l fe
dl,,, 10. ,111 1Welle'
Wfhl l 7 RI 'duel" by her If till'
IIiOPOIIIOII 0 1people
Wlll!nlll
(i()tll 7 1\( i1 i.
1
v( significcllll
1l1i [II'JVl:r li( '1i1 111 of
,tlilil
ful l"
Target met Of'
cl ose t o being
met
2
0
0
5
0
4
0
0
0
0
3
0
()
0
14
1. ltlI'' I '1lI'deoi
I ,. IH' "li n If
P' t'v,'I II ,,,,
Pl'lo,I,1
2
5
4
2
3
2
3
o
5
3
o
7
3
2
41
l. ',ql'! ('1ot
I')tf )l'( t ed to be
,f prevailing
trends persist
3
3
5
3
6
2
5
2
4
4
3
2
5
48
I A, i.1
11I"IIL t ,lIld Caribbean
No progress, or
deterioration or
reversal in trends
2
2
o
2
2
6
3
4
2
5
2
33
Mtll "II IIIUlll Development Goals: Progress Chart (Z005) http://www.un.org/mi/lennj,umgoalsi
III .1 1 ,, 1 \Iop l.pdf
1'"111' . 1 '"lIlllries where the to meet the MDGs is most acute. Satterthwa ile (20()):
I .: 1" , writes of'oonsense' statist.ics, sucb a:; the levels of urban poverly and \Jr l,. 1!1
1'1"\ ",illl! in Africa (Ijnked to goal 7, Largets 10 and 1J), which are then used to ml"I;l ll l
11 1\\,.lrds Ihe MDe,: ' if monitoring is based on inappropriate indicator:. or ind il.ll ors
I ill. 111 .'1 '1'lOpriale assllmptiolls. it will not serve to monitor poverty red ucUo lJ witJl rq;. lrJ III
'1" 110 1110 III!'It' kvcb or service provision levels' (p. 189).
'" " 1., 1"1 1I ril icism is whether tbe rather target- based approacll places J
" til : III .ll llIlll'ntalist gloss 01) th e achi evement (or otherwise) of the goals. The achicVc.'I1I1..' lli II !
,,!lYe II ) tlllgl'l. for (goal I, 1), is illcolTlc-b(lsed and relat ed to olTici.1I ,J.ILI .,11 01
It , d' .h ;I;ccrlai ned by 'experts: O ther forms of depr ivation (li nked to social 1'11111
I !UoIH' "I,dily dlld cullmal rights ) are ignored, and the inequaljt.ies in power which arc olkn lit .
II I" III povert y. overlooked (ibid.: 182). It also means tbat governments ,md ,II. '
Iii t,lr 11\ I, ,, I" (hcir cncl'gies on interventi ons that wiJI improve thc chances of meeting till' M III " .
till:' 11, .111 Ill! more deep-seated, political and problemat ic manifestations or dCl' ri l'. llil lll .
'it" . . "'I . il not just what is done - reducing poverty, eradicating hWlger, redUCing mu IL" II,t!
,101 ,1 \ 1",1 I,llil' it is done, The general criticism that development bas become a lcC'hnnll ,I i i,
I' . I II Ii DIIIILd h) experts, dr iven by governments and multilateral agencies, and based 11\1 Ill .'.,',
I" thdl litLle heed to local desi.res is equall y apposite to the MDG initi at ive Illl'
Iii I \.".1 I! , I'dtd Sattcrthwaite 20(5).
\I 1111 1'"11.1111 to appreciate Ihat thc MnCs ' !IC Ilot discrete, sta nd-al Olle gOUl.b. but me inil'1
111Il'.r ll I... Ih.11 IIIL' r;lillll'C 10 l1l c.:d onto li kt..'l}' 1(1 IHl v\,' knock-on cffects fo ,- sOllle o f' tlw III IH' I
il ' 11 11 1'" IIt I' i;lilm(' III Ill eel tilt' WI" I 01 1I1 11WI'-I 1 I'r 'illl;!r ), "chonl educatioll \vill (Il mprl1l1l i,<
II. ;, I' II ,. \'1' 111"111 01 1;lrgl.'lS I'chdl'li III i,II .1I11 1IllIll.dil y, ,hild malnul r iti on, gl'J1d.', o.:ql t.t1i IY.
j il \' \1 1' .... ,11111 '.11 1",lit (l k l.lI ll lllli' ,I .l\ I, I,ltlli I " "I \. II Il I' III IH,l'tl!l l ()[),lj .
II.i,j" " .1111I1l1l.dil\' in , til, ....Jl 1.1 1', 11) i\ll ll .1 1I1l' ,1
I Ilil ll tll ', 11111 .1 II.! , t he I"li' ''',11 11 ul "
I 1111 1\ 1"1'111, 111,1, \" dl" I.i ll'" ( ",i ,Il\\' 11 I ( I [11
I, .. "" I 11 11 1 . 111' 11111 ,1" 011 , " III ..,tli
l
. 1.;" 1'[1
1.. l1p , dl \o.
il' ,' 1. ,, 1. \ ..III II'l. I!-: Lol ll ll' IIl 'n ', ,\ ;tI Y 'lIn l" .d
III 11"".1 ,II, It d, , "lid ",,,,,11.'1\\ 1.11 k o j ., 11 11 " .1
211\1'11 I II , . 111 "",1",,, ",, ' \1l1h Ii ,t! \\1\11
' Ji HI " ' lIil .lil l \' c\ ,I 111 111 p,,,I ""ll'] "j
1,1 .Id'.;'h' III ,' \11 " . dl('I'.: 11 l'.:d, In j.(. II lU'If,IIII,,,, 1'1 !ltllil 1I111 1i 01<1 11 1>", ill 111 111 ' .1/
"I ( ' IUI ".,' . I""lii df:\"!.' llIplill ""11 ,. ,) glll" ' II I"'II!.' . III ..: Il lI'
1'I"il',:1 .:. d. Ll I.Ii ... 1 1/ 111,1.( II< ,I I I.. " ,t Ir<lllt lJ S$(l':.1 hi lliun in 2. 003,
I" 1"lIi"lI ill .!lltlCI, I" tJS:il I<) , btlill'" 1,1 ' lil II IIIIJ \ 11'1 ,\ IH'll' In 11..: md. FurthcI"Il1ore,
III ilid IInd, I.. III .11 IIIl " 1'111 11 11' co unlri es and tbose
1".11 an: lil,elr I" II 111.,, 1 L'lk": ll \'dy oIlld d lr lll'll iI ) I Il l' ,'Vll lL- ncc is thal on both counts
,jrHltli 11 di ml' lIl,' r
l
ilil1g. Ibt. d did to Jc\'dopil1 g in 20U5 was US$ I06 billi.on. Bil ldch
(2111),11 .Ii ,(I '''gUl'' tl lt Ii\( lJ llilL'd Sld t('S ,111 \1 II H' I.llropcall COlll llli ss ion, pa rli cularly, d isperse
II, r 111 111, III IIlL'i r .II J budgd ' to mi ddl e- income countries lhat (,it her have Illet, or arc 0 11 track
I.. 11 11 ' , Il lI g llie
C, llm mary
lit, \ 11 )(;, rq m'scllt Ihe fi rs t coLlective Jnd integrat ed attem pt to improve thc lives and li fe
, " ,11 111'\ III' lil t' wodd \ poor. That 1l1ust be counted, in itself, a success. It already seems, however,
111.11 11 1.111 ) of th e poorest countri es will not meet t he majori ty of the goal s by the target date of
'I II, IlI rlltl'l"lllore, since 2000 Ule re have emerged a num ber of critiques of the goals themselves,
II I, 1\' .1\' Ih,lt lite targets h.we been frame'd, the reli abiLit y of the dala on which progress is assessed,
1) 01 11 11 1.1i/lire urthe wi der inlern<ltiona.l communj ty to sign up to the MDGs in terms ofmateriaJ
11I1I 1I 1111I1" 11!.
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING
" "II ,/'-.Ii "r va luable IllJlel"i al un the MDGs cun be glea ned from the UN, Wurld Ba li k and ol her wl'bsiles.
I PI 111"' \' h'l rd-hillin t; assessmC'nt s, il b besl lo took at academic papers.
II I ",II . \" I'dl ei , S. ,Ind Salll'l"lhwa ite, D. (2005) ' Meeting the Millennlum Development Goals in urban
illl'/I"('IJIIJI'IJ! !llJrI UrVl1n;Zlllion, 17( 1), special issue. A valuable set of which takes a criti cal
1.,,,1. "I Ill l' MIJes from all lII"ban perspeclive nnd questions the assumpti ons Oil which some ofthc goals
,II,d I.II i:l'ls "rl' hased,
1.1111, ... 1. ( '(lOI1 I',Vii'gllided investments in meet ing MiJlen nium Devel opment Goal s: a recons icieraliol1using
"11.1, I,.! ,,'" 11I1\l'tS: Ihird IVorld QII(lrterly, 27( 3) : 443-58. An interesting alternat ivc take on tJ1C MDGs and
" /,, '1/"'1"11,,, SCI t'Ilds the world community wis hes to achi.:vc.
1'IH lh) Al i/lcll ll il l/ll [)nc/0pllli!IJI GOII I, Report, New York: United Natiuns, http://UJ1Slals. ull.org/
"" ," 1/ 11 tic/Prod lICl ,/Progr,'tis20061 MDC Rcport2006.pdf. A sUl11ll1ary of progress
101,\ .11 '1-, lit ,' goal, h,,,<:d Ii I1 a 'master' dMa set complied by an '! ntt'r-Ag,' nc)' and Expert Group on M[)G
III00i , .IIII '<
USEFUL WEBSITES
Iill' 1I1.l111 I 'N 1\1/)( , Iwb,j l<: \\' ilh background infu I"l11J li oil on the Lhe UN rcsolut ion and the
,' '', 1,' 1.)1 )' ( ,\.'''1'1,11\ illl,rWllI iom, Gin he li)l1l1d al http://ww\\..IIl .org/mill l. lHullmgOa!sli ndl.x.html
'\ 11",' 1111 '111 1, d l,J1I "" Ihl.' r.. lill "Il"illlll Ill' Vl' I"pl1ll' l1l CCldJs Gill be downloaded from
hili' 'JI\\H\ , h,lrl "' /, 1. 1' .1 1
III 1" ".1 111'./ /,1>1 1 t N rlT'I llh 1111 l'r")'I , ',\ 1(\11,1 1.1. 1111' MJ)(;s C<ln be duwn loaded (rom
I, " I, 'I I' 1\'1, 1" l. IlI, 'I II ii." nilll1l!\.), ,, ,/d", II I " " Ii IIi' 111 11 ,,1.11'. 1I n ("ces/SI al iel
1'11101 I<'I,/I'fll) I ,' 1)1111/\11)1 >1 (1"1'111 1'(11 11. 1,,11
1. 1. t '"' Ih,' I II. "I lil. I 'f'; 'II ""I'I"(lIl' IIIIII , II" ,,," ,1
I )"\','I"l'll ll'111{,,,,, I, C.1I1 hI' ''''II,d "I
lilil'/I\\'1'1 " "11 / ' IIII /(I!!1 1lI11l}/,.1 1,'\ /i1t I /\ 1 I I II I I.polt
II II' W,,, 1.1 lI.lli1 I ) 11.11 ,I 11111 S('.; ,i" ," , ." II,,: 1>,11 wl il, !ill I
I I, I d, 'I , II II ',llIoIi IIlj l 1111111
h"I' (loI(tp
11 ,,, 1.11 ,11 I ' 1111(, I'\idd"lli l"'lil,,).I II dtlll' t\ II IC . 1\,II/,I/l'-ld"/"! ,/ 11" ,,11.11.
I" I"""!)I ',' , I. r-. "'I,, "1 1,I , s..11,,1 V; II ,dl' III(1" , k k I, i.! lIli!I ' Id" 11 11 1'1 Itll .dl: II "", 1111"" will II ,"'.,
I'. , .,1,'/'" 1"111 1111" ( I/(IlJg('.':>' I ): .\- :, Ii.
," \ .. I', lkl, ..... 11111 D. (Wo.,' 1\ ,,"1 " ' I!' lli l' 1>.111 1.' 11111 '"11 II\'\L' III[1l1l l' lIl l ,(I.d, ill "d... 11
le\I' ., I IIl'iwl/liI('II! (1J1rll 'rllrIlIlZI I! i(}lJ, 17( 1), i" lIl'.
I ," I.:'" I. ( ' Ill '!' Misguidl'" iIlVC,Ulll' nts in IllCClinl,; t- Ii11.:n 11 illlll Ikwl(lpmel1 l Co,lb: A ,""u'Il ,iliel.11 i,,"
,i, l, 1i.II.;cd 1.l rgL' t< third \Vorld ()IIOr(crll /, 27( J): 44J-5H.
1'1 ti ll\,lilL' . 1l. (lOO.') 'Till' .\1i1icnll iulll Development Goal s and ur ba n povert y reduction: Crl'ill <,-"p", 1.1
I'd"', .lIld lI onsellse Sialistic< I:"I7I' iI"OIII"II CIlI !7l1d UriJal'lizotion, 15(2 ): JSI-90.
"" ..1',, 1. II ,N .. Thco/J"l d, :'1 ., ;\Ill cklldzi, y.p, and Tolhurst, R. (2005) 'Tackli nl;( gender in<:quJ li lic, i, /,l')' III
. , .1", ill ),\ maternal l1lo rt ali ty in , Lib-Saharan Afr ica', Bri tish Merliral /() Im /(f/, 331: 70R- 9.
.8 Development and economic growth
A P Thirlwall
,I,! ,', Illlomic al1d social deyeJo pmenl of the wor ld's poorest ((lunlri es is per haps the !:tn' Ill,t ' 11.11
i. II!" I.l cing society alt the present time_ Over one billi on of the world's six billion 110/'111.11 111 11 11\.
"" nlutl' poverty; the same nu mber suffcr va ri OLIS dcgrees of maln utrition, and mill i' ll)' 1i.1I'I' 1111
. " to s<l fe wat er, hcall h ca re 0 (" education. This poverty is couccntratcd largel\' ill UIIIIII '"
. Itllcd as 'devel oping', and coexists with the affluence enjoyed by the vast llf ;oj
11111 ril:s described as 'developed:
I ii" stil nda rd (}f li ving of peopl e i.s comlll only Ineas ure ai by the amo unt of goods [tll ri
produccd per head or Ihe popld;Hion, 01" what js ca lled gross domcstic pmdu\ I (I
11'11.1 (or gross nationa.l prod uct (GNP) per capita, if net jncome from abroad .I dd," I ,n
"I' " , is det ermiJl ea by tbe number of people who work, and their }1l"OducLivity. \'Ill' b" I l'i \I\1
,. ,l. ,il use of the povert), of m tions is the low productivity of labour (lssociated \1 lilt 1,1\\- ,"
11\ ,IL,d and human capital (cduc(ltion) accumulation, and low lcvels of tcchnolog,
I1111 IlllC per head in a C<'l un try is DJturally meas ured in unj t.s of its own currency, IHII II 1111 111'1'
' '' 'l l. rI compa.risons of jivi ng stan dards arc to be mnde, each coun try 's per capila lIlUll lH "I' ,,, I"
'11\ L into J COlll lll o n un,it of accounl at some ril te of excllange. Theconvention III I,d ,
I, .1 1M as Ihe un it of accoun t Jnd conver t I:'acb count r y's per capita incomc 11110 dollJf!.. ,II tI ll' ,,11 if;t,,1
,II ,ll1 gC ratc. A cou ntry's offi ci aj excJJangc rate, howewr, is not necess(l riJy a good "r II "
,.I.t llll' pu rchasing power of ClJ rrencics, because it onl y r"f!ecl:. the relative prices of gum\!. Ih"lllIll 1
Ii"" ill h,: rnalional lrCldc. But rmlll)' goods that people buy are not \rJd.:cl, an,ll he 1' 1ILL' ,
II .. '., ' 11011 traded goods tends to be lower thc poorer the cou nt ry. rcncct ill g 1l1 11 ch
1.1" 1111 1..11s ts. An exch<lHgc ral e is l'cq lI irt:c1 wbich rdl ec.ts tbe pu n.:h<" ing power pa rily (l'PP I tlr lUIUI
, IIr rcnc ic>;. and Ibi s is nnw pwv iJ ed by var ious int ern;lliul1;J1 organi/;) I '; lh.h.;l' Ilw \Vtl dd
11,11" , wl lil II II 'C\ U"i'i> 1 pCl d.IV IlI l';ll-o Ul'cd ill ppp, to defin e l lll' lewllli "hSCliLIlL' POVl'ri r
II I\' g n 1wlII,,1 ' 111 11 111 I" " Il'I,r, II I ill ,)1111'" 1' If" g\lotb ,lll d S,'I\' I, ,,. 111111
I. ') 1111 11 I III. II' IIH'\ \ II'\' I .111 II "11111 i II I'I' Ii,," , I II If 1\ 1.111 Y, 111 1' )'l' .II . II- .111\11111 1' ) b "ti d I" Ill' IIII\' i II
;1 I'n ,, ' 11 1 111 1 .11 11 ' "111 , II !lii.:','" " Ii i iI il" 1"I ,d 1,,111111" "I i i , " "IIIl'slil IIlI ll'lIl 11.11 1'
II 1''1,"1 "i'.1/i lu"WiilH :I\l pl" ,.("11\ 1' 1'1 .1111111111, ,h, s tHCdll ' 11l,lt .11111'11
1
' '''' ite"i!
'
i
11. 01 II" 11 111: (,qIIIPflj l, I Ill" "f " P'II 'lIlil'
,i.oI 11111 ,11 ., I I"will III ii \'IIIt{ I'll l il i.\ a IllLlch wi dn cunn: pt
11 . 111 1111 g l 11\"\ rJI1)1 I'Cf II" I'll It ,tl l'I lt I ,jill ' II;, il 11111\il l hi ..lI d. i'.;1 co nditioll fm
1I1. ,'lllll " III I,' .111.-1 .\lll:I,1 1 dl'wllll ' llI l'lI l "I 11 .11 1'111 . 1'11 1 It 1, " ,,1 .1 ' lI f1i .. iell l condition because an
1111:.1 ..11 11,' (1Igll'I.... 11I (11 1'1.'1' I..!pil t! illl(IIII " I"' I " IHI .lII ' lll iuli lo how lhat Olltput is distrib
IIICil.II ' II
I
Il,' III .. 111111111.1111111; It .. ho ll l 11 11 I IIIlI I,()sil iml \1 1output (whethc.r tbe goods
ql lhLIIII I'1 1I 1 or pub li c good, slI d1 as education and heaith provi
,iI I11 ), :tnti il t'fvn IH' illdk al ion or Ihc physical, 'i() Li ,Li alld (xonoillic enviroJlment ill which the
1'1 11 1'111 i, I'rmJ1IlCl I. III sllOrt, thc growth ratcs of nations callnot be taken as lTleasures of the
IllIt,',"l' III 1111: wel fare Cli' hecause the well -being of people. is a much more incl usive COI1
L("pl 111.11 1thl' lcw l ,l!' income alone.
II Illl' PI<lCl'SS uf ecollomi c and social development is defined in tefms of an increase in society's
II" of u('vel opmenL is required which embraces n ot only economic variables and
" I'I t'd II c' ''''' hUI alsll social objectiyes and values for which societies strj ve. Ma ny economists and
" til (" 1 sc ientists have atlelTl.pted to address tl1is iss ue, and here we mention the ideas of two
1""lli ll l,, "1 ill the field: Dcn,is C;oulet and AmJrtya Sen (who in J 99!l won th e Nohel Prize
III , . IIl hllllilS fiJi' his work Oil the intcrface between and den:lopmcnt econoll]ics).
I Hl\lkl 11')71) distingui shes thl'ce basic components or core val ues that he aJgues must be
111' hll l,d III .1II}' true meaning of development, which he calls life sustenance, self-esteem and free
d"111 I lit- ,"... is concerned with t he provision of basic needs. No co untry can be regarded
I 1,,11 \ d,\\ ltll'c.: d if it cannoLprovide all its people with such basic needs as housing, clothing, food
Illd '111 111111 ,11 vdul<ltion. A count ry lTlay have a relativel y bigh average standard of livlng and ,ill
11l 1'H'f;.i l' )'.I(I\\'th performance over seve ral years, but still have a poor provision of basic needs,
ic-. " III I'. 1.11 of the population in an underdeveloped state. This iss ue is cl osely related to
Ij" dl.llihutioll of income in societ ies measured by the share of total income going t() the richest
.111,1 I" 1111 (,t H' ctions of societ y. The distribution oj income is much more unequal in poorer devel
"I'ill!. LlllIl11rics than in richer developed countrics, and it is perfectl y possible for a poor country
I" I,.. ;'.r.,\\,illg )'ct ils distribution of income to be worsening because the fruils of growth
.11I Ilil' 10 tlw rich. SLlch a counLry would have grown, but it would not have developed if the pro
\ l, i"ll o( h<lsic necds for the poorcst groups in the co mmuni ty had not improved.
is concerned wilh teelings of self-rcspect and independence. A country cannot be
I' T.lrdld ;IS rully lkvelopl'd if iL is exploited by ot.hers or cannot colJduct economic rcl ations on
"JlI,II It: I1m. III this scnse, the coloniz,atioll of large parts of Africa, As ia and South Amcrica kept
II ... in lhe.'l regions of the world it) an underdeveloped state. Coloniali sm has now vir
Ill.dl\ endl'd, hut sOllle wuuld argue that t.here arc modern cquivalents of coloniali sm, equall y
IlI\l dioliS ,Inc! anliJevcioplllcntal. For example, the Interna tional Monetary Fund (JMF) and the
Wllrld 1\"l1k dOl11ill,ll e l'c<)1l0Il1ic policymaking in many developing countries, and many of the
,,"Ii, 11.." Ihilt til l.: eU'C t(lrced to pmsuc are detrimenLal to development. Also, I1lulLinational
' '' IJ\lI ldtiom tl1:l1 operate in lllallY developing countries oftc,l1 introduce consumptiol) patterns
.111.1 uf produclion which are inappropriate to the st age of development of the COUIl
111 l"'. 1""llIIH: J . ,tnd to lhaL extenL impair welfare. In international trade, poor and rich countr.ies
,I" 11,,1 (1I' lT;llc un ;1 Icvl'l pla)ling ileld, and tile strong may gain al the expeJlSe of the weak. The
,1 "I I'i lllliioll (If Ihl' gains (["(Jill trade is not cquitJble, not leaSI because the terms of trade o f pri
111 ,11 Ii ucvciol' ing countries (i.e. Ih e pril'l' pI' their export s relative to the price of
;11 11
1111
") lend... III dt:lc.:r illral l' Ihrough Ii 1l1l' (.II :111 .I WI,I.L\\ 1':11<' or.lhllU t 0.5 per cent per <UUHIll1 for
'(, IIIIII Y).
1,,. ,111111 l' l llh ,Ii .i lil) (ll pl.: () !,I . hi d' 1 1111 1111" 11" 11 11\\'11 dl",tIIlY. N() Iwrs() il iflhc),
.Ir, 1IIII ,Ii ., lI lt'" lIl1 III,' p i 'd,h ,i.I"IIU \. 1,1 11111 '.1,1, ,1 11 ' "1 .llltI Ill' Til,' gl l .11 11!"1I1 li t (If
' II h' II. 1Ik rcl"tlllllll l ! tl l ll il '' II, IIIt!. IIIl I 1I1).\l' 1I1 ', i,.",. " 1'1 II h, 1II,lil'ldll,d. .1I1 ,!111 ,P i II Ii," ,II
i.",!e. 1ill ,It , II -II I .". IIi IIC\, !tll"II' I!lI!j ,i l O'I.!,I , \ 1111 1\\ \, ' ,11 111111 ' 11. 111< ' Iqlo 1t1.1 11I1
HII II 'I "III 1111 1'1" \\ ,...., 11 1 III, 1111' IIl l' Iil IW',j I"W II P !PIIf' jI il \' ,II" It'll I III IutiL Ill'< I. tlll ' j,
f.' IIi :1I11 II IHllltl P"I '>"II " l1el ' if di e)' .... !jllli!1 ..11'"
'.i I i'IH 1, 1'1')'1) .lr,\ IIL' ill .ll>ill lli '\1 ' till ill " 'Jilln 111 .11 lil llll' ll . '.11 0 111,1 nol III' \Il\\\t!
II f!l!.J III II .,II.I'll t .1' til 111\ .1' hIUII'1i 11 111 1 , \111 ' . II \(1(I f nh)cd i vn I,) Whll II
Hili. ,lId \ n\.i .iI shou ld 111" II "".I't II Id. 11n'dll p"1elll ... htl ltld 1111 , .\11.1 hi
11,\ ti ll" ,. , 1''\ mi<111 oj" I,cnple's \mlit kol11l.'lI b' .llId lill' \apahi liL thai the.<;<.: t'll ti! k llWI1 h fjll1
II " " I 11 11 11 11 1. i" lI ul .t1 \\ ays a good l1le,1SLI re of <': 11 Liticl1lcllls. Sen detines en tIlil- mcnts Ihl' ,'"'
ti l< III 111 \' \ 1IIIIIIHldity hundles that a pcrson can COJlJl11 aJl d in a society u,,;ill g the tnt.d il l III
liii 'i,, 1"I' I' lIl lullilil's th,lt he or she faces: For 1110st people., the cr ucial detcl"mi nJl1 ls tIl Illll!
il l lIlI' II!" d"PClld lIll their abilit y to sell their labnuf and on the price or (,"Ollllllild itk\.
" I' Jl mlull ily, and the level of unemploymenl, must therefore be inciuJl'd ill :1'1\
IIIIIHllti,ll'Iil1ili()1l oj" developmcnt. EJ1titlements also depend on such (actors ,1 Swltat illd[,' ill
' il 1 ' 11.1\ I lrolll the sL-ate (in the form o( welfare p rovision); the spat ial d islriilul;nll 01
,il d' 111 11 "l'lltlrilinities, ;lIld power rc.i ati on!; iJl.'>ociety, Sell (1984 ) has analy.scd 111,1jl1l \1'1111, 1
11 '; 111 ).; Iill' (:Ollccpt of entitl ements, and finds that s.evera.l famines have not bccn aSI>Olldl r d
I!I I" IU'I I,lf',e 01 IODd, but rather with a lack of entitlement s because the food supply Iwtl!
III\IJII, II 1111111 lertaill pans of the cOllliitry or sections of societ y, o.r food prices hove riscil.
i Iioj' (,,. (;oukt, Sen and others has l ed to the Wllstl"llcti oJl of altcm.ltivc 1l1l".ISlIrc (, I
IllIillil .111.1 dcvelopment to supplement statisti c.:; on growtb rates and leve ls l,r (OUIIII
\ 11,". 1II IUli ll l. The most notable of these measw'es are tbe hLUll <l1l imk, (1 11 11)
til l. tl UI I1. 111 PI'I'lTt)' index (BPI), compiJ ed by the United NatioIlS Development f>rogr.1Il1!l11
i 'I' I liid 1' "lllished ill its ,1ll1iu:.11 HlmlGlI De)'(dopmenl Report. These alt ernat ive p \ Ih.
1I"liI" 1\l11 Ih: illg of natioDS do 110t always correl ate well wi t h per capita mC0m\.' . Th,' ."lIm
III I ii , ' .llId l'n-capita income' of countries call be associated with very III
1'1' II I ill othcr sphcres, web as life expectan cy, death rates, literacy and educ.llioll ,\5 till
1" " .1\ III its 1<)97 repon: 'altbough GN P growth is absol utely necessary to meL I .li l
IjjJill countries ditTer iJ llhe way that they 11;l.1151(1t (: growth in l[O hUlllllll d.;\,10 '1' )1I '.' !11
I II! ) INI II"S human development iJl dex is hased on three variables: life expel'l.l lll' .11 l'lil li
I,,!illlll, ti .11l;lilllllent, measured by a combination of adult literac}" and c0l!1hil1l'11 prilll ,I! )
1,Ioi II\..11 11 1 Intiary schoo) enrolmen t rates; ana the slandaJCj of livi ng rneaslJrt.'J iI)' 1\,,\ 1 jlU
pll., ItI' 'Ill\\" IIll'.ISLued al PPP. These variables are combined ill a COlllp()site imk\ Iltid lllUg
11,1.1 " . I hcr ThirlwaH 2006 for details) . COlllparillg the ranking of developing lOIJlll1 il I"
II ' I l l l l .111,1 I'LT-ca pita income shows; some interesti ng divergences. Many oil prodll . IIli' ,, 11111
11 11 " .lll1pk have lIluch lower HDI rankin gs than th ei r per-capi ta income l"<H1k. \\ Iltk ,'11Il
If ll ll llllll '" 1 ,llIk relatively higb by their HDI because they have deliberately dC\,Uht! ,< il,,1
liill III 1111111;111 developmellt. CounLries such as Cuba, Venezuel a, Jamaica amI SIIIlW \ll l lI E' 1
II Ii 1,1 Il l, 'liv id Union fall i.nto 'this category.
I It, I I I )J '"'; hlIllla 11 poverty index is ruti O b<l$ed on t111'ee l1lai Jl indi ces: the percentilgl.: <l r 111 1' JI <1I'
illWi . 11" 1 ,''' peeted to SUrI,jVE' heyond lhe age of 40; the adult illi tera cy rate; Jl1d a d(pri v. ,lillil
"\. 11",. 1"II .til 'Ivl'ragl' of three var iabl es - the percent age of thc populat ioll wit houl I..
If \\ tI , I 111l'l'l'rtl'nlagl' o'- the pOjlll liition withllut ,I ccess to hea.lth services, and t he PCn.;CI1 I;l gl (1 1
Idld, 111 111<1,'1 lltl" agl' oUiw Yl",II"S \vl m.lI"I: llndcrw(, ight th rough malnourishment. Till' r:l nki n)' III
Ii 1111 t, " 11 \ IIHi I 11 PI ill so "IIl Il" '.1 ri kiII g llill tr;lSl:-: wiL h thei r fa nking 'by I' lr.......lpil .1 illLlIlIl '
Iii' t lN l ll ' 11.1 ... (.IIlIti'lll'd IILII 1111 .,Io, t III 11.ldil Il\lverl y i l Cft'lsS Ihe w(l ri d i\ rd .l liwly ,1 11. 11 1
Ii JlI',!lc d '" Ii IIlL lIilll' IllII 11 1111 (. Jj I III [1 i 110 ' 1 ,,' 111 III IVlI dd ( ;J 11' - ( 1l1I .. 1II dnl 111111 1'( dII
i IJ II 111111 111 1,' III . III I ) IJI 1.1 II, I, d I . .(' 1111e'" II to ". Ii 1,1 .,I. It Il' 10 I' c\\ , '1 I) t' I' Ol di..,IIi1III .
II! Ih ', II(! I 1" (lf I' ll. 1.1" ,1111"1111, dl'vdl'IIJIH'1I1 ' I Il l' .HU II I." )(111\1 III
II "!i} ll, ll1W ii, " I IIII' ,IOf Ltl \'11 111 11" . til 1',1'''.1, .11 ,,1 '\ I, II l
iI ,jl ,lIlj!'.'" 11" 'l lt I" III illl ll llill
Iii 11 11 i ll ' I"" 10 11 1111,11111 I 1II IId'. III ""I\ III '"''
------
hi, III " nllll, d'J\'d, IJlllli'lI1 I." 1.1) ,1: I ,I'-Ii" '." [., :, .it l 10,' d(\'r iopIII [ Iii i f, ,I 1111 dlid i IlIl'l1\fllll.11 I II \\ II iL II
1111" iIt ,tll ,ll i I:llinw. "'HI,-"" k 111111 .,IId. tI \'\'4, l "' h,C \ III'd \\' iII I I ill' J rihu [ '011 " I iIILl )11)(' I
[II' 1""\ 1'111/1 1 'I, ' L',II ,'fld 1"'fl.It"I"t:11 I II. II I'lilig 1I11'\:ople, Molll }' puor coun
I!!eli i1\ iI,(' q11;111., I I" t\\"' 11 1 i!'( h \l ll lll l} I Ie iI' .t! 'i'"it' ,I ,,'\ [' 1'1.1 .1 bIe r a [ I.' of grow t h in Ji v
.. , , \ 1'1'I (1.'111 pel .II ltllll' l lli ll 1111: ,II',olll ll' numher in poverty has
I.. 1"1',' ,lnd Ihl di ,l roh uli oll LI t illLllIl1l' 1,.1, l'l,OIlIl: I1lnn: uneq ual. At the glo bal levcl.
11, \) 1,,' IS link 1.'\ ollhe (ollvergel lce of pc-r c' lI , il. l ill<':1ll1le5 .ICross nati ons. The potlr count ri es
11,,,'r 11I.l"1 r ich huve bee n growi ng itS fast, if not fas [Cl' in per-capita terms.
Wilik I h.'ndc.ilCdlloJl 01 povcrt \ 'lnti the n<lITowi ng of the rich- poor country divi dc - rem<l ins one
olf Ille 11
fl
'.lt llia i1engc:; ol'lhe new III iII clJ 11 illlll , economic growth in poor cou nl ries is not enough b)
tilr Ut;vCil )pmell t ll) la ke place wilen viewed in a broader fra mework.
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING AND REFERENCES
IIIl I" pi"" (wned here Cil n be taken furth er hy recourse to Ihe foll owing t('xts.
,""oi.-, , I), ( I ')71) The Crud C1lOice: A New Concept Oil the Theory of DC1Ieloplll elll , New York: Atheneum.
CIi , , I , I I 'IX.' ) 'I)cv<:!npment: which way now?: Ecoll olllic j Ol/mal, Dccel11bl:'L
0.,('11. j \ I I ' IX I) Poverty ond Pamill es: All 5..<(/)' ill EllIil/ell/em and Deprivation, Oxford: Clarendon Press .
",' Ii \ I 1')' )1) I / kl'elopnU!I11 as Freee/om: [11-1111(1/1 Capability tllld Global Need, New Yo rk: Knopf.
i llilll'''I II , /\ .1', (2006) Growt h ilnd DevelopllJent: With Special to [)(' velopillg EWtlOl1Iies, ei ghth
, .1" ''' '1, '-" ndon: Nlacmill un.
"oj ,, 1 Ndlillm J)evelopmenl Prognuul11e ( 1997, 19')9) 1--1.11111(/11 DeI1e!0plrI l'n l Report, New Yo rk: Oxford
I Press,
1.9 Development and social welfare/human rights
Jennifer A. Ell iott
nlical development studi es
III fi ll' \'\11'1 )' years of th e [went y-I-Irst cen tur y, human well -bei ng (incl uding ind ivid ual civil <lnd
I ,ji lil ,d liberl ies). as well Ill Ccrillg t he physical a.nd material needs of human society. arc
,I " l'l' ll'd concerns 1' 01' development, both as outcomes and conditions for sLl st,lill ed prugress
r \ \,,, ri d Bank 199R; UNlW 2(00) . Iss ues of egalitarian developmen t, demOCrih:Y. part icipation,
I ll li. '-, '! lId human ri ghts suffuse development theory, the pronouncements of major dc\'e!opment
1I!'. lll llli ll ll SsLi ch as the Unit ed Nations and the Wo rld Bank, and the activities of new social move
1I1 1' lIh ,di kt' , III shurl , Ihe pract ice and di scourses of devclllpment have become more morall y
ilti '"I I!I.'d, 1' ;lrl ic ub riv since the l<lle 19t)Os,
III 1.I r1, t he 'i nsnt ion ( 11' a (I'i ti c1 1 sensi hil il)' (I{add iffe 1999: H4J into developmen t st udi es is a
I'" ,till l I 01 IIl l' Ihill Ill ilily <If Ihl' \V(1r1 d\ Cil i/l'ns conti nue to lack even the most fun
o! 1111111 1.01 t'.' H)d, ,111.1 Il l' llo rILinili l'S, Inl q:I.II III lill', 1I1 1I il' 1";1 .IIHling been th e exp;:lI1sioll in tool:.
li d IIll'.I\ll/l' 101 11141llillll ill g d" (',i\"li ' lI l ,ill< 1 111"1.,1'..... IVlll i" ",i"L', such as those devel oped ,llld
" ' I'IIIh:11 11 11 11 1, 1111 h\ l it , I illil l'l l NII I" III' I It\ IlIlillI< II/ l' I' If', I.1I11111 1' (U \l1 Ji' ).
I li e,I ' . lit ,II tI" \'l, I"1 11Ill'II I" 11, 1\', ,11,.11 I" 1111111"11 1.1 11 ' ii ' 1" "l rq" ill,', .llI l' III1 '( I,I,i 11I11t1 llll .1I 1 In' i
"Ii'l' and 1111 '110111 Iwlll , ,filii . Ill "" 111 < il' liVtt'1>.d ,111" 1' 1.11 10" ,11 ,I
In ,lIh l .I,,\, /n\11111:1lI , til l l ilri l.ldi .-;((\1 til '; II 1111 It'l 111' ,1 II,lIlili'1I 1 ill tin, 1111'
III til' III \ 1"1 \\,Ul' 11 I 01 lillil O\'CI 1111 I1t,1 10), i Iie 1" 11111,01, III IIH1V" 1l1,III. P,III ), I II ,III
1""lillll ti ll 1' 1'111', l.... ill HlIl 1
1
)"')1. ' It ight, 11"",:.1 o! "\' o:]'-'jill Il III , .1, .1 111 11.' 1'1 . III J ,11"lli,v di l l;'
1,.ld", r" IJl Il' U ll l1 !lugh Ill!: ,,'1 hill I:i II"; .illd ,,11111 11 11' "I tl l' o(il )\"r,dj,m ;llId ih
" 01 ' 1 H, \ 1
" I"" I ,,(11 k;) ,\l nlern I() r hlll1l;Jn digillt} .lIld wd l- hei ng in development sludi., i, 110.1
lill' I, II' \II , II i, \l ldy rt;cl' l1l'l ) t ha t 'many m:w problems (IS wclll1.5()l d ones' (S(,'11 1<.)\)<.): "l\1 i, I,,1
,dtlrdl tr " ki ng ,\1 widel)' cOllcepluahlecl in ter1l1S of human rights and
dnd development as separate concerns
hl"'[If,h h lll11;l1l righls and well -heingwere undoubtedly CO/Kerns in the 194 0); and willilll
!1!,1I11111. !I ill'il itul iIl Il S, amo ng governments of I) ewly independent countries and ill 1111(,
I ,I, , < Ii ,1' lIl' of Jcwlopll1l.' nt studi es, it ha.<; been argued that tbe predominant ideas i ll1d
"I .I"",' I"llIllt'nt at t hat ti me were oft en devoid of et hical and sep.lrall' 1'111111
111" , 1,\" out Itl r development' (Corbridge 1999: 69). For example, ideas of durin
It (II , " "I \\'(: 1'(: gcnerall y synoll ymous wi tb economic growth and t he modernilatioll 01 11;,,1,
,,0111, ", lin. In so fa r as welfare and right s issues were considered, it was ass umed th.1I Ih(,,:
" I. I IIII III IV ;I S outcomes of the linear process of economic developmen l. III lurn. dL'vc.:l ll pllllll l
.. I 1I1111.lIit'vl'! opment were qL1a ntified (<111d as reported by the Wor ld Bank and United Nalillll"
i I ill tl'llllS lI f thc level of gross nationaJ product (GNP) per capita.
P'IIIII), lil i, pel' iod, lll e tradit ional view or human rights cent red 011 civil and poli Ii 'il l ( I i'l
Ii! I il lI I ij.'. iTl II) Iif 1..' , liberly and securi ty, foil' l!xample; the right to vole, to a free and 111'1
n "I I "'l', h) .lnd on legal r ights such as due process of law and t he presumption or inllllll'\ l' I
II I rlln\',' 11 guilt )'. 111 sh()rt, the debates were Itd by the West, they l11utl!J
1,,,,1 ;dll ngs i0c, ratber than being integrated with. the agendas of inlern,llitlll. d d,'n l"I'
Ii ' two key internat ional covenants were adopted by the United Nalillll, ill 1'11." (\III
j1, ,.,111', ,11 11 1011 cconomic. sociaJ and cultural (ESC) righls), work focused onlhe r.1I if i . 11"11111111
i .J j '(' " '"1II I (I' rights intI) consti tut ional and legal frameworks, ESC rights, such ,h 1\" I it(11i 10
,,1[. 1' \,11 ,' , 1.lI1dard or living, the right to educat ion, to work and equal pay lIlt! 1111' tiglil '.If
!!lIIII\I . til CII;IlY their OWIl cul ture, reli gion and language, were less prominent and ",,,dedit, I"
II :I,JI; II" \1' / 'ar;lt ely to CP ri ghts (Maxwell 1999),
, II needs approach
lIi (' " I I Il l' l'Xl()S, howevc: r, there was growing disillusionment witb (be praClicl' ,1 101'-\'1'1<'1
1
IIi /111111'.'11 11 indiG1tor.' of development tJlat took no account of t he di,o;tr ibutic1ll (\1 11,illI lll. oI
hli It 1,,'( .111 1l' widely agreed tbat the economic growth tha t actuall y look place in d, HI
piliI'. ': ""1 111 il'S ,,,el' lll ed to go together with in absolute JJld relative povt'l'ly. in , .... '(1(111"
d >l t ll ll llol . it lVas argucclt hat a direr! approadl was requi red to the ddivery of '111 1
!II, 111 dIll' l "lJlse. ", hat beca me known as the bas ic needs JPproach (BNA) tll'ew logl'II ' l" 11\1'
" I I ,.1 11 1 l' l.l l.lili"ners from a rang\.' of tf<lditiom, cell tres <lnd instilllt il) lI ' 01
1"1'11 1" 111. 'l'.lll hill g for mllr..: hUl1lan ccntrcd <l llc! loadl )' relev.ln t and pat ln 'I', 1) 1
' 1"111 /11 III I ' I '\.' Ill r ex,lmpl e, Slohr\ ( I 'll{ I) 'deve lopment from helow') . In shul' t, ulll ll,' r 111l' I'') 'oll
,h dl' III. I.I, It, dl'VL' i"pn1l' 1l1 W.I ' rl.Io- Ii ' ll' d ,I' ., l' ro,ld- iJ ascd, I'C0I'Ie-()ricl1kd or
illl lli qllL' ' II' lI111ci,'1'Il 11<,1 111 11 ,Iml .1', ,I 1" ", tI wil h I' ;ht
1 I.,.q ll " I 11 \1' illllt 'l' lIll' . 1i lit. IIN,\ il .. I" ()'. '" III' ,I ' 1' .1 , 1 ;1J r. 1y' (hl' ,I,.11 19"h ) ,,1 1'10\
' 111111 . Ill \ l1" "d ' " 1 h'" lwlll d,I ', , " 11 (',111 it . ",1111 ,l li"'I . 1.1J II I,i II g .11111 1(' 1"111111'
" ,',1 " ., 111 1111 ' "11[" 11"\ '.->1 , oJ (, 11 , 11" 1' )'1 il l\' \Ii lk"" IIltlllj " . ill '.w
' IJI ,,;>It.' 1I';:t1 1,\, I /1111 IIf'.Ii I11 . >1 loI ,llI lI i ll!\
'I (1 ' 1, 11, 1".,
Ilifliu! dtlll"I' I,), IH(.ltk,:li !l tli li l. i " IIIl. III, .lII d I,; 11"\", 1" 1' "11.' 111
,lh' li'il\!I iltrOlII:t:1t I II '1 I,llI' '.11. 1,, 1i\ I,I III'!> ' \w ll h 11 111" l ltildn: n. 1I 1 ,1li d of
I'q;l il lll It , i .I\'. , lin! I t. 11'l ',!'. " II.-" ill.ld ll ltl.hl' ,I ti l' 1'I. II111 illg or the I960s'
rn l,oI l1! ll'l 1'1'1.)' III K) ("II,lI/ n' III I)., 1 .. 1 ',rtl l.ti ll1d i,: ,ltH' )'" appeared,most
1." l. d. 1\ WIIIIIII .11 1111 1,,1 I,' I' .llh 1I11 11l' World B. " lk .! lId till' I) NI"II'.." ,lIl1n 'p ts of absolut e and rd
111\1 I"' WII,' Ih'rl: I.' IcllI l\'d In 1Il ,Iu,k Ih..: distnhlll llll i IIf d(I.S, III cdu..:.ll iu n and cl ean water, for
III Id.t ill( ln Itl im:!lll1c.
and sell ing welfare
l ill 111\,1\ did 1\1ll ch 1('l'u l pOVCI't y, human needs alld rights back on offici al developrnent agendas
11 11 1h' I'}7(k I [ow(: I'cr, lllany tbat the dCGld c of the J980s was one of development 'reversals'
1.11 11, ',. Ih,1I1 ;l( hic\emell ts, with ev icieJl ce, parlicularly in f\i r ica, of biting scbool enrolments and
li lt 1.1l ) k \ d s, for example (SimoD 1999). Similarly. develop1J1cnt theory was proposcd to have
I . ,,. h"d .11 1 (Schu llfman 1993) through t he predominance and power of Dcoliberal devel
id<.; ds,
' '',,ivciv throughout the decade, basic hunn n rights sLl ch as to safe wa ter and sani
1. 11 11 " 1, \\ 11I lll had bcen ident ifi ed in the earl y 1980s as essential to bri nging marginal groups into
.1' " "'11 111 1 cltl lll rcs, became 'commodit ies subject to the ri gours of the market' (Bell 1992: 85) ,
1.1 '"111, 1"1 ,'\ ;ll11ple, came under increasing p ressure to find new methods of fi nancing anc! pro
\\, ,11. 11 ': holh at home and ab road. Governments of developing nat ions were ab o rcquired
!'_'.l ,jl !,I.I I,' I.X I'l'llditures under conditi ons for ,LCcess to muJ til ateral development finance. Whil e
PI'I:" II I,'S opened lip spaces for new project types, processes and prograll1mes in dcvelop
" 1, 111 II 11.1\ hl.' l' 11 suggested that t he more radical aspects of the o riginal BNA philosophies were
HII II tl n.IIIIl'11in pract ice, ' reducLll g them from agenda s for cha lJ ge and empower ment inlO littl e
III I!I\ 111,111 shopping lis ts that are hawked to dono rs for implementation, commonly more in lill e
IV II" I han recipients' priorities' (Si mOil 1999: 27) .
Convergi ng agendas t hrough the 1990s
II Ihl' were an impasse in development thi nking, it could be suggested that the 1990s made
111 ' IIl I il with ,I whole se.t of theoretical 'turns' that generated much debate aDd (often di ve rgeDt)
101\, ,1' 1111 how development could be achieved, and even on 111e meaning of development itself.
' ,"lilll (.::> O()(): 21, howcver, was cautious reg,u-dLl1g the lJrospects for change in pract ice: ' whil e the
.1111111 ' 111 l'l1d url.' PI1'i t-illoci ern ambigui ty <uld uncertainty i.n comfort, for those at the coaJ-face of
1tlllll,III 11 I io;,'I'), what constitlltes progress is sti ll likely to be self-evident'.
III 1')Kh, lhl' LJ lli red N'lliolls ad opted the UN Dedarati on on the Ri ghtto Devcfopment, within
\1' 111 ' II IIn l' I, I" l1I t' llt was idcntined as al1 iJl ahenabJ e humaDright. The ar ti cles that supported
111 1' I k , Idr'lt iPII J rl;' w on wider debat es about development at that time. in partil'ular th,rough
I willi 11ll' enlergi ng critique of conventjomu development an d of neoliberalislll, wi tb
of the unel'cn impacts and li mits of globalizati on and in the suppor t it gave to
11 01 11' II" . I U.' l1t n::J' J cvelopmcl1t and hllillan empo\verment (Manzo 2003), HoweveJ', out of
I""I"', I 1111 illl l'll1. llio nOlI hUl1lan rights law and Ihe Chart er of the UN, the DeclaratiOD also
il'; '! il H' 1" llIl, ll )' rt lk of ,I .l k fo r creating Ihe naliol1C1I and int ernational conditions favourable
In ,. h ' d"w ioplll l; nt 'i 1,t 'SC\ I""llIl y, lil ,' fire i!,' lh .1Il11i versary of the 1945 Uni versal
11, , 1.,1. 11111 11 11 1 111110,111 provi ded ,111 1l1'1'", llIllil\' " I.')' within the UN tu [' colli r m
I ' " 1\' , .. III II "Pll llo ll " "I( 111;1 11>" I II II fr vilill nls .llld the cOl1l rn il ll1 vnl net ll('
I r 1' ,1 "... 1", \. 1111111 11111 I, ll ".', IIII' ilh lil litioll ( 1\1011 11,,'011 II
the 1'."Jil r""lIllllll', ' It 1111 (Mlith ,I II,. ill'l'"II.III1 ""il l)! ,"11""'
,,, ,1I .,.lIli ll i' 1I11 1.',IId , t. ! "'-\'\:!"I"l i 'IIIIII.I 111 101 1'. 111 1' 1I 11,ltl :.I,II' o.\ , ", ,Ii 11."
,I li,,,,'III [l ill.! I'.IIt", ,, 1111 11 11,111 \1"' " 1111111:) d!,ilii\t'\ II , d \11, 1, \d"I'
, ji l'l "IIIl ''' ' I" I I' I', III I ' I ' I (J , iI II IlIi ,t1 llv;'(I 1111 IJlII I I I II dI I ' '' /'1 II I II I III.!' \ ( J II II), ,I ' PI I
II llil' ,f "SI);I IC' d I" I' l'I k d ,1" hinlllh'lIl , \q til' " " I I 1'1', " 1,11111.111 Ik llll.'" ,I'
i!ll, I Iwi l1 (.\ ,il lli I IIj")' II '!" .1.I1'lI lI l III 11.)9; , 1/11 r .lll
.'" tI ," llIlI li ,loI dt' vcloplncnl {I" III ,111.1 !"" llIkl I' ll I I' '' Wf: 1'I lICllt ll1eilS Ur,' ((.r ,1\1 1 WI'"
iI.h.ed. lite recognilioll th"l f!,<'l l( k l' eqllalil)' is a 1ll \! aSLlre III' .JIld 1111.'ol n' i lf t
Ii 11 111 II,lli,,";1I dl.' vclopment. III 1997, the human povert y index ( H Pl) was in trudu"l'll Il.
! II . dl 'llI il ,I II< Jll, i11 of th e pel'(en tage of pop ulau on not expected to live UII I JI 1Ill' ,I!\l I d
ill " , 11, I' 1,llcs, the percentage of people lacking access to hea.lt h servi.ce,s and fe IV.l tn, ,111 41 IIIi
ijl.\W: " r d Iif.! rcn L1ndcr five ye<lrs who are moderatel y or severely undcor weigh l. TIl,'sl' lind
III II I. III ' L' vidence of how, il]creasi ngly, 'developmenf' beca me conceived in tcrms Il f 'WII I. 1I1
Itl' ,I II " Ireedol11s and or the recognition of the i])l lerconnectedness and lJ1uitidi 111L'lhiPt] ,t\
I!! , .. I Il lL'sC cllmponellt is,SlIC.S.
, II!" ,I I IlIlW understood as a 11lunan rights \'101ation, and working to eDs urc freedol1l 1111 11 ,
1\ 1,lIld ils imp,lCts on human opportunity and environmcntal resou rces ) woddwi Jl III II"
11 11 , , . il1thc Millennjwll De\'d opmcnt Goals around which 1,111 1
i I"i l "t,' inCl'easi,ngly fo cused. TJover ty Reduction Strategy Papers are now l he rr,II1 II.'\\'1I1I
11111" ', " wlliclt digibillit y for debt relief and farth er flm ding Erom the World I-lank alld
111,1 111111;11 l'vlonetar y Fund is coordinated, fo r exampk; these req ujre recipi ent III
,Id, lt ,,,"ercnt plans tC'JCuscd on povert y reductio n and Ito identify the I6 nancing 11l,...
1"" ' d
I .Id, ' I dispbys a number of quotatjo ns that fmtJler illustrate the converging agcndas u l \l'd
",.1 ""l11an rights issucs international development iJlto the twenty-firs t cClltul' r
'Ill It .sion
hi d ll ' chapter, it has Dot been possible to do justice to the decades of work doIll' ill ,,,, III jl.l \
I i'JI \I 'II)', parti cipation, gender and democracy, for example, which have all becl1 ...\1110"'1)
11 '1 " 1II,Ini in bringing about a much more holistic and moral agenda for developmcl1! . I III\"l;\T:'I
hit I ' he multidimensional and interdependent nature of human rights and human
1""Illlal freedoms (in the form of free speech and elections) help to promote economic SI:'( Ili lty
',,,.1,, 1opportunities (in the fOI'm of education and health facilities) facilitate economic Pdtl l< lp, .t 11l 1l
I, flll omic facil ities (in the form of opportuniti es for participation in trade and production) ("" !wtr
I.. IJ l' nerate personal abundance as well as public resources for social facilities. Freedoms 01
"" II' Ient kinds can strengthen one another. (Sen 199q II )
, tv" ol nd socia l educat ion will help people better understand their rights and increase thei r , h(' '' I: '.
II" I incomeearning capacity. At the same time, developing and implementing equal 0ppOI !unit y
I,IW', wilt empower people to gain more equitable a.ccess to productive resources. ('UNDP 1998: 10)
'" I',I.llnable human deve lopment and human rights will be undone in a repressive environrnenl
wh" le threat of di sease preva il s, ;lI1 d both are better ab le to promote human choices il1 a peacc lul
IIld pltJr .;J li stic society. (UNDP '1991', rl)
Ih. , 1"Vf:ls or ill health expel" ' 11' I' U l, y II lmt "I IIIf' world's peopl e thrE'atens their counlry\ e(On OIi Il ,
" "I politi cill vi oil bilil y ,-II,d 11",. III 1II II i ., If."i'. I' / '" ' I"fl" ,1I1t1 political interests of all ot her lounlrll'\
(Brundll,lntl JOOI) :)
A Ilim lol l11 l' nl. " 111 1111;111 il""ojll tl l I', II'" cjllill 11'111 1W. " ,I r "VI' ltV i', .. III III k ll 1 tight) vi nlJ lil lli, ,lll d
i, .'., d"lTl III.If Tl P(Nt' tt y I', , In IlIlt'II'.11 .11I1 ' II,dl1 l! 1111/ 11
(1111 l it 1)." ,, 1, '"1"" Il l" 11 1'1111 10 Lh'v(, joJPIIII 'III , I")lII,)
j V"' V ',1 "1' 1.li I' ll 1, 'w""I', 1I ,,f,, f II Ifj jll"Vflly HI " 1',, ,vll ll l ln" l, I II''''' 'd ' '' ''"'' "I1' 'I IIIWl ill ',;I O, [I' P
Iflw. ,III '. I' ," 11 11 11' '''VI''' lll' lii (Allll oI " IIHII I 1' ,)
II!", l'IIl' f' ; i 11,11 }':ii! 11 i'. IIi" hllgl ll t'. 1II')\\' f. !!d I [IIi ,IHl'lhLI \"1 \ ',Idil. 'I I 11' 1' I< ;! W, I) 111'11 1II. I, 1III iII
IlI j: ",IIIIl H!, 1I 1111 II I . "" I'l..ll dl )' 1'.1111:;,:11 Ihl lt! 111".11111"1 111 . ("l' l l I Lj\.,,Ill: ,l) ril l' dl'Vl' ln l'I IH; nt ,
IiIIl ',lI d , 111 ' II, ' 1111 Iii. ltVI' I,II I I l 'lll l) ..I lkvl: k!IIII 1,,'1 11 (, I it iLJ ll y, arc plura l
-iii" 11r,," ill II .", M. IP,l' III11 H'ti. ,II ,III' p.tll l"", I!' IIrll t' III ,1\' varied im por tance
\\' 1111 11 1 "IIIH'J1li",I' 'II IIUIH, IIl lot "'1. .1 '1"'1 "1 '. III II,,: l,l dl tP llClns or individual s to self and
III " 1.' 1, " I 10 I11Jlnlal well be ing OVLr pcrsonal illwrt). Hili 1HIlIn IhUll debating the primacy of one
111, 11 1 Ol' llllr llifl it\ or leS()lIrCL: over an ui lle l', the debates arc now more reguLarly (ocused on
ot "pprnpriatc ,'nt"y poi nts or sequenc ing in development in tcrvcntiom in recogni tion
i d Ih,' l'l'lll lilrci ng anJ interdependen t Ilat llre o f t hl:se iss ues. As Sen has It igblighted, the (i lller
J I till'< 11 S(," rlL'S ll f pL'Ople's ' ullfrcedol1ls' may be extremely varied, DeveLopm clll invol ves expand
11 1
1
', In:L,Jll l11s, as liberti es to be valued ill their own ri gh t and as the prim:i p,ll means (free
,ItWilLy. L, liJ.lhili IY and lhoi ce ) tlHough whi ch lht;; overarchillg goals of development, for individ u
.11:. I" 'I l'"d Ihe kinds of li ves they have reason to value' (i bid,: 10) , will be <]chjevcd.
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING
11"'1 , 1\ 1. "'j' I' I ' I'lle water dCGldc vn ledictory, ]\.ew DeUli 1':190; ""here prc- and post - modern Area,
, II I I ' I, I'lli.s paper gives a nice r'eview of the thin ki n!1, beh ind, and output s from, the international
Iii oJrllI 'O' \V,l ter Suppl y and Sanitat ion Decade.
i i 1111 ,11 1,1 1111 , I. ( llJLJR ) ; \ Humall Rights Approach 1'0 Deve/opment, London: Ri ght5 and Humanil Y. Prepll red
'''1 II, , I 'I'I ',l rllllent fo r Inrcrnationa.l Development as part of the consilit ati on process bd, ind the fi rst
\"ll il i 1" '1 '<'I , lilis text provides a ve l')' cl ea r and comprehensive source of inr<)I' I1I:1l ion and ideas Oll human
\ "l' lllvilig approaches to de velopment and tht opportun ities [or great er intc!5rat ion o[ these areas.
f \ i\Jrica in the r ise of rights-based development , Gcofo l'lll1l , 34; 437-56, A p,lper that
. ,,1 ,,1,\ lir e rise DC ri gbts-based development, the debate sllHounding the concept and Lile var ied way
III \\ I'll h it is bcing endorsed hy prominent il llernatio naJ organisa ti ons like DFID, Lhe World B;Ulk and
ri'l I llIill'd Nat ions. It explores in detai l its origim wilh in the critique of neolibera.lism, but points a[s
I" I'I)IV 111Ull)' or the (;' [e111('l1t s or that agenda arc ac tuall y being perper u,lted in Ll1e name of rights- based
,I ii ,'I"I'IIlCll l.
Ik I HI I' ,. Ill' 111\: Unit ed Na tinll5 TIigh Commissioner for Hu man Rights (Ol-ICHR) is a department of the
[ I 'Ic, rLI.rr iat thaI is to pr0l11ote <1n d proteLl all rights ('stJbli shed in the Chuler of the United
N, llillll .S lIll(l ill internat ional IWlll dfl right s laws alld rrcdti cs. The Decl.uati oll (1 n the Right to
Cis well as work under the Vien na Declarati on and ProgTamlne of Action can be rOLIlld via
\\W \\,.<"h(l1r.<111\
',11 ' '' 111 , II. I I'NY) ' UCWi('PIlll' llt revisited', in D. Simon al,d A. NlII'man (cds) Deve/opmeul as '{''' eory awl
('I II III" ' , Il.lrl uw: L(lIl f?,IlJ<l n. pp. 17- 54. A nice starting pOlll t to put Lhe expli Cit of wdlarc and huma n
;11 1" " widcr cllntcxL TIll' overview chapt er giVt's a challenging account of changes in devel opl1l ent
,llld l'r,ll't icc.
''1, "I II ,I I.td I ' (lIt ll ) ' IVlo r,l] in human geograph)': 1bnscendi ng the pla ce or good fo rtune', Progrcss
/1/ i (II '/I,I/I l I'",' :lrI/'Ii),. 2, 1\ I ): I-lIt A. rcce nl paper, rrom ,111 HULhor ,,,ell known for his contri bu tions over
11 11 11 lit ,Ill .11'1'>1, \, hich raises lor individual ri'searcJlers, disci pl ines and insti luliuns of
,1"\1'1"1'"1"111 il 'gdl" an: Il' b.... nilrrQwed'.
,Ii. f 1'1'1(,1 f.'/IIS; Vt' /lcn' /uplIIL'lIl , London: Zed Books. A readable book LllJt reflects in some detail on
III< ' li' , .... ' ''", dlHllilllur('s 01 Ihe Ildsic Nt'eds Approach 10 development.
fCEFERENCES
!\ 1I1I .III , k . I ' !ItHI I ,''', I"I" I" 11,1' L"11,,; I NI11111 ,,, II I 11/1' ,'1',,1111 !, \ \', J " ," , I I( ,
II C.-) ., 1 11111
it i l'It/ ).', I I" Will i ,1"' ;;I<l l' \ ,dl.I " '11i II,; r " . , Ilh'ih. 1U i 'l(f : ,. \'-(d
I"
" 'I IJ
Ij ,l tl lI,,1 I, \I I ) ()lIII ) 1(" i l/I / I 11/1,1 1".'I,i" lil ll' :lIl1,'w,. II h, I tI , IJ Uhi/' :Il ,:Ii , 1r
III ' ",IIIt/ I<'ill , '000
11,1" I I; / 1
1
"/; ) ( /, ,,II"JlXillg 11.,/, /<;:' I/ "I'lt /,./ 1,1I1"i 111\ . /1'/'111,"11 1. I,IIlldol l. III ll'llIl.,di. II I'
I \ 111111,,,,\ l'III ,I'I ,I I;lIlIs.
,I , , I "I 1'1'1'1) 'UI' Vl' 10 I' menl , po" d"H,I, 1J111 II H{ ,Jlltl lJ. l ' " JI Ih,1i I'lIij tje d] (' (011,1 Ii'l) '. in j '. ( p, I :1;1ill'
" 1,, 1 \ 1 1"""1,,, ,,-, k tl,, ) Iwmdllcillg IIwl/ /l 1/ (;"llg1i1l'liies, London; I:dw,lfd !\J'IIold, pp. (, 7-7'-,.
11,1; ) A \ 1>1" \ ) ' 1kW[llplllent pl anning: in S. C()rbrid gc (cd.) l)cVc!rI{JlII l'/I1 Sllidics: I i I\("[III('/,. 1 "11.11111
III, ,," \ 11I"ld,I'I"
"1111111 , 111'1\.) 1\ ) /\ Il,mum feight, Approach 10 Devei()pl1 lclli, Loudon: Ri ght.> ,wd J.-hHll al1i l)'.
,I ,"I HI 1) AI"i('d in [he risc of righ!s-lJascd dcvl"lopmenl, Geo!Orlml , 34 : .J.37- 5/i ,
II . 11'/,,1) 1'1'/1111 Call We n ow/1il [/ Rights- baser! tlppmach to LJevelopl/w,I/? l1ri di ng I"N.II II
1' " 111 [ " I . 11I 1il[on: Overseas Dcvelopmcnt Jin:.lirutc.
1111 , ' \ , I I'J\I\J) in P. Cloke. p, Crang ;jl1d I\1 , Goodwi n (cds l IIII ",dllll/l\
"I,ll' I OI'II,l: II II,lli,", London: r.dWJTd Amo.ld, pp, 84-92.
1111 ,," 'I' , I , I I" I. ) i 1993 ) ficyo/'lc! the I mpasse: Nell' Dirert jollS ;rr DCl'elopl11 ell1 "I'[, cor,!', Lomlon; Z.... d II.
,11111'1 I I 'II ' c/Ojl/JlCIlI (IS Freet/mil , Oxford; Oxt:o,.d Uni l{L'rs.il y
II. i ' I " ''II!) ' llc"ck'pl11ent in D. Si mon and A, NaJ"\11 an ( eds) Devc/opmelll /1.5 ''h'','' I' !llIrI
ih J1, 11 ,111"", : LOllgman, pp. J7-54.
Ii i" 1 1, P-. I I '(11 111 ) 'Moral progress in human geography,: Transcending the pJace of good /'rugt'i'
1111"/ ,,/1 I 2A( I): ,1- / B.
fI , . \\ II 1I'i ii, I) I lc"elol'lll l' llt rrom be]()\,: The bottom- llp and periphery- inwolrd dcve[opment p,l r. ldi ): III .
\ I' '<1' ,I" '111<1 Il.ltE (cds) De I'doplIumt frOIl! A/ml'e or Below?, lohn Wi ley, l'p. W
Ii i '" ' 1111 ''/ N.ltii',ns Develoj1/llcJl t Programme) ( 1998) itllegrltting Hl/lI/fI/l Right> wilh Slls/aillllll/r l.Ill(I/,fll
f,,{III 'I ' III. Nn \' Yo rk: 'UND P.
11' lIk,! N,ltillllS IJcvt lopl1l ent Programme) (ZUOO) HUI/1111l DIJ11clopllll?nt Report: TIIIII/1I11
!Ii 11,1'1'i"/')/I(,III, New Yo rk: UNDP,
,,; I, 1111 \ I lCl'ciu/lIIICIl1 allli HI/111m! Righ!5: The m/e o{ fhe World Halik, Washi ngton, IJ(:: I IIl' \\'11,1.1
" d
10 Participatory development
Iii .., Mohan
" dl ,' d.lIVIl or Ihe 21sl ce nt ury, G11 b (or more <Kl ive engagement of poor in lIL'vd
" 1' 111, III J..IVl' lOIl1l' of' agc. I\lrl icip;lt inn in deve!opml.'l1l hilS gained a new respecl ,lbilit) 0I1It!
I,'!II III ,I, Y" 01 lid wit h t hL' stat us of lilovdopnwnl orl hodoxy (Cornwall 2002a: 15).
illt (Itill( t ion
ti ll lili d ,t! .. Ir ,IV(', IIII(',l inl'olv ingl ," ..! IWllpkoi n 1J. " i, 11\\'1 1
I, ' 1" 111 "' , ,I ' 1\1114: 11 l II I III' iJlIl.ll f Ill)!! \'\' I,h.-II\':;, Ii 1,>1 " " IIl'W ''' II 1111\ \, hilI'
, II, "i " . /1 \ [,1111 , iI , l [lIJio ' L II .II 1,l tI.,il,. IP" III' ) ,II -llll'"1< ' Ii 11111 \ III "l1f.; h
I,.!I ,tI t . ,II it i, ,I,: hi,"C!l 1\" tl li ,\ '" " d\ Hi\- j !iA"hk ] h i l li' 1111 [lid... I
,,(.j It . \ ' h!l h ,k/1iJll1,1nllt' tI ill l' l ( III I .' I I" ii lit Ij ',lIl'H! II, i, hriI I W> I" 1>11 "1 ,1 ( , 11 )t I'll ,11111
Cllte" III,'n;';11CI- III 1,,1 III 'I 1I0! \' .In \'ll)I' Jl h: III (1' 1J I I', I' LI I .111111 (, 1il " IIII " {I I hot h thcory dlHI practicc.
n", \'IIWICjPIII o! IJdrtICIP,lIIOI1
'\, 'fl loll l1
h
h' IIiL 1>ir(lllgl'\1 ,ldvIl!.:. lllS III PIJ. norm.r! is characterized by biases
llllllll'lll ll 'll l, I'Il,il i.isl ll ,1Ild - whk h M e.: (Chambers 1997) .
1'1 ,,1 111' v j., 10 t'qlr.llI.' t!t- vdllpnH' lI t with the Ill odanity Jchieved by ' Western' societies and to copy
11 1111 1 tllf ullgh 1,l .mn ing h, expert s. The fl ip side is that ' non-expert', local people were sidelined
,lIld 111l' ir olll } rok Wil'> .IS ohjects of grJndio se schemes.
\, II <IppOl reol Ihal programmes had yiel ded limited benefits, the vol ume of criticism
gl l'lv. III 111 l' I'J70s, radicals such as Paul o rreire (J 970) advocated partici patory action research,
wir it lr l new learni ng environment s for people to express their needs and achieve de velop
111 ,:111. l\l'lI ll1ainstream organizations like the World Bank argued for basic needs approaches
", lli>'1r marginali zed groups, Added to thi s were academics, most notably Robert
I wh,) argued that ' putting the last first' was necessa ry for rural development. Since then,
(11,11, 1'1 1I. llI l (; III has \videned (Hickey and Mohan 2(05) ,
i. '11111 ,.11., I dI1 1111 tions
1'111 1' 'I ' " " I( I I', ,I 1'1,lsti c concept, which is generally deemed 'a good thing', but it has Illultiple
III, 1111111-\' ' landing how participation is used, therefore, is more than an academic exercise,
" li! , 111 1.r! t, I II , I'(l ss iblc i111 pacts. In terms of developll1ent, a key guestion is: if pe()ple participate.
\, 1t.i1 11< II,, ') ',li ll1ing to participating? One view is about efficiency and effectiveness of' ror
11 ,,01 ,h \" I"I'l l1elll programmes (Cornwal l 2002a) , The goals of developmcllt arc valid, a.ltfiough
Iltl arc rc[t to be malfullcti()n ing, but can be improved by invol ving the benefici aries,
I "I ,\,l lIll'k, thc (Jer lll J n agency, GTZ, defmed participation as ' co-determination and power
.[ ,.11iIlg thr(lughllut the programme cycle' (1991: 5, cited in Nelson and Wright J995: 4), Here, par
Il l lJ '.11 iOIl il1 vol ves ex ternal anu local agencics working together on a project basis, the impli cation
I1I ' lll g Ih.11 t11l' pnl,icct l'c,1S(lI1ably ci rcuI11scribed, Another view concerns 11711 111al len /'/ling, in
wlril.h " .Irt i.:ipation is an epi'iteillological and pract ical issue of understanding where others arc
rJ'()1ll .md. ide.tll y, il'arnillg from olle another to achi ew a better outcome (Chambers J997;
I ",,"v,tli 2002;1) . ()I hers take thi s fu rther in seeing participation as 1110re trallsforma ti lle (H ickey
.11 1.1 1'-1 1111.111 20() :'i), 'I ha t is, 'developmenl' is fl awed and onl y by valori zi ng other voices can mean
II IMIIiI i,r! cha ngl' occur.
I )l"pi tc thest' there has been a growing acceplance rega rding the importance of
I",.r! ill\'lIl vCIlll' Ilt. I Indcr lying this 'consensus' is the belief in not rclyiog on the state. So, it might
11111 I' l' ,"ill l i..knLrI that I' D gained populari ty around the same rime as the neoliberal COL1ll ter
1l' I<lhltill ll llf lll L' 1' )KOs, wil h it s di scourse ofsclf-hel p and individualism,
PnwP' 1I11 11I .)(y')ses
II ' j, .I , Ih,11 whichever <Ipproach to parti cipation we adopt, PI) is fundamentally
1'"111 1'"w" 1 ( Nd ..nl l ,111\1 \\rij.t ht 1':1<.)5). Pa n icipatio n involves struggle whereby the powerful fight
til 1.11"1 11t "'l r I ',,n III .III Y p;lrt ic ipatnry development agencies show n
11 ,,1 , 1.. , , I 11 ,111.1,11 1,, I.. rl'l"" ..I "'1111,11 . ( ,mlllv,,1 1 (" llii '11) l"l'!'till y di stinguis hes bclWl'(' 11 'i nvi led'
111, 1 . l il I11I" I' ' 11 1',1111111'.1 11., " 111\i lnl ' 1' ,ll''', ,II" II II' 111 'lI '" 1'\Irm;t! CV,,' II t., l" h"I " d" v" lop
I1WII I " ... 110 ItlfllIlI ', hll 1,,1-.11111;1. 11 1'1 eli ldl .!' l" , .i1ld . idL'., II I'. I",h ll .1 "111""1'011' 111.111
"ii lt , 11'11,1110<11 Ih I.II Ji Il' I '1""
III II('i' .' , P" llh 1(,.1 111111 i" ,-,," lI i,:llI ld,
Ii Ifl I" 1<1 1" r! IISII,t1h li 'l'
III I" ,t ir
lilll.d I" '" ."",", \' ,1[, <11 11 11" (.0.;).1111)' 1;(11
'IIr iplllWV development in practic('
.tIIU Il I oll ',lll,S tIll' institut ioll al IlI v(J lvl.:ll in ],LJ :lIld the
t, II '\Ill'II '1 ,h In powcr rel aLiom.
/[ HI. ' Ivil '>ocic[y
\ill\,II,, ' ',I,It ;11lL! top-downism of ' normal' development , the focus Jor PD III(
11",1 1,'11,1 which permi ts a plurality of developmental goals to be real il.e,d, a.\ wl1I .1' givll1l'
ill\i "" II ' Illl ' dcterrn il1 ation they need. l-Ience, PD has become associated with dVl l 'PI ie' >
jill l'II, llI lt" arc infl exible, urban-biased <ll1d unaccountable, then ,i\i l \Illil.!l)
jl " " ,11, .tIL' hl' li cvcd to be small er, more accountable and hands-on. Alt hough civi I \o(\d \ Ir ,
liip]' Ilh .I II il I).',S. it has largely been interpreted as the realm of non-governmental org,\1li /.II IIIJI
\Iil h 1I1 ;l ny Southern -based ones relying on funding and inslitutional suppor t t11H11
IhUh P;JI III( ' I' .
ill l.l ill r('vcrsing the biases margin allzing the poor concerns rethinking ItI1()wkdgt'
I t I" "\ I'tr t systems or mod.ernity relied on scientific approach es, whe re planne rs W"I 1..,'.1
!I! 1!'"IlI. ,I IIl' social models so that the recipients or dcvelopment were trea led III .
,.1'1, I' ,llI lwrvati ve and obstruct.ive, PI) reverses tbis. The research methods f()r
1. ' "1\\ were inspired by Paulo Freire and have grown into a veritable 1111111 ,II\
ilill " IIJ' 19' )7) , hut <1 11 celltre on t ryi ng to see the world from the poin t of view or thO\l' dlll'l II
,I I" Ih,' devclopmental in tervention.
!1 111'I1widel y methodology is participatory rural appraisal (PRA), As Chlll1l[Jll
I!.,II,',:
, ill ... .. 'ClllC or I'Ri\ is cbange and reversals - of role, behaviour, relationship .1ml 1" ;I1 II1I1l\
1 do 110t domiDate and lecture; tbey facili tate, si t dOWIJ, listen and le'11'11. l )" "101. I,
.t .. "pi technology; tll ey share which local people ca n use fnr Ilw ll 11\\ II
' l' I ' I. II" rI , .1IlaIY,'ii s, planning, Jction, monitorin g and evaluati on. Outsiders do not iIlIlH".I'
d" II 11', rlit y; Ihey encourage and enable local people to express tl, ejl' own.
,.11' " "" Il1any visual al1d oral technjques for generating knowledge becall se it is felt tlLlt III.,
1'""1 .<1 IVI iltl'll lal1guage is prejudi cial to free expression. Methods sli ch a!> Iml[Jping, L'lik ill J,\
r till 1(1 , 11\ l" .1I1d mal histories arc a'lll,nrt of PRA. So, PD seeks out divers it y raul er Ih ,1I1 tl'l'; ll ill f'
, \. [" "h .,'. IIlIiforl11 ohjcc[.'i "r J .' vd"l'lllellt.
oil' If" rll lIl1 III ,l( li on
!,II t 1101\1 ' '''lllilll'd Ihl' tll l' III " "I 1'11, 1'11 1 \ Ii 11111 1'1 11 11 II'h"11 il i" in th l' IVlldd'
[ lin!.' I-' ll ' I ,. 1',1' ', llldiL". d"11I1I1I 111'. ddT'1 III III 1 "I 1'1' Tht' \[.;., 1\.\1, 111 1{ 11I '; r! \ 111' 1'1 111
tJilij'.f.,illilll (1III Ii ll) h,),. II ', "" 11.[ 111< 11 '01 111111 \('l ,.i !.!IILC Il l..d 'fCI,ll q II .\, III 11r,' , k l," II Ii111 '.1 1' llIiI',I',
i IiI' 11[11"11,11 111 ,,1 01 1.". II, l "" '.<'I1I, ' h Will illoy Ihi , Pit' ,:01 1',11 11, IjI,I I"I \ ,11 ' 1'1
11
,1' 1\, " I"
l
',pt l I . "ll t''' lillo' U l l ll i " .l l i l l il'lU l ll .llll It1t 1U \i iii "ii1 j .h,u'j-dJitn I ql, " III ,1, 1. \l ll 11t ll lt' I1II
IiOil 10 1(',II,I IIIIIIIU,1 11 \ IIf, l 'I II Ii ,t,IIIIillll , l " ,,', l i,,II I I \,I 'J, i,'j 1.: '"11111( 1"" v\' II ,III1,\\ Illi" "\" Il is(:
11(11 IlIl l 1I1l1'"\\"t' I'IIII;I!I wil l'I I till 1'1 Itl rlti'l' ,kvdul'll ll' llt I' ro
"il ' l 1I1111 ill1ol i .'X1CI'I ),, 1 '''1'1'"11 ,til t! III Ii 111 1"" ,It III "I'. Ih,l l whi ll t rdllsfurlllat nr y
1'!l li ,,',1111'11 lil l!!!. , .1, ',\ 11d,l", II I', 1.1Il1, \'I d,h \' ))'Il ,lg,'II IS arc time-bound and
, 1,'1111 1,11.1., 101 f\lllll,:". Bill 111.11 11 111 It s, ly Ilt,lI 111.\ ,H" li l,I ,ll lI li .tI alld th<1tt he lack of true
I III '"\\t 11111 III I kl I.tC P; JitIIl\ rl'.l1 hllldi h,
\ billdl.n' I'ni"ld Wllll l' I)Hrli( lp'IIOI'} ;ll'pro,II,li l'S It.I W hn' ll LIP', In
Ibe 1ll ,IiIH h'lIdel" il1ilialnl 1111n:rly slralq,: ies ( 1IRSs J, whi ch re5pondcd to the cr it icism
iiI III il .. - programme:; - of being imposed on cOlmtries.
111,1 '.ltI IIll ll ll doi li ll11 Ill' J'RS, is tn be 'oIVlwd' b)' the co unlries concerned, which means scaling up
II" 111\ Illl l ill whic h and thdr representative organi zat ions have a voice (Hickey and
I\h dl ,lIl these mass participation exe rci ses. are oft en piecemea l, late ill the poli cy
I'" ,Ili d i11 V\I IVI: only 'sare' ci vil s(lcict ), organizations who wiiJ not question the neoliber al logic
" I I'H0., ....
Ih ,ll llll,I , L, \ ill ;lge Aid , a UK-based NGO workingjl1 West AfTicJ , been Lr ying to pro
11 1111 h 'l't I p.1 1"1 icipat ion, which Ihe dt: vclopment traj ectories more open-ended. It becJJll e
' I ,11,111. ,1,1 1101rt i(lIlar project undert aken in the past h.ad not been a hi gh priori ty fo r the village,
1," 1 I\,i'. IlIhkll. lke ll at the suggest ion of an NGO' (Village Aid 1996: 7). These wcre very much
' II II, ,I 11. 1' " III'kcld, it sought to develop a si lllation where ' vill age communities set tIl e agenda
" ." lj ill ,lIli ,lgl'II, iI'S il CC0Il1C responsi ve' (ib id.: 8). Thi s process encourages the cl a.iming of spaces
!lid ' 11m 11l' I'I1 11 d ,I rigid PRA framework which is based on the val ucs <LI1d COJ1l111 lU1ication
lIil , " I IIlIhlde l's,
nw probllms of part icipat ory development
I1"\' II I}" I", d,J:d ,II th cse case stlldjes, it wUl be wort h drawing together of the major problems
111.1111. 11 \ \1 111 'gl'll with PO,
I h, ' 111 , 1 loken iSIll. As PD has become popl llar, some agencies use the rhetoric of participa
1\11 11 wi lh lilllill'd empowerment. Al though PRA started as <l challen gc to eAvert isc, it has become
',I, IIIl ili lli /.l'( llh;l t man y agcJlCi es tl'eat it as a rubber slamp to prove their part icipalory credential s.
\\ ' hl' i\id Lldy showed, some NCOs have grown sceptical about the abuse of PRA, as it
;,1illl l'lic, Oil 1l1 cthncl s kg, vllting) which are non -local (Cooke and Kothari 200 I ), And tn the PRS
1lI' It parti cip,llion and ownership, Dlost rcpresentatives of the poor are either
h,lI l1l l'id,l'd 10 ,: IlSI.Ii' C or arc hrought in too tate to change anything (Hickey and
,,(. 111.11 1 , ()();.) ,
""Lilli", Ill ul 'h 1'1 J Itas Irl'il tcd C(l llll1111nities as socially homogeneous. \I\fhilc cOOl munit y
Illi ght hl' an improvelllcnt on ullresponsive bureaucraci es, th ere ha ve been cases
1\ " \'1(' 1; )1' ' Ihl' COlll llllln it y' has meant thal resources have passed to elitcs, More sensiti ve
1'1\ ,\ "11 (III hL'll'l' llgc[lcity, parli Ull arl y gender differences at the household and communi!)
Ilw l 1<11) IJ ,
I hlld , 11l l' on dvil sOl icty ca n Cfeate competi tion between local organizations. Wi t h
lI, ll "'llIj', , h,lIlll dkd such organi z:lti ons, it is thc better organized or more acceptable
\llin " , ' 'l ' 1111 (' I\," Olll l. l' , Till.' rl'\\ IIt thai wcakcJ' organi.zatiolls are furt her undermined, Alli ed t,
II", j '",1111 1. 111) hc(wcl'1l Nor lhern 'lnd Southcrn NGOs arc heavil y IO<lded in GlVo ur
pi II Il loIlIll\, 1'. \Jol <llll, dOl.'s Ihl' Northern Nt;() IIs ually conl rol thc fina nces, but it ofte.n retai ns
dl I II (11 \rI(' 111) \\<' 1" Oh i .. l tll lllll ''1 ,.11'1. t illllllldlll', intcl/cetll,il l), and politi cal/ y, Tllany parl ner
', i! 'I " III .111 \' (111 11, \ III I 11,1rill 1/ 1,1" II y, wi 11 I (hI' SI'I 111 " i II '\I ( ;() ;l l ling .IS a delivcry Ill l' r h.lIl islll for ,I
1'lld,'1111I1I1I1'I1
I I1I il ill i5 ,dllll" l' !'il lIlI,Ij' . Iii I II I, :1 11 ,1111 ,"" II 'J! Ii ,II 11 111.' ,111 ', 111,111I' ll d FII) I1 ' 11d, Ill ' " I,ll il
Jlt ill jl aiti , I.. ",11 1)\ 11 '. 11 I ,I III ,ft. , Ii 11 " '\'(' 1111:11 1, 1'"1111 1 !Ill' j'l l(1I ii i' II 1,1 , 1 til
II" ,III' 1It,II .1111 1'. 111 11 '1', 11",1Y1'11)1
,', lilt I II, " 1, 1,' llpl ,1\ i,h ,ll llnl l'I1lilii .d IIllt '.h '1jIl"(( .I l1d .. til
I It,
li d 0111
111. 11 ,' 11.11 ,111.1 l ll/tIlI .11 "Inl ll,, " " f!lInhClllj(,, (... IlI'eII 1'11(1\) \\ .11'11 ' , " III I,h' 1',llli...i
" ""gln ' ,," k,:. t1 1l' rl jo, .,\1111\ i\f.!lllill "II," 1 ,tI jlllllll llt.l bilit y, l ie Ih.11 \\
"IH' II .! Ilin' of Ihl' lb." J L'l cr ll1l1ll' hllw 1l1Ul iJ lv\'I:, .I).:,
111 1'1 I, I,l' IIvcr whether llil'!ol' "l'l"rol tl' ill thl' Illarket or IlIllIII 1.1fyo,l'C III '
Ihl; I X)
! I., 111 1" l'IIlhk lll is IHuade r and relates lo thc C<lLlses of 11lH.krdcvcloplllCIlt. PI) ,nk, 111
" III '
I ill IIII'
III>: Ii", ',
I' I"l' (,,"1ret l, bllt Ill any proccsses affecting tllC'i r (or our ) lives ;lrc oft l'11 11 0t Il',l.1 i1 r
I",," kvel, For example, it is very hard fo r a small ill ,\l flla !..
illternatiollal Ir ade when the \I\for l01 Trade OrgaTl iza t iull I' dll llll
r II"J dl' w lll(1cd economies. The empbasis on grass-roots society (an leavc ill1 Jl( lIl. l1l1
ll1lhlll lhcd and d() not hing to strengthen states and make them more ;lcCOllllta hl.' III
n:allip and t he future of participat ory development
!.-.II Ihal whi le PI) has brought benefits to some communities , it has been ,11111
I" ,Hl drc'is processes. This recognition that de\'ciopillent will invo lve 1'1'1) ,11 1"1
PII, , ,1, ili / t'llship alld sovereignty h,ls scen agencies building the capacit y or til(' st all' r.llll d
n il ill thei r eagerncss to empowcr civil soci ety. This involves slate- soc il: lr ..'rg\'
i t1i! ii, " 1I1111l' iastill g ckveloprncnt by bolstering citizenship,
III illill ll il l', parlicipatio ll as citizcnship is abo ut combining the advantages of invil ed ,11111
liil(t! l'oIl lll ipalll r}' spaces. It sit uate!' PD in a broader ran ge of socio-poli tical pr,ldill", III
1(11 1. 01 age ncy ((;a\,cnta 2002) , through whicb peop le extend their st.lt ll s ,ifill Iil:li t.
' 1l11( lh III p, lrtindar politi cal communities, tJl ereby increasing their cont rol 111"1'1 ,,,, iI'
'I"'PII> 11 " 'IIr(CS. Thi s LUlites a "liberal' theory of citizenship, stressingfofl1lal ri ghh .JI ll I 1,"111 1
I I" II IJli' l'" wilh 'ci vic republ ican' approachefi that cmphasize the coUcctive eng;lgclIl l'lIl III
, ' II 11\1 d"lermillalion of their co mmuoity affairs , The focus here ns on substanli \l , 1.111" I 11 11111
.,' oI ll1,d l"I'II1S "I' citizellship, a participatory no(qo n that offers the pwspect dwt WI
1111110 ,I ' Itlllll hclow', through the efforts of the 111 (1 rgiJ1alized in OI'g,ulizcd .<; IHlggk\ , I,l l" Ii i j II; III
,l ill I' r" , il III hl' cOIlICrrcd 'from above'.
111111 1t'1 development on the li milatjons of loeali'zcd participatory 11 ,1\ I,,) 11 III'
11\ N(;(), into ad\'oc<lcy an d lobbying. Given that ' local' have glob;d '.1 11 ' , 11 ,;
1,1 II" Iqllhill g Ihat a rela ti vely power ful , non-local organjzation can do.i s use its Wtiloil t
ilil , ,1\\ ,lIl' IIC\, and Gllnpaign for reform of global i.llstituti ons. Thjs sees ever 11l 1l1'l lllll 'l ,l."
1\ 0111111)" " .. lweel1 NGOs, which generates l1ew fo rms of paHicipat ion whi ch are nol rllllll'd ill
1'11 1 ',liI ' llhnl across transll atio,nal space where 'communi lY' may exist oll l)' in ;1 " ' il l ll,d'
ii ' 111 ,lillill'sc Ihe challengcs for participatory develo pment l1luJtipl y.
UUIDE TO FURTHER READING AND REFERENCES
II,,: H, II,,', II I; ', 1\',1 1"('lnt'I1<I', 1"'"'idl'll ", I'''',i , 1111 rllr lhl'l' rl';Hl ill !"
II , i \ 1'(111 ) ' 1',IIl itil'. lIi ,," ,11101 ,1 . , 1I11111. 1I,ilill' ill .1('\,(' 1"1 )1)1.111 JOl/mill (1 1)1'1"'1"1'111,"'1
'
1",1" . III ( , I: I
I, "" I.. 1" I( 11'1' / \\ '1/" "" ('illi/ .1 " /lillIl" ,IJ, ' ill',' i, ,"', 11111 .1"11 II11l'rlll l'di, liI ' I,' , III I, .I,,!,,}
1'11 1,1-. 1111 11' ''.
", I , \\ ,111,1 t- 1I111 ,1I 1. I ' 1'11111 1i 'dll i, /1'11,,:11, ) l lllClclIl ' I t'd
1II IV, oI1 \ j '1 111 ,1. 11 /:. III !I' " II I ', I : '" , ,,, , , I IP/ I III 'r'd/ I II II fill "'I n t/' " UI ,dll t ( .Id(l .';-I" ,\
t 11\ Iii '" \p i ) ,,", II Ii I III dII! 1\\\ 1 l i n I. I! 1l ,. 11 .t I " ' PI I d '1 111 \' " I II \

III d" I'<' I"I' I II"III ',l /)" \\, ,,,, ",;<
/ 'd/", I i f
1
, Il rh1 II, ' il 111 ',1illlll' 111'1 " l \" 1'11'1111- ,11
I" II ,' I' 11\)7 1i j II" Iii, r 11'/'" , ..,I '" ','vd;, I Ii " "1',1 1"" I',
', 1\1 ,1101 J 1'.l o\lI'" lp ' II I1l'I I\ilil',I'oI'I"lj l.lll!U III!, l p, '; "I ' III,lhll, "' /I"/l/il/clill,.13(2): I- II,
I. ' I' ', I' I"I! II I,,"" I ltn ," II" I'll ' ri"/" )/II II I 1.1, 11 1., 111. \ ;"",' lIscilaft fiir Tcchni schl'
,_,,' II' '(1 1\ ' 11111 ' h ) ,'111.;1111
II :; 111 il l1C II .1l1lt' 1I .
111, 1.\,, ' , 11 ,.1 " IOIIi ,I II , (, ( .!o liO ,';) p"rli' II ', IIi(l '1 wi ll'lll ,I 1,I<,licdl I'oli lics of d,' vclopm C!m'.
I 1.....-I"/ "I/"II r , III,{ r /1'lIl g, ', ' (' ( 2,i ]. (,2. ,
1\ 1"" .,', II 11 '1'11 ) ,\ \11111>1 it} , gemkr ,Inti kllowlcdgc: ThcOI'l'li( ,d rd1cct ions on the pracl ice of participator),
I III ,d ,II ' llI,lIs,,1 , /11'1'1'10/ '/11['1/1 rim/ C/uwgc, 25: 4') 7-526.
",' 1"'",1\;, ,111.1 \\ri!-\l lI , S, (1<)') .3 ) Partici pat ion and power', in N. Nelson and S, Wright (cds) Power allli
/"11 r/, //"""',1' / '{'{, cory ami Pracrice, l<>nci on: lntcrllled.i,lte Technology Publications, pp, I-III.
' ,1 .. 11" ,\ , I I')<1 7) ' I)cvd(1l'ing participation', PLA NOles, 30: 75--8,
.\id (1'1%1 lley/lllt! I'R!I : A Nell' Approach to Village- led Developll1ent, unpub lished business plan.
".11. 11\" \id.
1.11 Culture and development
"11'.111 1111 ' Schech and Jane Haggis
l ilt" I" l" "I , 1111 lilT in development has become an important subj ect in the developm eut literatu re
11\1' 1111.1 I\)l)()s, Scholars increasingly recognize culture's interconnectedn ess with the many
,l lId \'011 il' d t'lllnolllic. political and social changes which developing societies are experienci ng in
Ihl' lI III moderni ze. and the impossibility of understanding such changes wi thout taking ' the
,1"IIII,d 1,ILlor' into account. As Tim Allen ( 1992: 337) points out in an early contribution to thc
\111'1.111I1l' Oil cullure and developmenl, 'religion and kinship are just as significant as econom ic
I1.11 I'"IdiO l1s illid Ihe politicallifc of nation states, and in fact tbese th ings are not reall y separable
111 \ IIn lpar:lbk:
I n'" Illany developm enl scholars accept that culture matters in development, there is
',Idl 11I11,1t dehale oYer /row it matters, Some argue that cultural values, at1itudes,
,11101 III'illillll' ,m' a ke y v;Iriable in determining economic progress, and can explain why some
,"111111 i, ", ',Ill l el'd ill their quest for development and others fail (Harrison and Huntington
'IHHI) 11111 AIII;lrl},a Sen (2004: 43) warns against such cultural determinislll, and points out that
' Iii, ' il'lIq'loIli'llI IowaI'd usi ng cultural determinism often takes the hopeless form of trying to fi x
lilt' ,1111111,11 Oil " rapidly moving boat '. Hi s concept of culture takes into account th at
'llill ll':, :11,' changing and arc not internaHy homogeneoLls, and that culture alon e
.!W", 11,,1 dl'l,'r111 I11l' ollr lives ;tnd identities - class, gender and politics also shape LI S, as do inst i
11111"1\', ,lItd illl Clllivcs. 1lowcvlT, in the eyes or olher scholars, Sen's concept of culture is too
IIIIlIl .I , It llll "!' Ih'III gender as separ'lt c i'1'01l1 cullure, feminist criliqLles of the mal e bias
III ' )1, 111 1',1 /",1.11 \'l,. ollllII Il L gl'IHicr ,IS an important culrural variabl e in
" " .11\ "1"1'111".11 If )!,I' IHil' r 1.(' , ,"' ll ,I', \lIlllIr,d, 11'll'1I so can institutions, Art uro
i "",f.,11 ( 1' )11 ,' .11 1\ 111" Ih,II Ilt l" 'Third I,.Vl llld I', I'I'lt hl,, 'd ' I.)" Ihl' .lnd practices 01
,I, \" 1" 1' " 11'1 11' "1I1I h'd, kd ill ,.l lI h :1', 11 11' \\" '1101 I\,IIIJ.., ' kdllli'l liCS PI' ddi nilillil ;t ill!
, ',' 10 It ,I', Iii, 1III " II I.III II II,I) lllI\I1., )' lil\\!, " I" 10111 ' 1" '.I,'I,' IlIY!'l' 11 11 11 111 11 ' 11 1 1"'''1,1,' 1)\
Url lll ' 11" ...1 111'" 111> 11 Ill ,dlli /'. II, illI. lI'il r. dl, ' I! iif (1 \\','111.1 '1 .. ,, 111111; ,I " .1 1111 11\ 111 111.,, 1 III
it i I'\'c, di" l', Il HIll ,11 111 111 Ihl ,1I 1i il tI hllill ,(i, IIi jJ,l' ' ,'" , 11 ," , II" ' lhw, ,,\'< 11111 11, \
I ,f 11lf' I 1, IUII'll i' 11 ', .1 (' Ij (r d " I 1,",1. ".111 111 wi",' Il ' ",1".\,11 ', :11'
WIJi'11 Il llT 1.1 1111 111 ,11I11 .11l\'riupl m:1I1
i. Itt bdt k on culture and developmenl
111 . 111 11 1"": i" " 111 ,I new move in developmcnt studies. In I h(' anu Ihc: r(l k 01
It,", 111.1, \ ,' I"I'I11(: nl received considerable attention within a development studi!.' .. dtIl11ill.JI "t!
''', I, , '" (oi li,," IIt cor y. llcre, the Illai n chaJlenge was percei ved to be to cxpla in why "" I
I', I, ,In "I" ped ,Ind ot hers were not , and holY wlderdevelopt' d societies can become mndt '11
I ti c'" 1lI l'l'd. ( :ult II rt' played an iIII portant role in distinguish ing 'tradj tional' from 'mOllern' 'Ill I
11,11111 I I ." I1cr's anthropological study of the Turkish village of Balgat, caught in the I<J:;(h 1111
IIi!III "I Ih incorporation into the modern izing capital ci ty of Ankara, exclll pllfi t'S Illi,
!LIt Ill" t>' peGlst s the village head as a ' tradition al 111 <1n " defi ned by Isl ami c
111 ( ll. iI ,llllltmit)" austerity, obedience and patriotic loyalt y. whose cosmO!i is the viII ,I!-\t' lit
i III ' I'lllrasl, the ' modern man' is a shopkeeper, who dreams of material weal th, mo\'ing III
I "iI\ ,i ll d k(l "wing the world, This binary contrasting tradi tional and modern is bast'd 1111 ,I
11111I ,"IIII'l' as a hounded, di screte entity, 'consistillg of particular sets of structures or Sl lll, r!
IlI,I jll ,I"in's and symbolic systems which forge a coh esive unit)' for the group. whctht' l ,I',
I, 1I 1I 1" " , lllll1l1llll1it)', or class' (Schech and Haggis 2000: 35, 22),
1, ,, 1, ' 1111,1111111 sludies took ror granted that development was accompani ed by the Jcquj , ili lill
I, III lllllirallrait s and values, which would result in developing societies eventuall y
WI ,j, III I' mope and the United States. One way of explaining thi s W,lS by see ing modern 1' ,11
ii,,, I,ll IL'lalions as a ' universal social solvent' which erases the traditional cul tur,ll lr. li h "I
1\\111 1.1 \llLiL'lies through contact. Thus the traditional/modern was not a binary o f' t'll'l.tl S.
l!ill Ill lltt "I: I rad iIiona] societies or 'cultures' placed at the bottom of the hicrill'l, l" 1\1 I,
Hrd, 1""llionary dead ends, which wo ul d either be left to die out Of be 'bred out ' 111 01 I'l'lI lIi,
"' 11 Ill' less well -meaning policy intcrvent-ions (Schech aDd Haggis 2000: 18- 1'.1].,\ 111111\
' '''JI ll Iion of nOI1- \'\festern cultures was as romanticized Other, whose Ii' l
, 01 Ill h,tI', ' peasant' 01' 'traditional' ways of living and belief systems were presumed I II
ItI, '1 l1l1 k rnity, where they could be imagined as part of pun: nature. Both thesl.' WI\ \ I.' I'III "i
II "I 'Iroltiilional' society are based on the same notion of culture as a discrete, \'11" 11, ,,,, 1
1'1 ilu 1'1 ; Os and 1 the battle between MarXist -i nspired studies of Wlderdeve]ojl ll1t' 11! ,111 01
I" ju lclI l ,\towlopmcnt on the one hand, and neoliberalism on the ot her, drove cull ure oil IIiL
III, II, ,l lI llkVl' loplllent agenda dominated by economist and political-eco nomy an<J lys('s, Wi lli
Iw-,II. 1',11, ,II ,III impasse, some scho!ars turned to the new fields of cultural studies, post-cnllllli,1i
II, ,11 101 )',Illb,tlil,ltion for new tools to explore development, Thjs provided i'1l1 ,I
it i! II """ dYllam ic ,md broad defin ition of cui turl' as '" network of represen ta ti on, - I,', h ,
1.111 oi'beh;)viour. ;Ind Ihl' n'l rrativt' structures organi sing thesc - wh ich shapes L'\\'q
I, ,-, I (Frow uno I')'n: viii). ( :ullure, from Ihis persrecti ve, is prlllili cli l't" ill
1'1' "I !al'ill g an acti ve COllll'''"''1l1 ill lit ,' prll..J llllilln ,ll1d reproduction ,11111 till '
II !I' 1,""' 101" III;tk l' Ill' it.
III ; Il' lI llil ,lIl ll' oIllalil l'd llli'" ,111'.1 I"I'\I!l l lI ,k'fillilioll of cliiturl' n:lln h lilt'
II'." I I ,) 1' 11 ',1 ,1l1(1lli,ti wl liLl, " llh!,1 cllllll1 Ii dlllltillalioll and ((tilll!';)1 1'1'1" "
,iltil !!11I III dn'l' I'II,ill l', i,: II< 0" :11/,1 11 , " \ 1'1,1 P['W,' i .II 11ll' 1(,lIln' III ,111,d )',i.. ('>, Ii d
Il. dll'/'I 'I. ',III,lIlll.dl " '\"lblt,,wj,",lj IIi ,o!toiii/,Hill ll 1lII I III ti l' illl'lIh,'d "l llllllllli, ,11 11 1
"1\ 11, ltillll,ti, 1.,"
' ,)i' \ II ' (11 ,til 1
1
1'1.'

I., hili 'I" ,' l 'lld i" .1\'-1 d '" .1 ' .l\lIiI .. I
11,1' n II III .,1111 "
fi t,' I. "I .1.11 11,11:'11 111.'1 ttl illg. :11 It! h.Willl; 11111 1t'll'll}' "\<, ,I ll" llll' I' l 1 1971:\: CXp OOI!S
,11111, i1 ,l it ".,\, !\ " lit' Il'l II l,:->t..:11 ,,, I11111 willi It I" I' strategies ill
II lit oI!'I'I IIt!,I'I!, 'fllI lIl dc, .)lIril'l"lt li.'II I' IIC ,k"cl " I'II,I"11
I'll " I Cl I ,. 1..11II i . It 1111 ,lLld iI'S. it uti till 1'111' .." . i d ,d .. h,II' /.! Iinll t hl' l11 sdves, have also in n1I
l'lld'd ti ll' \\\1)''''' 1i "1.II ,, 10111. ,I I th" (Oll ll l.'llioll il,' I"", ,'1 1, Iil llli r ,1I 11I Ik'wloplllcn l. The deregula
I!,," "t ,1I1d tr.ll k,'IIl J Ih" of slIli ,1 1rl' l,ll iumh ips interrns of space,
11111\ ,1 111 1',pn'd, It,h' Iltl' hill ,try Illodels of Illl' lkrn ity and tradition, and per iphery,
\\ hll l! 1I IIdl'll'ill ll l'd 11II.,h:rniz,l ti nll ;lIld Mar..ist dl'Vl' lopment theories. The con necti on with the
,\ 1,,1 1. 01 1I1 1!-," IItl' p,lr.II111tns oj' people's lived exper ience more permeable than ever before,
!lte 0\ nther li rclllllst'l1lCCs. exper iences, images and ways of livlng. Thus,
\ 1 jlln Al'p.lduril i. SI U: III II.tl l ;1I1d ntiwrs h,1\'c argued that the global flows of ideas, people and
t'o'''Jlb 1II IIII n umit: rill im' Ihc ut ilil YIl f ,1 collcept of culture a distinct, di screte ,lnd nadonullr
Ihll ll'l kd I'lI lit y. IlI,o, lning instc,ld ;l ilu icl and compl ex not ion of cul ture as consl(1llt iy being trall S
,,,trll ul h 111 1.11 11 dircdioll al, cultu ral interactions, which weave tht'local and the global together
111.1 1I1111tilmk 1' \ diffnl' llt, and often rather unstable, configurati ons. Ala n Pred (1992: 109) cap
till ,... Illi s IIlIlillll (lllulturl' ill hi s inimical style:
( :111111 rc docs l1"t ... Llild
isola ted
"n ils UWII , Illllllutahle and uncontested.
II IS IIc itlH: r Il xeu , nor u wfilled t(' th e traditional,
II l' ilhel' l (lllll,letci y stable, Il or a uniFied 111 0nolith of cohen.'ncc.
II i., 11111 11 11 ;]UIOIl(lnlll l)S elltit)',
in " I(' rrilor }, of' its OWIl ,
I" 'Y"III! Ihv r,,,lim, (If Il hlll' riality and soci al reality,
( :1111111, " ;tllli li ved,
.l l- lill' I), prodlllcli and expressed,
all ' m.i.d practices,
I11IIIlI g11 ,"llltdl is ll')lI t.: rcte and eve ryda)',
Illrllll !\h ,"ll h,11 i, en meshed in power relalions
;l lld ,Issllciall'd discourses,
Ih eir "o;S(lC iall' d represent at ions and rhetorics. (... )
looking through a culture and development lens
\ " 1' 1,'.1 .11It! nlhvr, 1, ,,1'1,' I'oi nt cd oUl , Ihe 'cultural' in dl::'ve\opruent studies lS tn the
it ll ,'I': 1I Ill' Cl OIlOlllic processes, which are never just physical-labour, cap
il,d, ".I'l ,tI" 1''! 1I11l 1'1gil" .1Ilei so on - but also tJke on cultural form s. As late capital is t econ omics
1\ ii' 1\ II ICil Inul' I'rom I'l'lluu llion [0 collsll mption, cult ure a heightcned sa Li ence in dirfer
, " li .lli ,,!', ,tnt! uri l'i ng the l'\'t: r-l hJllgil1g goods Ihrough wh ich Illoderui ty and identity
III (Iull- li ll\' 'lin/>; 2''')) . At 1111- :0.;111 '" li ll it', ti i,\.'(j llt cll t, conlest.ation and resistance to
Il ll IIWIIII, lIlli e" ,llld injll\li.... , pI<ltilllnl h\"ll\1 "lIl, II I, .lp,l.lIi,m ,lilt! Illotlerni ty arc increasingly
.ITld, 1, ,111111 '11. d 1IIIIIU!',1t ,l il llII l:. I' rl \:' .Jllltll l'" II')' JIII ' l lIll)' ,,1'1 C5 SIIPCII I'S, a 11len's group
ill 1\' 1111
\ ' ' S Wlll.Wll1;I lL4l " ",Uln,, ' " , I!" 1111_, ___oHl tt.
_ _ ,"" . ..
III Ih, [" "I,k\ l,q11lhlll "I til t' I,IIIIr", Il hl dI,t IL' ... did!e... 1ic relalltlnsllip.
CAI"' iI"!, ,. llI lillill h Ihe fll, lillil l\ 'Irl hell'
r! lt
'
1'1 ;11,,1 11.1l1h" III 1'1 111:11 1 ,d 1"' ,1" '11" III
H' llk III" Ih,;I\bc: lw', ;III" d" ,, 1,, 1.,1 .' j - _ _
.,I tt '! ti ,' " tIl II\ I,)((,{"" ",,'/ "JI"", l lllf'l l Ilt_ t,n" , ' l' II ,:' :-4 i
II" .1.lhll-, l...oI III fhl, [,i,11l1 J In i "III'-,-I ll ,,,, ,,'1\' !"',: I",dl l'""
",ifil l!' it 11 111 .11'1 1,,11 111111.1 wIll, h' !li' .\111""111'111.11\(11 ' 11I. I 'll ll l"I, IIIIII I. hili ", 111" .
d 11' . 1d" Vl' I"pIII l'nl 111111 1.)' .1 \'\H'i ti ,,' IiI ,Ievel"p'", 11 1".1111, I 111ft 111 . 1"",, 11 .I!,WII "", V' ii
111111 g" I'L'1'I1t1 ICII I.d ,, 11\' 1"1'-.) (H, ld. lilk .' O(\h l, b "',\1;1"
"1'0"' ... . tlw I<llll h , "!'''"ft I .IIH I .,dltl l,II " 1I,IVl in,rl',l'.il1p.ly IILJtl'"
, kil,d 11\ glul' IILII h"I<I .. \Ill II tIn lil fll' ,II,' \ ,1!ld II ,el1l a cl1hcn:n l IVllkh
" , " I tl i d"Vl' IIII' Illl' 11 I inl l'l WJ il ltlll\, 1(11 n.I IlII'!c, the vVorld Ba nk movl'd [Il\v.t rd.. ,llll llf(
",111'" 111 in tIl(' 1')90, Iltat cons idered the influcnce of gl' nder. l'lh lli ... ,,), .1 1111
, 1. 1111. til divl'r... it y Oil econollli c development and povert y. The Bank co III III issi(\ Ill'd .1 \111111
\ :.;. r ;I I III, floo r (Naray;uJ \'t aJ, 2000), which ident ifies thecofllillon thread.:- ;mel tl ll' lli
,,"" 1' 1"11'., or the poor, well <lS tha,t is ,I L'I'ili' ,.11 III
1'1111111 IIt .li cYlll aking and practice. The study reveals that poor people orkn
I,, " Irl l lIl.lI norill s relat ing to gender, class, ethnicity, Isl e, and Oil, of the so.:il,tils
i, l' III. d alld ironical on tbe one hand, but compliant on the other. [)rawi n!! 0,111,1"
, IIi . \ \ i' llrI /) ('I'c/oplIlcn 1itepor t 2000 argues tba t the fight against poYen)' III u_,t hu ild lin II I
iii . 11" 1,11 111;11 honds poor col1JlIJLwities together - the ties connecting family IllcntlH It
' 1,1,,111 " , I".... rricnds and business associates- onto which vertica l tics can be gral\ .: d lll' twl(' 11
Ilflti! in positions of infl uence in formal organizations who make dccisi,," ;. rd.II .
,., lil, ' il WI' It.Il' l'.
II" \\'"rlJ Balik has incorporated clement s of lhe perspecti ve of poor penpk illl !> hili
r'. IIII
I,i,,)
I "r ,I t 1, 1"1'I11l'nt, as Appadurai (2004: (16) points out: 'The poor Me recogni z"d, hll l in
1IlIll illlLlill change in the tcrlllS of redistribution .' He uses the example or a pHi 1" "11
"I IIIIIISill g adiyisls based in MUlllbai, Indi a, and linked to a global nl'l w(llk, Ih,
IU I .!1\t ' lIn, Internalional, to show how t he poor become development aclt"-' h\ Will "
Ii ,' , ' 1,. 11111 Ihe spaces of agency and representation. One or the straleglb \ 111 11\1,
1,1111' I' l.!,e Ihe vn ice or Mumbai SlW1l residents and expand th ei r capacil)' 1(I,I, ,,i ll ,f"
.,\I III,ili!)n. whi ch provides a public space for poor peop le to discuss their hllll .. ill!' 1I<'cd
" I . lI'ilh polilicians, donor <lgenci es, local planners, architects and professil111.d 11\1r1d': l
" h. 11i, an upper-class f(lrm and placing slum residents <It its umtn . 1I1iolili \
tI ' drl l ,lIld recllgnition, as well as cleverly subverLing the do mjnant class cultures ill lia lil
,..
,,,, 'I \ 11'l'llo l Mot/emil)' rll Large.' ClIlJural DimCI/$i(JI1s 0/ G/ouali2aliolJ, [ 1"illI ., h "I
Utl ll< ,ill l"t","..
i ll I 1 1'1'111 ; 1/11' ,llIli 1'"lili.-> Aiachill c.: 'Developlll!!l1l ; Depil liricizarioll, Hlld BurcrllJcTl l/ie /' ,m.,., /II
,I",. t rr ,oI" i.l ),.I': ( :, 'llIhridgc Univers it y
, - I ' 1111 II /'I,.. \ I/ril('IIC:;> ,,(!JOllier: Racism ill Third World DcvelojJlIIl?l1 l lll/ti , lid, Lundon: !.aWl','"'' ....
h, ,; I
, ; :, , , " ,::) fiJI ' I 'II ': ':/IIX "I 'Iiwl iliollill Society Ivlofl cJ'I1izillg II,e Middle Fasl, Nt.:w Yo rk; h w 1'1'1"'"
. I ( ' fill \ I '.'111/11/./1' 1\ 1",/1'1'1/: Milking \ll1ldl,' (,'/11" CII/Illre in (/ New Coml//lwr ';ofi!'I}', 1'1 ill ,cl llll , NI
Ilill! 11 '" 1' 1111 1' 1:, ;11 1
1
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'I"'il ! i !'."' ': I I " 'I II' 'I tl lllI" "' '''''' '. 1\ 111 I \11 II '1 ' ' II . Ill '
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\
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t' \ 1I 1"' ll' "I//u
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"1,, //; [1. 1, ,,,( 11,11 ".11 '111 1,' 1.;1\ 1'1''''\, 1'1 ' , .i /1.
"Ii'III"I ', II ) \ 1' 11111 1 Il,. " '1 '",rl l l.. "'1'11, I 'ldlili l ,\101111' h",,',,"III ' , - I" " \ I .', "' L I I I I I I II . , I io ! II
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/1 1'1'1' /1/'"/1 '//1 ", tIll
'
I' "I \\' 1 .. 11't . 111 j I J,. .' t Ii 1
I ,,, 1,,1/ \
I ' I I lli I I tI Jl I !I II \. I '. 11 \ t 'j ',
I llt d.I .II , 1 I I'''ltJ I iI" llI l',II .il l<',\""ld:(,I"I,,dl .', 111 IItt.tI .II,,, ,I. ,.1;,, 1" r!Wf/fY, ( IIIII1I't ' IIII'/ ''>''I/I ' /I ',I . , II 2H.
l. tI" I " lid .\1 "1' I',. \ \. ( 1"'1 '; 1 \ II " lltll lllI ( '/lllIlItll:"II,I" "" \ I\' iI,/,'I. :-' 1Ll'on;,r,L" ,\mlr.di.l: /\ Ile-II & l llllVili.
11,11 " (1' )'1' I . II." \'\',", 1,tI" I IhI' I,'sl: I Ji SC(lUrSl' .I III I !,II \\I IT', illS. Iiall Il. (; idlc' 11 1"01'111'" ;OIlS "/
\ /,,,1,1 lilli' , ( ,tl lIl " id ),,": I'til il)' i're'ss, PI', :2 75- 31I.
ILl ' 11'," tI , I, I . ,tlill 1ItIiIIitt,: llItt, <'. 1'. (cds) (2000) ClIllllre Ma lleI'S: HOll' Valll es Shope HI/ IIIOII Progress, Nl'\\
"., I f .
II, .'1,d. (.'- ooll l \,,,;,, ', vI IIII' jJoor, \Iols. 1- 3, NewYork: Oxford Uniwrsit y Press.
1'1"1 1. \ , 1I' )I) .!) 'Lapiialislll.\, <Tisl's, and cultures 11: NOles on local tTJnSfOrmalion and ever yday cultural
itt /\. I' rl'd lI llli [\1.1. Walt s (l'ds ) Reworking Modern ity: Capitalisms Illl d SYI/1.volic IJiscolll elit. NCI'
1'lltt " WI' k. NI: /{Ul gl'rs Universit y Press.
It" l, IilIt- , r..' (l()h ) 'Co ncilisions: Thl' fu ture of' cult ure and development', in S.A. Radcliffe (cd. ) Culture (fili i
/
1
, ' 1'1'/"/'11/1'11/ ill II Wurld' Grogmpli ies, Aeror" (wd Paradigms. l.ondon: Routl edge, pp. 22R- 37,
',.I iol , I .\\'. ( I' UX) (Jril'lIllf/i'ill: Western COl/ cept ions of Ilt l' Orient, New Yor k: Pantheon Books.
\ .1" " II , ;(lId Il.l ggi.\ , ). (lO()(J ) C({llIIre al/(I Del'cloprnelll: 1\ Crili((J1Tll trodllctioll , Oxford : Blackwe ll.
,-, hl" 1\ , ;(l1d ). (L'ds ) (20U2 ) DCl'elopment: A Cllitural Studies Reader, Oxford: Blackwell.
\, /1 , : \ . (201),1)' 1!Ol\' dOl:s culture matter?; in V. Rao and M. Waltol1 (cds) C/./!lIIre and Public Actiol'l, Stanford.
( \ : Uniwrsity Press, pp. 37-58.
1.12 Information and communication technologies for
development
irn Unwin and Geraldine de Bast ion
III 1m ,Kel' pl .lIlel' for the 2006 Nobel Peace Pri ze, Mohammed Yunus, the founder of the
( " " III L'[' 11 11; ll"I k in BangbJesh, commented:
IlIi lll lll;lliol) and communication technology OCT) is quickly changing the world, creating
;1di.,t.ll1cd l'ss. bllrderless wo rld of insta ntaneous c01l1 munications. Increasingly, it is becom
ing <lnd les!> lustl y.l saw an opportunity for the poor people to change their li ves if
,,:o uIJ be brought to them to meet thei r needs.
'\" ,) first to bring ICT to the poor we created a mobile phone company, Grameen
phol1l'. We gave loans fWIll Gramecll Bank to the poor women to buy mobile phones to sell
p hu ne in t he vi llages. We saw the synergy between microcredir and ICT.
J'i1l' pholle was a success and became a coveted enterprise fo r Gramcen borrowers.
' k lt:l' il olll' ladiL's quickl y learned and inll 0v<1tcd the ropes of the telephone business, and it
IhL' ljll iLkl'st \\ <l )' t(1get out of pOVCri"y and to ea rn social respecta bilit y. Today there arl'
Il t'.!II )' \llIl,llI)() 1l'il'pIIOlll' ladies ill ,111 the vilhlgcs of Bilngladesh
III11]1:/11l1 111l' ll' r i/l'.1lrgl III 11ll'l _1' riIl'S/ Pl' ,11 d L11 111', Il l', 1' ()()(J/yun li s-lecture-ell .html ).
I ii i, ,I 11l1l11 1l 11 (' 111 (\' IIII Pk Il l" lilt way' III \\'hlllJ IlI lpl ll I.llioll ;11 1l1
11;IVl' Il"" Il II) ( '"Ih' I" Iii .' 1,,1<' ,I', .1 I, lilt I, 1',1 IIJIII I'''lJlg IhL li vl's of P(lllr people, ,1Ild
ii I.:re Ill' ,:l li ll ll blll ll I" d'I" I" I" ll l'Il l ) 1, ,\\ \" I 11."1 !;II dl '\'t' I"l'll !! II I r1< T.II has nil l hl' l'l1 wil h
Ii i ll.'thllulilgi(',\ II I1 T( I'X i,1 il1 g
110\ III "11 1111 1< II ,1 1'., ,11';'; 11111 111 1111 1111111111 /11 ,11 Ii I I, Ii !\. pi Ii 11 I ill l' l' j(t .
111 1.1 Wil li ..,I,d "JlI / .ll ill l!. 1111'1 1'" 1,1 III . Illic: IJIl' 1 lo .1 II I t ""fIuI III L' \\1, 1", III \Ihi. II I'L' I1I,h
II I1.H.1 \l ll iI 11, 1'\" III 1111<111 11, /111111 ,111.1 ,(l III II I\l illt' .: Il"!I Ii '"'\ 1'1.1'. ,ll IO,., t ill' \\I<llld ,II l'VI' 1
III). "lit Iltl lVl'wr, il ,iI',,, 1',,..101, Iii 1111'"' d,.1 l..d ,,1 all l" " l\l' l]( lIl'. tll ill'
111t.il1HI 11 1\ . 11I .\1I111 /1 , 111 1111")'11 1,,] \ I" , Ii I dill II IL"' I' "I1,l lut llL' II Cl'lls Itl 11 1ll" III
I JI.;' I. 1IIII,l/ l l), .Intl 1111' wOlld '" ti '"11 1I 11I11 '1. Ih' III III, n:.llol cOll tl'll 1of IIII' Wlliid
1""11 (..WOO) h,IS 111,11 III, ",.' h;II'L' L1s h(Tt.' d ill d 11 1'\\
! III' ! I 1111111 1,\gL' . J Ie suggests Ihill
h,w;lI\b Ihe end of the second millennium of the Christi an era several events nf hisll)'l i, ,d
1j: III1I\.i lllce t ransformed the social landscape of human life. A techJl ological rcvolut iOIl .
l/l' d .IHHlIld informat iol1 technologies, began to reshape, at accelerated pilce, lht.' 1ll;1Ct'1 i.d
11.1.. ;" llf society. Economi es throughout the \\Iorl d have become globall y interJl'pcndt'lIl,
1IIIIIdudng a DCW form of reJationship between eco nomy, state, and societ)" in a Sy, IL' 111 III
II I,d Ill' geometry (Castell s 2000: 1).
,L'I\ !Iy. Friedman (2006) has commented that arollnd the year 2000, cert ain forel's It , Ii I
hl).:I ll ll'r to act in a mutuall y reinforcing way to lead to a fl att ening of tbe world, nlilvili g il
if I III)' d primaril y vert ical system to one instead dominated by horizontal processes assoL'ial l,,' d
Ii, lilli' a nd coll aborating. For Friedman (2006: 2(5), these ten key IWJ'C ' t he !.dl"i
III Ihn Wall , the ri se of the PC, Netscape, work fl ow, outsoLll'cing, offshoring, uploading.
III it Iiii'" !> Ll pply-chainin g, in-forming, and the steroids' of computin g, instant messaging and
Voi ce ovt r lnternet Protocol (VolP), videoconfe rencing, new computer graphiL' ,., anol
I.. If'lltnologies.It is not easy to determine who will be the win ners and the lose rs in Ih".,l'
I. l:L:o nomic, poli tical and cuJtural contexts. Friedman (2006) certainl y makes till'
I .... /\ L:.U1 retai n its domi.nance of the global eco nomy, but he also argues that lkl'l' llll'i ll l',
, ,1 /1 benefit from the poten ti al of the ' Flat World' if they are able to get the infr;lsl rill 1111 1,
nllil .fI1U governance conditi ons ri ght for their people to benefit.
,nlrasting sets of ideal> can help us to understand t hese options, On t he one hal1d ;11 1" 11 111
t1nn ,Irguments that sLi ggesl that the social profi le of digi tal and online COIl1JllIl111(W, \11 11
11)' hroaden over ti me, so that tbe use of these technologi es will come to ref1cd SOl il' l) ,\'. .'
i11dl locall y or globally. Thu s, in more developed societi es, the lnternet could
Hilt " llhiq ui tou$ as television is today, as a result of folling costs fo r hard ware, SnnWd l., .1111 1
I'lt l'nlh ll siasls likeJean Michel SiJl aut, the i ntroduction of fibre-optic cables across I 111 111"
1IIIIlill> the ways in which we communi cate and work (htt p:// bi ll aut.typepad,( III II).
IIll' ill p. t! t Oil his exper iences in the soutbern French community of Pau - where an lI ptiul l
illl, ,s network offering 100 megabits per second for US$30 per mo nth for everybody pre I
Ilil '1\l1,III L"llly enhanced functi onality, including VoIP, DVD qUlI li ty 'iueami ng, web conl lI'l'I H.
I I' . l' hc.r1rh. e-administratiol1 and interac tive 3D for commerce - BiUaut envi sages .l Iulli n'
VO ll l' can beI1l'fit from the potential of high bandwiJlh connectivity. In conlr.ls(,
101111\1 Idels, particularly on the work of Rogers (2003, but fi rsl publi shed in 19112 I.
111\1:" Ihal the adoption of new tecbuologies often reinforces existing eW l1 ollliL' ,n.l1' OI 11
1111, such as educat ic.;) n, levels ofliteracy socia l stalu, all conslT<lin
If 1111, d IlllallLial (11)(.\ intiH Ill.lli.)1l Ihat are necessary to enable peopk'
til hOf11 Ill'I\ Ic... hllologics. In , Ir: ltiflld ... i( is IhaefM(' common f(lr il1l 10VII
10 IdlJfnrCt' L'x i:- Iill g .,\ll:ill l .... IiIl'. 11111 Iii Ij,- " IKI: \ , I/(IWCV, I 11l1e.; of: ti1(! kcy I If' ill i,
IIi lill'l.ll lJll is 11 1.11 .\Ctil' i' inil i,llh'I'" I" I, \1 I 'hI! 1!I, II' llIlt li d ,I.l l1d t:IIJhh.. db;l dv;l l1tllgt.'d
III hl'l ll'Iil 1'111 111 il1l1(1\.lliPIl' 111.1\ 11,1\, I '!HPJ" i' l ,-,p l.ilt/ in).! II,c, L' hL' l1d ll\,
1(, 1\ h,, \,! h l'l tl l IlL' ,111
Itlill LI II III '"I II '11i .. I, 01 1110' 1111'01'.1 1YdC'H' I"j 'ii\(-II' I
'; 1\1 1"ltli lu .l I,lIil,), I II. II " II ''''111 11'11, II.:il !" III\ :i, 111 11111111,,1 " ifll, 1.ll
11\1' ( "Ii I IiHi l l" IIltll l II lIhlll"." .1 1' 1 .11',1.1'", \'IIhll ll' II1i.oIl1iijh" l lilllL":;l II(IIIIL 1t 1, >1 11111:11 1111 .11
oJ" I 1"11 I l l .1I i ll ".
Ie I Ii ,, " till ' 1' (l II'II Ii ,11 III ,llrdl' I,ll l' }"I III \ LII, ,,,';n. 11, 1," mlg,ralioll pressllrt: fr olll
11 11.11 111 1111', 111 ,11 \,.1', ,lgl illti lllt ,II ,lI ld IIIl III'lli, d I' f(lli tl d ivil )" increase
,11111 In 1111:111 , 1.1 .. i1II .1 11' Ih <.: ddlw, itlll "I tIItH/ I ,lliu ll " public admi nistTarioll
"II I,It,'1II v ,111 ,1 dll' clk .. (lj' It'fllI JlI .. , .,t rt.:llgthen c(lrnpet ition in develop
,1111111 , iliid l'11I.:lIl1ragc grcal cr publi,' p.trli ..: il'.ll ion and democracy (von Braun and
1I ,l l' IO.lllI)": I J.
fill'l' " lit i, 1'01 1' 111 i.1 1. il llul Ihat t1urncrous global initiatives o"cr the last decade haw
1\ I I10m 11l'i IhI' [1otcnt i. tI of ICTs in t be developmcnt arena. One of rhe ca.rliest specifi c ref-
1:11'11U" 1" lit ..: !'Il k ull t:' ls Gill be found in the Millenni um Development Goals agreed by the UN
I 1,"l'I0I'llII:ll t \ 1 Ll ll ill il in 2()()1l . Th.:sl' explicilly include t he asplrati on that the lnlerna tiomil c1 evel
1'1" IWll l o.oll llll lll liL), shoul d, 'I n coupe rat k) I'l wilh the pr ivate secto r, make avatlabl e the benefi ts of
III IV I - ':SI' l.:Li ,11I Y ion and commuuications technologies', as part of Goal g to
tI..;\dllp ,I gh dd 11ilrlllL'rshi p I'm development (ht tp://I-VW\..... LU1.org/ miJlenni umgoals). Itis cnlcial
III that are nll'ntiol1ed l:xpl ici rly in the context of pr ivate -sector involvement
III th \l'll1jl lllL' ll l This given risc Ilor onl y 10 ve ry many ini tiatives lhat have sought
1' -1 II1Ipkll1l' Il I sLich p,l rt ll ersh ips (see Schware 2005; Weigel and Waldbu rger 2004;
1!lII'.Illopio. dl'\'elopllll:n Lgateway.org/'id ), but also 10 a consi derabl e rafr of criticism that the
o;t 111"hd,is un ICTio has becn dri ven primari ly by the interests of the pr ivate seclor ill expanding their
111,1 1kt' l.\ ,lil t! rcciw.:ing Ll bour (sec Clinc-CI)le alld Powell 20(4) . Ln 2000, th e G8 established
il :. l.Jigil, d () I)(lor\ lIl1i ly' I.1S k f orcc lOOT rnrce) lo take fo rward these agendas, and in 200 the UN
111111, III' lil t.: Ill<Illl le. with the creal ion of its rCT Tilsk Forcc (htLp:/lwww.llnicttaskforcc.org/
wl'kll llld ), tn.l il1 was to determine how the global community coul d ' harness this
,'1111',11 H" in,fI y forc ..:, it til 1'0 UghoLlt t he world, and make its benefits acccss ible and meaning
ltd Inl .tl i 1'l11l1l.lI1 ity, in pdrl icular rhe poor'. Thi s. in tur n, gclVe rise 10 the World Summi t on the
IlIfllIlI l,l ri llll SOClcl), (WSIS) held ill C;c neva in 2003 and Tuni s in 200S (http://www,itll.inl/wsis/) ,
II rli, 11 prll\ Illt:d d lle..:iar<lt ion 1)1 pr i Ilci pies, a plan of act io n and alll agenda focusing particula rl y on
111I0I11l i.ll IlI1'Lh,lIl i;' llI s ror m.:eting the chaUcnges of ICT4D. as well as recornmendaliol1s on
11111'1 111' 1gOWllldI Kt:, illl luJ ing til e crea ti on of:ln Inrernet Governance Forum, As one of ils main
1,,11, )\\ III \rVSIS. til L' UN I" ullched the Clobal Alliance for rCT and Development (GAI D) in
'110(, 10 1'1'I Ividc .t trul y global flHum to cross-cutting issues relating to l eT in devclo p
11)<'111. ' II will del so hy prol'idlng an inclusive, Illulti -stakeholder global forum and pl atfor m for
"c'(hll.d ,,' Ilit:y diaillgu(' and advocacy ,1Ild by catalyzing multi-stakeholder action or iented
1' .11' 1/ 11' 1 I' lllOuLlged under the GAll) umbrcll!a' (hHp:/hV\'\Iw. ull -gaid.orgJ ),
. 'l' it': I' l" .ll'l' lwo mai n ways through which can conlribute to devdupmentagendtas. Fi rst, if
t1el'ldllj)IlWIll i, Jdlm:<.l prim'lril y in terms or l'conomic growth, ICT, can play ;1 very signj(icant
,Ink ill (1 )111 rihulill )!,lo I.lL'VciOPIllCtlt bolh through ilS abiJity to enhance productivity, and :1J Iso as a
illr.flh III gl' Ill'l'<lll' t.:l11 plo)'tnl' nt ill developing coun tries. l3usin ess Proccss Out sourci ng (BPO) has
I
llill" pl .l),ed .I I'I'I'} sigll in .. .tlll roll' ill th ..' economic growth of part s of so uthern India such as
ll.llIg,tlrlll',.I' wl'il 'IS in ollll'l .H\:OIS or Asia. This is typi fi<.: d by the emerging role of cowltries such
\' ;; II,!' wit h lOlnp.l l1 iL's likc I\'opie SUpPlll' 1 Ill oving most of Iheir activities from the
1J:'1\ - ill l OOn, !'I'oldl' '111'l'or l Ilt'fff 70lltJ people in its centrcs in Man ila and
0
t :.-11 11 . III <':' I, l.l illll1g Ihi" ItlPn:. th, " "1111' 11.1," dll' \\, .1)' ill ", llidl th l' Philippines h,lS modelled
ItI 'i l, .I'il' ltI' un litl ' " il l lltl' t l"iA 11 11 "I\!lI II )"" 1""11 01 ,kilkJ coll q ,:t.: wh o
I 111\'11 11 111111 11 11, .1 1\. I Il lS , Iii, '11IIIl}\ \hlll; \: fll/i" ,1 ,lIlel 1/l',I r> 111r' 1 l11illd-'d,
',H , ' IIIII, III "II/'Ilo " I lind 1I 1" lIli l'f!. i'l/lf II 11\ 111' 1(,, '\ II tl l.I,I IIl,IIII ( ' ,",11 infll .tl ll:c,
t!!lt!ttltlllhll \ 1'\'11 I iFl ltlil,lI1 I1II1 1111 ,,1 1'11; 1\ 1>. II, III I' Ih.thll l flll lli ll Hilitl :
It.d I' ll) ' ItI ",. ,.III l\I. II III,tI 1"'11\ It l" I",wne,. illlli>' ,l tlll'nilll I" II I< 11'1,,11), I"w
tj ull tI hll ill \.\' ,I II ",11 I i II II I, ''1'1'' ',11 , II' I,,' hilI; "11' " i {\ I'II,jl lll, I f\\ III i II II l" l'III1Il', I , ' 11 111 11
11.1\1(11' (IIIIIJ'l l' it l'lI,in: :. II, dy, ' 1( 11 ,' 111, ( h"I, dlll ll\' ,jillt Il nl l '(iI." o\ 1r HJ till" I, Olllll fl 111 1II.I t
1'lIl\ifl, tI illl l'I II\'I.'l1ll'llh ill 11' 1" UlIllllIII IIII ,. II IIIII, 111 11,t\IIIIUIIII ,III I" vll.: ld d N "l lIiI h'
' II\V11i givell Ill l' ('\'(' 11 1m\< I Ill"lIl llill illll " 'H'I (lJ l'lbn Inl lll" III I( 'I '.
If ilis wtll rl'llld in elusive wi lholl l ill 10 Ihl'o,C: ... ill 111\1
,./111 '1IIIJl lril's: 'r her(' is Lh clcfor,' :, 1111 d 1Illi g wall t\1 go before the COl lll11 il.'., III'
IIl'lid 10 1'1:,'1) 1111: benefits th<lt lels might otTer UW nl . fmieed, il remaim ver)' LlIlCL'rt 'lin wlwllt l'l
III I!\ II IIlvl..' l he able to achi eve thi s, given emphasis fhat some of the most <.'COll omi,,IIII 1'"\\
1111 III.' to place on remaini ng competi tive knowledge economies, Till' LlIflll" ',11l
'[jIIllI.,j(J 1) it;lS recognized that 'The fast dcvclopmenr of the Information a nd Comnll ll lil,l lillll
III Iln(.\)' (lCT) has brought abOLlI deep changes in OUT way of working and living, ,I, Illl' wi'!, '
d .jiffu:,io n of l eT is accompanied by organisationa l, commercial, social and I(,ga l illllll\'.1
.jlld Ihe Lisbon Europea n Council in March 2000 set a str,ltegi c goa l fo r F. U1'llpe '10 Iwrllllll'
il" lll lll pt'titive and dynamic kno'wledgc-based economy in tbe world, capabk of sl"laillll ll',
I!II/ili.. growth with more and better jobs and grt:a ter social cohesion' 11), .! It I\I
III! r' (f1'1.l..'uro pa.eu/empl oy ment_social!knowledgc_society/i ndex.3 n, htlll). '1'h is is sL',II'l,'l y ,III
IId.1 tll.ll emphasizes the valuE' of sharing knowledge Jnd informatiol1t in ordl'l' th'lt P" llr ,1 111 1
lill1ll.1 .. ili/.:d communiti es may ga in equal benefit from it (see al so Mansell and v\'chn I ')')H l.
Cllld, there are many ICT4D iniLialives across the globe tha t have so ughl 10 (OLLIS L:\.pl iL iI J)
11 Ii! '1lI,llive mechanisms that can be used directly to support poor aud margillillil.L'd 111111 111 11 1
II:" 111l1'..:by empowering them to benefit from the new technologi es through which they call
wld share informa lion (see, for example, Greenberg 2005; lTU 2005; Milward \ lli l.' 1
fjll" 1,'rLfO and von Braun 20(6). Despile being well intentioned, many of these illi liali"",> 11011 ,
II It 1'llIwd nul to be slIstainable wi tbout continuing donor support or civil sociel), inl..:rl l' nl i. 'il
IIUII is because f:l l' too many of them have been externa lly d riven and supply Iccl. \\l lh"lll
,ui'Gcicn[ at tenti on to the real needs of llser communities. There have UlldOIl\JI I' .!I " Ill, "
111' I"i liatives Ulat have become highly successful, such as the Cram een Phone exa m/,ll- II "l.1III
1\ II, but 100 ma.IJ1Y havc wasted vallUabl'e reSOlJl'Ce5 because they have IUlll., ,'. 1 111 111'
Il'l.hn ologies tha n on user needs (Souter et al. 2005j , Ano tlhel' problem has tClldl'd Itl II\' II "
1III'lin ilillll of efIor t remlting from many different donors and orga ni zat ions wishing III 1''' ' \ I, I,
\I. r hl'>cd resOLi rces. but doing so independently. Achievi ng an inregratecl approadl 10 IIII' 1'111\ I
111 ,Ippropria l": l eT In[l' (\struct urcs that can be llsed for health , education, gOWrtl;tlI C" ,l lld
111,1/ (I. \ ..:i ()plllent programmes has so Car el uded most govern ments in Ihe poorest (OllfllriL., II I
lill,' wOl ld, III Ihi s context, it is also crucial that local demands should d[i Vt: Ihe initiatlvl.: ', ralitl'l
liul! 111111.' .:xlc l'Il'lll y imposed conceptualizati on of what those dem.mds arc. Then.' han' 11... ,' 11
1\ II ,I hly rew si udi es thdl, have aLt U,l lly sought to ident ify th e information needs 01 /""01
11. ,tn (f(lran e:\ccption, sec Schildcrm an 2(02 ). UnlillCT4D in iti<Hives really fOClls
jililli ill n()vuti ol) Icdlll ological.<;olutillns tu deliver Ihcse n('eds in <l cost-effecti ve dnJ ,usla ill.l lt l.,
" j, ltkl' ly Ihill many mmt.: 'lIdl inil i;lIi1'l." wi ll 01111 inll(: III flo under. ;'I, s C' [llTiel ll'l" in 111l'
IHlll /,l( 11K' world I.. ,vl' ',hI 1\\ 11 , fl'l "\ >1 1111, 1\, I( I:, .....111 dl'amilliGlll v tilt' Ii " ,.;
I, it h bill . 1\ wI 11I' 1'''r tl ll, 111 ,'lI li'1I 1!loi S l'l'l' ll pilicl ln f'lllIll1g oll l Il ll"W liil:
iI1IlIIV<l liUIl' 11I1 If(",.I. ,,11 11 .1\\,11'1 11110 Ilf Ih. :, l,niH till' wOf ld .
In h. l\ ''II!:'' I til oifWW ili lll I( Ii .we I "fl'.i<il Ihlt" IIotl' l\ li,tI tl1 lit dl li'('
I',', IIf I'(lel l I,.'opk .11"/ , ,, 111111111111,,,\ cllll;n ili( ""rlJ .. l' lil.l l lll d.lh' ,11.11
1I,ll'l lll'l.Il "'old 1' 111 1' 1";11' ill 10 111 IIII' ,11 ,11 /1.1 111
I 11 1"" III I Ill' "'" (II illllllllt- 1!;1i 1110' 111!" t lll;[ lilh.( Ihl II lid 1 1'1(1\ I" '"
III:d 1111 1111' 11 '/' "PPlll llllll li' In II,;\\, ili! 'Wi Ii! 1!1 '1'U\\oOt lfe 1'1'11 .'lId fI ""!"I II ," I/, .1
'11111111 ' 1111(" ,. t ill fit! I'"'' 11i .j\ ,, 1' 111( >'>1111 1"\'11111111
1
: iii ilt' i'CIIII(!I II "I' 111 ,/1 willI 11. ".1.
,'I. , \111 11 I.. ("I ,d l l f, P II' 11 1,' III , llI ll II II ' ,.;'n, ii , 11 111 "Ih 1111,111 1111 1111' 11 11 , " 111 ,11 1111 '1 11 111 1 , 11111
tr lll lll ',llInll l l ,l'<l, ,iI 11",1" ,1,1 pllvdq ',k'i l , \\l ' " tli , , 'I j, I I Itqw l I,) ItoI't.',., I Ill' 1),Ii:lII'" 111 1111111 I., i',
tl ' ,l l 1t ,I',I n lili tI,, I.IIiulc 01 ,tlll()1I11111I1I II I'.IP
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING
I , i , ' , "I "' I) '" i\. (':J)II , ) 11."/; .i"r /'tll 'I'/'/Y Allel'illli{)lI: n"si(/iwl "1/(/ Enabling SeC/or, Stockhoim: Sida.
1""'11,1\1, ,11111 \ ' IIn ,I"<llIll. J. ([' ds) (2006) illjilrl//(/(iolllllld Cornmll lliCiltivl1 Te.chl1ologiesfor IJel'elOpl1l CIlI 1111'/
/''' '','/11' /1,',/11, lioll, Ml): Johns 110pkins Uui versity Press for IFPRI,
W, '1'",1. (:. ,"" I Waldhllrgl'r, I), (2004) /C7'41) - Connecting Peoplej(JI' 11 Better World, Genel'a: Swi,s Agen cy 1(11
I )1'",1"1"lll'lIl lIlld Coopcmli.lIl <ll1d Clobal Knowled.ge Partnership. (See 'llso the ICT4l) Collecti ve weh
',il, ,II hlll. :lIwww.ict .id.org. lIk)
REFERENCES
f ,1' ,1"11 ,, M. (lO() O) rhe Uise orthe Nawurk Soci ety. The illjcnmlil ion Age: EcoHomy, SoriPly and CII /I llre Vll/II/'1I 1
/ , 'l't' Hltl edit iOIl<, Oxfo rd: l3lac.kwcll.
, itllwdl ill ry, and l3ed i. A. S, (2006) 'lclccoll1llHlUi cat iol1s infrastructure and economic growt h: A
I "lllill y Ilnal)'si.s, ill M. To rero and I. von BraWl (cds) in/ormati oll (llld Commullicat ioll Teciwolugi.t's Ji)T
I I,. ,'d"IJ/lI<:II.1 ,mil Poverty Reduction, Baltimore., MD: John s Hopkins UllIi,ve rsi ty Press for IFPR1, Pl', 2L- 63.
Jili' Cil k . R. ilnd Powell , M. (2004) ' I CTs, "Virtual Col()ni sa[i,on" ,mel. Political Economy: speci.a,1 i,SlIl'
" I 11, 'l' icll' of Ajiimn. {Jolitiw/ Ecollom)" 9'.),
,11,vdul""1l:11 (;atclvay Topic - JCT for Development, http://topi cs,developlllenl)jareway,org/ici
1" , .111 10111. U ., (2006) The WorM is Flat The Globtl lizcd lI
T
orJd in lilt: Twen ty-first Cell/ury. London: Penguin,
'I , I ,,'I dwr g. A. r20(5) l eTsfor POl/aly AlievicHiol!: Btl,; i.- Too/ (lll d Enabli llg SalOl', Slockholm: Sid;).
11 \ k d.) (2005) IJigilol Reach, Leicc?ster: Tudor Rose to r ITU,
:r- Ie and Wchn, U. ( 19';)R) Knowledge Societies: [1I./orl1l l1l io)l Technology for Sustn;lIoble Development,
l h l \l ld: Ox(i ml'
\l l l w,lrll (l li ver. G. (cd, ) ( 2005) ftilllitlllrrd t20 - Fixing till! Missing Lillk, Bradford. on Avon: Anima,
1(111'," 1'" I . ( JPO.1) Di,Oilsiol'l o(In!lOllllf ;'ms. fifrh edirion, New Yor k: Free Pf(>ss.
"" lI dcl 'I III"". r. (2()D2 } Strc)lg"lI'lIillg ,111' Kl!owledge (l lld [l1jorlll(lIiol'l Systems of the Urball Poor, London:
I II I ! I ,II H I 1'1 rJ( ;.
fo,d 1\\, (1, . It flotl . J r.:! ()(j5) c-Dew!Loplllcl1l: 1'1'0111 Lxci l.flflcnr to Ef)ixtivmess, WashiLl gton, DC: Il3RD, World Bank
I ,tll ill '
I I \I ill, ,>, ,,, 1, N., C,HfLlrlh, C , JJin, R., O. and Ivlc Kc mey, K (2005) The Ecollom;,
/II/(',!(I"/ 1,/, 'ro ",/I1II11t1i ,rrliu!ls 011 Rllral Livefihooils IIl1d Pem: rt)' Reduction: A Sludy or Rlfral COlJl l rllJlli ru:
/",11(1 1,II trll II I J, \ 1":;lmhili llt' Wid 1I1II2.0Ilill, London: CJO anu DFID.
'(II' , \1. I li ll\\',ll" " \' :"I.K. emu Bcdi, A. S. (2006) 'Telecommu.nicalions in fr'lstl'l1Crure and ccouumf
lO!lv!!" " ll"" IIllI lIl)' anal YSIs' in M. Torero :lI.1d ). von BrJ l1 n (eds) In/ormntioll alld Communicatiun
1IIIIIi'>:"" /,11 ! 'I Ti'iU/,lII cnt {llu/Pover ry aetiu.ctiol1, Baltimore, MD: Johns University Press for
ill'IIl PP " I,
,I III 'i";, ,- 1 i1 " ,1 1",(',,,, M. (20()6) ' Introduc6on and oveTview', in M. 'Ibrero and J. von Braun (ed ll
111!t1pHd/I';/1 ,,,, ,/ I "lIllIlllIlir, lIiorl l or Developmcnt and Pove-rty Redll cticlI/, Ba ltimore, /vII '
11I.' I,li" " I il1 iwr, il )' Press for IrrlU. Pl'. l -lO.
'WI,1 .., ,IlI iI \\" .I, II'll rl-\.: r, D, (2()O.1) {CT4 P - Ct llllll 'i'I/lIg /'n','/LJor u Beller World, GenevLl: Swiss Agt:ncy fOJ
I ii.' \ IIUl'lt1fl11 .li l' I ( .<l tl pnal ;011 <In.! ( ;!(Ih.ll "",,1wlo ', II'>' I'
\"ulltl ;'111 11111 11 1111 rhl' In/'()J'Illa ti tll l lil l p'llww\\,
"'" .tli , ilL" We' rL' <I <u",,,\d 0" " III lilo1l \ ' ,:lIjJ
13 The Labour Party
n nt
Itwid Seddon
11111 Mil ly years
'I II ,,; ," I.d'UlIt' movelllt:llt combined radical and reformist str,lllds - from the Independent
lii l 1',I l ly ( I LP) to the Fabians. Influenced by nonconformism, it rejected mi litarism, seeking
lid It I jlllVl' rt )' and oppression, at home ,lI1d abroJd. Some aggressjve forcign policy
fliL' llllL'sL fN capitalist profit overseas; but many also saw imperia.lism as a force for good,
IIIH progress 10 backward peoples and territories, Established in 1906, the Labour Party was
lI ,idll\Vl't1 by the Liberals, A member of th e Second International, its socialist creuentials werc
ionabl'e.
Iii 1',11 I. ini tially opposed to an alliance with Tsarist Russia clgainst relatively progressive
1)' .;11 ', lTl embership's overwhelmjng pro-war sentiments forced the resignation of Labour's
II i, II MacDonald. I lis replacement, Ar thur Hendenon, joined the 'war cabinet'. Labour
i"l wtl "Illscript ion initially, but in 1916 accept ed it. After the war, Labour supported the forma
II I" 1!1I League of N<ltiollS, to help regulate L'()J]flicts between states, Government responsibility
j(l lli,1I development was recogni zed with the Colonial Development Act of 1929. That year,
III "1111 the general elect ion and Sidney Webb, a Fabian intellectual, became Colonial
l,iI J lis peri od in office was unremarkable. Worldwide depress ion affected Britain, and the
IllIi" ' 1I1 was inevitabl y blamed, Labour split over cconomic policy, and in lvlay 1931 a
!/llti,III,(lvcrnment' was for med, Labour did badly in the next two elections, and remaincd in
,III ;";il wi lderness until 1945,
nWinq interest in colonial development
1]", interwar years, African and As ian nationalists were welcomed ill ieft-wi.ng Llbour cir
II" !Il':-.presst:d increasing interest in 'overseas' issues and SLlpport for colonial independence.
11"1111 Party Advisory Committee on Colonial Affairs was established, bLlt only two of its
,I ,loCt ive in parliament. One was Arthur Creech jones. MP for Shipl ey. Colonial or
!11
1.11 I enjoyed little prominence ill the part y's manifes tos or poli cy literature: support
I' of the mandate system to col onial ter ritories' was the only to 'overseas
l1'I'"Il'1I1' in L lbour's 1935 election manifesto.
hlll.mt " rl ee became part y leader and few, apart (rom Winston Clmrcb iJ I, saw a growing
,I rldlll t.. Labour a rgued for d isarma ment. By 1939, Britam was at war. O ver the next
II, 1111.: resources of U1C Empire prol'ed a major strenglh to Br itain. The Colonial Office
1111 ,lI1el import ance, In 1940, the eslablisheu a Colon ial Research Burcau, and
"ill! l"d'l lt runt' s addressed himself , as no Labour politician had done before, to devel op menl
II i.' IWLJ Ill t' ..1 maior influe nce. was th e main arch itect of I be Colonial G larter,
I'd (hut !lO! .u.loptod) at lil l.;' j1i1r1 )' ..:{I nl... in J 942. Bureall ' provided the Part)' with
11', IIIW h1 uCIlr i oi s for it pusili\'e poli qr, on lo ng-term economic, technol ogical
hn..I11111hti JI..'vdopl111.'ni (1\ 1( 11 1')1'1, 1' 1111.
I d "' ''1 1"'11 I. , I 'PII . I III I " 15 \\ ' 11 11 ( 11'11 1,1" " , 11 ,' \ " t illili,ilI Vc", \ \\'11' 1,, 1,"11 I"
,11'0' ",,11 111, ii", 11,"1 ' "' ,II,d, " ,II, ' ,I ""\1' ( ' '1 ' 11 , 14111\\, 1/ 1\ 1, .1 ilh llllllHlul l s,t'Llcs.llllli .. gdlll,.'d IlId, '
1II'I I<it 'I "" II I 1' 11 / , ['I I I 1',I1IIIIt111 k'il /(,""1111' " ,11 '1 '111 , d " 111 1(11)' IlnrlTIn ,mu Ce,'loll dchil' wd
1\1.1, "I' P,I "llI " 111111 ,' '.I. il, ', ill IlJ"IH, HI it.li'l tr rrlllll l\,', 1 11'0 1\ Ll ml,I\I: lI Vt.:r L.ngloriou,h
II III Will, IhL: IClI L:l: (1 c!XlJ dllS o f I liulIs.lll cb ,11 the declaration of 11 11
0 1 I' .I .I( ,I. I'li l' UJ IlllIlLl i Ilg t rf) ubks 0 I,' K.lslllTl i r ,nld I 5r<ll:11I ',dcst il1t: ,Lre" pa nl y, II laboux I.egdl\'
N, c(> iII;ni"d indepelldence W,IS iniLial ed, In 1945,4.57 millLon people lived untll'1
111,1" ./1 I llk; ,II Ihl' <.: nJ (lilt)') I" the number was 70 miLlion. IV1orgil OJ suggests C[ 9R5: 23 I) that
II 1I1,l y l'l'lli,lI it is in the lllore arC,lne or speciali st areas in promoting coi<mral fn:c
.1(11 11 .. Ilci n:Oll omi c devel opment between 1945 ami 195] that the most significa nt (II
I ,1\ II 11.1 ,. 's leg;lci rs for the future of world can be discerned. No aspect off its achievcmclll
llJ()rl' brigh uly ill the la tcr r\,venuieth cent ury,
" 'I" I, j"l ll'S - nssisrcd by Andrew Cohen, he,ld of the AfvilGI Division - was ldrgcly respollsib lt
t liL'lt ci Yl1,l lll ism about the Colonial Offil ce now, wi th development economists" jOLi malish
1111 11 ,, 111. .1 , ,Il l d oth ers" including Afr ican and Asian leJders, enjo yi.ng easy 'lcce,s to govennmenl
111111; ', 11 I '" I I I ll1il ll )' the Coloni al Office was tbe Fabian Col onial Resea rch Bureau" writ largl'
, IiI ') ,'1,'1111.: 11 1 in LabtJur \ de\'clopmenl strategy W,l S the crea tion or powerful, centrally fUJldn l
.111 rhc Overseas Food Corporatl(lIl (OFe) ,md tile Colonial Development Corporatiofl
II II( I III Afri.:a, ambiti o us schemes were promoted. Some proved dramatic failures, doing Creech
'''Ill . ,Illd cor pora te approach tn 'development" considera bl e h'lrm . But nhey pw vided <l stimu
III ' i .. "(IInomic growth, in Africa in parlicuia r. In Asia, cleve\o opl1lCll t plans ,vere established fOf
JIIIII11, Ccylon" M'lhlVa, Sin gapore and Britrish N(l r th Borneo at the Colombo Conerenu
I "
! I I) ,I) ), schcmes ,lil a phu,s, like labom's cIle velopment strategy as a whol e, 'were largely 'top
11\1\111', poorl y grounded in ]'OC:1J realiti es MI d marked hy a ,trong element of British self-interest. Ti ll'
IJ' I'""a. ll W' I', ,m l'xtension of a disrincrive party t radition: 'enlightened' policymakers combini n,
, II wi l lt 'duing good', or - ns Ti iblme (4 Jul y 1947) pL1 t - ' Pabi anising
I hi lil r coloni:d freedom dccelera teel, based on earlier ini l'iati ves taken by t he Colonial
!ll llu. ( tll isl i I u tinn,t/ reform W,lS promoted w her e possible, more tentati ve cl1 anges propo>l'oI
\\ 111' 11' whltL sd l lcrs consti LuLed an impediiment. By 1950, chan ge was under way in Sierra Leonl",
:U,:.IHt\,I. Nl,nll l: rIi I<J H,dC' sia, Nyasaht nd and Za.nzibar. Tn Nigeria, was wit hin sighl
NI'\\ l u I 1I1 d Ll nd 'Ind f\ lalta were alnwkY independent. \Vhcn Creech jooes lost his seat in the 19:;/1
i:1'I 11 I ,1 1I.'ln, I io n, (,kl in sll iJ that he hacl been 'tno undemoms trativc' and had hidden his light \ llldl'I
I 11 (1', 1,. ' I'. It- WlI .' not res elt:'cro:d.
'1\ radical opposition: 1951- 1964
I (11 1l1,1tit sl ow progro: ss towards independence for the remai ni ng colonial terri til
I in, ,ill d !d,Jli vt.: ly l iLtle l'lforll()\\ ard, promoting ' overseas devel. opment: It was for Labour, ill
II) hc' ! I.Hold 'ViI ,un, ,1 ri sing sturi n tl1e p::trl y, urged that mone), should hI
IHIII 1111 1'0111 LlIl l ll t r iL' s, nol Ull ;l mlS, lIlI(l 11 1 11 Illl'rc should be 110 pandering to t he American ',
1110 I II, ,1" l- ttI \\ il l' l ha ' I hl Lll luwi'l: ll lll " Ii, ' I II I tid 11l' hl, ' IIll'<I lor ';1131ch ill Sat Comnlun islll (Pi m llli l
i)'l': 1,1). Wil ,,)! 1"")\L,d i'r k ll\ ,I ' , ( 110 11' HI,I " .d Il l<.' lin 1I1ill Ciroll p sp,uTed with dev('I 01'
1' , 1'11 '1111[, 1', 111 0 111.,,11, 11111 11 ,!i hl 1 11 ' 111,,\ ." , I III I'I'J 1, 11i(' "' II wi ng l\(o: sot.:i ,lt i' >! l Illr WI >! 1<1
ii:, II :. I" " 1', i! 'i) ,l dd 11. /1 ,;1/ 1101 '"
1111 i ll ' 11Ip' l ,,'III ,Il liu ,11111 l ilitil',' I '1 1I1 ? H'I cl' III"I II ,IIII:.i);1I 1I\(1'111\, 111111' ,III ' ''iI,' d lor 11 11
t' l hl "I, Pl l oI i 'oh tl ), 11 1'11 1111 Ih' I
'
l iu
1i 1.,, 1 1111' 1',1111101.1 [ 1 \\1\ \\'Ikly'
II W II! Iii. Ii '\ doll til 1\ III 1' 1
\\' 111111 \\.1111 III :\ lIpl ', 1 1'1 ';:1" , [" ,dlc h"
1'111111'111.;1 \\ I'. l'II j,II ,,1t l.'d 'fIll" II'w (1/1
i I ' ill l l,l) l .tll), ill 1' 1', 1, WI/ " ,r, .I,I!III1I1 I' , 1 1 1'11, It IIlIllL'I!,dbl l1 ill IilJUJl il1d :lnd warll t:d
i Iill l :-, kd ,11,1" "il,"" , ", \<, i,1 \ l'illll t)1 1 1') ':)2 : 187). \ViJSOIl Wds not
Ih' J d"I ' " Idti sl ,11111,. ,1' '' '' ,l l i;lI l ,lI ld ,11111 C astl e argues that
I thr: ( "IJ<.l l ll lillg illlcrL:.') I', ill II " , 1 . .1" '<1 11 k ll III Ihl' I )l 5Us \VJS coloni al (Castle 1991:
lit' li\rl hb how she ,11V, 1fI: ul 'Iltc' li n ,>, currclll's of lhought on col onial development,
Ii wt'i'l,.:,wirling arou nd, particula rl y iu tIle Fabian Societ y, and of the number of o ll ts ldllding
1111 \\i C'Il' chalic11 gi.ng the old paternaListic approach' (pp,
II ', fru lls, in 1956, to 'prorect ' the Suez Can al against nat ionalizati on by President Nasser,
i [Ill l-'\ l (' n t to which bOlll.. remained wedded to the old Hut ' Suez' Dl arked tb e
ill 1'1,1. Chnn,l gained independence in 1957, and even th e C(lnservati ves recogni zed tile
1.,1 Ch,ll1gc:' bl owing through Afri ca, In l % l , they es tabLished a Depart ment of Technical
1" 'hlli" 11 (PTe ) to coorciindte their aid programme ami all'dcyelopmcnt' activities previously
Ullkt!T1 by lhe Commonwealth Relations Office (eRO) aJ](i th e Colonial Office (CO) .
'HI' Wlhon years: 1964--1970
I I'!II IYleader in 1963 and Pri Ill e:' Mini st er in October 1964, Harold Wil soD \vas now able to
I 1,\11' l:ommirnwnt to Third \.yorld issLles ill to act ion. On ce in office, ' Wilson gave [d evel
ill .1 hudgcr, a pl ace rOllnd [be Cabinet table dnd one or the most energetk aNi persLl asive
1'01 m inisteri al ream, Barhara Castle' (Hennessey 1990: 4(9). Castle saw thc Ministry
that overseas aid was no longer to be regard ed as a cbaritable donation from ricb 1()
tlil! 'Ill <.::.:.eotial motor 1'0 world devel opment ' (ibid.: 407). Cal;t] e was assisted by Sir Andrew
11li.' mknti on was cl ear: to regain the commit ment and yi sjon of t he Creech Joncs era. The
buil t on a model developed by the Fabi an Societ), in the earl y ] 96()s. When Clsllc
I I1111lL' r lirst day, a desp,ltch r ider was sell t 1'0 the Soci ety's bt' ddquarters to collect six copies
,,It' \',I/l1 p<l mpJll et.
Ihtli i!i nc m() ll th s, h0we,'cr, ' devel opment" was to prove a casualty o f economi c clisis, rcsldt
Ifnlll overvaluat ion of tho: pound. [n July 1965, Castle confronted a hostile l'llblic
IIl' IHIIIIIII' Committee, which thxcak ned her aid bLldget. With Wilson "s sup port, she (o ugh t ha.ck"
j Ih' e\,i!l1tuill alklCdt ion was in her favour. But in December J965, she was moved to transport ,
11i: d by Antho ny Greenwood. 500 11, Castle hersel f would be ,u guing for cuts in foreign
1 .. lllilll', ' cwn though it would incl ude overst'<'l s developmen1... . ' (Cros5man 1979: 219). In
1111 Illhll, t ,feenwood was als o moved. The mi nistry was 110 longer to a new regime
.I I' f\!. ll i l ln.11 coopera tion, providing ' an essenti aJ motor to world The> power
I C"!ww IIL'rc. 1ft 1968" t nt' CRO and FO merged, to become the Forei gn and Commonwealth
11': :(1) 111 Oct(lbeT 1969, llo ted Jaconk<:dly: ' Judit b IHart l is our of Cabiue' l aJld
Illl' I (i bid,: 652).
II,. cont inui ng commitment
I ...., v.\ liws u lldo:r l :d\"'l rc! Ile,lI l r Wllll l il l 1970 e1eclion. One of Heath':; few successes in
i. l'i\SS;l hi ll cn. lhlillg 1. 11 I!. til i \' ,' i( III' Il'i lYe A mim)ril}' of Labour MPs .,upponed him.
II> di\,i..kJ 011 t> II It'1 c'" IllI l III 11) 72" ill lhe fir'>l or Third World, ;] Dew
d,' I, 11 ' 111' 11.11 , ,;-,lIi!!litll 'l' lll 1(1 .i(\dojlll,ent ;:1r1d Ihe war 0 11 worLd
1.I 11C1' T111:.1111 . " ' .1 \\ ,I .. I . (UDA) ,
) ,II I<; Pi((;'''. \'V tl ',III' 111 1',th:d 1111' 1. ii (Hili 'l filiI i l ,k'\'.lI ll1lll\l. IIl L' (JIM h,'h i m:\it.IH}
knit':! ilh: 1''-'\\11 I lid Llilli l l j.\ II III ".t.. w. "ilill l l ln.-i l"c Il l illl"ln
.lIl d rhl' or reporls initia led by th e Br;lI1u t Repo rt, North -So uth: A Progrlll'nme Jill
."'lI rl'i l'lI/ ( )tJKO), (.olll ll1 illTl l'nts Ill'l he Soulh' \\ilT.. tn hl' h;lsed o n morali lY and the mulual sell
1111 "ml " ,Ind SOlllh, rather lh ,1I1 Ihl' of ca pitalism.
\',11 ill ii S IlI iti,II IVl',\ hy IhI.' I IN 111 thl I' )'It) , f ,il. " Itl Ili u lt- i minl' I hl' 'W,lshington consensus' lI lI
Iw IIIIIlLI Jlll'IlI,iI rol e II I ,\1 .lIkl 'h il1 l', ,,IIII ,' II'I' f'l, II II I'I lilll \ ,11 1\1 alll'viJ li ll g povert y, de!>pilc l'vi
kill" to IIII' , <11 111,1 11', \ 1I1 t1 \, \Vi l"tlll \ \ 1'01 11 11 " .I \ I 111m It , ' 1 J,: loh'll il'
1\',-,"1.1 1'",'Vlili' ' II I.' illllior fel l' d,'w['IJ'ml' l1 l: III
11,"'"ldlill,l; II:,,/d H' I','ro '.: " II/ AII II' I' /"/'11 /, ' 11 Iill II
(I liil I ii)
iI,l1f 1111 1, 1,, 1'tiUl illl lll dll ll' d
",' i V,II(: "l'l l" " vd sOl il' ly (tll 'I' ,' t) ,1I1i1
il.tlill ll,d h, .\ll'w I ,Ihollr ,II J1J111 I111 1 Ih' III I, \",1 Ii
I" d' " " II , il: /o l , 1'1,1 ,I \\1 11 "I ,ll I.. ", ,01, d ,.. , ,' j'"i"l tlidl " (' l1 l1 l l1i ll, ' "I f ' ill :IIJ d
1",'\,,1" 1'1' 11 111 '" 11111 1' 11 111 111 ,11111 110, ,1.' II, "' " " I , f IIlI d"1 fll d l i ll
I Lil l IV, I' . ,ill ,"" ,11' 11 1l' 'd\,'\,(' IIII" " ll li ,I' l li " 1I " i 1 ,, \'"!lI" ., 1; 1 'UI 1111 11I1 \.'i gll (lll lll)
Wh," 1,11,,1111 ,,'I' lIlll'.! I,) "II Ill' ill 1),1 ..1,,1 1' 1 I \\' t! 'I}1I 111,1.1, 11I'1 II\1i.,,:.,
III"IM',I' " th'I"I""l' III, 11. 111 hlllll glil ('.I ' !- ,I ', 1111111 ', 10 '1 IVi llt., in C"hill el. l dl llOllli c Ll i
h "1\11 111 IIII<'I \'V II l'd , 11\ \\>1'\,: \,,'1, It.ll uwill g ,uh,.,Llllli,tI,.tll'rlll' i,l( and, ann a bitkr
.,'1 111 :1 1111.111. ih '1IIIIIIlillll"1l1 10 the 'soc ial Cllill rall , ;J1ll1 f,uhlic clIpenditurc, Ihe gOVcrtllll l' 111
'1'1 II II. I. IIt'lI I!t ,' It-. II ' \"111"; 1loan, ,ubjecting itself 10 ( ondition$ that were. to becomc part of the 111'1\
f 'l< 11 11 1.l 1i , 1 \ tI 11 :>\.'IlS liS', III March 1975, Wilson resi.gned, and was replaced by James Callagh all
I I 1I1 1", illf1 l'd ill IU Il I!, Sil l' rclumed in f ebruary 1977, remai.ning minister Ullli.l May 1979, wlwlI
1,1 1'" 111 1", 1the eil'((ion to lhe Co nservatives under Margaret Thatcher.
III ii , I<)7\) ll1;Jni (c'slo, La bour still proposed 'to create the conditions Ilecess,lry to fTce the world
'111 1111 Jl() verty, inequality ,111 d war' (Labour Party 1979: 35), Its sl-ance was t!ssentiall), I11m.11
.1 "lll li OI he li t\ ht thai I S mi llli(1) children icJl poorer countries die before they are five - ),el 1111
Wlll id so llluch on the means or destrucriol1, There i:> a compelli ng moral need to raise Ill ,
',Llnd, lnl 1,1 li rl' of' Llillhe wo rl d'scitiz.eo5- l1o matter where they live' (ibid.: 4), Aid was to be focused
, ," ' III" l\(lorcsr countries and the poorest people, with the emphasis on rmal development'. Lablllli
II' " dd ,I'l' k 10 impl ement the UN target of 0.7 per cent of the GNP for official aid, as soon as eeo
111 lUll\. , in.: urnstances permit'. It promlscd to consider human rights when giving aid, and to help till'
of repressive regirnes. It approached the ' North-South dialogue' in ' a spirit of cooperatiol1
Ill,[ 1III Il ned to 'aclively panicipate in UNCTAlJ 5 and other negotiations seeking to establish ,I
" illi, 1\1 ' ( wo rld trading system whi ch recognises the needs of poorer countries' (ibi d. : 36).
11111 I ;lb\J ur was replaced by a part)' ,.,. bose leader's very different visiolJ of the world and
III il,lill \ ril le in it W,IS 10 dominate the next decade, and profoundly influence those who call1!'
,, (11:1",Ink Under Thatcber, overseas aid aud development were, once again, subordinate to thl'
I CO, (,ti l, in ,lid rapidJ y look spending 10 below 10 bil lion fD r thc first time since 1974. By lhl'
,',1\ Iy "NOs, allnual nows to devel0pLng countri es were between 2 and 3 billi on only. Publil
I'" l'l'l1dil llI'C on aid ;1$ proportioll of GNP slumped to O,3l per cellt (from 0.52 in 1979). The 111'1
1I" w III funds 10 developi ng cLlunt ries reached ib lowest level rver ill 1992 - putting Lbe UK in joint
' } Il lpla..... wil h [lal y and Porlugal. Thatcher\ priori ty in foreigJ] policy Wd S bui lding relationship,
If II II tli (' """illig, not devel opi ng an inclusive approach 1'0 internat.ional relations and contributill,l:
'III Iltl' nil nolllic and soci ;d development of the Third vVorid. 'PoverlYallevi at ion' was acceptabk:
1, , 11 ',llcllgth, sdl -rl'li;lllu.' and enterpri se were to be revJa rded abroad as they were at home,
New Labour: 1997- 2006
Wltl'lI Nl'w L. abour event ually came to office in 1997, it emphasized it s cOlnmirment to 'aid and
,Ii', I'\ lIp' ll eI1 1' <1 11(.1 ' poverly aLleviati on', while keeping tight controls on publ ic spending, CIa"
lIl llt , ,Ill MI) Wi lh Icft -wing credentials, beca me minister at the Department for International
I I, \l' llll'nll' l1 l ( DFlD), \\ ilh a seat in Cabinet. A White Paper was published, Eliminating World
h " " 1II" ,\ I .' /ltlll t'II.I!, l' jill' Ihe 2Jsl Cen tury (DFfD 1997), The ti tle evoked both Wilson's own publi
H, II!!'I',' ""Ii-" II)" Ill, d litH I h. I'ilil l
[\ 111 1" II III,,'ill: ', IIIt 'lI '"1
", I.l ll' /111 Ihl' n' lil'1 "I
,l roJi ll d 11, 11111
,, II" . lI l d "' ,lI1dII Hlizcd recipes 10. IIII V,' I1 \ ,1 111'1 Itlllllll ill Jc\'doPIll f; Utlllill i,' " 11 11,
1,.111111 <'; lr;lIcgy P.1PCI'S, or [)R!-il' s), p,lrt ic ula il y .11 1l' r lht.: ;Jt.l tl l'li(lI' III II" ,
11111 111 ' 'l Vl' lt1plIl enl Goals, Pri me Min ista I3lair's Commission on Afric<lCXI',\'s\\'d , ""
Ihl ' I I'1 ll illl'nl Ihat had 'per formed' least well, and iniliati ves for debl reli ... f ' W I','
I ,h.;
I, \\ 1111 I UK\. finance minister, the then C11;lncelJ or of the Exchequl'r, (;onl llll 1',iOWII ,
"!idIOI. 1 IILl! to achieve signifi cant concessions by tbe devel oped (olll1lril" 1111
., 1IlI lwi r own markets generall y fail ed. The focus of ' the inlernational dt: I'l' ItII'"It 'lit
t IIi away from prollloting devel opment through reform of the inlernal illll,,1 "" I, '"
1I.1lional 'good governance' through stricter conditionality.
\'fll l' I (by TOI1 YBlair) to the 2006 White Paper - Eliminating Wor/tll'ol'cl'l )': AIii/I ill.':
/,,1' l ire Poor -states that 'eliminating world poverty is in Brit ain's inlnl"!.., .111.1
1-\" moral challenges we face', But the growi,ng sense of glob'll ' insccuril y' ,1,',111 i
lite 'I',\. of international terrorism and ' failing states' has shifted the L'lllphasi,
Ih pll lili e<t1 and securit y-rela ted concerns. The first substantj ve chapter of lh" While
tlldil1t1 sl.lt6 that work for poor people') provides a top-down vision or polil iGiI ,' ngi
11 ,\1 ililkrl, markedl y from more lraditional notiol1S of democracy. It declares thai 1111' 1I "
IT!ln IIIl UN jll i ts peacekeeping as well as its developmental role, but fa ils to illl'n ri oll IIll'
II lit- Il1Ipotence or of slIccess ive military interventions of dubi ous legality b)' 'W':Sll'lll'
tnliudi '1-\ Israel), and the consistent undermining of the UN by those prepared III 100 kl.' Illil
111\ II,,: Il ame of 'securil y'.
hll.Oll llll ilment of Labour to resist mi litarism and to uphold bas ic democralic li g"" h, !',
111I! hlbinn vision of top-down ' solutions', managed and directed by burCillI, I,ll it "I,I, ",
I', jIll' (ll'l hl.' people, remains strong, \l\l]lat is differ(' nt today is the key role attrihlllt'd '''1'11
I ,ll1 d t.he priority accorded to 'security', in whose name bot h democrat)' ;111,) I h I . I
i l l. h!:ing severely compromised,
... .
II'}KO) Norlh-SOCIIII: A Programme/or Survi va l, London and Sydll c}' : J\lIl lh)"k."
lthe W(]y, London: Macmillan,
i(] rics: Selections Jiwil tlte Di(] ries oj' 0 Cobill et Minister J')(, ' / / '); (),
It II .
rll lh' lll li;lr IntcrnoLi onal Development) (1997) ElimlIInting World Povaly: /\ ClWI/l' II"C ';11 II" ,
, I onoon: Dr-rD.
/llIIlilwrillXWorld POIIerty: M(]killg Glova{isatimr t'\fork for tile Poor, London: DFI D.
I World P(II'crt)': .HI /kilJg GIl I'CITI(]rlee Work/or the Poor, London: DFID.
, ( I ' I'))! ' l\flt il el,tlll, I.ondoll:
11\' i I') '1)) A1,lIlij;'Sl jJ , \..0 11<11111 : l ,d""1l ",1 rt y,
II " /I" ln ill / 'II11I'1, / ')./', / '1 01 t hlOl d, (1 ,(.lrJ l lnive r, ill' fi r.:",
, )" I'Jlll'W,IIlt! 1171 11 ,[, ', I'C" ';" \ .1 1.1 in I), .\,.,b,' Icd') Ii", ( J/,/
1/111 N,,,, Jlill'" i"II\, I [I".tI "I,
' J Ih,' \\'1" 1111 Il'",',1/" " 11/" , hIlIJ.i" \ ' j"I, : ,i .1,
Ii
l UI
P H ;;!
1.,

!lf i :
! Ii 1,, 01 1, il'\ or structural adjuslment, and very recentl y, pove rt), rccllk l io l, ' !I .ll cU li.. . /\1 1
I
Theories o
developmen
II.d 1IlI l oduct ion
I., .dh .q'I'l'ccia[cd that ideas about how de vdopment can be put in t(1 pr,1( ticc h.l v\: Itill"
"!I II II vl'rsial and highly contested. Development involves a range or 'lC[nr\ .lmll, ill l ';'
' through the stMe, down to the individual, all of wh om have ,I w<; tn l .. .111\
IIld dl'v'-"'0plll en t are to proceed. Thus, all fm.:ets ordevelopment depend 11 \1 1\1,,11 j ll '
) it " " h,},.)" hut ,)11 Ill oral dnd ethical prescriptions too. Thus, id eas about dC\ l' I,1PI III 'lol "
,. lI.k" [(1 acculllulate andaccruc, ,mel nol facie away. These sorb of' ideas arc
ill p,l rt of the book, before turning 10 some of the major theories al1d
1!;('itl"11 1 Ihilt kl l'l' been followed and populari zed.
'vili t 011 development ,can be regarded as having thei r ill
II" Inll ell l .lIld Ihe era of modernity that follo wed. The eigJlteenth -ccn tul-y ]'lIligll/''lI lh" 11
, i!i'II .I,illg emphasis placed on science, rationality and detaiJed eJnpiricisll1. II ,II" I 1\ II
lhli,hmelll of the 'West' and 'Europe' (IS the ideal. It was dW'iJlg this pl:riod 111.11 II II'
Adam Smith and David Ri cardo, wri ting ilJ lhe 170005, devel u(1ed Hk,, \ ,tl i
Ii" ,1I11('p l of comparative advantage. which stressed Ihe economic dTi .. .r, II I r'llit. "
,. ,",1. ill 111 any senses, gavc ri se to the earliest capitalist stra tegi es of CCOII01l 11l ,I, ;\( liI \!
I III , \1" 1(' folloll'l:d by a plethora of duali stic and li near ,,11 111 iI' :I'clo", p
1'1 ,' . . ,". modernizat ion theory, unbal anced and unequal growt h, .ll ld IIlWd,tlVIl
hll I,,, , III , .11 Ii 'rmlll at ions. TogetJler, sl1ch approaches are generally referred III .1. II . 11,. 1
I 1111, '" rili l";l l view on modernization, the appn..lac.h usefull y pinpoinled ,dinl'
! 1111lDs.rr) f;lctor ill the devdopment elluation. Such .Ji i \
! II h .. II I Ilw form of the ' ncw ri ght' ortbodoxy, invol ving the 'magic of tht '".1 II I I' ;11 Ii ] / h,
!' I 1' 1.', I,,s (all he Iraced directlly to the works of Smi th and Ricardo.
lli r 1\1 ChlssicaJ and neoclassical views was provi ded by rad iL.ll tl l ' )"' lIdl " , I
'"he II I lli l I96()s. It is a refl ec tion of the Eurocentricity of developmcnr Iheol 11, ., 1 \ 11 .1"
II I j\ .lI oi Ii.l' Ill'(olllc the name most closel), associated wi th dependency. Tilis IS dl' I' II, Ilr l
Lol l flr t;' .ij '1'1'1 I;ldl esscntiall y slemmed from the writings of structurali sts in Latin 1\ 1111.'110 .1 .11" t
,hi " .11 1. 111 or process, dependen cy theory was couched in terms or i nVl' rl .... I l " .. , " . I
I"h,d ,11 .1 111., (II slI"i.>lus cxt r3ct iOIl, and, again, it IV.as aU too easy to redtlce Ihis ILl '1111101 ,
ii",,,'''' 10'1'111" in vo lving polar such as 'core-periphery', 'ri ch- "),()(\ r' ,III" '01, \"'1
I 11 11.1, 1.1"\'(" 1"1,\'(1 . It II';IS left to world theory to stress that contcl11porMY.. il-wl" I'
Ii III 11 11 11"" ""' Ih(' ,' ll lCrgellcc or ;] slIh..;talltial scmi-periphery, con<; is ti nt! (If' Ill<' IlI' wll
I; 11 11'. ' IIll1lll'i .. s of' c.lsI As i;t .111.1 I "lin AI11LTica .
IIl f " "I 1,".IIII,,,ll'I'nil l' 1\1,1\ Il ilt I' l' Iq:.I1,"',j .1\ 1III ill g Ih l' re,llilies of' IIll' dl' vl' l"pil l
h
\\' utl , l
" I" "11111, ... ill .00 1I' ' I' L' IIS, hUI lli l' 1 ",1,'11,, ' 11111,, ,, '''Ililln, L", ll lIHll lll' iglHlrcd in II,, .111.111
I IIc, , "Ii ,I'II '''I\ I.l Lnlll)1,1 1.1 , II.IJi" I". l .1 11 ) ,I ,"d ,loll ll l" I.lkil' I{ .1 Ie,., g\,IIVri .. , I."" IIl l nlll"'. "
lid " 11".11 \' I\'\ \' III ti ll' ",' v(' I"I'" I1: II I" I'i',"' 1111 " h!. " WIt.I) .11" Il k ll "" III 11 1111" 1 III.
Illi 1" """11 "I " .1I111 . II'. I"I," III.III ,ll'l " ,.!,II .iICt' ,WI!!,:llit .i\1 'IUI II I""I . I'I <I. ' 1, 1", , ,,1 ,W,,,I,, ,
il 'lllll, III 1\11 11" '.1 11 11 " 11. 11 h, . ,If, ,:."!'! lit .. '1 t'lIi IlI III I" , II I", Ii 111 ,1" '.1 '1' 11 1. "llI lI\l ' " I'-'
--'1._ ___ _
1.,. I III h', III' ' I'U,I", ' - ', I IIHI .I !I .... ll'd II" IllH,\ l' ITIl .1dlk d In II,. l ili,! ' I" [ hi ,
II _' III 111.11 II,, ' PHll llP 111J11 .. I \\',", li'l ll 1:1 11!\\lt;dI\17 II, ", 1,,;,,' 11 ,lit Ie trOIl1 !Ill: 111
\\" ,1 ,' 11 1 \1'011,,"' 1. '\ Iltl jill ... ,111 11< (.1. ,1 hi lh n ti ulil lg the forms (If soo.:i '11
Ilhil \\i il lill;;111 Il' lll,. I'ihk ,ll .illl I 1ll1 il ,i\ once more, this [inlt'
ill 1'1 11 1" , .j lhl Il"I'nll , iilililil" WL' 1.,11" 1)' hll .. 1., IIJ.od ' d"II' 11i IIl h,' I' . Mosl of ll S h,lve been trai ned
, .. 101\(111 ' pCII P!.: In homc. Ilur Itc.Jl c'l ;t llli ,I' l1 J1 poscd to lhosc strangers who may
1'1 .I n II1l,d III Ul I' 1Il't'dy. hUI who li V!.: f.lr 'IWJy. \'\,Iny (If the PI'(lc tical problems thai are to be faced
II I Iii ,' li l' lLI III hUnl dll il J riaLl LlSSj, t,I IlCC stem from thi s but endur ing conundrum of deve\ np
I I 1. ' 11 . I i 11.11 Iy, it i, l111t <l hit' [b,1l evol vi ng COl]cepLua I izations ofthe roles of the state, civil society and
" " i, 1i 1., pi Li\ Il llLil- rl'in conl i nui ng debaks concern ing development t heory.
heories, strate n velopment
PoLL er
h,II .I' h'1' 1\t il. "rthe ll1ulti anti i!llr rtl lsl iplilhll)' liel;! ,I I development slud ies II ,
l"til il
111 11' III II I Ihe I '),lOs h,IS been a scri('s (ll .,ca- Icvd change;.; in thinking aboul t ill' ..1
' liI Ihl lI. Ilris se.\rch for new theoretical cOl1ceptlwliL.'ltions of develo pmcnt iI;",
ill Ihe practice of development in the t here has bCClllllllch 1111
.. dl ul , 1
II" 1'
II III
Ill'I"
II ,

I j
litH I"I
.,. I
If"

, "
'. , ,t/lIlut developillent , with mall }' challging vicws as to its definil ion, ,111<..1 ,11 .11
t" ' "I 111 \ "I which, however devel oJ.1111c.l1t is defined, it may bc puIslI ed.lIJ short , the PI'1 iml
/ ,(1 \ hoi ' the pronl()tiol1 <1.nd application of many varied views of developmen t. AIlI I
' 1111 . !.-H'hlpmcnt thcory and practice bas burgeoned, pa rti culaJ'ly sin ce the mid IIJXO,
1\ 111'11' , /\I'tl'l' IYt{7; Preston 1987, 1996; lesson and Minogue 1988; Schllurrm ll 19
I
J-'.
1,<, .1 . 11 I')l) 'i ; Henne 1995; Streetcil 1995'; Brobma.n 1996;Ccl'lI'en and Shenton IlJI/(' i
II 11' 11'1' 1")1)(,; IJottcr et ill. 2(04). A major theme is that ideas about developml'nt
1I 1\I III\"" ., i,d and highly cmatested.
I, II " 1"I,.H'y til strcss that development covers both theory and practice, that is, bot h
", \ ' l"I'"Il'nl should or migh,t occur, 3I ld real-world efforts .to put variou, aspcll , 1,1
II I III '" 1".Idicc. Th is is convenientl y mapped into the nomenclature suggestn l hv
III , ' lI"' lvil'w "f /)C1'CiOPI11C11t Theory al1d the Three Worlds (1995) , In reviewing the hi \
' " II 'II! t hinkin g, he suggested that 'devdopment' involves three tJli.ngs; dCllc! I'PIIII'//!
' I '1' 111 1'lit stnJlcgics and development ideologies. !Gefore going any further, thesc
' .1" 11 ',<'Ildl y be defincd and da rifi ed,
tI" }',L' lll'I',d ddinitinn of a theory as a set of logica l propositions about h OI\ Ill
It III t ()r the lVay in whi ch it oper ates, dcvc!opmCl/ ( theories mmy be rcg..mlnl
I. 11.00dy logicd proposition-'l , wh ich aim to expla'in bow develo pment has OU: t ll 1l'11
i'll , ,111( 1/111 h()\\' it should occur in tbe future. Development theories can either be ""/ '
li l. II I'. 11)( ,), gCll eralize about what shoLlild happen or be t he case iJl an ideal Will !! I
Ih" or dC<lling witb what has generally been the case in tbe past. This inl]lll l
I', IlIlIadl)' l'xelllplified in the figure that accom panics tbi,; accounl. Jk ll ill
Ih,11 \il-velo(1lllcnt studies is explici tj y normalive', and th8i reachers, rese"lrd ll ' I'
111
I" " II " "
"
1; .
lti
ii.1I I.,
iI.i
:"
Ili lltl ll l , III til l' field 'want to chal1ge the world, not onl y clllalysC' it' (Fi eltlJc 1995: 12)
.lcI,'IIII'llll1I1 theory is pr imar ily. al though by no meall s to Ibe enCOL111
1< l'] I'lI li, litl'J'atl.lrl' , th,]t is, in wri ting abOl'lt devdoprnent. It is, tilncfore, iniJerl'll tl }
" ' i lll ,1I 1i1 .
" I 11 ,1I1l1 . ", ' Ie/0/l/llcllt strategies can be defincd as the pr,lCtiG!I pJU)S to dcvclnpll'J \.' 111
JlI II ,11 .' db), inlcrn,lliOIJ,11 agencies, statl' .'i in both the so-call ed developing and d,' yc l
""n )',"I'cllllll l' nt organi;,lliulls ;Jllti COIIIITIlIII 'it), h;t st:d orga niz,lliolls, or ind<':l' J illl.11
11 11 11 111 1 III ,' hall ge wilil ill 1
'
,1 ' lil \iI,1I II.I-l ill l" . regiol1s ,me! (llntinellh. 'j 1111' ,
)II') "11"111' 1,)" '0, 1 dclillil itln IIr dn l I,l jl ll ll' lI l '. 11,111 gil'" .10; 1.'11111 1-. 10 ell '
! I, ll '01111' 111 'c .l lI d imlilllil" /1 , i llll l ,h I III 1111 .1 ,'
1 1" 11 111.01 "1 ' '> lI d l. 11"i l I1' ,1I1' IWI; l/t. n 11,. It ' J Iii
II) I "" I)" ',1.11, ;. III '1IIk i 1"1 .1" ,i. ;I , " '1 " "'
' 110 lli dll \I! ,!Jol W
I I " , II 1111 li tII '. 11\ ," ,
, ,, . .. . F. .., ,. ',"' I ,'" .d
' " dlllill l ; , ,,1111 ill II " \(1 thl' 1'1'(l i1 k ll l'
II. \', l"I>lII "llt illlf,li( '" ti ll
,1i\, I .. thin k ill li 'lll l\ 111 ,1
,1"'\1' .
' I'h,,\( r,' "d , "" lI t.: I! I;"!
II d!' II 'II' ' '', 11 11 1', \1' 11 .11 111;1\
I til h!l!lUUutlLU! 1
,111.1 III 1'1.11. 11 ". \'.Id)' ..... IJII d,'\'.:' lllIIIII I' 1I 1 \ " " 111111".. 1 1l'lill,11I11 I \Vil h
111, "1 11 11111 )1 "" l/I IIII II( 11 1'\\','\'\ III 1"'" lill ll in.11l 1 iLll'olDgr WIl III II lit,'.IU
.1 ,"11, hi. 1.11111,' d l,lIlf.l"I l I" I'"hlh II, I ii , Illll ie:. , "lllI f'1 1, l'col ogic,d all d olher i
.illite 11'.11111 lI t illl' wilk' i l'fll,('SS 01 dl'\llolll'lI il l 111.1, 1,, " 11',' "' I It", if in dl.'vdO jJlllcn t arc distinc
,i" II) \11 11 1" p i 1111: 1.ld Ii I,H lll e\, imulvl ,lll'IIIIt'III'I) I1 I,) ' ''Li l' ly ill S(l nl C defined mallller.
[ lll' I ii 1111' I i'llll. ,1t\c-okl I1illlk ht:lWl."o.: l1t.:"III1 I)I1 II1. j1111k i1.'1l "" hich increase growth
1111 ' "I!I,'n di'r.lrilil''' ' ,inti Ihos\.' ..... iller pnlicy illl PUd liw, which sCl' k primarily to reduce
111 "II ", llI i," wilitin o, 'h. id,',
I'l"! IhI.' ( 11 1)' sellsible Jl'pro'lch is to follow Hettlle (1 995 ) mu to cmploy the overarching
lil ll"'I' I ,,1 dl ' I'c /r'f11ll1"1I1I liilli.. ing in Ol1r genefal deliberati oLl S. The expression 'development thi nk
llil'.' II l. ly be as a catch-all phrase indicat ing the slim total uf ideas about development, that is.
III LILI dil lg pCrl im:llt aspects of developmenllheor)7, st rategy and ideology. Such an all-encompass
Ilig dt.:l1l1 it iOIl is Il CCCSS<l lT due to t he nature of thinking about development itseU: As noted at the
11111,,'1 , development thinking bas sllown Dlany sharp twists and turns during the twentieth cen
II II}, The various theories that have been t'roduced have not commanded att ent ion in a striclly
manner. In other words, as a new set of ideas about developmcnt has come
1111,) 1;lvour, earlier theories and st rategies have not been totally discarded and replaced. Rather,
I1I"IIli,'s and strategies have telJded to slack LIp, one upon another, coexisting, sometimes, in wbat
, ,III (1I 11 v hI.' described as very convoluted and contradictory manners. Thus, in discuss ing develop
II I( III IIIL'IlIY, Hettne (1995: 64) has drawn attention to t ht, 'tendency of social science paradigms
I" .1' I II II ILl 1,1te rather than fa dc away'.
, il,lractcristic of development studi es as a distinct field of enquiry can be considered iII a
"" ,), ' ' ll l'histicated mallner by referring to Thomas Kuhn's ideas on the stru cture of scielltific revo
(Ii /l PII' , Kuhn ( 1962) argued that academic disci[.llines are dominated at parti cul ar points in
I! I lllll1TT1L1nities of researchers nll d their associated methods, and they thereby defi ne the subjcCb
oIlld I hl' issues deemed to be of importance wilhin them. He referred to th ese as ' invisi bl e colleges',
,lIld he noted that these serve to define and perpetuate research which confirms the vali di ty of the
pa radigm, or 's upra-model', as he referred to it. Kuhn called this 'normal science'. Kuhn
II< ' !l'ti Iha t on ly when the number of observations and questio ns c(.l ruTon tiJlg the statu s quo of lJ OT
11 1,,1 becomes too large to be deal t with by means of small changes to it, will there be a fun
d, llI ll'lllil l shifl. However, if the proposed changes are majo[ and a new paradi gm is adopted, a
"I 1\,lll ili l.: revo lulion can be s.lid to h,l ve occurred, linked to a period of what Kuhn referred to
"'\ 1rall n.linilT Yresearch:
III 111 odel , Iherefore, scien ti fic disciplines basically advance by means of revolution:. in
thl' prl'vailing normal science is replacl'd by extraordi nary science and, ultimately, a new
1'!I'lll II I IlOrlllal science develops. In dealing with soci.ll sci entific di scourses, it is iJlevi tabl c
11 1,11 11 1C li cl J of uevclopmenl rll eory is characleri zed by evolutionary, rather than re voluti onary
l' II;lllg,,_ h ldt.:nu: 01' lbe persis tence or ideas in some quarters, years aft er they have been dis
,.ll lk" will be throughout t he development liLerature, Given that deve!
" 1!l 1I ,'11l I" ill ki ng is not just abou l the theoretical interpretation of facts, but rather aboul
I soci,Ji goals and, ultimately, that which is moral, ethical and just, it is
II ll1iL""t,lIld,lbk I h,ll l h:mg\: in development st udies leads [ 0 the parallel evolutio n of
I,,1 1Il' l 1111111 HI'O/lI liol l. 111.'11';1.', u 1ilnicl , cL.:bate, contelJ tion, positi onal lty and even moral out
I.lf'f' .1I"l' ,til il"l "l'l"l' lIl 111 thl' Ji"LlI" illll of Jevelopment strategies, and associated plural and
ihl ur i", ,;I dl'Vl'I"I'IIl L'1I1.
I h. 11' ,Ill' Il ldll ) \\ IY" Itt l .lI l'1.:cJl ill' lh'veJC1pment thinking limt'. Bro,)(II} it I
"I I',J Il' til ,I I Ii II II II I . iIII .IPI' III,I.:I1('\ I(J "Il' 111 i Il;t I ion () 1- 11 1 IhinI, i "I' , .lrl rc.:
1",1\1 II Illl' Ill;t1IV 1111, 1.IIIIl'\\ "I" 111; 11 'o " I-'I.',.',h'" hI 1'11 111" / .md
(1. I 'III!( '1 1 II 111'./ ", .lJl' II I Ih, II I III. II ' li l l " C'
!J'.!!.lc'III,I/i'l/lr-, Iill', I", 1" ,Il I!! 1111 \\'111\) 111".1, 11" Ii"
'/lilt/lib ,/I,'OJ/( ". I \\'ltl' " pnn,l, , \\'11,11 ,11 '
It,,tI' CI I ht l, hl ' III'(,C I
j ,n 11 .1 Iddl il l!', Il ' ill,
"ClllliI ,'1I p,lI l uJ ,'1111' 1,01
11101, i "111111 11' dllll l'l l \ i oll I ,11.,) IJlJlil!,!!ltl 11\" Ij
Iii, ,I 1\\11 ,1 \1 " t ,m he (III! "",,,h'.' 1 lei ),t,' III ' 1 ,illlt,l, 111 ,11 1 ( II (I , iI 1Ii' \',IlJ I I, 1.-,
''''I ,(' I.li lll ll oj dndlll'ltki ll . " lic)lI'lI. j I 'til 11"1 l'l ,11. 11I. lpll.'l ' I, il
I, !"I " d1',1 II1l I grew 01 ",\,.,1", ' Il" I I/ IIt. ', II < ,, ' I I l it 'l '\ ' hy i IllIl' O r IiJd r d 10 11',,"
". 1" \' I,h rq(i1rd to lhl. " I .mJ ' I h.
"1",, .l It' r\.'l(:rrcd I,. ,1S: (i) ll d"k, d Ilil di lilll1.tI " llprPll ch; (ii) the hi slorkal Clll piriCii
I,j, II I) iil Ihl' nldicd p\)li tj eal eU111llmy-dcpclIdcncy approacll; ;md fillall y. (Iv1 hll l(UIII ' Ij
dl (l l1oillh' "pproachcs. Following tbe argul1\ ent p rese nted ilJ tlhc last seclion , each ti CIl w',.
I" ,. hr... 11 1. 1)' he regarded as expressing a parl icular ideologi cal standpoinl, and 1. ;111 ;lhll III
l il l' ,I hI Vil' (Ul' or hm"ing occupied the centre stage of the development dd)utc: all [,.II, i\ uLiJ
I "I IIIIIl', {l lssica 1-( raditional t heory, em bracing dll alism, modernizal iOIl theory, IIII' d.,\\ II
plll. tI ,/ .11 illIlS, the new r ight and Jl eo]i ber<.ll imper"tives, LS seen as stl'e, sing Ihe ,1 11 ,/,
,'\i\l il1g midway between 'the nonnative and positive poles. In direct con tras t, ;lllOlI.,1
10 lid II,11I1l'Wol'k, radical- dependency approaches, embracing nco-MarX<ism, and the ,III i'-I I
I "r III ,' III<lcks of production, <lre seen <1S being morc holisb c. At the positi vc enu or II"
NORMATIVE
THEORY
(what should be the case)
ecodevelopment.
sustai nabl e development
Classical
traditional
'I/MII
(
HOLle., iiI Dependency
aependencia or dependency
Iheory
c.Marxj')
,., I r. .
I I, ' If 11 ",II It111 1IJI ,j"lIc,h' I' " i'lnl lliollli
, I II I' ,f"I I II lilt'
II
"'IIIIIl" 11',It,i, ,.1",1. j'II : ltjiil ,d 11111,.11 1"l llllli nli'"I, .lIlI l ''' "hlll ll il
I" ,,1 1(0 11111 1,1 "11 \; 11,11 ,I" h"1'1 '('Ill"I 111 1' ,1', 1. 1hnl' ' of lit Ilfl lll' r v I"r. lnl(;WII I ,II 11 II I l
1111\ " l,III\,IIU IIl ,llId II111J. " III t ,lIhl"" I IltiLII II " " , l'I'" i. d" Iii ,' mullct. III
." " . '1',1 111 . lI c' till "1'1,'" .... hi.. I Ihl' itt. ,d, ,-,I \\'hil! ,1", " 101 l'l' tb,' l These are referred to
,Iii . " !.II IV\' ,II 'I, r,', ldlt,s, ,md h"", 'll'l'J", 111 '1) 1" 'fJ, li i ''' 1I "", 11 1" '1 ecodeveiopmeJI
"lid \Ihl"ill,lh k .tC\dlll'lIll'111 mOl} lw 'ncludnl il1 ti d , l ,11 \'}\nl y,
I II/\,;,'\<,r...tll h ,II'I' \II;ILh , till retains Lurrcmy in jl,l rt itul,lr ljuar te1' \, I-knce, in development
Il n'", \ ,1ft" ,llii oi clll iL writing, Idl-(1(Cl' lltrl' socialist views may well be more popular than c1as
',K,d ,lI ld m,.,d;l,sic;tI but in tJll' area of practical development stra tegi es, the 1980,
,l il t! 1'Jl)O,,, 1l.lVl'sCL'1l Ihl' il1lp lC' mL' ntat io ll of Ileoliberal interpretations of classical theory, stress
lilll' r" li/alioll or traci.: , along with publ ic-sector cutbacks, as a part of str uctural "djust
II K' III programlllcs (SAPs), ,limed ;)t ITducing the involvement of the st ate in t he economy
( I'ugh d llli Potter 20()O). Such plurali ty and cont estat ion are an everyday part of the fi eld of
dn r!lIpllll'l1t studies, fn the words of Hetl ne ( 1995: 15), ' theori zing about development is t here
1111(' , I never-endi ng task',
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING
\ I. Illio ', 1\ , ( 1<)<)5) Development Theory and Ihe Three Worlds: Towards all Inlerrm/ jollal Poli tical Economy II}
I II ",'/"/'"Il 'III, second ('diti o!) , Harl ow: Longman, Rriefl y introdllces rhe concepts or devel opmcnt
,II 'Inti ideologies (sce pp, 15- J6), before prcsenting an overview of EUrDccntri c development
the vo;c(' or the 'other', globali zati on and develo pmen t theory, and ' anotll er development ',
1',,1" '1, IU\" Binns, '1'., Elli oll , J, and Smith, D, (2004) Geographies of DCI'e!oplIl elH, second editi on, I-Iar/ ow:
1'll'III;(L' Il ali. ;\n introductory textbook \1n development, designed mainly for undergraduates, In term'
III ,) wrall remit , the hook seeks to stress the plural and cont es ted nature of development theory and prac
Ii'.l', ,\s f'arl or thi s approach, Chapter 3 llvcrview;, theori es and strategies or development, stressing their
dl vlTsit) an d v,due- Iaden charac ter. The structure or the account is based 0 11 the fi gure cmpl oyed In th.
I' n:'l' nt account.
I', ",1 1111 , I',\V ( 1<)'.16 ) J)evdopmell l Theory: All Introdll ctioll , Oxford: Blackwel LScts (J ut to provide an overview
"I lit e illtl'iicctual rcsources ava ilabl e 10 devclopment alists working with reference to tbe classical
hll<ll' l',111 Ir'ILiilion or social tlh' or izing, Accordingl)', the tlrsl part of t he book trea ts social thcOl'Y in gcn
"I,1i IL'IIll S, Therea fter, COIllL:mpor:u' y theori es or development arc sUlllmarized, followed by what ale
I<'Iv rrL'd I" liS II CWanalyses or c(l)nplex change,
REFERENCES
,\ I' 1<'1 , I), ( I' IX? ) Ilrl il i ll b llg / )1'l 'c/UI " lIcll t: )v/odcfll i;;al iOll, VepcndclI CY and Posl mot/ern Politics, Newbur)' Park,
( ' 1'\ : '>:lg" ,
1\,"11111.1' 1, I, ( 19lJ(, ) I 'II/ ,"I" r j)el'c!0i'lII ell l : Rel hi ll ki1lg the Ti l ev l"), and Pruclic(' of Developmenl , Oxford,

, " ' WII , ,\ 1.1', ,\lI d ShCl11C> n, It ( llJ')6j I )ocl ri m",) oj Developlll ell I, London: Routl edge,
I ,"',It , r ( I 1'1l1l 'I'r III ' Ind o/"/H'II I , I.ondon: RI) ul lcdg(',
I '" . ,f, .Ir, J\ , ( 11.)'1; /'/1(1/1'11,,/111.-: / )1'I'dop' Jl fl lI , I' ril\(I.'111I1, NI: I'rill cdon Univers it y Press,
11 ,'l l m', Il, ( I' N, ) PI'I-dllllll/'-'" I'I lt'rir )' illltl ll,.. 'J'Ilrl 'I' \ \o' " r/'I<: '/i ll vll nls 111/ I ll terllllfionol Polilical [COli aIll y vi
/ " 'I"'/"I'II/I'I /i . ' l', lIlI d ,lilil ll l, 11. 111,)\,,/, I
I lilt" , I' I '1(" I ii,,' \1'"11111,' II/ ,'1 11 '1111/11 N.'I'" IIlI IIII/j ( ' III , ,' V"" I!1I; ViT, il ) or ( :hi cago Press,
I, ' , ., 11 " 1
1
,1 ,11 1.1 \1.:>'1, (. d:" I 1 I',,'[','dll ' ,," 1
1
''1'(/'' / ' "1'' 11 1: Cross- /)iseil ,lilil/l ), 'l'i1('JI /CS HI
I,q d Ii tl i l . I II llt: y .
"/'t',(I, //'1 " ' // 1' \ f ' /
1'1, 111' 10' 11. 0/1
"'/' 11. 1' , jll l i ,/" , ,' I"I'"IL'I1\ 1,I,1I1 Ilil1':: TIll' " I',, ! , , 1
"",1;
01
/" '" ' flJ/lillol il l 'JIII!'II I 1.'1' '1'1,
/"'110 1 I IJc I'I' /' If'illI"lI i: III , ,' , , ' 1/ 11'/ 1'111 , I ii,' /11 ,1/. , 'I !t i ft l l ,o n<i OI1: V< I 1'1 \'\0.
,"I, I I I ' I' J \) t:<,),VII<IIIIL' ./ III{l I" ,"': N"lI ' I Ji l " ll i oll" i ll ./)c lI(' /!J/)II ICIiI nl (,O I")" London:
" I' 'I" " ,I Ihill ki llg A/J(1l1 ll)t'l' c/{I/1II1('III, Call1hridge: C lIll bridgc Univcrsi t:v I','C",
nliahtenment and t he era of modernity
In(h./I l ion: The 'rough anal tumble' of earl y i ndustrialism
111 111 , "" Ihrough darkness, the phi loso ph y of the Enlightenment was seen as S() Llll' (llI lIg
it/. 1he L:}'es of the world' s poor and free them from unjust rul e, During the ICl' lll ti l }
iii' 11 111 "111', educat ed Euw peans awoke to a new sense of life and ma ny wro te
"''' III ,llId Ihe need to di ssemi nat e lrnowledge among 'enlightened peopJes: Accord ing III
' J, ,It Ihi s time educated Europeans exper ienced 'an expansive sense of powt:J Il wr
I, '.! Illi ltl sl'lVl's: the pitil ess cycles of epi demi cs, fami nes, risky li fe and earl y deatl1, dcviI'
" III .IIIIIC;LSY peace - th e treadmill of human existence - seemed to be yiel din g at /,1', I"
" ,I I'''11 of nil ical inteUi gcnce', Fear of cha nge began to g:ive way to fear of stagnati on , II \V,I
III' . , ,J . ' 1I11111itllll'nt to enquiry and criti ci sm, of a decli ne in mysti cism, of growi ng hOJ1ll IH I
11 11 11 ,lil t! inllovation (H ampson 1965), One of the primary interests was soci aJ rdOII) I,
I' ll and devel opment of soci eti es built arou nd an increasing secularism ,Ill .! II
I, , IIJll lgIIl' SS to t,lke risks (Gay 1973), Tbere is no mon.uiilbk 'spirit of the age' thall.III I'l
I It " wcvl' r, Lnlightenment ideas a,ll a wri tings comprise a fairly hett"J"ogeneons grou p, lll t!
I!I i " ,I ,I I " I illterco nnccted ide,ls, values, priJ1Cipl es a nd ass u mpti ons, In it s simpl est Illl
It'' lill "" 11 II I \V,IS Ihe creatio n of a new fr amework of ide<Ls .a nd secure ' truths' about tJl e relil! /011
it!; "'1 ,II hllmanit y, soci ety and nat ure, whi ch sought to chall enge traditional wor ld vit: w,
'lilt, , I I, } ( :hrislianity,
1/ 11 11 1,11 illllov,ltions in writing, pain ti ng, printing, music, sculpture and and
'I'll'
1111
11
1" 1',11,,iI in llovat ions in warfare, agricuJtu re and ma.n ufacture, had a major i rnpact lin JIa
, II ... Iree' lhinki ng ' I11 CJl of lett ers' who had brokered this cnligJJtenea aw'l kl.' nill g
h,;,}! , III II ,IX ill Ihe ll1 id-cightccmh celltur}' in Pari s ,lnd Sco tJ and, but witb tl)ulllbti nn') if(
I \Ii'-'I"', III L(\ un lrics, ' ti l\' r nlig lt tl' ll lllL'nl' was thus a sort of int c'lIcCl uaJ fas hion , o r 'iI kll
IplV lI "., . ,ili\' ,11 inq uiry ,11101 IIIl' ,lppliL;Jlion or reason' ( Black 1990: 208), rat he r Illall "
I" Il i,, !lk , IlI,d 1ll 0Vl' ll1 l' lI l ' II ill \ li llll i,,",ti l'rnil'll, TIlt' modern idea ,,"d n<lrrlllioll o f' 'tl cvd
.,ill 11111\ 1'1' II oI ,n1 h" d , III 111\ " k llll" II ' in ,11101 n il iL,;tI enq uiries, and back 10 Wll t' II' il
' 11(' .1 '; lI l1iol \ 1 lit,' 1III" l'\ 11 1 (11 1) l" " Wdli,. 1 ',II"l.tlhlll ilL 1': lIroPl" (Cowcn 'lIld "IWIlI'111
1 111 ,'1' '1 ' ''"1 ,,f II ", i'I',I " ,,( f;\ lf, lIl/ ' I II Ig11I 11' 111111 ,til 1111' dark n 'C\"' ,'l',' III i!',nll
11111 .111 "' ,. li lll)1/ III ' 11 ,11 11111 ' ",'" W"ij ,II II IIIIII""lI li,tI l"ll' ,II Ihi , lilJ' l', It ,
(I" '01" 1"]"1'1111' 111 1IIlIli d ii W.!\! III'"II,It'd [(' "I .!", 11111 1111 1"" " \1.""",
Ii" 'II 1,llil l, (0)

"'!"I!I, lu i , I' : 1I11 1'!)I I,1I11 kIICl\\ih'dgl" III
Ilk w ll]. . 1 and rl' !cV;l Il Cl', 'l' hl'\
1..:hn .,iI IlI,d 1111I1I1t',11 Illi.. h Hl 'jll. 11 1111 !HuL'!1I \,IC1ecl cin.:IL-' 1( ,.11
1')TI) v.!(I'tL , I",' 11.1 Ilhl I1I L' villll..lv '1I'l. lll lit c lll,j;(1 1I'I oJ PC,II ' 11.II ' i: I.1. III ,1S ITa ll nnd
(_:"'\' <: 11 ( 1Ii'l' , Ill ' 1" li 'lI \llll ;'I 'C till" '11;'; ', \\'ll i." " i.. th e though t or 111
,'!,;/"wpl,,', Irolll L'iulil' r ;nldll'.:lLloIl
.I II li. iL'!
,I 1l,' lid ill l it .' "111 :m:ncc.: Il r c.:l1l l' iri caJ , nUl.erial ist kll owkdge;
01 11 , II II-t Usi,I"1l 1fi ,r Icd1l1olog iCill <.Hld medical progres,;
,I 101 1l'!:!,11 Jll d comti tuliona,1 reform.
I'hal' i... dl'lIi1> iI IIr applying Ihe tenn 'the Enli ghten ment ' too loosely or tou widely, as if it had
l' 1t.' r)' illll' lk Ll U,ll society and every intellec tual elite of thi s lJ eriod equall y. The
I nlighl cll ll Kl1 t is tl lllii considered as an amorpho us, dynalll ic <md vari cgated entity (Portel
1')1.)0), I here were, however, manv common threads to this patchwork of cnli ghtenment thinking:
IItc primacy of re<.l son/ra1i unuJisl1l , a beuef in empiri cism, the concept of universal science and rea
'Il n, the idea of progress, Ihe chamlJioning of new fret:dol1ls, the ethi c orsecularism and the not ion
,,[ ;tli human heings as essentiall y the (Hall and Gieben 1Y92: 21- 2), Thi nkers such as Kan t.
\'nI Llire, MOll tcsquieu, lJ iderot, H UIll C, Smith, Ferguson, Rousseau and Condorcet found a recep
til": audience in many EuI'l)PC,l 11 cil ies fo r their ' new style of life' (Ha mpson J968) , They prod u(eJ
,I largc collcctioll o{' TlOvels, pla)'S, books, pa mphlets afl d essays for the consumption of nobles, p]'()
... (es peciall y lawyers), acadeillics and tJle clergy, It is imporLaJll to remember, however, that
Ihi , ncw style of' li fe was in the Illain n:served for the fortunate and the articulate - the rural anJ
Il rb,lIl Ill asses had littk share, It was not unti l the eye of the French Revolution in the 1780s that "
ncw gro up eill erged, COllccrned wi th popula rizi ng enlightenment ideas, Similarly, though
lila n)' wOlll en pl'lyed ;1 maj or pa rt in the devel op ment and diffusioll of en Iigh tenmell t ideas, Dpply
ing such ideas to their sod.l l conditiolls illennt negoti ating <l nu mber of cont-radi ctory posiliom
withi n patri,lrchal s(lcil'lics,
r ile l' llla nCip;lt ol"), potential or thi s knowledge thus turned out to be limited in Lhat- it was con
n'il'cd or as .lnd utilit ari an, as a mastery over nature wh ich thus becomes characterized by
IHIWl'I', As \)ohert y ( 19l)3: 6) has :l rgued:
Kllowkdgt is reduced to technol ogy, a tedlllology w11ich enables the illusion of power and
ut' dllillillation over nature, It is important to stress that this is an illusion. Ibis kind 01
nol givL' ;1([ual power over nature.. . What it does give in the way of power
IIf' rower ovcr the consciousness of others who may be less fluent in lhe languagl
or .. , KII I,w1cdgc thus becomes caught up in a dial ectic of mastery and slavery
(l'lllph.lsi , ill origin.II )
i\1 ' 1I1 )' L'l tl if.\ ht ('lllIll' IIL thillk.'!'.'; viewed the remedy for tbe disorder brought on by industriali za tion
i' l'I ,IlL'd 10 IIt C(,I P;ILil )" 1i 1LiSt: la nd. hl bour a_lid capi tal in the interests of soc iety as a whole, Onl)
1.1: 1'l <1 ill kill d,,, II I Ill divi t.i ll.d, cOlild be 'elllnlstcd' with such a rol e (Co IVen <.md Shenton 19961.
l'n 'I 'l'l l\', hlr l'\,I Il IPk. hl' rhlC C'd ill of" 'trustees', who would decide where and
1t" W "' 1)'\ I".,.I II rn''i ((l uld he uti lized In cight centh-cl' lltu ry FnUlce, the pn:
'011\ l, tI . ,rdl' I' WI:fL I 1IH1" \1,.11 .... ,I" ,!,.)'. nohilil Yand the'thi rd whi dl
"I, l ylllH ,'IM' , f"",, 1\'I',dl lti l'''1 1""'11".11'1,,,,,1111 (1-laIl 1992 ). This'diakdil.
"I 111 ,1',11" )' ,111 ,1 .1. "01' 1 .1I1.llhi ."'1
'
11\'1\\(' 1' 0 tII/I",'I ,/I, (wll" \\' 1.'1'1.' .,f'tL' 1l I11l'llIiJns 1If' thl' sc.:\.
0>1 " I I ,1111 1II,' 1,,'.1" lil tII,", I" I.lIlt1p,;1Ii ( lid .Io' c1111/ ., 111111 \ ',II, IL'I ;Irl' hi >11 1i"'1 '"I 1.1111 I" II t
III III. 11111111' ,II '. '.1 111 " lid Itil ',11I';II III "llllhilll ,ill l\ , /\ ilh-"II',It Ih, '\ ''1'1''',1' "" I" "}' I""" I ,I tltn'.!1
h ' 111, ' ,,"' I tl l11 ,-" eI , lit, ,l , 11 .. 1 \\' l'lIi lllt,llIHII'J'I. , , , "" 11 ,,".11 \ 1,111t "1' lli i!ll 1[' \1111111\111 .11 I
l!l'iII w illi ",' 111.1"1
i 11 1i ' '' HI (" chO:Il I
Iflft l1ly' and the rise or th"
jll<il 1I 11.t! l'c() lll1l1lis t John ;-'1. 1)II<1Id KI' )' It I'!' t jI, 'lll ; f.7(11, "l1ll' wmk (hat 'IJ1 j I,!d II ,11 111') 11 .
1I, lic\ ,' Ih clllsl'Ivcs to be quit l' c:<'c lll pi 11 0111,111) 1I1 1l'/ll'l llt.11 .Ife
I'f d. hll H.t ccol\omist ', So it is with rtlUl. ll dewlop ll ll'll t thinki llg loday, A 1)( 11\,\' ltli
i'lili')' III!1VI'lll ellts, including neoclassi ('is ill (of" wh ich was an illl porian t /,:111) 11101
"II I tr:lce thcir origins back 10 the Enlightenmell t, The foundar,ion,.; (I f' 11'111)' IlIPdl III
II, hlll , (111 ( luli ill g developill ent studies) were int.imately bound up wi th the Fnli!!.h lL' l1l1ll'lI l s
1'1. 01 I,rll gress, and the idea that development cou'ld be created tll rollgh the .1p pl ill \l \lll l II/
IIr,l l1ld based knowledge, The Enli ghtenment had forged the il1t cl ll'dua l l'lllldl
' I. "Ili clt tbL' 3pplicat ill n of reason to practical issues could llow-ish through sudl 'JlWdi:11I
'"1""1', ,I.., the academy, the learned jour nal and lhe confercnce.lll lui'll , a 'lTJodl'rn' ;tlldit:l1i
'II ,11 11 11l'lII'lll' tbe di ssem inat ion of social and political ideas alongside a d-Jss or ill tdk( llI, oI
,,,loI llI'l' frolll ",riling about them (HaJ II992). Through tile Elllightenme nt, slalo.' bllJ"l"tllll I
III It, II Sl' social statistics to provide the evidence necessa ry lor'rationa l' choice;; ill Illl ,tl llI
11 HI Il''' ' These 'o fficia l' labds were - and stiUare _. gener<lll y portrayed and alll'pII''/ ,I
11\, I,ll IS, though lll<illy are rooted in iJ]tellsely po.\itica,1 processes. _For example. 1ll:!11\' (1111
'I 01 ,Ii. i; ti and group class ifica ti ons were created in the imperial and wloll ial period" wlwil
loll' , "Hlllted, categoriled, taxed and deployed slave, servi le ,md fo rced laboLJr, otil'n IIVI ' I
11' 1''1dli cal ,lrcas (llS 20(6) ,
Ill' of an idea of ' the West' was also importanL 10 the FnlightennlCll l ill thlt il \\';.
111111111'.1 11 ,l tfair, whkh put Europe and EuropeaJl intell ectual s at the pinn,lde IIf 1/11 111 ,111
rh is "iew sees 'the West' as the resu.lt orforces largely ;nternalto furope's hisl", ) ,111.1
il l,," 111,, 11 1,)')2 ) rather than as a 'global story' involving other cultura'l III Il a" TIl"
[ llllfo' II 'l'l1 th-cerltury Europea n ' moderni ty', Europeans had a sense of differcnl'c 1'111111 IIl lwl
I) I , r. '\I'ri c1' ), whi ch shaped the ways in which they were viewed as distant, 1111\1
11 !l1' ',I,lges in the progress of humani ty. The establishment of modern m odes ul 'I i(' lI\iii,_
\' ,1Illodern institLlLions and the modern 'deYelopment' of societies in Jlinetl'l'l1lh ,,"l Ii ' )
!I III' P,lrt!y incorpora ted a contras t with the 'savage' and ' uncivilized' spaces III tI ll li ll I"
. " wll rl d,
Ip,I., 11 ,, 1 was not as inherently good as the 'ell l igbtcned'th.inJ.:ers be.lieved ,l lhl h, l"
111.11 I II' I"e "ariet}' of purposes, Reason can be imperiaJ ist and racis t (as in the maJ.. blt: II! II, I
i :111 ' W" ..,t '), taking a spec ifi c form of conscioLlsness for a universal, a standard t hal lll llllll ', l
1t"" ,ldl I{ea;,oll was al so a potent weapon in the production of social no rm;ltivlly dllril1l'
1III II' ltl "11111 l'nt: drivi ng peopl e towards conformi ty with a dominant and centred 'n()rJ ll' (lj
'Ii I I )lIh c rl y 1993). Modernist reason was therefore depeJldent 011 the 'olhering' III 11<111
1111 ,I' " III' l ultures ,md soc il.'lics tha t were not inforl1lcd by this reaS(JJl and ,11 1.1
Hilf, 11 ,l lI i, hcd to thc IOWl'l C\ hcloll S or hllrnall il), defin ed as 'backward ; \I n(k' vc l(11'l'l l, (II
I.-III ,d' TIll' ('mergcll cc III IWI\ 1.i", IS ,Ihllill SII, i,d, polili,'al .1Ild CCOIHlllli ( dl'Vl'11'11111l' 1I1 \\, ,1'.
"" , 1"" 111\1 Ill' witil Il lt:sl' I" " 111 1,11 111 III l'oIl'li, 111.11' !lotions or kl'lllll'lcdgl' .
I l'illIlI , ','-, ,Ill" wilh tlll' 111.II-
i
ll.- ..1" tl l; "I, ,loIl i "j i ' 11,",1 \\'''11.1 ' .,1' lIonconfllfmit l' ;1\ lit.' ,ti l"!
if " ,In" 'I"pnl 'W('sl',
'li( lu\ lum' (omplel illCl "the heyond Iwopc
III . \\ III' II ,,11''1 11' 01 ''' 'ii \ (II . ,_,I' I"IIS',I
IIvill.-,. " .1 I'IO'l ',' ul,lI hj.: lil l'llIllI lll ,II I' lu:\,I IIHhlj'. IHUll' Illl',l, III ,llI d k,, \ II ,IIl il lo] \I. ,I ,1 11 .1 "" IW.I
11. lIq ...1 l'l1 l!glllvlh ,I ,d" llli.. , \ lt hlillll' Iilt'I' IIIil 5 I. , lil lll'.I ('''' II I di.,>I,11I1 Arluro
1 ., ,1,.11 I 1
1
,11 ", I) 11.1, ""I' ll ,II Ih, 1I III. I" J I', . 1; \'dll l 11111' 111 1'1 (Ijed is 'I he 1,lsl "lid fai k ll
,III" "'1'1 III .01111 1'1 ,'1, lit.' l i llli glt ll'IIIII " l1 t ill hl, I,\ II "" ,li ld 1.01 1111 1\ I11 ('['i, ',,'. 'lkvc!oprnent' repn.:
,( III !> ltill l ,' 11 1, 111 .1 , ill f, III;lr \V, II "' 1" '1 Ir lill , iT n\V\'I ,'I, .\lId complex roots in thl;
II I ' Ih.: the lhlwn .,1 I'. uI'll!,,'. I I I ca pilalism, and in the ...
111 11 CII IIII ,ll iQt1(!i i n ll ;llrope<l 1l Illodernity. It is also ilil POll ullt to n't11L'mber that European and
\\'.... 11' 111 idl'l1t itil's have bCl:ll formed by conlrasting ll1ociern it }' with the Iradition and backw.ll'd
II<''' III tlt e ' Tltird World' as 'othel'.
I V, )I Illtl;!)', the work of t'n lighll'lllllcnt thinkers llke Adam Smith (with hi s Erec-mMker eco-
1! llI ltiv',J tl; lIl ains ver y relevan t 10 ' intematiol1al development' for some observers. Examples of
1., 111 f; ll llld in some of the key globa 'l devel opment institut ions, such as the World 13ank, which
Illcil' (Ill'ocl assical) knowledges as potentially enlightening. Consider the folkl\\ring guota6on
II (1111 ,I given by the World Bank President James Wolfensohn in 1996; ' Knowledge is li ke
lit-: ltl. Weightless aDd intangible, it can easily travel tbe world, enlightening the lives of people
"\Hywltcre. Yet billions of people still live in tbe darkness of poverty - unnecessaril y' (quoted in
!'atd 2()() 1: 2) . Thus the knowledge and expertise of contemporary development practitioners is
\",' 11 as something almost wliversal that easily traverses borders, extinguishing the darkness of
I" ' V<, l'l Ywherever it shines. For som e and practitioners of devel opment today, people ant!
1,1. 1< ,'., become 'developed' simpl y tbough acquiri.ng scientific and technical knowlcdges about
1l lI llIIrtllai' or COHect series of developmental stages. If only it II/ere th;]t simple.
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING
1111 ,III l'x(l' lknl intmducti on and o"erview to earl y development and ideas, see Risl, T. (1997)
I I i", {I I')' o( J)cl'c/upl1len /, Lo ndon: Routledge.
( (lWl'll, 1'0'1.1'. 1I1lC1 Shcnton, R.W. (19% ) /Joellilles of Developm.ent, London: Provides an accessibk
oIi"lIssion of .:nlightenlll(' nt ideas, e_xploring their bca l-in g on the construclion of particul ar development
,iJ '"r"dch.s and doctrines.
11",",'11)" r. (cd.) ( 1993 ) Mo dernr sml Poslll1odel'llislII, HClll el l-l eDlpsLead: Harvesler Wheatsheaf. OCfer:; cl eM
.11101 .Il lc,>si hk deflnili ons 01' moderni sm in the I ntrocluclion.
11.111 , s. ,111<1 (;idlCn , I). ( 1992 1 FOrl/ lil/iol'ls o( Modem il)l, Cambridge: Open Universit y/Polily . .Focuses on Ihl:
(Ie modernit y in the non -Wcslern world.
I " " , i.! :. (20(H ) F:ncyciopeciia of Ihe Er liigl,IClllllent, New York: Oxford Univt'rsil y Press. A fou r-volume edi ted
",,, )" 1"l'celia of the Enlightl'IlIll CIlI.
REFERENCES
IlL .. I, I. ( ll)'JlI ) bgl"('CIIII, - C('IIIIII)' 1;' 1/10/)1' 1700-1 789, London: Macmi llan.
I. "1\<'11 ./1' 1.1'.. \I1 d Shl' nloll, IUV. ( 19')(, ) J)oCl rill l!S orD !:Vc/O[!II1CIII , London: Ro uticdge.
11,011, '11 )'. T ( l ()'l.' ) ' l'oslnwti (.'1l1isll1: l\n introduClion', ill TUohcrt )' (cd. ) MCldemism/ Postmodem ism, HeIn l'l
11"11, 1"' ''"'''.1; Il ar-l'cSln \ VIIl',t!s h"di', f'f'. 1- .1 1.
I " ,,11. 11 , '\ , i 19')5) III<'''III", .,-ill.'-: 1)('1" '/0/'111('111 : 'II/ I' A/tll. ill,l; llilil oft l lf thi,d Worl d, Prin cetoll, NJ
P, 111 \,'1,,,, \ In il'l'rsi ly
I ;.01,1 11111 1'." , I J.". 11 'I'J'l ) n,,' 1\ ',':.1 ,I//rill", Ihil ,! / ,11,1. , "I,"lItlli.qu, f)epCllc/cI/CC aNd J)e l'elopIIICIIf
1,,".1,,", til. " lw/III .
I ., 11 . I' I I \) \ I I//j' 1,, 11,1 :111,"111(
1II, 'I i!
III" '" 1:,,, , , i 1" 1'
1"'''''' ,'1 ,\ /, 1, /; '11111
,\ 11 1' ,',,,I: '-1 1111011
II ,tl l, ' . Il ll' 1\',',1 .111,1 11,, " ', 1' , 11.,11 .111.1 II , (,i"I"'II, (..t ',1 /,'/llItil/{lI" II/
,\/ ."t,' !,/l1 1 ( .11 111 "101,, " '11 'I, , 10
II .dl 1111 11,11 1>, II, Ii 11' 1'1 ; I I ,;,,1 I 'P"I ' r lil li ' I .il \'II'i.ii j,
' ii i 111 111 ,' "I 1 In''' I''I '"I' ' 1I1 '0 111.1, . I "I I , I" II" I \ " .Ii" .;1.,) 1'1 II C' " I 1" ,I' I" " , \ I I.., 1', ,II, \
110 , . lillI'., 1. \lIV -1,1'\ (1\1' 1iI ).
I r..1. (I IUII) /'1"'(,'1 '11 "'1 1/ 11/1'111 1 "ll//1/11,li/1
1'(1 1,,1 ,
, . I \ ",,,. ! . I ,," .1011: (\ 1. 1< III i11.111.
j
LI: I '!I(II ) . " n(lwb lgc, jllllV!.'I , II.' II I' I1I' 'llIll ll. ll',lil.li oic .11 Iliil':/l II' W\VoI' lIl.l, ;.Hl gf
II I IlI i\'''/1' i),t il yI200 I- U7/:!L'l' oIl,' 1 Itltll l
II i 1'1'10 ) Ihe 11 1. ,, 111111.11, .
I 11'1<1 II/is/til)' o(f)('l'e/OjJIIIClli, I'ltldoll:
Smith, Ricardo and the world marketplace. 1776-2007:
Back to the future'1
I"VII I Sapsford

IhJ . oulltrics trade with one another? \.vhat elcrermines the terms on which Irude ht'IWn' lI
[ Ill I, cOl1ducted in the world marketplace? Tb c:.se two quest ions are perha ps 11 11:
11I 1'l li lal to be considered i_I) any analysis of intcmatioml1 trade, be it trade bellt'<'ol dl'w l
I j'lIti dl'Vcloping countries or trade amnl1g countries in eitber the devel op.ing o r IIIl' dn d
I,. 1111 .1. These qucst ions are of special importallce in the context of economic devl' IDl' " I"ttl
11 ili lTC <Ire from trade' to be had, the distJ'ibution of sLich gains b cl\Wl' !I 11 .11 111 11'
In'I' \ ,"Tics important for livillg stan dards and economic willl1l1 III I
ii, 'I'. lllIlg (ountries.
1111 economists, most notably Adam Smith (1 723- 90) and DaVid HIL 11[111
I ) considered these two q uestions, and their Jnal)Tses are outlill t'd in I hl ' 1111111\'
I'llt! , .. hsequent sections consider tbe avai labJe evi dence regarding the Ih, 11 hoi' "
lIil' " .,Ver the long run in the terms on which trade bet ween developed and dl'\(' /' 1(lI li f.
tlk 1"1'> !>cell conducted, exploring the implications of this for economic devclo[1l1ll' lIl ill III!'
1,lpillg Ivorld.
u i llte and comparative advantage
1"lllIl l.lli(lIlS of the economic theory of jnternational tTacie were laid by Ad,\1Ill Sillil h 111 / h,
,,' NII/iol/s (177(1). Smith's analysi.s of the a.il' )sion of labour is weB known, ,\lld III ,I I.lI gl'
,d I" '.. 11\' Ihl' phenomenon of int crt1<1tional tTade as a logical eKtension of With
III 101 1\ or countril." ; ( r<l l ber tb,lI! p .. rliculd" individuals} SpCCi<ll izing in Ihl' pr(}dll l li,;r !
I 1111 111.11 1.(}J1l1110di lic.'i. Smilh's vil'\\, i'" k.lrl y dCn1Ull st mlccl hy the fol low ing quo lati on:
II I'. IIII' III!!xilll oi (:Vl' l )' 11I 11d,orli 11 11 01 , ,Ii" 1. 111 11 1\ , 11 "\<'1 III dltl'lllpl 10 JTl ;II.. ,1111111111' wfl. tI
II ,ldl. II\1 hilll 1II' IIl' lit IIt.d. III HI 111 1. \\ 11.11 (. 1"II.h, II ,' ill till' (1IIldllt'l ti l' ('l'l'I'V 1' " \'') 1,
11'>1.\ 11 11
'"I1 III1 " lIlt } \ 11(',11"'1 1ft II I \" \,111 Il id ;!.' ii , 101 11 , , 1111 )' .,1 11\(' 111 I I illt , ,,Tit , 1' .11 11 01
II" 1'1.,,111, I' .. I 1111 1 "W it llt ll'll l)!'d it -I II WI1\' iii ",I, i,-Il " ',: 11(11" '''"H ,11 11, 111I ,!!'.1
I ," ,111I I I t i l I )
I h" In ( 1.11I!ltll.:o; IIi 'villi oltt' ,UlIII II.1 II 111dL,t Iii Ill'lllIlo' ',(lIlId
11\1'11 . 1" til 111 l 'lllld Plllaili Cl' Ihelll 1i,I,dll
l
' \ 111 IIil'II1 wilh l'n'I'"1
II"" , Ii tlw IJlll jllll Ih.ll lhey 11111.111(1: 11111, 101' to t hl'lI OW Il ';ld v,1l1
I ,H'," , IIII,d I" thi, ,it:1Y IItL' 11,,110 1 11,,11 I. Illil.' Ii i. , lr,lde patterns, wH"
i 'llIlIl lllf wllL'11 IIlI'L'Igll pI,.", ,II I ".11'\\ \'1 11: \. III addit ion,
"",1 '1\1 tl ' .11 II) "\p,IIJing Ihl' '>1.1l' III 11ll' 1ll.lrl..d Ifll(' 111,IIil1l1, tI 11, .. ll' pl'l' lI1its gn.:aler spcciali /a
11,", ,111 (\ di\'i,jltll 01 I.. holl r thall w(HIIJ h,lvc b,'C11 This j" pe dlaps 0 11 (: of II!
" .lIl il"1 ;1I-gt1l 1l l'1ll\ ill Li velli I' nl glllbali/-'1tillll as J prou.'ss hy which size 01' the worl d mar kd
1,1." " i, i 11(
I UIIlPlll ics lexlbDoks dhouud wilh simple two-collntryl lwo- good eX<lmples that ilJustTatc
""l il li\ ;!rgument, Supposc that til t: world ..:onsi .. ts of only two countries (say, the UK and
11"1\) .1llJ two goods (say, fO(1d and clothi ng). With in this (ovcr),implil1ed framcwork, kl
II', ,1''Il l1l1e that the U::'A is Ill OTC c(ficient than the UK at producing food (in the sensc t.hat fe wt'l
I, P" I ' l 'S Il eeded to producc a unit of food in the USA than in the UK) and (in the samL'
i, 1 ,1 IL'\Ol\rCC- cost sense) that thc UK is more efficicnt than the USA at producing clothing. III
,.''' I!l lIl isls' terminology, th is example represents the case where the UK possesses abso/lltl
"'/, ',I II III,I;e in the production of clothing, while t he USA possesses absolute adva ntage in the pro
,111 1 II li lt or I(J od. 'ro further simpl ify, let us assume that labour is the only factor of producLioll
", .1 1/ ,,11 within each count ry it is mobil e between the two indust ries. Assume also that
,II, I Il l' \.II11C ill bOlh countries and that transport costs are zero. On the basi s of this battery 0 1
,1, oI lI lI/, lions, th e USA will be the cheaper sourcc of food and thc UK of clothing. It is a mali I' I
"I arith mctic to show that if both countries are init iall y producing some or each il
I'. ,rlwill' s possibl e to increase output of both goods if each country specializes in the product iol!
"I Ihal good Cor which it possesses absolute advantage. It aJso roll ows that by trading, ead l
, (llillt r), Cill (OIlSlIllle the bundl e of clothing ,111d food that it consumcd in t he dbsence of Iradt
(Ilidt under lIularky), while still leaving so me of each product over! Each cOll Dtry tlms has Ih,
l'Illl'llli al 10 inercase it s consumption or both goods and, assuming that more of each good i,\
I'rl'icrablt: to Icss, ill principl e, t rade can allow bo th tradillg partners to increase their eCOI10I7l /1
11'.1/;/1'( '. As alrc<ldy Iloted, the distribution of thi s surplus (that is , the distribut ion of the ga/lls
/1'011/ Inuit') bl'twecil the two countries is an importa nt matter, especially in the cont ext of e((l
1"'''liL IiL-IIcloplllent. \",/e return to t hi s issue in the following sccli on.
T"l' Clse ;In<llyscd b}' Adam Smith comidercd, quite naturall y at the limc he was writing, the sil
1I,IIil'II wilerI' olle countr ), possesses advantage in the production of one good, while th
lit 111.'1 WlIll lry possesses it i n the product ion or the other good. vVriting four decades latcr, David
,II d(l L<l l1s illL- red the rdther more tricky anal ytical case in which one of the two (sa},
Iil l' 1I ") is 111 orL' cffi ci l'nt at produci ng both goods. According to Adam Smit h's absolute advantage
. '1 I I lll' O I , hot h should be produced by the UK. However, th i:; situtllion can dea rly not rep
11"1'111;1 rl';lsibk' st ale of affairs in the long run since al tbough the USA will seek to purchase both
),,11(1.1 , fro lll Ihl' l; K, the UK wi linot wish to bllY anything from the USA in return. Ric,lrdo (1 81 7)
\1'. " lil l' li r sl cl:(l l1olll isl to provide a formal ana lys is of thi s case, <U1<'/ by so doing he derived hi,
1.IIII I Hi.'> /111 1' OrCOlllpll ml iw Jldvall wge.
A\,\,llrdi llg 111 Rica l'do's Law of Comf1aralivc Adva ntage, which encompasses Adam Smi til
.1I1;llvsi , or "h:;ol llk' :Idvantagc ,IS ,1 world (lUIPllt , ;md t hcrcf(') re (on the basis of til
,,11,1\'1') W( l rld \\"l Il;lrl',wi lllll' i l1ln?lscd if each coun try
i II I hl pl'lIdULI jill I or I h,It ji lr .... hkh it Iil l ' "'11/'" III/ i1'(' ,l d",\ Il tagc. The concepl of com
1', II .lli \ l j, h'l\ilull:- wnn rl l",1 wilh 111\'1' J nL! Ricard,'\ hl w
II "III I .,11',PI/ I I1I', Ih,' d iii Ili t' " ,til ,\'O' 1'1 I.', , .1 I Ill' IWo ;1'
l"lIiltl it", III' l'u';<;lhil i l ; til' I I III ' 1111 1h, II ,1 ./ 1 I II ,I \1\ 111 r,'''' , ',\ 1\111'1.., Sli P
, tlil: 11"''' ',11 111 ",( II I', i l1' 1; ,j"l .i
ill \' ." I I 11, >1 11 11 \ 11'111': II"
ill. lit. In 'l' l lI l OI1 IJ I\ II } 1\1
1I/ l f ,I,."" I,J I ,11111 .. 1 IIIlld \I'll Ii i " III
\I I
IIlIhti(' III II, Ili\; , '"11 '"1 .. 1 l ilt' 1' 1,, 11111'
l"rjJlII{ltl" llil IIl ' i ll l', Iii, ' "IIII"It "I \ i \ j'I'lI pl, II I
1\\li rd,11I l'lll[ lli l 111 11 I II rl l" ' l il '" Ii Il' ddl'i lh;at "1'l'11 \ III ' ,ill' )111'.
I I" , IIll1ll1;1 I1 }, hencli( i,d 1/ ';11 1,' I " l , II' IJ k ill h 1" '" l'lIv.lil ill thl' wll rid 1I1I1\l d, 11 11' 1'1
II , " 1 IIII'OSSI' ,sioll "I I lII l il "ll lI"d \,IIlI.\L! J. "I!-\L' I"is UK 1'01' 2.5 11 11il, III 1 1111 11
1" ,/ , ,,, "IL1 Ih l' 1l he sol d ill thl' l l.'lJ\ 1<1 1' :; II ni ts oi lc)tHl; thcrchy providing ,I ga in eljlt," (It I
" I, " ,t! l.ikL' wise, if l lK rela tive r)l' i(cs fJrevail, a US fJroduccr cl11pk1yillg I I)('opk (II 111.11"
" ,Inl"illg ((l uld switch to th e food industry and thereby 2 uilits 01' il lod , wlt lll ,
I " I"l I't, sold ill the UK [o r 5 uni ls of cloth ing, thu$ realizing a gain of 4 uIl i <If dil l" illg, j\[
flt", I"II,' rl'iatil 'c fJriccs (or terms of tradel, both coull lries can gain frOIll Ir;I(,k .111 11011",11 IIt.1
i'I1 1 i II the respecti ve exampl es given above.
Hit , ltd l, to Rica rdo's allalysis, cach coull tr y shi fts its produclion mi x II IW,I I h,
I", \\11 11. " it possesses comparati ve advantage, In our cxample, the UK lUll IP,II , I,i"I'
ii,,>:, II I Ih l' production of clothing, whereas the compa rativc adv'lll t.lgc i ll (1" ,, 1,
, . /, ,\.\ inc/jicienl , Reading across the rows in Table I, we sec thaI this follo ws het .Ilh, lit(
1'111 .... li ve-six th s of US wlit inpu ts ill food, but only onC- S1x1h ill clolhing.
Table 1 Labour requirements matri
Labour per un it of output
UK USA
Food 5
6
Clothing 2
12
"drls from trade?
III" Il'g,l ll cc of Ri cardo's analysis it s correctncss wi thin the o ( /t, I1WII 11I,t, ll l ilj'
111 11>11 it does beg a question that ,is , ital ly important in lhe ("Illl'xl til II .Hll' 111111
I" ,. , I H"I lVel'1l colin tries of the developed/indllstrialized world and counln," "I dl "c!"I'
,old \\,lIiIL- the <1nal ysi$ demonstrates quite dearl ), the p(Jlelltial bcncf'ih I II 11 ,1.1111)\ p ,lIlIll' l
ill inlernationallradc in tJ1e world marketpl ace, it has nolh ill l.\ \, 11 .1\ "", ",' ) 1<)
I II", ,I"' i',inll or these potenlial gains between lhcm. we saw in the 11I ..:ll'll ll1'.\ "1111
01
", ii
Pi I' ,", ill the world marketplace were e<]ual lo US rclative priccs, Ihc l lK w,"i1 d d Tl'., ll \,j}
'111 1.11 ,ti l Ihl' gai f ro l11 trade for herse! f, at the o)Jposi Ie elld II ( II1\' ' I" " 111 1111. 'Ii i
I1d, l "1 O" P "II tbe gaim if UK relati ve prices prevaiJed.
"1 .1, I I" lileus our ideas, let us consider trade between the countries ,)1' Ill(' dl' \v ltJl' l'Ii l
I' ti l l tI world anel IJlOse of tbe develo ping world, <l nd, for simpJjcity, aSSlIl1ll' l iI" l Iill 1111
"I"" "'" 1I1anul; IdlLred goods while the JaUcr produce primary cO!Tunudities, 'I he /: 1, I JIIII
I, did 1I0t shed any Lght on the issue of how the potcll tj ,tI gains i'rt)(11 11,1,), ,II
I '"i! I II j1I'; IClil'1' did not seem to constitute a probl('/ll in the minds \) f , 1""i"tI l'':11I1I1
III .1 r(' I;llcd context, RJcardo, like- $!ll i(h bcfon' him, hJd .II1:ucd I h,,1 il wvi\; lhl (
"I IltL' twin JUI'Ll" IIf dilll ini);hing in the or [1tiln.lry
' ''! ;) II Ih.' d , IIIll.. III 1.\1).1 ( ill li ll di ng mill cra l ; IS P
O
l' tJI ;t lii ll l ill l r",I",tI, 1/ 111 til
I""lld 11111
1
1'1.1111 Illt!1 \'I\h i ll II" lite 1I1111i
i f POl'lrI,IIIIIII ,111 (1 I1d', lI li l,l l i ll l l 1111 \\ ,Ii\I\, ,III' plllt 111 1'"11 1,11)' 1'"l1 II1' I'. 1\.lI dti
t la ,11 1\1(' lilli-'ll i' f l' (l l ill t il lu 1' 1'...11 I,,!' 1 111111 lit" t , l,J I l'.... '" I II , , "h I filII II I r I', ,1\ A' I " ' Ii III ' 1;.1 !Ir
, lit. l' l l q 111 11 III 1.,' i"UI!n I .. tl" I"" " "I 1II,11I1I I ,I,' 1I11 1'rI gltlld. illl'llill I " ,' 1\1 , III
lid'l'pf l!t,m ill: II I I II ,,111 11<"1 tli " ..,
I d, II I III III': l li: 1 1(1 itl \ li(
' '-'I I Ih1."" 1111 11V.n:ml'l li ,i l If.Ii I\ I!HC jil l" .II I ill ll" " " 1111 11 1 III II I
"I Il.Id ., ,,1 >I( I't vi' . ' ,'h III. ,I, \ Il; I,,';I \ )11 Ilt L' 01 t ill
!I IFIIII'LI!l 11 1<'11' \\';1' IlIl k' il ,111 1, III I.., U,il', ' 1111 " ,h,'ol ll Iii ., Or Ul li ll
" I II, II... "lll1n l III' Iraoi llg rll l,II llIm wi , l, 1111 i.lh ll.,t! wol'id, since it predid, ',
1. ,1 1 11\" 1 11"1t: lUll. 01 Ir;:tuc \\'(i lii d i,l Iheir raVOllr, wi th the
III II Il1l') wl ll d,1 ,Ill iI1 Lrca,si ll !; pro purLi(1I1 01 llw 1',lI t'II Li al lrom trade,
11""'n 'n , il l LI te C<lrh 19-;;0" 111 1: or J SCl.:ll l.lr improvement W ilS challcngl'"
In' [, .., h ( 1')50 ) ;lIld (1950), Roth argued Forcefull y lil al in direct contr ave.nti on 01
IhL' IIoL' II sl ill prt'\,.lili ll g classical pred it. 1ion, the terms of t rade had actually, as a matter of stallSli
IJd , bl' l' l1 histori call y subject to (.1l1d couJd be expected to contin ue lo be subject to) a dedul
Ill!;: In:nJ , I\lIl h analyses therefo re impl ied that, contr<uy to the cl assical View, developing
;o\'l ll.1 1I )! obtain ing a fall ing propor tion of the potential gains from th eir trade with the COUll
II of Ihe developed world.
J\ !lumber (l f thcorctical explanatio ru; have been put forward in the li terature to accou.nt for tilt'
downward trend in the of trade of devel oping countries, rel ative to devel oped
" 'Llilirics, and these can be cOllveniently under the followwg fOllr headings:
.Ii//i'lillg elasticities ojdcl1umd for primary commodities and mall ufa ctured goods (with the
IlIcl .. slic nature of the former resulting in a tenden cy for increases in the conditions of
'"l1 lll1odity supply to be fe lt more strongly in price decreases than in quantity increases);
,/I/("I'ill,'o; rates of growth in the dernandslor prinwry commodit ies and manfljllctured goods (with
lite (it:mand for primaries expanding less rapidly than the dema nd for manufactures due to
Ill l' ir lowcr income elasticity of demand - especially so in the case of agricultural
(PlllllloditLes duc to the operation of Engel 's Law - plus the devel opment of synthetic
'>I!l,stitutes and occurrence in manufacturing of technical progress of the raw matcrials
,s.II'ing sort );
" /cc/lI1oiogi cal superiority (the argument bei ng that the prices of goods rise
reLltivc to those of primaries because they embody both a so-called Schumpeter ian rent
eicmellt inllovation, plus an element of monopolisti c profit arising 1'0 111 the monopoly
pOlVer of tllultinational producers);
,I i{wlIJ/llclrics in nwrket st ructure (the argument here is that differences in market structure
with primary coJll1llodities typically being produced and sold under competitive conditions,
while Illanufacturing in industrialized countries is oft en characteri zed by a high degree of
Illtll10PllI,y hy orgJ lll zed labour and monopol y producers - mean that while technical progrcs'
in thc production of primary commoditi es results in lower prices, techni cal progress in
I11,111 1I 1I ri ng IcJds to increased factor incollles as opposed to lower prices),
Policy impl ications
;\IIIHlUgh space constrainls do not al low thl' discussi on in any detai l of thc policy implica Li ull',
III Iht: wors('ning Ireno in the lerms on which trade is conducted ill the world market
" I.IU hd wl'cn pr im, lry (..ll rtlnH,dily-producing Clllllltl'ies and manufact uri.ng co L1tl tries, if h
II " 1' 11I"t uIII to noh' t llal til l' Il ),Plll lh',is i, sometimes ;ldvanced as one argul.l1U "
II I Lllllllir Ill ' (iL'Vl'iOPIll CDt 111J liCil'S or Ih l' impotl iltdustrialization as opposed I"
1'\ 1"'1'1 l,r(' ll1 l1lhll l va ril' tv ('i:ljlsl md .1IHI 1'1
1
),1), J lowl'l'er, the pol icy iSSlil
I" '" ,In' 1101 .k,1I LII I, ,11 111 111 <.' 1.1 , 1 11 ,, 11 .1111,,111 II lin ,11" '1, , L'\ pl, lIl dlill nS rcla te as Ill uch, if tlil l
I I .. , 11\'::\' ;1 I '1'1(") ' I " lit 111'1 11. , 11 ' [ t ' I,;I\ ,II 11,, 1, 11.'111'\'\' 11 !,r ill l ,tI )' ,'"".II... l ilk, .111,1
III li lll l ' 1111'-.1 "" 1 II' , Iii, :' ""i" III Iii. i .. nHO<l 11I1 1H' r' l l l ttl 111Ii ' 11 1I1! IPII ' t! I
1'"1" , 'I l'l II '" ,.ftrJlO k

1. 11'1 "
I"
II .. '"
oi llO
II .,
1'''
1! (" III I
10 iii ., , 11 ,1 ,.1, 1,'II',l ll' ti l' dill l:II)1I1 t.f {"tHIIII!",! I' I" 11 ,. ,1 ,,11 ,II I. Ilsl1, " I
I Ii Id"l l I;oods, IlI gldi,' /II, Iltt 11)'\'11m ""r' l, I " " 1 1,,,10, ,, " II .. " d lfe"I '
IfHl lllI l'oll.llI' lS '-' / Ihl' IUfIl ll' ! npPC',1Clllull!l' 1.'\ 1(1 ' .111 1
I' ' i(HI l"' t S(l lll " I_Ii Iil e II I II" IIl v" lwd III Ih... we ldd I " .LI
Irhl Ild \ r l ll /11l' \(l d.'Cl'I ' ! tl lol l 1" illi . I, ," III III ..oIi l r t"". t" " I '< ill l OIlI II III'\ !I,
d ill.! '> 1)l ll ii/Clllt llIKc:rt.dl llll" ,11 1.1 I 1l'),.lltl il l)! III L' pri u ', that they will dC lt l, d h
101 11i " lr [' Inducts whcn tll ey to t il l ' world 1I1. lrkc: l. Al t hc timl' " f wri t il lg. ,I 1,,,1
I " I' IIl1dcr Ihl' of' th e: Wo rld !t lll k is a range o f pussil ,l... ' 111 .11 k. I
for Gealing with the pri ce risks I'aced by prill1" !")' commodit y 11 1
h' lll lI l' "lllItries, As poiJl ted out by Morgan (2001 ) , these approaches appear III
10 mnfront price risk by ,moditying Ule financial environment within which !, l in"ll \
III k'ss developed countr ies operate, However, it re,maim, to be SCcn wlw(hl'[ \ulll
II. will prove aD)" more, or less, successful than the policies Whl dl 10 1\'
.I 111<' 111,
OU7: Back to the future"?
I \ 1\l rS have elapsed since Adam Slll it11 lajd t he initial fOlUl datiolls of tr"de 11Ico !,)' ,1, II', :
II IlI ddY, It is testamen t to the logical correctness of his anal ysis, especiall y as cxklhkd I,),
1111 11 this theoreti cal framework is stjll pivotal to twenty-fIrs t-centur y thinking in hllth
\ .!Ild policy formulati on, As we have seen, the central prcdiction of th is ,lppro,ll" i
"fn\ Id,' d Ihe world terms of trade li e wi thin the limits imposed by domestic opport UI1 il " ,\).. (
"d, 11I.ltional specialization and exch,l]Jge \.ia trade provides an OPPOrtWljty (1/' hOl h Ir. ld
" 10 benefit from increased outp ut (and therefore economic willi !l ' WI I
1',,\ lor endowments, However, we have also seen that tJl al there is a school ur Ill dltght .111
1' IhI.' I'rebisch -Si nger hypothesis suggesti.ng that, in practice, the actual terms of t I,ll" It" \,,
I 1\ Ilhinihe range deLineated by the RicaJ'dian analysis, in f.wour of tbe illd uslr;,1H/nl f 11 101 "
', ) 1I;)liollS to such an ",xten t that these nations hove appropriated for ti ,l I""i
,I Iii ,' gai ns (rom trade, leaving onl y small pickings for tbe (primary-com lUodity d"I1tlldfl,t J
, . ' 1\ 1111 ries of the developing world,
" II .I , w, ell rren t experience tell us in relation to the fundamental question of who 1t ,1', g,11 <I t'd
Ii i
111 ('
ifli tII pC! rticipa ling in internation al trade? The basic structure of internation,ll ilhlllt il lllP
t.ri ' llll)' oVCI'see/govern the day- to-day conduct of intemational trade and C01l111h'lu WI: !; '
I\.IWII III I<)44 at the fa mous 13rettoll-Woods Conference. Prominent among t be:;<. : i I" t ili dItHl !.
III'W kllo\\ln as the \tVorid Trade Organjzation
2
(WTO) whose mission, iJl " nUhh,'l l. h i "
" II ,11'('11,1 and set of processes "nd rules designed to achieve Illultil ateral reduct<i ol1,'; i,l 11 .I,k
I h.: ullderlying philosophy here, squarely in the spirit:; of both Smith and Ricard.. , i', III
lilli' IhL' potential global gains from trade by minimi zing (if not completely eli11l 11l :lli llgl
' 1111. Ills I.. frce trade, such as import tariffs, quotas, and so on,
10 1\1' IIOW accilillulatc.d more than 60 years of experience oEthe operation of this pmn',\ ,II
1/ I ," ," iOIl via Illultilateral trade negotiations under the of the WTO ,HId ii , I' lt '
, ." ,\llholigh advocates of ti'ce trade see the \I\'TO as havin g achieved considcl'ahk
I ' "1"., 111 11 to reduce average lariff level s, experience sillce the mid-1990s mi ght be illtl'l'j1I.'I t'ti
'N" all .00logcther less rosy pi clun.: whell 011(' to ask t.he important qllL'sliIJI I .1\ It,
III .1, 111.001y har ve,'ilcd Ihe glohal g<J ins g\' ll l' l.ll n l h)' lbi, 111111'(' cl()ser 10 free Lr .. de ill Ilt l' !>t 'II ,,'
, Io 'll d hy S'lIilh alit! I{iclrdn. Allhllll gil ,I "1' 1. 111" ... 1" ., 11 "'''<1'' .,1' IIll' opcr;llion ,lI (ltL' W'I'( I ,
i"li 1\ 111111\'11 1)',1111' I ;"111'1",11 ,' \I' 1"l'l '1I 11'11 I 1111 1.11,11 , .,,, ;) '' ,'<I f f! ..\ J I i, ,lillll'"!',I. "" !" ill,Ii" ,0.11" ",1,1 ,\
I 1111'1'"11' '1,,11 ,II' I,ilt " I "I II" 111', 11 11" \\'11,,<1 . tI,, : Ipl tl lIl ll .""" Il.ld, ' \ " 1'"'" 11, 1111,,, 111 1'1
I" " 11 1,1 ""'I' ,1111<1 1 '1111 . ,
/
,-. 1 Ih.) 1,,1 "' 1111 1I iI' iii 11 nl 111 11 II r" , I " I" 11I 1111iI ..t 111 I
11 ' .1 II. I II ' II', i ll 1M) Ir(;111<1 '1111 1'(' 11111H , II IIII 1,1 11it I \' 1; I' if ,.i I I li l t '. n HI li II I I ')'),1. 1h
I, ".I t d" ,11 Ih'l t L';IIlH: (lIll " I Sn ( ,i IJed VIII [iUIIII.I oJl III" '\ ... ,Ii Ihough tit
h.lli to IK IIlIth(: ,01 1.1 1' I I III ,I !"'IIl ,l )1 1': IIla jor factor tl1.lt
11\(,'11ri ul illlo\ Illl' l'rugLI'li' 1! (IUll ti W.IS \' i.:\\ ,11 P"III, 1'11 111. 11 \ lIl1l1l1lCuhly dl..' pl..'ndent counlr
11 ., 11 tIll' pnll"N'd J1 cu:k,lgl' wCl uld bc!>I,)", PlI ll ll' ill dusl ri.ll il. cd count ri es, whi le
dIu ill t: thl'l1t \'l'ry II tlk. tn [l)I}Y, prcss\U'e Il) ofTer a hc tt cr Jc\tI to poo r ((lu l1t ics led to a SlI mllll l
in S\."dtllL. \\'hich l'nGed in failme (accompan ied by publ ic di sorder). In 2001 , in ill I
,llI l' lI1l't to rl' il1 vigo l"<l ll the 1)f()CCSo; of mult ilak ral tmiff reduct ions, "VTO membe rs agreed 10
Idllll<:h fresh t,ll ks. known as t he Doha Dew lopment Round. Despite this init iati ve, however. UII
201l.\ mi nister ial summit in ClIlCUO, Mexico, coll apsed Ln acrimony over tbe developed count ri l'
illlr<1l1$igcncy over the issue of removal of subsidi es paid to their farmers. rn response to thi s, Ihl'
1()()4 deadli ll l' ror agreemcllt was pus hed back ill an attempt to inject new life into the Doh' l
Roulld. In 2005, the lates t mini ste ri al summit in Hong Kong just about managed to keep tin
.. li ve. Howeve r, in Ju ne 2006, the WTO director general , Pascal Lamy, publicly declared
whole process o ( Illultil ateral negoliaho ns in crisis, while at the subseq uent G8 summit, represco
tatives of these major ind ustri al nations called on countries to relurn to the negotiatillg table. III
Jul y 2006, representati ves of siAke)' member countries met at the WTO's offices ll1 Geneva for whJI
was envi saged as the first of a series o( meetings desi gned to get the process back on the road
Ilowever, tal ks finalJ y broke down after 14 hours, with no (obviou, ) common ground havi ng bet li

Wh<1 t is to be made of thi s tale? At the tlme of wri til lg (Deccmber 2006) the pict ure is cl ear!
one where the very continued existence of the process of tariff reduct ions via multilateral negoli
atioll s is hanging by li ttle more than a thread. The current stumbling block from the perspectl\ .
01' the [Joor co un tries is the refusal of the major dewl oped rowltries (including the EU and USAl
ttl remove the trade bar ri er ll1lposed by tbe st ill subSlanti al subsidi es paid to t heir farmel"
j-IOIvever, there is a wider vi ew, 8ccording to whi ch thi s partLclllar iss ue is but a symptom of a mon
fundamental probl em: namely, that after [Jarticipating in the process of mult il ateral tar iff redu..
1ion ror at !'cast half a century, the poor colliltries of the world have continu,dl y seen the gains froII I
th t., tr"de being appropriated by their richer LIading partners. Indeed, some commentators are
diding that such is their degree of dissatjsfact ioll with a process which has delivered so li tt le Iii
Ihl' l11 relati ve to their ri che r LIa ding partners, that group(s) of poor countri es are on t he verge tl l
withdraw ing altogether from the process, in of going it alone,
Whether the thre:t d eveoLUally breaks remains to be ! wonder wh<ll Ada m Smith and
I )"vid Ri ca rdo wo uld make ot" Ihis twenI)" first-ccnt nry situation!
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING
I Jet,liled di scu ssion of bOlh the Lh.:or':lical art; Uflle nls and statistica.l evidenc(' underlying the declini ng ll<:nd
ill Il' nm of Irati" CIIl be lound in the foll owing tc.xts,
<;"I'sl"rd, I) , S""k;u, P. ,md Singer, I I. ( 1<)92) 'The Prcbisch- Sil1ger terms or lr"dc (QlllJnvcrs), revi.sitcd'
lOll rl lll l "rfli /. f/l rI/;(l1/I1I J)1'1 'r!tlPII/L'/i I H3 ): 3 15- .'2,
:-',I[,sl <nd, I). (21)07) ' I'l' rn" ,If Ir;l , k JIlJ CCOn Ollll C dcvdc 'PIll CIlI ', in A. DUll J n cl I. Ros (cds ) rll/('I'II (1110" ,I/
JIIII/tf/I(}(lk 011)' '1'''/'' 1'111' '111 /" "I/O/HilS, ':h,'I..-IIII,III I: h 1\\,, 11'< I
:-'iI1ACI', II. h 111,,,l lrddl. 111 01 nUl lt llllil 1!t-I, 'lil1'11II' III, ill 1. 1,11\\,"[1. M. 1'. Nt'\\ma n (1!Ih'l
011' ,'IJ' 'II' \ (ild/I'"m '1'/ h'rll H'III /," IIP.(tlll ,\I, ., "11 11.111 , 1'1' , 11 !C' H,
.It\.,I, ,\i
I" " " , ,II " , " di, ..
!".1 '<;" I' "f"rd I). (cds) (20()5 ) (;job,,1 /)C I 'clvplII('l// I/lid 1'01'(/,1)' NedJl c(ioll: FI/c ( .111111"11,':' I o!1
:,11 11'11,,, I IISlilll /iollS, Chcltt'llhal1l: Edward Elgar,
Ii , \\ 1'1)1)1 ) 'Co mmodit y in LD Cs: A rcvie\\ and prospects: /'rosrc.<s ill 1)1'1 '<'1"1'11/ ;" 11
fit ; I I .!} : 1'<)-50,
ii , ( 119 '; 11 )' rhe economi c devel opmcnt of La tin Ameri ca and il s prinei p_" problem; UIHll' d N, III""
'I",,"i. ( ;onllnissiOIl for Lalin America; also published in Ecol/omic Rullel;1i .fen f. elli" AII/"" ' '', I I I
.IL
III, II. 17) Oil Ihe Principles o( Political Ecollomy alld 1hxat ion, reprint ed 1971, J " Ildon: Pl' II14 /
I1 I1
I, .,1 II, ,l lId Balasubral11anyam, V.N. ( 1994) 'The long-run hehav ior of rJJC relative price of pr ilTl ar) ,1111,
"Iil ro "': and policy implicalions', Wo rld Developmellt, 22( 11): 1737- 15,
, II I I 'Ii!) ' The distri bution of gains belween invesli ng and borrcllving co Lilltri eS: AlllcriclIlI /:'t'Ol}II IIII,
" ,, '. I'''I )''I'SIIIIlI Proceedi ngs, 40: 473-85,
" \ I Ii76) '/h e IVenl/1! oj lVa/iolls, rcpril1\cd 196 1, London: Penguin .
Dualistic and unilinear concepts of development

"(lilY Binns
cllovelopment imperative
h' III " "i ")nd World \lVar, Europe emba rked on a mass ive pmgranUl1c of reconstru cl iull , tj
141 whi ch W<1S the M<1r.)haiJ Plan, launched by the US Government on 5 IUll e 19,1 "Ita
11i',",1I1 Plan was heralded as US financi al help to the devastated economies and illt l 1'.1111.
,II Westc1'll Eu rope, this 'goodwiil[ gest ure' was aJso designed to stimul ate Ill , II ",," 1",
I II .1\ j,mgconing manufactu ring sector, The MarshaiJ Plan, which i.njected 17 11111 11111
,," 1(110 Ihe UK, FraJlce, vVest Germany and ft al y between J948 Llnd 1952, generated mUl i1 , ""
III ' III Ill,' rol e of ovcrSC<1S economi c aid (Hullt 1989; Rapky 1996). Anot her la ndm,lrk ill Ill l'
'j\il
l
lllIl1 of the need for r icher count ries to play all acti ve role in tht' developmcnt of 1'()()1'l'l
IIl1t, Ii " (; 1111l' th an I wo years later, on 20 January J949, when US President Trulll ,Ill, ill ' Pili III
i " I Inaugural Address, proclaimed:
,,, ' IIIlISt cmhark Oil a bold new program for making the bCJleuts of Our "dv. lm.....
11111 illdustrial progress avai jable for (he improvement and growth o( llJldcrdcvdOI)t.'d
"' IIIll' Ihilll half the people of lhe world iIrc living in conditions approach ing l1li 'CIY, j hl' ll
""" II,., il1.1dl'q Llate, They arc viet iITl S o( Their ecollom ic Ii (e is p ri I'll itivc ,lilt!
I "" 11 is <I handicap and <I th reat bot h 10 the lll ilnd 1, \ mlll' t ' h ll IIIl
11/ " \ 11111 ,' in hi'IM>. hlll1 l. llli l)' Ihl, .1 11.1 ... ki ll III rd il'l'l' 111 (' ..,lil'rl'rillg 1I(
iii' \, "' ..,,"' .... I 1110 11 II I' 'I llllllld l11 ,d,('.' av,lil ,d,l,' I{J 1"",1. (' 1{) VIII I'. I' {"I,I "" lilt' 11('1Il'iIl ', Iii
"I II '1 "1 " III h 'l lilli, ,Ii 111111 /, '/",(1 ill 111<1 "1 III 11<'1 1' [1" '111 I".dl 1' 1110 '11 ,1"I, il,II IIII I', 1(11,11",1 1,',
hi ,: ( / 'llh" , 1"'I 'q ,."r'IIl l' /'p'-' II.I"II!'; "I 1111' 1:1111 ,,01 ' 01 d,'. I' lt, I 11 ' 1 I ,I
J. !'_ !.'. Idll, .1, ,\ 11', 111 11 ill l I lt' II ). I d l !!I-\ ll fl ill
Ilr , lUlil ,kl ',I I:',
If I, , ,,11 11 ... 111111111111 Ih, /" 11,,\\ 11 ,, I wn J
I, I 1' 1111-1 1/" J1, '1" 11 ' " {)I ( ,/"/"'" ,'1/"11
( II I I i, it i , 1/ l I 'J '\
I , ' IHI I' (;I"I",Ii , i/(;"II""tI il" I II, , '/1' "''''1, I ill;,It'j iO 1'j! ,i L "" ,1 1",,1,,
111 11 11"" 1,, II ' h, ,J
Cd ft)
' I'. tl nl 1111 11 1
11111
'.11111 '11I ,l ll fl ll"li ,I 11"d, I. k!I"I ' i!II I ,11:" -; jlll .1"' I'/i '" III ', ,I 1I1I1 1I, j' ..,111
11 1. 11 I( 1'111 ',1,"1\',11,1 ,1 ' '' '\\' \\ ,1 \ III, " ' H' I\lI il! Ilil i'II1i, III),I,d I, J. 1I1"1 I\ (1(1 '1 1'1, I I
neoclassical paradigm
II,, ' . \1 ""1,,.1 par,uligl11 11111 , 11 Ihlil l-i ll).; "hout devel opment in the two 01
11 11 ," ,illn Ih\' <; 1.' <:1111 .1 World W<lJ', Ada 1\\ "' ll1ith, Ihe IlI lInding lather oflhe classical
ill 1\1<'/11//1 o( NIi 1iCIIIs ( 1776) in the carl)' yelJ's oi't hc Industrial Revolution,sa\\>' manu
I I, III ri ,I, la p,lbk or<1(h ieving grcater increases in productivit y than agr iCLtlture, li e em phasiz(',\
of'markets as an inducement for great'er productivity, whi d1 he beli eved would 1e,1.!
til wealL'r IJ hnur special ization and producti vit y. More than a centur y later, in 1890, Alfl(,.1
1\ I.l fsh"ll, in hi s intlucntial book, Principles of Economics, speJit out the ncoclassiGlI perspectiv,
\' lI lpllll';i/ ing Ihe desirabilit y of maximizing aggregate economic wel fare, whjle recognizing th, iI
IIII', dependent on maxi mizi ng the value of production and raising labour productivit ,
Ib 1l lI lllogica\ change was recognized as being vital to raising productivity and meeting til l'
for food and raw materials from a growing population, There was also a strong belief th.l\
Ii '.' 11,ld.: and the unimpeded operation of the market were necessary for maximi zing efficie ll\ \
""d I'lll nnmic welfare (Hunt 1989),
Dualism
Iheme that emerged ill the post-war period was that underdeveloped economies \WII'
111 ,11,11IlTi/ed by a 'di chotomous' or 'duali stic' nature, where advanced and modern sectors of thl'
,', 'I/ H'lll} I:oexisted alongside traditional and backward sectors, A strong proponent' of the duali '
I" , Ir lJlIure of underdeveloped economies was the Vlest Indi an ecol1oJRistr Arthur Lewis, who\l
"Illitl.
ti
l' aper 'Econom ic develo pment with unlimited supplies of labour' was in 19S,I
I tI" olhers wl1(1 fo Uo wed him, Lewis did not differentiate between ecoDomic growth and develllP
111"1 11 ' I he paper, which, significantly, opens with the stat ement , 'This essay is written in the cia'
',II ,Ii IraLl it cnvisages a division of the economic system into two distinct sectors - capital ist .11111
The subsistence sector, according to Lewis, consists predominantly of small -sca le til l!
11 \ lire, and has a much lower per-capi ta output than t-he capitalist sector, where manuful
111 1Ill\!, ,1I1d estate agricul ture, either pri vate or state-owned, are important element s, 'I II
of Lewis suggested, involves an increase in the capitalists' share of lh
11.1 1iOTl .II iI1COn1 e dlie to growth of the capitalist sector a t the expense of (he subsistence sector, wilh
II,,' ull illl,llc goal or absorpt-ion of the latter by the former. Since most labour for the capital.ist s,',
1111 would lIJ l11C from underemployed in subsist ence agriculture, changes within the la lk l
I" til t wne seen essenti,ll for the process of overall economic development.
'J Ill' l l.'wis l11 0del had a significant lDil uence on development thinking iJl the 19505 and 1%11
1.111 II h,l "o heen nitici zed for failing to appreciate the positjve role of small-scale agriculture in Ih
. 11,'\clpl'l11l' nl process, With agronomic successes as the Green Revolution, it was realized th,11
I,,,,,i ng Ih,' productivit y of the rural subsistence sector could actually be an important , ' .' ,," , " ,
t II I\( I Ih.HI ,I .. 111 dcvel opment poltCy,
. , ., ' " " ' " , ', ' , , " " , ' " " _ " .
11K L\l II U:pt II I IS abo app.lIcnt In ,nml l_,nh sp<1tl ill development models, lo(uSlI1g ,)I\
, '" . "" . , ' , _ . , ' ,. ",' . ' . , . ,'_ '. _ , .. ,. ' .
rh. ddlll c.: l1( ,mel pO lcntl.11 (If L(lIl II,lstll l!-\ I.11h(1 than eUlnOJ11I( scctOI, dS III 1111,
, , ' ,. " , " .. , ' , _ . '. , . , " > " . , '
" It,1l1i ,!ltas ,It the "xpt:nsl 01 l ' Ih I , \\ h WllI , k ' 0 1111: woul d ,l1 g11 \ II' ,ll ll ll .I I \I 101' II Il II I III I. , '" , ,
, I ' I', li h ly 1<1 IIIIIJ IIiI Ill l'gn1wlhlll t h('".1I111>Jl II .1 " ' ,
'1 '. \ ,I I l' I\'I" ' PI"Ih' 101 \ ",,"111,11 <1\,<,1 ,111 .1, ,\, "'. 1".1" II I 11111Ii '_,11 111 1,11 rd, tI,llI d Al , he rt ' .. , ,.
1I II1 ",IIII(t . d l' I'" to. 1 ' ' IPI' , I\, ll tl l'J,-" ldVIIl ,'Ii :d,II ,lt l'I',I" \ <11 __ _ ' . ., 11 .\' \1 I. d \ ( 1' ):>7 ) , UIIlIIl!;IIIV1'I,II I), ,1I ,111 11
c '.


Iii . " 1'11111 , 1" ', ,111 \\ .,1 II " 1/ .1;.' 11\(, 1 '" 1, 1,h 'I IlLI Ii II I ,Jl h ," .lI l.I', "I IIii' '"11111 1\
j till ", 1,1" >111 " ,q,il. II ' "t1I. III li p \I ) 1111'\ 1' 1',1,,1. 1'1,1,,11
I" I., III lilt' 1('/.:111 11 " wit ;" I, ' 11111 I" ,. It '\' \1 , ki lkd .llld l.' I1 1<"PI ising WOIk,'J." ,111 ..1 11111. II "I
I '-''i ' I1.I! , I, [\ 1), 141.11 tl1.1 1'o uch Il' ss dYIl,lIl1i, ;111',1' 111.1)' /11'11
II htllll Li.' nl k , 1< iII Ih,lt h), II JllIl aling demantl in uLi ll' r, P,Irl ili lLIII\ I I( 1/ II
1/ :'11', in thL' gJ'\ lwing areas III,I}' initiate economic lit t: lsl:\oI ht' I'<',
, 111 11,1 11 working independently of Myrdal , followed similar th ink in g, l'IllI''''III:', ,I
.. I ' 1lll bnlanccd grm-vth', and suggesting that the developmcnt of onl' or 11101,' ,,'II
'1J1lll11il strength is essent ial for an economy to lift it sel f 10 highcr illCOl1ll' Ie",'k I k ,'III'!',
, I dinleraction between growing ' Norlhern' and lagging 'Sou1hern' rcgiulI' ill IIl l' "I
.1\1\\, 1\ ' il nd 'polarization' effects, similar to Myrdal's spread and I'll ... b" """1,1,,
IIl1lll'd thil t Hirschman's model,
I' hilill a cumulative ca usation mechanism, implies lh"t if an illlh.lI" lit
; 1111\ resulting from the dominance of polari zatjon effects dcvelops dming l'a din,l.l f:""
III Wmvlh, counter-balancing forces will in time come into operatioll tll r,'slorL' th,' :; illl<ll it 1/1
10111\ (' tj uilibrium position, Such Corces, chief of which is governmcnt C(0I10IlliL 1'(lIi, )" .II"
'011<1 be t hought of as intensified trickling-down effects, but <IS a ncw elC' lIIent inlhl' 111<111,-1,
111'\111).\ onl y at a latc stage in development. Their inclusion, together with thL' L'XIIIiSilill "I
111\' I lIInularive mechanism, represents the model's chief struct ural differences (rol1l th"l III
11'l tI. ll (Keeble 1967: 260) ,
1I,ilJlil.llli poli cy implication of Hirschman's unbal anced growth model is that govt'l'Jllll cnl',
I,t 11111. lu:cessaril y in tervene to reduce inequaJities, since the inevi ta1Jle search for grcatn I'l'lll
Ii I I.,J.I 10 ';.1 ii pontaneolls spi n-off of growt h-inducjng indust ri es to regioJl ," ( I'll II, 'I
I 'tHi: KI).
Ih "1',1 11,11 models of Myrdal and Hirschman have strong parallels with the work oj h ,II ",III ',
i" ,lIld olher French economi sts in the 1940s and 1950s, who poiJ1ted oul that grill" III (II .!
Il h 'rywl1 cre simultaneously, but instead is freq uentl y located in a 'growth ((,111 rl' III 1'111,
I "'I>SrIl7Ce) , In essence, the growth centre model depicts the of 1',"lllIlI il'
li.\ "11m <I centre, most commonly an urban -industrial nrea, as a result of thl' inll'II ,1.1I ,"
I ,Iihi llilckwash effects. The model singl es out crucial vari ables in the devclopmL' 1I1 01 ' 1',11li d
Iillfi ill l'w l1 omic prosperity within a region and spec ifi es how they o!:,crute, J\ 1'<11 Ii, 11 1. 11
Ih IIHllISI!)", sucb <15 motor manufacturing, is likely to attract other linkcd industri,", ,I S
III. I, SlI l)pl y it ",;l h inputs <lIld/or derive their inputs from it, Otller aggloIllL'I;lli(}11
I 1.1) further growth, while technologi cal change is encouraged through lllls,'
IIld in tcr<1ction between the various industr ial e.ll terprises,
r models
'1, II I'ml \'\lr tlcwlolJl11c ot Lhinkjng a ,t 1 ' 1, ' - " h f ' . t W, S rong y ,curocenlw,: 111 t at. 0 1CJl Jndppropnal l' ly,
I III, J tlild li n,del , I wcJ"l"j rooted I' n ' - I '" , d ' '
. ' , , ' (;: 1 n econ0111IL 11slory an cOl1scqucntly st ruclured IIy
I, I tll'I'II I, 111 11 \I1I"h In1' )0 t" t , .' .. ' ( H 99- ) '" 1
" M . ' .. t r ,, ]1 , cxpelJenl.c ctt ne I ::J: 21 , n 'a t J{oslow', ( I L)hO)
d 1111 ,11 111".1 ..,1 (' l!t llvure) is pre b'll)I ' tl , 1 ' 1 k ,. ,I I '
. . . .. " I , \ H. .1 lICIll Pll() H1W l OW a coul1try " ,'\: (l ll
Il'Il' t> ., ,I).", .1111 11111 \ ' ' ", J IJl ld ! I' ' , " lhroUi h a "'1" , l " t I . ' . I I' 1- I , ll dSC( . I o r t he I'llI'll \ l11 e rh, III
,1':01\:111(: It WIS lIlldUlI hll'(II\, tll' 11 I II I I I " '. 1 ' ., ,. , I I (l.' 111 111111,1 III'" '11111;111111 1 I Il'ur" 10 ellwr"l' III Ilw l' IJI ),
'I ,. 11 ,., c , , (1 , I " I 1 ' . ' I - 'Pil -. 1. t 'II i\ 1I111'1l'\ \1I1" til IICI I ' II I II I' ,' ''. 11 11,1 1. ,,"iI/ I ,-/I /lj'/ lI lf . ( .rr Jll'tll' 1N,(l1i
,'n 'mllf \/'II II {', (n ' ' \lI d ...' III ' IIIt' I'IIII' .'It ' .' I' , 111.,' . , ' ' , " Ill i"I I "I' lil li'" . "--".11I ,v";-:' "' 1,11<', 1'1" llIll lioll ,,, i', O
1'1 11 111 )1 1, ;10/ , 1111 '11\\' III -,- 11- ,-, I .'
"'111 1, 11.1 11> Ill' ,, 11 1. ,'11 11'111"&\ 111 ,liI ",II lv ,":'1 'Ir,) l ll .llni " 1111- 1/1111' I. ' II I u_ I' II 'I j . '
_ ; ,' . <l \\''' I '' ' , I,/(. ,1,11111' , 111 11111
_ . , I 41t H \ 11 , 11\' .) ... , ! i .n ' I' ", 111 ,1 ' 1'1"\\' 1,
The o;J(]D 0 1
high mass

onsumpllon
.1\ 'l n; <lII VI!
II) 111.lllIIlty
3 I Take
oft
J2
The
preconditions
for take-oft
he
traditional
society
A
Decades
Rostow's unilinear model
1' .l rl I\. 1"r\'s thCMYof Ill otk rn history' (Rostow 1960; 2) _The key element in Rostow's thi nking wa
I ill' capital format ion, represented by fi ve stages through which all countries pass in till
III Oll'S' of eC(l nom ic growlh_
Sfllg( ' I - 'fj-{/((itioll (/ l sodety: Characteri zed by prilllit ive technology, hierarchical soci al structurc\
I'mdll Lli un and trade based 0 11 CL1 stom cUJ d barter, as in pre-so::vl!Il tccnLh-century Britain_
Sf U.'!t' .] Precu llel/llOll Sf or f(i ke -off With improved techno logy and lransport, an d increa sed
If.ll k .l lld economicall y based eli tes and 111 0re centrali zed na ci onal states gradual "
lltwrgl.'d_ tX() l1o mic prngrcs:i assisted educa ti on, entrepreneurshi p and instituti ons
I .I[,ahle Il( Il Hl hil i/ing Lapil al. Orten traditi onaJ society persisted side by side with modern
'Ul Il Pl l1i ( ,ld iviIIl;S, in sev<' lItec:.nth- and eighleenth-ccntu ry Bri ta in, wh(' 11 the so-call et!
,lOd world explorati on (l eading Lo increased trade) were gaining
Wh ik Ihe prcwnuil ions lor t;lke-offwere actuaJ ly in Br ilain,
111,')- were probably lhe result of 'external by more advanced societ ies'
11\",t IlIV 1l)IlO: 6\.
{ l i d,I' uf): r il l imporl.lnl cowIi ng.1 few decades, when tbe last
I II nt)IJClllJi .- glUw il l ,H'I.' removed " I(lke n i l ' j, 1II.II.1l tn i/ n ll l>' ecunomic growlh, mOl
,111'd Iiii <l lilgy al1d lOI1,idcl. ti lll 11 1\<' 1IlIl -1i1 , 1' .11 1iUII .lrly in ITI,lI1ll[aduring
11 1t 111 .l r\' , 11K 1\1 '1 ,I ,O! ,I\'i ll g III 11.11 1" 11 .11 illl:wnl.: ri se from 5 pcrccnllo III
fl' l 1' / , ,11<1 .rh-I1 ,j lic.llillll il l fiH' 111111 IIl1\1hl I"" .11 1.1 11 111".11 Is.
111(' 1ll la ln'lI tll .lI ld ,'.l r/I- lwLllill!l1
'( ' , \gc "I (lIgh I "" {II/III'(IlIII' Illl' !HIIII ", I I,Y' Ilt l' ilh;II';I..
1'/11 1,11111' (II till' II 'll:: 111 Iii, 1\\ II ,lI l "I"k_III HI !I .1l 1i .1111 1
tr i ll I II rll p:,:, lh i\ IV;':: "'-" 1I! ;;;;" . d 11 111 Ii II I , 1hoi 11 11.1 \ \ !)lld \Va! (posl I " -j', ), 11111
t1 w 110.,/ \. IIl<I'S protl lid 11111 ,11111 11/11 11 1'.11 1111' 1 SlILh "5 Irs, ;r 1l,1
It il ll : 111.I ,II ines, Cilmcc,l rlit l. dllli ilg 111,' I'l'th .llld 1Ij ',{I :,_
'(lilsidcrabk infl ue ncc Oil dl'vd ll pmenl planning allilc li me, Rost()w\ Ill o(kl h.... b"j!11 Ie II
"
"
I 11 11
til
II '1 IIil ii_cd for a number of reaSOilS. Fi r:;l. it is a 'unili near' model, implyi ng lhat ' thing' gl:1
'. " l imc, which is by no means always [rue, as, for CX3 mple, t he eJ.pcri encc of miln}' .';lI l,
li l\l lI lries indicates. Increases in per-capita income have scarcely kept pace ""ilh worl d
'1<,, 1Iill' ;\1 OS pandemic has had a devastating effect on mortaJ ity and life expect ;IIKV 1,11l'5
III . o.,. III;lr<1n WlUl(Ti es are relatively \Vorse off in the earl y twenty-fi rst cent ur y Ih; 1I1 ill (Ill
''' '11 Illany gai ned tbei r independence_ Second, it is a 'Furocentric' model, Ih.lI
III.!III. lI'ill imitate the experjence of Europe and America. lL is qui te inappropriat e tll.I!'!' 1
.. 1(' 1(0 countries which have be en subjected to colonial and whose CC()I1 ' )lll i, ' , (,lilt!
I h.I \T been manipul ated to serve the demand for agricuJtlu-aJ ;)Ild mineral Irl1 ll1
'" Ill !'. manufacturing sectors il l the mel ropollilan countr ies_Third, th e lTIodd .,; ugge..,h (h,11
'iil li'1l:, progress tbrough t hese st<lges in the same sequence as happened in Europe and Nu ll II
I Ih lt in some develo pi ng countri es the sequence of events has not been so stl-uighlli llwdn l,
, ' t'ld ,h.l nge in the agricult ural, industrial and ser vice sectors, for exampl e, happenint: ill l!tt'
111111 I,It her than sequcnljall y. Whi le modern consumer goods, Sc1lOGls und hospita ls llli l y hl
1,1 "' t"wns and cili es, in remote rural areas these facilities are frequentl y aoJ PIIPI
I III lISC siIl1p'le technology to produce food for their (amil i es. Finall y, it is often wr,ll1gh
I ,kvdoprnent' model. whereas it is actually an 'economic growth' model. Rostow w. )\ WI I
111 1"1 , with economic progress and il1Creasing industrial investmen t, ra ther than 111 1111,1"
Illd other non-economic indicators of development. Some coun tries have expcrkl1u'd
I "I r.1pid economic growth, yet much of the popltl ation has fe lt liUle benefi t froll l 1111 ..
1111 1',111 hl' cilll t:,d 'growth wit houl development' (Binns 1994). The real significance ,d ""
I II ' Idel that il seemed to offer every country an equal chance to develop_
n dllillism t o basic needs
hil l "I distinction and explanation drawn by Rostow and others between the proccsSl'<' II!
Ii 11 11 1'development' led some writers to try to cl arify the situati on. There was also gmwi1ll\
' II III "t economic growth. which had been the main preoccupa'lion of Lewis,
!",llI d I{ost ow, did not necessari ly elimi llJ lC poverty, J nd tha t the so- called ' t ri ckle-down'
r 11, 1 "wth generally fa il ed to benefit the poor in both spatiaJ and social terms. Dudky
IId lillich -needed clarificati on on Ule meaning of devdopmell\, suggesting lhat povert y.
,,1. ,\ IlIl'll ( ,1Il d inequa lity be key foci i n l he development debate, <l nd thallhcrc Sh' lllld
0I ! I , II II(.'CI'I1 l or tile '-L1l li 1menl of needs (nola bl y food, heal th and education 1 t\t roll gh
,it !I 'III'lIl 1%11. \1/721. Tht' hasic !ll'eds approach gained momenlum ill lhl'
I" 'II., TIlt.' Inlt'm,l tinll ,d 1.1 11t1l 11 UI.... lllll lt ioll\ 1' 176 111l1fl' rencc on Worl d FmplllYl1ltlll
pli,1 1110' I In: I,I I,lliun lit 1'1 1m 1(' 1, .. 11111 1 1'1 ilHI,111 1111. ' til ;\di"11 IllI' ;\ H.lsi( <" 11 .J ll'l',)' III
II 'I'n 11 111, hi)!. hlighli nS 110\"; 1I)" \1 " , -Vill i !II!! . ,N,I I", , "",. ,1i Ji ,n"l 111 till' IWlilid lip III
pVI . , 11 1.11 111. 111. ill , I I' rCl(" " "I dil\ili;,dl ,1111111 h ill l'" rl > llim;tccnl h-I;"cn tul")
11 1111111 l !l'l l lI lI l:'. ill ';I'!Hhll1f\lr ,1i1l 11l1" IC p rmiLlI:t iv.. wit h
III< I ,,-,II!; .\, 111.111.1 ' 1'-1 111 Ili ll.\li
I /1/ iii' II ' //li/fil' 1/ 1'.1\ I iol
f '1 Io! L l'ms ,hlv (he IIldi ll \\ \'11\. 11 (;, pi [II!' IU'h. ii i 1 , ii I';';), \\'; . , it-. 111 1' dow/I ''1' (1 ,11.',", 1,
i 11 11 II\ I"'!IIIIIIIIIII lit! ' flll !II I H' 1' 1" -;
1\\ ,1\ tll ' Ii'II"
.-ell) II] II '"J:'Jl jjW1 i1 il:r!'.WtCW
I " I ,I, \. 1d,', 1, "Ii ',lIkl III<" I ,,1d,'vd"I"I Il'1l 1111<'1' 1\, '", [ Ii 'II II, (I'jll ,) ,II1 J IIII II I ( 1'))'9 1. 1< <.: d'l IL'\ ( 1')67) ,h'II'
1"1 II , I 1,,, 11,,) 1I Id 11 "1\14" 11 \ SO( i " - ('L"(IIl rlPllfl" '\ i ,''/t'i, II I ( ;" "X flr/ Jhy, though written nearl y hall' a ( enlll!
"fl " ,,'.Id l 11('1 [11 111. :\ III ' 're rlu'llth- \\ ril l('n OWl, ic\'I' is provided in ChaVH' r 3 of Potter el aJ.'s Ceogm{lilll
pi i '(' I',/lIj "II<'I" i.!()( ),I), 111 I',dllllall ( I,) SR), Le\vi:; (1954), Rostow (1960) aJld Smith ( J776) are justitilll ,h
,h \ I.t'isil le Xls, whi !..: Alrred :l-1arshall\ ( 1890) Pri nciplesof was a key undergradulIl'
IL" th".. k I" ,.. 111 "1\' th,ll1 :, 0 Vl';lrs.
REFERENCES
Il lI l m, I. \ 19'),1) h OI,iurl Ali-iol , Londol1: Routk dglo!.
1k lill C, H. ( 1l)C) S.l /.l cl'c/"/J/I /( 1 1I r/, COI'! ' (I/ il ilhe Three WO I'lds: Towards all il/ ternat jollal Poli l iml Ecol1olll.l' ,II
i h' I'c/ol'""'lI t, London: l.ongman.
II irsLi lill an, A.O, ( I<J 5H) n ,e SI of l ;coII IJ l11 ic Devel opment , New Haven, CT: YaJe Univen, ity Press.
Ilullt, 11. ( I,)Il,)) I:'''''"UIII ;( r/ ICo ri c5 o( Ilcvc/opm clI l , London: Ha rvester
" cchk, 11.1'. ( I%7) '1\>lod cls of economi c devel opmenl', ill R.J. Chorl ey and P. Ilaggtlt (eds) 50c;0-eCOI/( I/III '
M ,,,Ic/,;II I.ondoll : Methuen, pp. 243- 305.
I. cwi s, \v.A. ( I 'l' collollli c devci ol'lT1 ellt with II nl imi tcd suppl ies of labom', Th e Manchesler Sch o(l/ i.f
LWll oll1 ic II li d Suci al Siudies, 22 (2) , rvl ay; r(' prin ted ill A. Agarwala and S. Singh (cds) ( 1958) The C0/1(11""
"I Ulldcrt/cTc/oIJl II CI7I , Oxfmd : Oxford Ulliversit y Press, pp. 400.....49.
,\ 'I,lr.sI1<llI , A. ( t1l 90 ) I' rinc;"lc5 of EcoI/ O,n;cs, eighth cdir i()n, reprint ed J920, London:
tl ly r.! .. 1. C. ( )')57) i:collolllic 'f'I/(:o r)' lIlid Ull derdeveloped Regioll s, London: Duckworth.
1'''"lT, lUI., Binll s, '1'. , Elli ott, J.A. and Slllith, D. (2004) Geugraph ies of Development, London: Pearson.
l'liloli , Papcrs of the I'res idellt s of the Unit ed States ( 1964) HI/ rry S. Tru mall , i'ear ] 949, 5, Washi ngton, 1)1
I illited Slates ( ;o"cl'Illll cnt Pr'in ti ng O ffice.
I{' ljl"')" I. (1,)% ) OClif /op mcnl : Theory aI/(/ Pm ctice ill the Third World. London: UCL
1(,,1, I;. ( 1\197 ) Til e Hisl clIY o(Ul:' veIQpmenl , London: Zed Books.
w. ( 1960) The Siages of Per l/oll/ ie Growlh: A Non-commul7 ist Manifesto, Cambridge:
I' rcss.
SClTS, I). ( 19(,9) 'The mca ning or developlll en l', In terna l iOl1{1 i DeveloJl l1l ent Revi cl", 11(4): 2- 6.
,Sl' l'I'S , D. ( 1,)72. ) ' \'Vh,ll arc we \T yin g to measure?', f oumal Qf Development Studies, 8(3 ): 21- 36.
Slllilh, A. ( 1776) r he Wetl lil l o( Na l;oll s, 2 vuh, reprin ted 196 1, Lo ndon: Met hucn .
2.5 Neoliberalism, st ructural adj ustment and poverty
reduction st rategies
Davi d Simon
The ri se of neo li bera lism
I h, ' d',1I11;11i, oill' r ilt' illLTl' aSCS of ,li lt! Il iggu, ',1 ., "I"WI III WI1 ;lnd I hl.:n iI n.!":t,

lil i, ill. 1111 11 ',1111 1,lli, ,111,[ .11 1 1111/1' (;(0,';' 11 "), ii' ,il ll 1,,1 Pl ol "il (\1111" , 11, 11( , . /1\ ,, [l i ng "II I"",
l'ld ,li l. " 11 1"1 ' 1 IIld [J,II\lq!lI" "'1"JI,l il, ' 11 .Itl ,[ 1"' / I I1. t ill); Ihl' Inll 'l ll
ill III Il'V.ld.lli"ll and l' ,III ]( 1I1.I1I I II "11111",1 , ,dl d. I I,, ' 'Jilt ,ltI ,',t. III!"dl y.
11 11 I', ll !lll'ulihc r. dl ', III .lIl, . "lItl\lli. ",,'d til II ,,'. 1 . III 1I1;ll'k, '1'> II ll.1d ,
II< [,- It> f11'l11ll11le 'fn.:r' t r,h l, . II 1..111" I,. " I 1)1 III' il l .I' ,II \\1, 1111 and / l, lvid
11 1, 1., 10 I hL' w ry histor i.. ,11 ru, l! \ III 11..'1\\ 1.1" ',11 .11 1'1. OI llllll il s 11(,ll lI' !len( Iihn ;! I I II h
\ 1.lpiLil y hl'GllllL' th e l'U 111111 Ili r. o rll ll.d ():q ill III,' Nn rllt and was cxporln l tll lll l'
I \ 1. 1.Iid !JIl licies and t he measures i()J'Jllulatcd III <Iddress the debt crisis.
1111.11 adjustment and economic recovery programmes
I i.pnnses t o the debt crisis
I' H1 1, ilrazil and lVlcxico ..... soon foll owed by Poland ..... anJJo uJKed tth@t the}! could Ill ' I<I ll L',II
!ltd r official debts, triggering pani c among No rthern credito r governillc il is :llIcI I !II'
I ill ' "lal ban ks that had adval1ced enormo us comn1ercialloans to the dehtor 1110;,)'
I lh.1I ii rapid countermeasu res were not taken (md strict penalti es imposed, thl'll' ltl l11 d II1 1
Iii" " Ikl'l among debt-ridden count ries that would drive indi v,idual banks intll h<lll kJII ph \
111. 1, Il ll inl' the entire interna ti onal fi nancial system.
III!. 111l t' fl wlional Monetary Fund (IMF) assumed the lead role in add ressing the deht Lm"", It. ,
whi ch was echoed by t he multil ateral banks :U1d lead ing credito r governments hi IlW' "
'1/ 111 '111 self-interest and a determin ati on to prolcct t he in tern at,ionaJ fin ancial ' y:.fl.' jJ t. li ll'
1"'1 <1 default was diagnosed as enti.rely the fault of the deb tor countri es, on accpu nl \1 1 1I Ii ' li
11 111' II" heing corrupt , inter vent ionist, bloated by bureaucracy a nd weighed d()wll hy iw ll l
<I I . \I loss - making state enterpri ses; they had also pursued inappropr jate T h(' .1 , .1
I. 1111 ,' 1,'.'01 rate increase was noted, but was not regarded as suffIcient explanation; nll r \\, ,1 ', l it ,
d, II Iii\.' lo.lns in quest ion had been willi ngly contracted by both panics, The IMI1\-..'. wl li\ Ii 1. .111
I, to lend out their surplus pet rodoll ars, were not i.n aDY sense held li.i1, ,, !Ill
ill ,I , >tIIlI1C or lack of foresight. They were even abl e to wr ite off th eir losses or "I ' :11 I.d
lil ll hdly against tax,
ItlI ' 1\ \('1. Ihe IlVI Fs poli cy response was geared to maxi mizin g th e p rospecls (or, .11111 ,lll hll ll l l
II! il 11I " IIt 11 ),. debtor countri es. For Ill any years there was, accord.ingly, an lol,d II IIWIIi
Ill lonsidcr writing o tT the debts of even the most im poverished and debt- riddclI _, 111111, ,,
II rd' (, lI o king a chorus of ' can' t pay, wo n't pa/.
i rilrJl IIY of struct ural adjustment programmes
,II II I'oli cics, known as st.r uctural adj ustment programmes (SA Ps ), were dcsi!;. llI.' d III "ii
' 11 I1 I I1Inpcnditure, reduce the ex"tent of statc intervent ion in the economy, and pro n1111t' Iii,
,111111 IlI lll int ernati onal trade. SAPs were explicit abo ut the necessity of export PI"Onln lillll
I "II tl l(' I( il'ardi an noti on of comparati ve advantage. Accordingly, each co untr y sho ltl .! "Iii'
III 11 1,[ l'X P01'I those commod it ies til at it can produce mo re cheap'ly in re:d tel'll l\ Ih,lll /1 '.
Ilti ll " I I(lIVCIICr, internati onal l rad l' i, nft " 11 1IIlh:ti nn( l'd and inequitable in it s illl)ld' I.,; tl li
I ,I II 11I'\ll y Li ll ors, not 111.11 kl'l "h.II', ,lIlll I'IIIYl'l'. ;l lI d Ih.' t\'rIllS or tr'l(k.
I' ''' " '1'1 i'i l'd 10111' main ciCII lI' lIh.
/11 ,<1 ,,1 11 1111011 III
h, " 11l11l1 " III iIl Ln;.l st' l' l OI IIlI Il I, '((I( il' ll ( \
',1/, 1,1 111111 1I1 1"I'.lllIr Il t! 11I Itt ." 1[' IHlillt.lllt d ,, 11 1/' "" 1111 11111', 11
"rill .111"/1 . ,I', wd l. i' 11,/ 11 11 ., \1 11 11 I, ,,;,' d nnw" III

ill lhe Nor lh ;lIltllhe I,, "rld 1',, ' ltl l l1l\.1 I wlllllf',all( ! /'1 " '1'11.1 11''/ til L' ..
II II' "'. 1111 h ill I' ]x I ll' .
1' 1,,1 1,1 111 11di SIIlI ',I ' ''"II, ' 11 ill Il il' Nil/t il !\ '\' ,,'-" OI /; I;Il. 11I""I\'l' lIl l' ll l III "" Il I'lIlli l .1 111 1
,II ,i. tl lll , k d III ,I ; ,/ 11 1, 1, ', 1" ,111.1 1" l[ ll ' 1l,.il\i" I'HII( i' Iii ' , 1.. 11 1111; 1' II I til<' 11 10 11 1" ,I . rl lll.1
____
(' 1111 1. 11 1 !.l,I II"I ' ", " 1'l d,I I\I, I "I III ,1.111 1,;\111 /111 1)1 III \ \', 1 I" hi til h
11l1r,lI h .1111(10-01 )111(' IlllI 1,l ll'hn"1
SI ahiIiZJII Ii I/f JlH'{/> II J'i '.' : 111 0 \' werl' i III I I In Ii,ill;, II I< It: I! Ii d, ' i;:lIl' d I () ,IITt"i l I he dett'!' i or,1t iii l
in conJil inns ,ltltJ III prm iLlt' a IUUIl d,1I1l ln UII \\, 11Ilh 1(' 1111 Il h: ,J ,' lII'CS coul J aLl:
a public-seclor wage free/l' - 10 1,\'Jg_ ill ll.ill l'" Illd 111l' sa la ry bill;
reduced on basic foods and olher cullllTImli tl l'S, ,lil t! () n hcalth ;'\ nd cducation -10
reduce government
currency deval uati on - to make exports cheaper aDd henct' morc competjtive, aud to detcr
imports.
Adj wtment measures: Ihese were gencr,dl y to be implemented as a subseque nt, seceJII .l
phase, designed to promote economic structural adjustment (restructuring) and economic COl ll
petiti vcness:
export promoljon - Ihrough incentives (including easier access to foreigll exchange and
retenl ion of some of the hard currency obta ined from export revcnu('s) and diversification.
dOWIlSiziLlg Ihe ci vil service - through retrenchmen ts following a consolidaLioll and
ratjollal izati on of the publ ic scctor, in order to reduce 'overstaffing', dupli calioll , inefficiency
and in job allocation;
cconomic Li berali zation - relaxi ng and eventual ly removing many regulations and restri cl ion
on cconomic activity, both domcstic and inte rnational, ill Ihc name of efficic ncy; examples
include import quotas and tariffs, import li cences, state monopoli es, price fixing, implicit 111
hidden subsi dies, restrictLons on the repatriation of protits by foreign-owned fir ms;
pril'JI-iza lion - sciUng off state enterprises and parastatal corporat ions, especiaUy loss-makin '
ones, in order to red uce direct economic activi ty and resource usc by the state, and t.o rcdun
the size of lhc civil service;
la x reducti oDs - to create incent ives for incLviduals and businesses (bolh local and foreign) II
save and invcs t.
Adol-,tiol1 and impl ementation of an IMF-approvcd SAP became a prerequi site for obtaini ll
lill ,lIh:ial support. The V"orld Ba nk (WT3 ), regional developmenl banks and moslmajor NortllCll'
hiiall'l'al donors follmved suit. This ecoll olllic col1di li ot1(li-ily was complemented in 1990 by polif/l '11
((I lltfili (ll/(/li l)" the prcrcC]uisilC imposed by Ule Brilish and other donor governments for so-caUL ,I
'goud as well as approved economi c policies.
I'{ dining SAPs and economi c recovery programmes
"" Ps WL're re lill ed in Ihe latc 19ROs and 1990s, taking better accoun t of 10Gl i ci rClLl11stances .11,, 1
,Ill i,t1lk Vl' loplll cn t needs, sceking 10 soften the negati ve impacts of specifi c measures and SUpp\1I 1
ill g (I H1Iinllil), or policil's <1 ]lc! fundin g, To this end, a distinct ion emerged bClwe{' 11 SAPs, Wlill h
l' l .... ,IlIlt' till' implemented b)' a countr y over three to four years, and foll ow' "I
I', IIlwlll ie I\'(()\'CII' programlll es (ERPs) of similar durali on, whi ch were designcd to prolllll l,
IIr .. "dl ' I' 1'L" PIIIllllic The principal fundi ng mcchanism became the Enil Ulh' ,I
"'I I'IILlllr;]1 t\ Jj U' l llll'lll h lcilit y (ESI-\ F) (Wood 1997),
,"tHII C l UlI lllri l's h,IVl' sought. orten ""il h Dil ly sil or l li VL' d QI Cl'l' <;S , 10 aVll id Ihl' p'lin or 1IIIIIiiil
" 1" " <l il t! It I r('I,lill 111 I lI'l' ' "l'l'rcigl1 ly ow r 1'(11 .. \ It\ illlJoi l'f1l l'nl ill g h()IIlL" groll'n I'lllil l
,dl'III \ , 'iolilil \l ri c' ,1 )'('II1'lil1\ eX( l' j'lioll ,1I 1l 1 11111 11 ,11 11 11' 11 11' ', 1,, " 1111'01/ I",IIIS.
1',1I1j, 1I1 ,ld \' wi lh II"I ' \" I III SOlil1i 1:,1,1.\" I th';llll ll! r: ;' , 111 1t'1".! Ilw 1III L' III ,l lillll,d lill ,lll.i,11
1I1 ', lillilllll l' (11 '1',) 11. 11 1', ",III I', n l l lll lll hiJ ll(lII I)',' ,i ll1illK 111i' , cl "I"II , 1)(111111. I1 1I l,q,"1I1' illll ll ',lI i
,,j ll lll )' '1'11 111 1" " \1 (, 1,' h, 'ld II)' ,I', 1lI,lrld, III HUrll!'1 k, 1 t l.;\' , 1"ldlll' III , ,I'. -, .. III ' \ III' , tt 1'1;.1
III 1, 1111' j' lol>klll ' 11' (' 1(' Id ,lI l1t'"' 1111 1II I
\\111 I'J'}I); fvlo""11 ('( ,d. 1(11)11
I"kp-up of SAPs dill ! FRr",
I' ll l' their witl l .1. \11111 .!!)l IIIIIi ., (1)1 11\,111 \.Ike III' I ,lit' III e.!1I
II, in IVhich an IIH.: rc'lSi ng 11 11111 1, 11 II I 111 1111 111 ", 11111111 1 I "l'Iml'iw" <} , wel l as 1111' (.111.1
II rcal) lack of II)' 1'11\ 7 1111' Woild Iklllk h.Jd approved 52 slruLlur,1 1 adju 'l llIlIll
", ,lIld 70 sectoral adjuslmcil t loall" I luring tile period I II S1-U), were inlll,dlll.l'd il
"', Iharan Africa; a further 57 had been ill iliated b)l lhe end of 1996,
" I,l l ing SAPs and ERPs
Impacts of SAPs were freq llcll tl y harsh, Many ordi.nary people, rather thaal thc elil e, or Ihl
bore th e brunt or tbe adjustment burden, although some d_id benefit. even Ihe 1M! h,I S
IIVl edged that Ihe carl), SAPs were excessively economi stic and neglected or rd,mlcd '>1I11i:t1
1"lI ment. Inili all y, packages of palli ative measures were hastjly created ( for eX(lmpl,', 111('
1I,II lI I1 Progr.llllTlle of ACliOl1S to Mi tjgatc the Social Costs of Adj ust menl (PA1vISCAD) ill
1' )IIOs ), and la ter SAPs were redcsigned to contain a social developmenl componcnt.
h, ' initial presumption, whi ch provided a powerful lever for the I Fb, was tha I
IlII cnt would lead 10 rapidly increasi.ng foreign direct invest menl; thi s has n04 OCCU I'l'l'd ill
I IlI unlries (Simon j 995; Wood J997) .
\.lIly of the adjustment measures look (:'lr longer to have a tangible impact, whereas I hl' P:lill
,1 " li zati llll Illeasures, oflen implemented too hasti ly <lll d in one fell swoop ratJll' r 111: 111 ill
lI'as illl mediate, One i11direct - and argu<lbl ), desi rable - effecI was to adj ust lhe runl l ,,,I I.1f1
" I Irade substant iall y, by el imi nali ng much of Ule urban bias implicit in traditionul l'" 11 1 I, "
h,l\t ructural provision and pri ce subs idizal ion.
lI u lig thc worst -affected groups were the urban poor and - predominant ly - mb.l ll h:lsl', 1
' \' ,Int s, who have lost jobs, suffered severe salary erosion and faced sleep col11 l11()(III I' I" i,
" as commodit y subsidies have been slashed, and transport fares and utility prill" 11.,,<
, oIlII lllerci ali zed. Conversely, the principal bene ficiaries have been large iII.I
II ," port merchaJHs (as il result of Liberalization and improved foreign exch ange
11.1 rllral agcicuIturaJ producers, including peasan ts who have a saleable surplus, on ;) C( IIIIIII
I" I producer prices for their crops.
'1lI ' "lislS eval uated SAPs and ERPs almost excl usively on a sector-by-sector basis ,II th. '
" d HowevcT, thi s is inndcquale and precludes assessmenl of Lh c impacls , )Il di f'lLTL'1I 1
I "fI '" jlS and subnatjonal spaces (urban, rural , regional) in a siluati on where tll l'lT is 1111 H:,I '
I" the effects to be sociall y and geographically neutral (Simon 1995; Bra( king 1\)1)'):
II, I,d , 1999) .
"\1 1, in sOllle countries, food was un dermined by I1v[F insistcn ce Ihat flltJ(/ ' 1111 '
1)1< 11 hI' switched 10 crops for export if comparati ve advantage C); ist cd, ror (,)" 11 11111,,
I"" pressurized in ll) maize from Ihe bumper ]991 - 92 1,1 11 11 '1
l.tl ll lll g il as a buffer Whl'll (h .. 1':liIlS l'ai1l'd over the followi ng IWO ),l' ,IIS, 111,1 ,,11,'
oil il'"1 1\ hecam l' ncccs"lI!, ,11,1 I" i, I 1,)1 III !',"I'I' 111<111 Ihal ohl,lil1ed for ('xp"lr li ng Il w I
nlll I.. " , 111 1, ,, ',1
II' 1I 1I\ 1I1Il'111 slIlfl'l'n l ill W,I\'),i ir, ", ,.. til 'II 11I ,II I', il1al LIIlt! hl' ing hroll" ,ht ill lll ' Iii
"I 1.11 11111' 1'"'1 il"l , hl'itl!! "I" ., ,.',)111 Im lt,' 1 1" 11 11 \.". 11,,"1 to) '"ll1r'l' I1' ,lll' lill' lo, 1 ,"11
f 1,1 rll' lll ,I '> 1111>111 ,' 10,1" \ 1,,,, 1 III1pi",IIIIl; I," l'\" .J ,II , I 1.,,1 I 'I 1011 I' 1<' f',"II" 1,11. ' \ 1' ,"1
1111 ",/ :111
I I), II lm:
I III ,I ;\Ii-'5i llg Lil1ks 111 the Politics ()fDevelopmclIl: I. eomil1g fro /'ll Ihe PRSP Experimenl , W, II I ' I " ,
,', I "ll<lon: OVC'I'scas Development In stitute (avai lable at
I" I! Il' I,,/wI'2S6. pdf),
I 1>\' 101) ' SI rllctural adj Why ,it w aSl1 ' I necessary and why it didn',t work; R'1Iicw oJ .\/j I, , III
1/ , "","11),, 26(HO ): 207- 26.
I j ' I:Iitain's new govern ment, new Whi te Paper, !lew aid? Eliminal ing world poverty: J\
' I II" ' hi century', Ihird \'IIor l'/ QU(/1terly, 19 (4) : 787-802,
111, 11"' lln, I). (2003 ) ' Poverty redu cti on strat egy papers: A nell' co nvergence"
I 1,' 1
11'/' 1' 11 ' The I'acihc Asian chall enge to Il coliberalism; in
'II / Ii d', /llt'or}, and PraClice: Current Pe rspect ives on Devdoplllel1t cl l1d Dcve/oplllclIl C(/-"I" '/'tllitIU,
I ti l fgl ll,lll .
,1/ 1 h,lI", !\ . (2005 ) povcrt y red uction strategies: New opporl lillil ic:"
" ,, " " 10 ", ', 1 11'1 'c/ Ol '111C' 1I1 PnliC)' l<('I'i l'l l', 23( I '): 'i2';.
'1111 ,1 1''' VlTI>' Ik duCIJI ' 1l ,',lr,II 'T,1 1',II ll' I\ ' N, ,\\' who (,d is Ihe slwts", RL' vii' \I' of llJriCilIi I'olil l'dl
I' 1111 ; 1: 3 17-Hl .
HI ,l,II ', Ii I, i\.( 1, .Illll \\'olt lW' 1IIIiI" I I, '/ ',1 11' 1'1
,", I , I " , ,1 \ 1.11 III 1 i Ilil l I
i IH I.J i l {("\ll inll .II HI r l " d ' LII ')1 ,_: t 'l l P , I I,i t! I d, I II I 'l l
" I \\' !il l "" (' ,' i HII'."
' I T' . ...1
;' , ' \111 ,111 11 ,1111 1
1
!IIi Il.d I,O) ll t II ". illl;ldlillli I II: I'! I"'!'I) 1111 ', ,1 1/'. 111 111 111 IV.I " " \ I'I , ";" I
II'. 111.1111' f'llllIIIIIH' 1I1 I" dl' il t'li II, , of 1'1"10" ,1.' , ,, hllld I"
illl iI',I " '" ,llId 111 11 \,1
Poverty reduction strategies: Su bstantiv(' cl lcmqe or business as usua l?
I )mill )!. Il)lN, mallageillent and ch anging Il,d 10 Iile in trod uction of a new VOLII ,.,
I:II }" <llhl S,I\I-'s .1I1 d ERPs were slIDl lllartly supersedGll by an <lJJparen tly more [)osit ivl ,I I!,
lIlopcrd live appn),lCh known as pOYCrl}' reduction st rategies (P RSs ). This Cits well wilh the 111,11 " 1
dllllol's' reinvclltion 1)1 develop ment assis tance (previously aj d ) as ' partnerships' since the I ,.
1991h (Kif-lc el al. 1')97; Narman 199')), and al so the adoption of poverty reduction or eiiminJll f' !
:IS thl' il'ifll Wfil ' of develo pment po! ici es by several dOll ors, most notabl y the British 'New' Lullllll '
Parl)1Governmcnt lhallook office in 1997 (BmneIl199S),
Incvitabl y u nder such circll1llst ances, poverty reduction means different things in differenl (lIlI
lext s. Howeve r, the [MF and WB adopted PRSs as the Sllccessor to SAPs, and the ESAl' 11',, '
rl'l1alllcd the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility. Continui ty of underlying dOllor poli cy, hi III
ever, is strong. For inst an ce, lending remains conditional on adoption and approval of a POWI!
I{cd ud ion Strategy Paper (PRSP),
However, in contrast to SAPs and ERPs, PRSPs must prioriti ze antipoverty expenditures anJ ,Ii i
supposed to be rrepared through a wide-ranging and deep process of consult at ion with civil SII. ,
l'ly. The cxteJl t to which this has occurred varies considerably, and there are numerous exam!' I,
III superficial or minimalist 'consultation' designed to enahle the government to claim compliilll !'
,lIld legitimacy.
i\lany parts of ci vil societ y remain cynical, not least because the underlying approaJ1 ,111,1
,1;',l'l1da (includill g condi ti onality) have changed too little, and on account of perceived fI eldell ,
lo y Ihe IFls, For instance, during preparation of the P RSP's predecessor in Kenya, the Nalj(li ' ,I
I'() ver l y Eradicatjon Plan for J999- 2000, civil soci ety NGQs lobbi ed hard for an approach in \\111, I.
(,overt y reduction would get priority, il l turn promotin g economi c development. The WB fai led I,
support it.
The rather tenuous assumption underlying PRSs is that neoli beral macroeconomi c reform Wi ll
proillote a reduction in pove rt y as a resull of leaner, filt er and more efficient econon'lic manar'_
l11ent and political governance. However, improvemenb havc been made to the process since
(,;II-Iy 2000s (l)ooth 2005; Driscoll with Evans 2005), and some assessments are more positi ve /1' I
( :rili g and Porter 2003) , but others (c.g. Fraser 2005; Larmer 2005) see them as a form of
lontrol by IFl s and the participatory process as a Trojan Ho rse.
Co nc lusion
111\: \ ) f the cQllst'rv(1 tive doctri nc of neoliberaJis m at the end of the 19705 was rapl .ll \
tr<lnsl<llcd into developmcnt and aid policies by the No rthern donors and IHs at the onset of II; ,
,klll t:l' isis. Thi s required debtor co untri es to bear the full costs of adjustment and recovery, '1'1"
1II<II kl.'l m iellll'd and Lradc-integrationi sl policies were embodied in SAPs anci then ERPs, campI '
ill t', .! ll1 i" ltirC of shor t tcrlll stabilizatioll :l l1d lo nger-te rm <ldiustment measures, Much hurJ,I" 1
l ;III S..:d, o /I ell 10 some orthe mosl vul\1e r'.I hlc I' copk , 111;111)' rllral producers have hI li
"Ii ieLi i'roIlll ,lgridJi IIi I'D Iand markcli ng 'I h,' i, , 1\1 /l WIlI ;d U Ish We re :)\'l11eli 1ll <.:.S tili Lli I
li ,li t'II . t Jrl 1,III \V,I ' rl'dll \.cd, .111 .1. 1", ,1 "11,,, 1 1"' 1111,1 ill Ihc Illi d 10 lak
,!j' I' .III'I III \ n 'l' ll III <; OIIU' Al'l il, lll ,1'1111\ ' 11 I I" ." 111.11 1\ Illtk ,llld .. poll( I(
W,' I,' 1"11, ,,, " ,11\1111 11 111: 1,11 1'111 111 111 :(h.' "t " ", l'I' I" " llll lJ , 11,,'l.lll glli l!',,' ,11101 1' 1'\''''11 ,I
11 (11 1 tIl " 1. 1,111", 11"11 1,, Id, lf n l l'I")tI II' "III' Ii II V. hITi' 11 ,11 ' 1"" 11 ,, 01 111101"1 IIII' l'IIi ",' til I' ll'
h ili 1"'1111 1'" . 11 1\.,11,11 11" '" 111,'11II1111.. Ill illi'"' 1111 ",lll,, II il" 11 ',' 11 II I 1" d,ll ,
1I1i 11l 1,1.11 1'" III,' IIlIdll lY;lIg d",: 111I1 1( llit! ll ; ii' 1,1,1, l' , \\II I!' 1111 ' '/'W I.(
I 'j." I, II u dI., 11 11 11 ,1 11.1 ' 1,IW. jj I' VIII I III 1',11 (J t'ti 011;.1 7 ,11' ,ildi .'llIlI>!
'<li ' "'\, ,01 1' ,1111> .iI ,., 1"\l l' SIII perspecti ves. ;' 1)' In" rq11'u,t'lll <l st:k,,. 11I11I "I 1I ' ."lo il
, '1li l'I I.illk> ill Ih, ' 1'"lill ( .
"Ii , llindon:
III> il\' '/'''' 'rki pdf).
" ,\1 11, 1',\' <llls.;\. (2005) 'Second
1111
' "II J,'I'c/C'I"II"III: .lr'I/1i 111(' EXPCI'IIIICII I, \Viii kiil ,:
Ilevcloplllt.:111 Institul e (a\'ail" hk at htt p://wlvw.()di.mg.tll.!
-ge nerat ion pover ty reduction strategies: New OPPOrlUllilil's ,111.1
I. 01 II'S: Ilcve/oplll ellt Policy Rell iew, 23( 1): 5- 25.
I "" I I ,lrll'l':C, R (eel s) ( 1996) Adjllstll1 ent ill Aj7- ica: l. CSSOII Sji'olll Coul1 try Case Sludies, Ald(' I' , /i, ' 1
1" , lil t' World Hank. One of the Illost lIScfuJ World Dank Oll tput s, coveri ng Burundi, COle (j ' ("oi , , '
1' 111', 1, Nigeria, Sencga l and Ta nza nia.
111,,\\ 11, E., Milhvard, B. and Zack-vViliiams, A. (cds) ( 191)9 ) Strlle/llml Adjllsllll el1f: Thcor}; 1'1'1/1'1'"

/,,1, I' , Londoll: Routled ge. A recent collecli on addressing the ori gins, cvolution and "speei,iI!>' I h,
I", "" lloKts of SAl's; provides exa mples, careful critiqu e:; and suggested alternati ves,
,li d / ,II1<lrdi, M, (cds) (2006) The I MP, the World mid Po licy Londoll and N.:w Yen /,
.\ '1"cJ'ul coll ection of assessmcnls of the Brettol1 \""oods II1St it uLi ollS' role.
I I I 1'192) .'truelural AdjlJs!TI1Cllf amilhe EII'I' il'Omnel1t, London: l::ar thscan. Tbis is probalJly $1ill lilt
Ii 1"IIgih treatment ofthe environmental consequences of SAPs.
1/ \ II' " I' \' ngcll, W., Dixon, C. and Niil'man, A, (eds) (I 995) Sl ruCf uraily Adj usted AJi im: Pover/)', ! 1t' 1'1
" ..,ltnls. I.ondon and Bo ulder, CO: Pluto Press. Studies the imp1lic<ltiolls of SAPs on diffcrt' lll ",II I,
\I d i ll dii krcnt SGlks, from tbe supranational to the reg ional and 10caJ.
htlp:/lww,,,.odi.org.uk/pub.lic.l IIIII '
, J.. ;I
, World DCI 'clo/' "I" Ur,
D, Simon and 1\ . Niirl11 ;! 11
,1111 1
I \ N"II' 1',11 1111'1 "llil' li'r r\jriCillI/ l('I','i"I' IIII 'III: } ,',II,
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r " "I/It"I . Illlle'\1 [dlll'II L' I! .
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il " d, I '. ic-.I.i , 111'1 'I Mlw.lllwi A,Ii Il SIIIlWI IIII.t Iii .. 1'111''''111/11.'111 . 11I11t1,," J ,1I 11I '(IIIl.
, 11" "" I' ) Ii, hl, d\lIlO .. r;l L} and ciL- v.:111rllJt'l11 111 " lrk,1 II I Iill' 1'1'1th. ill 11. Sim on . \1/. Vall SpcnY" 1i
111"'II.lltl, "".!rIMII (0.:.1,) St rllctllmll)'A,lju;tcdt\{riw; !'lI l'l' n)', /Jr/l(rl''' / /lnsic Nccds. loolJdull ,11101
1;,,, 1101, I 1) , 1 1'1111" I'rl '., .
\\ ' " '' I, \ I 1'1'1 J /I" 10/(' l"II oIl i(lI/ (/ / MOl/ c/my fllllci's E" htJIlCCd Structllrll/ Adj/lSll/lfl/1 /;..- i lil )"" \\Ihat /(1'/,'
J," ilr il'fj ng Pa per, Gretl on Woods Projl'ct (3V,l ilil bk Oil U1 C Project's wtbsill: "I
11I11 ,;f/WII IV.hre ll,,I 'w,,odsproicLi. org/bric f/csaLhtml).
2.6 Dependency t heories: From ECLA to Andre Gunder
Frank and beyond
Dennis Conway and Nikol as Heynen
11"/'I'lI ril' II(Y rheo ry, more than a theoretical construct, is a way of understandi ng historicJII\
"I IIIol' dded. polili cJ I-ecollomi c relati ons of per ipberal capit alist coun tr ies, especiall y Lall"
\1l1t.: ri c<l11 coulltries, within the hroader con text of the global economy. [t is, e:;sent iaJl y, a u-it iqll1
. ,1 IIlL' dcwlnpmel1t pa ths, poli cies and strMegies foll owed ill Lat in Ameri ca, and elsewhere in til'
pnil'hery (Aillill I 97f, . 1992 argues the African Glse) . Dependency theory emerged as J cri t ical k ll
Il!rout-\ h which the hi story of l atin American development, margi nalized as it was by Weslcl "
l!vgc lll llny. I,xluld be better understood; the 'develo]JJl1cnt of underdevelopment', no less. Tht: 111 1
Ii,ti thcori zatio n was a .suLl clu mlist perspecli ve by economists who were associatcd with the Un ill" I
NHliolls Lcoll ollli c Commission fo r Latin AmericJ (ECLA). This W8S Soon transformed, ,ti ll I
informed. by more cri tical depe nde/1cy uoti(lIlS and the spread of Marxist und neo-Marxjst ( II
II f impcri ;l lislll (Palma 1978).
l'c ri1<lps (jil l,.' of dependency lheory's Illost illlport,lIl t characteristi cs is that it was a product , 01
1,lti l] \ 1Il l' ri Call schola rship ( Ill lll: h of it written in Spanish) rather than Weste rn scholars. Th, ,I
thcnril.ed on the Lati n American condi ti on as ' ins iders', as ersrwhile, often passion.11t
11,11 iw sons. This r isc to .1 mo rc informed. and more illvolved, appreciation of lhe reasom 1111
1.11 ill AIl ll' ricl ll umicrdc\'cln[J rnC' Il L. as depclldistas dealL with the context of various coull tries' sl"
l tlil IHlli on,,1 l'i ICLl ll lSt.UlCCS, and theorized abt) ut Latin America's structures of social O(gunil"I!ll! "
,111.1 Itl <. ,ili ll' d hdl'lvi ours. l" or Caribbean (and English-speaking) readers, Normnn CirVaJl editt.:l l ,
'i'l'( i,d vel ll illrt of '\(lf ill! IUli ! CUil/ om;: StIJ dies in 1973, wilh contrib utions t ranslated frllm II"
.... 1'. lll i... 1I widely, it w.l!; the publicalion of the of And re Gunder Frank (.l ll d tnt!
II ', lio ll ,lt ld Ir,IIISI,II ill 11 (J I' other Latin Amer iGlll original contrih ulions by Nort h t\ll'I eric,m lllin
\ 1111" i, ,III i..", I wilkh hro ll ghl lhe J epenJency school's ideas to the notice of North i\ll1l'riGIII ,111 , I
I 111111',.11' slUWeS {Cbilcote
1'11" 1 III Ihe ':'lCllllld \\ urld W8 r. l.ati n Amnilclll c(ol lUl1I ic prin l.llil ), {!II
1\1\\/11 ,I ,l l,v"I"I'llIl:lI! p.' 11 1 011 t he l'''l'tlll Ill' \l, lll.lI.11 I' .. 'i lll,..... !lld pr im'l l"}' Lt'
"", '1i 1l 11 Ii.,... il1LllI dlll t; i\ rgl" ILill l,1I 1 [("1\1 J'I 1" <1 II . 111,l /ti ia lh 1',1111 \i ll l-\" .11111 ( clt-Il
11I11.Idll 111.1 (hllt'i lll l hl,ti , l" \ tlllk, I. holl rl 11 l,jllil \llill l' .I , 111, ,"111.11 11I,1I", III, IIII. ti lllll IIIFI
tllllkrdc\I,;llll'lll 'I tt IV I', 11\! 11' 1'11I,l l{,11 1.1\ ri ll ir 1I<l rql;;11"'1111 IIl' lCI II .1 1J 111):"1 1" II I \'lii i
fit, , I, ,I ",," 1.1 1"'I)\,/"II lIll i"
' lih 1111 ,, 1,, 1 ,1'1'., ,. 1111 11[0. 110111
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1) ..11111111 . 11 II I
'''Plilo'l ,1 1,"li, ) WOldd Iw Iln, "lln' I(1 1011111 \11" ""\ l'ltll tt !l nic sil ll ali(l J) IJ Jn 1'/(.1
11, 1, ", III r.d wh \.IVIlIl I,'/ SI\' IIt.It ill!'. III 1111", ' ic prod ueti,111 IJ ndr.: r t.1I " J Ill!'
! ,i . 1 means of rr.:ptll il lg IlI tI"' )II.I iltl(lHr t". In lilll' wi lh this str <ll l.:gy. ' ;I)1i l. 1I go,,"'"
'", ,Iilk' prodLl cts an d wou ld he with nati onal inco l1) " reVCIl LIeS 'rOIl! pr i
1,,' 11.,. and technology l r,llls ier would be negot iated with corporolli pm. 111 1:.
11'1'11\1. li t strategy - often referred to as import industri aliza tioll (I !'II) hl',IlIW
It P' ," liscd throughout Lat in America and the Thi rd World/global South ill g": 111.!f,l L
hlt,nll,.11 LeL.A stnlcturali sl 'lmtl yses recognized sOl11e of t hc problems undL'rlrili g 1. .llill
I' lit IInderdevelopmen t, the proposed lSI remedi es ot her, more problemal i.. , 1"1 IIi'
I" 1I, ll IIL Y rvlultinational corpora te power and author ity ovcr technology tnlllsier ;Inti , .'pi';1
111'"1 "'merged <I S a new form of dependency. Fernando H<" nrjq uc Cardoso ( Jl)71 i pi III''', I
iI ill It is <1sscssmen ts of !power ami aut hority in Brazi,L, a,nd cllaJ',Ktel'i zcd the si IUil lit 11 1 111 ,I II II
h, . t1 l'collomi es as ' associated dependent development', Indeed, Ca rd oso (el l 111.11 \111
Ii II I (.lpitaJist process of ' import substitl!tion indust r'iahw ti oJ1' occurred mmll y IIrl d " j
i 111.11 1 and fu rther, that SIlJte policies would favour multinati onal capil,1I .. I III,
," I.t (,o u r.
It ,;. Ii " ( 1950) idenlifi catjon of core-periphery relatiollS as t be glob<l l hi slol' ic ll hl'ri l.lgl>
j 1111 "'111;11 development mCil lll that latin Amcri ca faced a fo rmjdable slruct ur,ll
Iii III, loloni aUsm and neocolonjaJislll needed to be chaUenged lll orc hL'\'IIIISl'
I." ,IpiLllis m was not ,the answer for Lati n Amcricall development. Accordingly, .tl li 111:1
IIll ,d 'tl llllll cll tary more deeply rooted wit hin MarKist and neo-Marxist ll1 "' lf,"oI
I " lll,lill La tin America's subordinate pl ace wi thin tbe gilobal economy, and Iii 1'1I1o; i
1l!l oIl lll' processes tJ1J t led to such cx,ploitivc and dependent relations. ECLA
,', I III t/!'[>cnclencia term s.
I} 'I, 1II IIIII'I1tiai ( 1957) Political Economy of Growth described the reasons for Lal ill ""WII"I
l"I "I1Cllt with in a Marxist framework as being a consequeuce of advDnc\.'d 1l"dUlI
I"'l ;.tI P;l rtllCl' shi ps wi th powerflll dite classes in less developed COWJlric:., wlii, I, h, !11
111 "",ril }' cl ass of Latin American eli tes rather than economic dcvdQpmen l Inllll
.1, 1111 such ' p8Tlncrsbips' perpetuated core cOLlntri es' m,lrn'tcnance oj tl .. , il tll,";il
,1111 \lI lt s cxtJ'act'ion, t hereby making domest ic resources avaiIJhlt III 1111' 111 ,
11.1. Ili lt-; Ihe economic development oC Latill AmeriLaJl cCllLntries unlikely, beclIU:>..:
lit'd IVa , appropriated by the power-elites. Accordingly, Lati n Americ'<ll1 .... U III 11 Iin
lilH lI 'dillat e and the core's monopoly power grew from the unequa l COlll1111H11i1
1, lIlId"1 Fl.lI1k ( 1967,1 979) funher developed Barau'sideas,by focusing(l!lll1l'dqlt'llti
I,t "I I,criphcral LatiD America" ccol lOlllies. In Frank's prognosis, ',Itt: Lln't'io/IIIII ' 1I1 I"
lilli/W ilt' W:1 S the concepL which be'>t t: ilaraclel'l /ed lhl" capitaliSl dYllam ks th,d 1111111
tI rill " '11.' ,-ollntries and k'vds or underJevC'1opmcl1 l dlld
ilill \Il ILl'Il .1I1 (l)lIn lrit.:s. 11. lll k ml"l l II ,i... ,,11h:('plwti rr,lll\\;Work In c.\p\,l il1 1\],' dll,tii\lio
'! I 111101 11, had .11'111 II iI. 1111 1i 1\11 1, Ii \I'(l ldd UlIl lll1l1 t' to ()le lll hr.:1WCl'll 1,llil l
' i i IIl d, Il l'" ,1\ ,I II' ",d l 01 d,,_' '11111 ,-, '/, . ". ,1 111 "1'11 1'"li llLa l CI.<1l101l1 1l dnll1ll101111111
ir.!1 111"1(' \1' 0I l'< .t 1'''1'111. 11 111:fl ;t'IIIIj,ii 11' ,1
1
1""01 \\" ,101 " "lll iril'l'o rq\,lIl1l'd \< ' 1\1\' 'C'Il ,,' III
l .ilil LI II" ' 1Itt ll ll ll dnlll'illl i'. QI,It L I Ilii ih ,ii l' ,I(,j ili .. 1 1111 ': I. til.iI \ 1t.lilll' l "'I'JIIIlI
II ,ud \V,"ldllllm i'!t 1, \ Ilj.IlI", 1 lwl,illf,,,I "fll li. l(lI\}lIIUlti l il",IIltllhllll, . 1Iooll"ll'
ftHIIII'I (1I!11 1j l'I'!!!11 Ill, I 11 ,_' 1 1111 1ojl "d I' 1.,1""
.. ,"n"" , . .. , ........,.... "' .. ' .... " .... , .. ,,' '\\ltuh IiI 'illl 11'1\'. Itl, II I1JI III Ilj ,;I/ll li Je!lli,
111 Ill . iI';I\\'l,\' 11 I ,,1i1l \ .,,'1kuti di,.'it 111,01 L ,II il iii ,I .111.1 p(ll ililolll, "I, , .. flUllI to'"
COli 11 1rit:;., rl', .. 1111 h 111.11 }. ,11 Iii " 1lil 11:1 1"\ C ';lId I ld iI("; 111111 I" II\( I \\ " 111" III IIcl'dnll o Ie) t1 Iel;"
ll1u lnlion 01 .. II'1 Id.l lioll'.
Besi des lIrglli ll l) Ih,Jl the dq)i.' lllkn l (ore- pcri plleq rd, llllIll\11I 1' <trticulatcd .11 I,
l1aticma] scale, I" r.mk ,Iho 1'"... iICcI "lil t <l ,i mi lar mClrOl'oli -; ",lll'lIi l\.' n: I'ILiomnip occurrltl "
smaller (regiullull Ul partkulM. he descri bed simila r Jq'l'ndcIlI cirCUm1;I<lJh:es ,>ecmllil
between cit ies Ul LuLin American coon tr ies and tbeir peripheral 11i ntl'r1a nds. Within this '1'1 11
locali zed scenar io, tile ci ty .Ind ib periphery increasingly polarizc!d a or the
italist relati om between them. namd y the metropol is exploiting its satellit es. Dense netvvorl Ii'
metropoLis-, atellite combinations formed what Prank referred to as 'constell ations across n.ttlOIl'
space' (Frank 1967) .
Frank's notions of depel1del1cill, which are perpetuated through global capitalism, ran COLIIlI' I
to dualist notions that sought to explatn Latin America's peripheral position in terms of mudl "
versus traditional structures. Frank contended that by concept ualizing Latin America's unc i"
de\'e1opmcnt as a function of fe udal , or traditional, structures, t he dualist perspecti ve faikol! i.
trul y cOIllprehend the historical significance and transformative impact of capitalism's penetrillipi
of the conlinent's economic, political and social structures. Thi s dependent rel ationship that I 'IIi
posited drew sharp criticism from many, however. Laclau's ( 1971 ) analysis is perhaps the 1I11! '
notable.
Laclau asserted that Fran k's anal ytical met hod has sign ifi cant short com ings because it is bi!'
on an erroneous characterization of Marx's nOlion of modes of production. Instead of basin!\ d.
construction of a mode of production on social or class relations, as Ma rx did, Lac1au clai m!> III
Frank's reli ance on market relations as tbe defilling quality of the processes under which prod ".
tion occurs is inherently flawed. As a consequence, Ladau concludes that Frank's analysis offer Iii
tie more than an account of a hi story that is well reported; in effect, he contributes nothill
i
:, ' I
theoretical explanation in terms of determining cond iti ons.
The resullant tensions with in Frank's analytical framewo rk as a result of arguably incorn:l.l! \,.
less than accurate, usage of Marxi st ideology, led the way to other nco-Marxist investigations 111 11,
linkages and possibl e reconcili ation between dependency theory and Marxi.5 l1l . One wac;
Mauro Marini's fundamental thesis in Dialect ica de la Dependel1cia ( 1973), wllich concerncd II ,
'super-exploitation' of labour ill dependent countries as a necessary sl,ategy fo r tu I'I !
tially compensate for the falling rates of profi t arising out of unequal exchange. Seeking to 'end lit
debate', Chilcote (1984) effectivel y situated the various capitalist and socialist approaches III IIr
'development of underdevelopment' - structuralism, dependencia, intcrnal colonialism, II,
Marxism, even Trotskyism - as a full set of alternative theori es antI perspectives on deveLoplll'!
and underdevelopmen t. He also finds a place for Wallerstein's more worldly focus in the colb.I I"
of alternatives. Wallerstein (1974, 1980) adapted dependency notions not only to COl1lnl CJJt til! II
commercial relations between the core countries and Latin America, but also to examine \\ ...1
historiography in terms of the dominant and subordina te rel ations thal successive
their peripheri es and semi-peripheries bave expe ri enced, from the long centu ry, Ihllttl.1
of capi talism 10 the present globali zing era (the post- 1980s).
Foll owi ng Chilcote's ( 1984) insightful synt hesis, Ghosh (2001) upd ated ti ll'
alld provided u, with a contemporaq' critical appraisal and overview orcOll tempor ary thOIl III
on the full sel of allernative dependency Lheories and their 'dcvclopIl H.' 1l1 or underdnclnf'III,'1
underpi nni ngs. Agreeing wi th Ghosh, we feel that the depende\1lv par.l dit;1l1 st ill rclc vilill 11
I, artial expl anation the paths to development and Imderdcvclopllll'l lt tll, 11 11 11: I,.I ll\' " mil"fiji I
cral l..H ill Alllerii. .l n Ilillipl1S f()ll owt.'l.l. FLlrthermnn>, 1"11'1 )411, 111' ,11 1\l1l"
, Ili ll \ ' ill lil l Ihl..'l .ry\ wider oll",l iL.ll ion ill '11 " I gillhnli i' ill g \\olld I;\I,,',h 11'llI illtl "
, 1111' 11' ,11. ' il llkl.'li 111,1 11 ) j ',II I" ,11111 <H1'oI' il i II.:' l" I'111t' 1I1 " 'III ,te , 1"1" 11 ,lt'l1' \. I.LII .1 1t 1.l1" 1 "I
'--__--' j'>'"1I1 "I :H, ."I, I"\'\'I I,] I.IIC \ 1(,)lltlllklt',i:.. ,.I,'I"IIIklh\ ,I, ',11,1'1).\' 1"1 11.1I'1 ". ll t 1('11
I II II.! II I , 11,l lk' IkPI..' lldl ' IlL Y, I", I,dlll ll\1'" 11i Iqllll.IiIHl i ,II I.! '-wllt
Ir",h 2()() I : 133 ).
1,1 11 .... 11 then poi.nts out the alllo!) Dlnllill" 1.. 11 "lI lh, ,Ir\"I );l'lI l 11,l i",jllll< , "I
II ,dl\III 'S expansion in lhe global Nll llhl ' "I 'I "' l, l'If It.' !Ill ' ''"llh, lI'ilh Ilr v IIb\ I
',\\'ssl11 ent that ' unequal competil ioll' 11..'lIl. lIl h .11 1 I'"\\'ntlll dq' cnd(' ll q ' rd,lI loll
II I global izat io n's transforma.tive, di'ici I1Ii n.lI) "lid dl.'\ lrlillil'l' influenc(.'s (COIl W. I)' ,1111 1
1\1 " 2(06). Just as the imperialism of old imposed (oloni,li that foslcl'cd dqll' III I" !H \
IIlh lndevelopment , modern global ization of the post-19S0s h,15 several sill ienl fl\l lufl'\ 111. 11
I. Llcio successo rs to these imperial mechani sms:
1'!I'gramme of binding ln d.i viduals, institutions and nations into a common set lit" 11l;i rkl'1
l' ll lonships;
,I, Idated economic stra tegy of the capitali st economies, corporations and intert1 a! ioll,t/
1.ItILial institutional sys tems to encourage and stimul at e cap it ali st gmwth (or ' winners'
.llId emerging marke ts - not the ' losers', with no comparative advantages, weak or I.tikd
In or the corruption-weakened;
h' il lS of extractjng surplus through the expl oitation of the cheap labour,
IIpllwer and resources of the global Soutb (Ghosh 2001: .158 ).
l,lillSh (2001) and Taylor (1996) argue convincingly that the evolvlng world ,II
1"'lIl' hery relat ionships has entered its postmodern pbase of new dependency rdatioml lII '\,
Ii ,Ii uncertainty, rapid technological change, and a multiplici ty of cross-cutting 11 1
1111"11, culturaJ messages and knowledge ex.change, at llluitiple scales and scopes or
I I ,lI1d authority - ra nging from the global La the local, from the exceptional to till' IInll
lid lrom the elites to the bourgeoisie and working classes. Taylor (1996) draws lrom
WI and chal'acteristics of earl ier Dutch, British and Amenican hegemonic cp.:k\ III
i, Ihe tramition ot" the world", modern core-periphery sys tem to a new (.m.!
,I) ' world lnlpasse', where 'a.U we can be sure of is that thcre wiJJ be many (,!I
II ('Ll}'lor 1996: 224).
Itd,'llcy thinking has come a long way si nce its initial Lati n American interpretat iom, hili
l..oIdy's globali zing world, the geopolitical and geo-economic struggles under wa) ill t ,,11'1
I III ' .lI1ything but pred ictabl e, and can no lon ger be framed so easil y in the st.ruclur,d III III
1". hl'gelllony and Latin American dependency. Furthermore, and as a concluding 11'111111
".11 "" how dependency theory might best be reread ,lnd refashioned, dependency 11 11 111
' o' qllires us to confront the power hierarchies of the recent past (and present),
1"1' Illformed critical perspectives on the gendered roics of women, @s well as rtl l'n,
II, Iii process. The pr imacy of capitalism's system of production and class struggk, wl ll lli
IlILilored dependency theory's macro- level explanat ions of inequality Clnd
11 111. , Soulh, needs to be further rethought and scaled down to incorporal e mi l- II]
" II \ "I ,lsseSSlllents and cXJmin<1tions of class-based Jnd gendered agellC)' at the hlltl'l'
It!ll ll lllll }' nnd regional levels (Scott j 995). 'I"h is W'U)/, the ' real -life economi cs' of nllJl"l' dllll1
1. 11.. \ \i\ hillioll peo pl e who arc dependent and underdeveloped can be I11me cfll'LII \'t' I}
,I III" ,'I'OII"<lted in terms \11' Iheir , ustainabilit y, del1111Crati c part ,icipati oll J nd ;1 (1:1111111.1
,11 ., " I.d )1l1wn and authoril Y ;)1)(1 1\11.1>; Nl'l't" 11)92) .
! , .,,, ,, \ III. 'II . /III 11, ,'/1/ /.
,. " 'I 'IIIJ'II' I ' !lltil111 .11101 .II ' ,'," I
REFEReNCES
'\ " 11 11," ( I'Jh" {'II' -'j iltll 1I,:!'!.'I"i""I' II I,' I I I I'll lil(' \," 1.1/ ,"/ t 11111 It'll .,, I ,', ,/,1/. Till (,illl ,,' ilNIl. \'111
\1.1111 11 1, ,.... ' \ I,:IV
,\ 1111 11 "'. (I 'H II I III/" ""(I/ 1\,,\\ YIII f.: .\1"1111 11 \ 11"1 ,, I" 1", ",
H,It ,III,I' IIIi ' , '111/ ['. ",i'l rl l n IWIII, '!I (j'''IVII" N,'", \I" "l lth 1i"li ,' " I'r, ,,,
I ,lld,I,o, ( 1'1/
1
dqlcnci,nl IIIl'llI dl" tI ,lilt! l'rad ical "
;\ , :d 1 1/llh"ril ilr;f/ 1I IJr.I;:,/: O,igillS, j'(I/iri('S, illld /'1// 111',' , "'l' " II,IV\: 11 , CT: Yale Ulli wrsi l)' /'r,
PI', 1-12-76,
I 'hile"tl', It! I. I I ':Ill,' ) 'I II .'II ,.;C, or /h' I'c/' /l' lII e" t (/I/lIUl/derdcl'.:!opJIICIII, l3ouldcr, CO, and Londoll: ,1\
I're" ,
( "IIIW;))', ]), and J S , (:200( Glol!lIliztllio/}'; COl/tl'lldicliom: Geographies oI Discipline, Dest rrtctlOl1 ,11/
li'f/l/s/ imllrltir>l1 , Ahill!!doll alld \Jew York: Routlt'dge.
II- " "' 1', and />. Jax-\lccf, M. (IY':I2) Relll f if!, Economics: UII!lersflll uli llgWealt lt Crentioll, London ilild
Y"rk: Routledge,
I I ,l llk , 1\ , (;, (I % 7) Capitali_,," al/(I UII<lcrdellelopmell l ill Latin America: His/o rical SllII lies o! Ch i/c (ll/ ti 1/1'11 :1
:--J l,'W York and London: Monthl y Review Press,
110111 k, A,C. ( JY79) Depclldt'1l1 Acetl/n II IIlI io" (/l I d UII!lerdl've!o/,lII ent, Nnv York: Month I), IkvlCW Pres"
I ,1I",h, I).N, (200 I) Depe/ldency TheQry Rel';sil ed, Akkrshot and Burlington, VT: A$ hgalc.
I ,in'all, K ( I Y73) ' Deperrdcncc and underdevelopment in the New World and tbc Old', Special Numh"
Sliciol IIl1d Econolllic Sl1Idie.<, 22( I): March.
1\.1)', C. ( 19H9) /.oti ll Alllerican Theories of Developl/1ent lind UllderdevelopmclI l, LQndoll and New \,,,,1
I{ollt lcdge..
1,;)dau. F. ( 1971) ' Feudali, rn and capitalism in Latin America; NelV Leji Rt'l'ielV. l'Vlny- Jullc: t9- 38,
,\ larin i. R.I'v1. ( 19 73 ) /)ioleClim de la [)epcll tienria, Mexico: Ediciones Era.
1',rllll ;), (;, ( 197H) ' Depellden cy: A formal theory Ill' underdevelopmcllt or a methodology for the analysi' I
Wllerl'tl' ,;itU<ll iOI1\ of underdevelopment?: WorM Oevelopment, 14(3) : 881 - \124.
I'r"hi sc h. R. ( I Y50 ) [:(ollo/nic f)eveluplJl elll in Lntil1 AmcriCIIlll1d it.' Principal Problems, Lake Success, N'I t
I kpartllll'1l1 or LUlI10lllic Affairs.
\,()Il. c.v. ( 19';)5 ) C;elldcr !llId Development: RClhillkillg Modem ization li nd Vepel/e/ell ey Theory, 130uldcr,l ' i
I,y""l' Ric llll l'r,
'I.i \' lo" I'. J. ( IYY6 ) '['il l' Wil y Ihe Modem World Works: INorld Hegemony 10 World I",pa;.'e , Chichester: Wilt')
\\',rlln,ll'ill, I. ( 197.1) I'lie Modern World 5y.<t<'lII, \lollllli e 1. Cal'it(l /is/ Agriculture (md the Origills (1/li,
1111'0/,<'1111 I\'prld-JiculloIl1Y III the Sixteelltl, Cel/tury, New York.: ACddem ic Press.
\\',tlkr'll'in. I. ( 1980 ) nil' lvTodcrI/ WorM System, VolulI/e 1, MerWllli l iSIII (/lId COII _'o/idaliol1 l ir e Ellm!,,,;
\ \ ',>lM -Leol/l'III)', IIiO(}- 17:;(). New York: Acadl' mi c Pr('ss.
2.1 The New World Group of dependency scholars:
reflections on a Caribbean avant-garde movement
Don D. Marsha ll
' I hi, <- h''I'kl tI"l'" lU ll ,I 'I ,in' to ,I "11 1' "111") ',1' III ,I hi ' I'"11 II or <:vl nh, Ill st,',I"l 11
, \.Il lI il" " "11'1"I' ,,, ' h " II' lhl' d ,,, , ,111.1 ,1"'111'" " I .11 1 11110 II. :111 II II IUI,' lllt' nl ill Ihl' ,111 14
1
"11
110
'
I , 11 iI,/I, ,III 1111.11' 1 1111' ,11 \illl, IIII Ij.! 1111 , i' .-,1' .J.:l,, 1 1111 1111 1(1 \ 11 ..11\'.111'1'" II l- ld,' fIJ I' ,I 10/ ,1) 111/ 11 II ;,
1 " ",", 1,, 11111 IIII ' IIlw;lIiC( 1 111.11 11_, '1101 II I' .! "l lill l"II.ltli L,II II
___ ll " III, ,, 11'11 ' III Il,d L
hI! lion' Post NC'w Wndd illicltl 1111('111
ti .. '""',/'."11'" "I lir e \I, ;\\, \\"",j 1 II 1\>\'1 II! "I III Ihl 1.!l I) II IlI i!',l lt I,,' "',l\oII1 ,tI ,1l hI
' illll ..

Ihl I" 11 \, 111
t lil 1<11 "
I
I' 1, -1[
I,, '
h,
, " ,11 11 1('
ill 111,," " II! ,.I III".J !., ti ll' 1111 11l'I.lt l\'l',"1 g lnh.ril 'll
1I/' 11"}C III(If,(IILl 1l11"l'tllI1l( ..I \ 11.11 m'\\ J"" lil i"tl IOfu ',.
till I, i' l(l ll th rown h, ld, llil, ' ,1' 111 ":11 11'1.1 11 1111 "l1 lir.' I t"iI' V,1Illl' "f i', dcw l"pl lll'f11
"I' thc ha<.: kwill d :,I.II IU' NI I\ \\',, 1101' 1\.1', li l', 1 rounded ill l;l'(I rgclllW f1 II IW:1i,f
, agdinstthe h.l( k<1 ,nl' ,II gl' IIt'r," ,trike <llld growing ra<.:j al (' I[,llil'l Illlwll'll
1011 1.I1II" l' and In clian-( ,uY,lnr se. The f{)unders asp ired to inVt' nt an iIH,ligl' l1l1 l1 ' \ 11'1'
i'\'I>1 I\, <- "Iwinced that the modernizatioll idcologics vcry much in vogue el11 bra(l'd 111 ' IIIh' 1
IT. d, independenl development, nor an unders tan dillg of II)e potiLi(a\ C(OIll>III H
,i til t: ( .IIihbea n, of which more later_
lil, 1 deCIde of tbe twenty- tl rst century, Cari bbean intell ectuals in the mai n, p.tl ll l.ll
,-,1'l ll' llti sts, take on the colml!' of thei r histo rical environs: if l]colibera l . 11 1
l,dl" I1)l,ed sLlccessfllll y. then to all intent s and purposes it docs not ('xist; aU th;lt 1\' 111>1111
I, ,II, Ilg.: of Ill<lssag,ing a link between ma rke t liberalization and popul ist Iii III
l " IluTIl amo ng C<Il ribbean scholars and commentators does not preclude It!
l}uarlers over the sustainabiJity of the isla nd-national proje_ct of the Cari h""1 1I
I I i, hased on an understanding of the export impetus girding contemporary ll'lt,1i
1.( I ill tI irtl cul ti es associated with making t he transition in polit i,cal econol11 do 111 i1), 11,d
I
Itl =' r1lion and the rise of New World
\\, >1 Itl Ill OI'l' Ill Cllt in the anglophone C ar ibbean was marked by an of will
,\, 11 independent governments were seen to be in purs uit of developllleJJ I
,Ii 1\., lianl Cuture, At the popular level , cilaiJ11.$ for social eq ualit)' lhrough rcd i\tl rl lI ll " '"
1It1, II "' I), s,lli L' nt as an express ion of just.ice, And knowledge p roducers wit hin boill 1/11 h'ii
IHt 1111 liln,lr), wmmllll ity, no longer under the h ee l of colonial power, focLl sed ,ll l'lI ':11(:1
Hh ' l Iransror mati ve or anleJ io rative development agendas , Social dialogue ,ll1 d ,II ,,,,"
'" IlI l' d hy an impulse towards WesL [ndian self-defi ni tion, manifested in ,,"
, I til lire and the question of Gw nersb ip and contl'Ol of the region's resources. The
, 1111 ,II horiwil within which such mood and thou ght moved was also b) J,l!;illl'
III III I!', in the academic world between modernizat ion theorists and
, 'I' \Vlllld group - largely compri$ ing hi.storiaJ1S and social scien ti;;ts - wo uld W IlK'
,"01 illtLTVL'IlC in , Lhese debates, combining serious enquiry into lhL: deve lopfllc llI 1''' ,
" 1,, 1, I \ ,lpit ,lIisll1, wit h ,integrative, nonnati ve and programma Lic thi-nking 1.Ill 1),\l tI\l 1
01"1, tI 11\ ' Iheir pragmati c counterparts in gove rnment, media aJJd academY;l s r"d il ." ",
"'j "I wll ll' rs ,w ei ,commentators across the Caribbean came to be known a:. 11lL'
illlil' I N\-V< ;), Their tJJOughts a nd ideas 0 11 socialism, nat.ionaJ scJf-detcrmln;lIion ,lIld ili l
III illll ll l)II ,'; or capital ism n:' ,I(hcd a Wes t illcklll mass a udi ence th rough pu hlll 1", 1111 1
' 1i' ;I. 1I,1111l11,t1 rora ., nlld 11<' ''''' I1'' I'I'I' S alld l1L' wsicUcrs of their Ncll' \\ ',I7 /, i, ;,
i u-,I tI 1I1. 1f'., ' lillL', III 1"11 \ .111 01 \\';" I'lIhlish ed rnrtnighll y 1I11dcl' 111<' "lli l'"
11 ".1 1\"',1 , wi th ;rss i'I,Jl lll 111111 1, 1 11 " ',1 III 01' Ihl' Ind ies (LIWI. 1\ \"",\
1" .1 ,,, ,, I k ll" , ," 1,', ,\ ,\ 11 1',1<' 1' , \ ),,1'\'" ( .III'tIIlIl , 1)0 11 1{ld'Il ;! !. III !
1il ll l'II' , III li , 1 .r iI'\1 11/111 1 I""", NfH' \1 ',.,li / I\' I I,,,hli', I,,,oI '''.t "U.lf IL''' )', Ik,II1ll g II"
,l lh , , "'I,i1 1" ",IIt.I.lJillg ll ' " .l1t 1t t",1 1I 11
\\1, \\, I,

,
111 ,1(111),<11 ';1 \JIII(I l.ill.l'l.I1 I" 11 Ih,1I ,lPl" "IIt'd f ' II'ti ,\" LIIIII I" III ' ill 111 11'1111"1111'111\ III
II', IJM'" III ,. j"" AlIII", "'1"" ltillllLtll l'i""II, III .II ' I'l'. lI 1I 1g III
1/"''',1:, I Ll lIlldll,.l lIl llt l'S; 'III' \, II , il iid lit , I" II " , LIll i,1 h;tsl'u hlntll/
1111 f,r" 1"lIl' ,O! 1\"'11 II'""" "" l ,.II'I. I"I'"'C ' II ddL'l1IllI.1. r ilL: 11'10
I,. \ .1\1 .1 " 111 \', '1111011,11 \.L' [llric ,llli ll ll Ih l. "11111111 \ g"p, IrIW tcclmoltl::1
IIwt.. illul. undlftl' rlllli ,l lnl l;t hoU\' m,lr kcts and il1 01dl:qll.l1l' i,llr.I:ol l'llllu rL: . {;uyall d'" and inde!
1111 ( ,' lIhhl', II1\, 11I1lill' cl d('vdnpllknl , it was argued, was ,I (unction or the Slnilitii
Ik IWlld" " I .. wiLll Fumpe in li:rllls of its value system and its econom ic rel ati otJ s, r hb ('Ii 'lid
II I I' i,'w 1\'''''I) ,lIc(1 wilh the dependency perspective first advanced by Paul Bara n a[lel subsL:qmnU
l'\h: "dl'd h}" Il lht:' fS who speciali sed in Latin Ameri can area stlllues, lt was certainly a more a'''I, i
il. lhk' ',t llg"" 1C1 r Norman Girvan and Owen Jefferson to deploy in their doctoral lhcses cxpl aili ll
I, lI llli l ,1I1 undcrdt'l'elof)lllcnt (ci rca 1972) . than the market-deficie ncy argllllents of neocklS"t
P'<1 Il(I Iil' l!ls, As Girva n ,\l Jd k lTcrson saw it, the move towards self-government aod indepcndt'l l'
,",, 1" Il ll t arrest the process of undertlevelopment so long as the domestic economi es remalll ' I
<11 '1 'l' IHklll Ol! I<lrcign caf)it al and terms of trade set under colonial rule.
1' 111/ ' '1 1. 11 1),. thl' path of resis tance for New World associates was forged out of oppositiol l I,
\11 [,111 I ,'wi, ", ( 1')55) import subst it ution industrializalion (lSI ) model, favoured by Caribhr.lll
.;1,\1' 111111,'11'" ill Ih l' 1l)(i Os and 19705, BrieHy, tbe [SI programme required sta tc provision of Ul(l ll
11\ , I" 11. 11 1" " dlil lil al cntcrprises in order to att ract offshore industrial operations, The vari(ljl
I 1.11 1 ,,".1 fi scal preparatory statement s placed empbasis on the pros pects for
I 1IIId , 11 11'111, Il',hnlliogy transfer and sti mulated mar kets for loca l inputs,
11, \ I " lid ( 1
1
)72 ) ,\Ild Bes t and Levitt (1968) levell ed a critique of Lewis's model that was repl,
,I' . ,1 .1 111, ' " I Ihe <10 m i nant positions New World associates adopted on the question of
d"I'l'
lo
l'lllent. vVi th epistemic insigh ts drawn frOI11 orthodox Marxists and LJ III'
\III"ti L" " , Irllcluralists, their resea rch fitted the growi ng canOD of work seeking to establr ll
, I.' I'\'II dL'l l1,), ilS th e source or persistent underdeveloplllent, Beckford all d ot hers in the NWG wOlIlII
"II ' I,it I his slock argulllellt by anchoring the dependency concept within the plantati on expericI H
II I ( :,II 'ihh'-', lll societ ies,
Dependency t heory and plantation economy
Ikdd(.I'lI \ Persistent Pnverty de fin cd the historic plantati on slave economy as a quintess. j,
I i,tll y lkl'l' lllkllt econo lll Y. the units of which incl uded Caribbea n land, African unfree l(tbour .1 1tt!
I II n l"lpil .d, is Best and Ll.vitt's (1968) 'pure planta ti on ecoDomy', as no other econOll ll 1
ill li vily 1IL'L' lIr rnl Ihe sugar plantat ion, Beckford's work was as much a repudiati on ,I[
( ',lr ihhl 'oII1 Ik l'l'iO[lllle nl strategies as it was a paradigmat ic challenge to the li beral faJl aq' "I
ril l' him. till' mode or accumul at ion in the region rem(t incd a modified plantati on eLOi I
1',(I'i ;t Iii , ;1' dependcnt ilJl' est ment and aid ti es wit h London and ot her met ropolitan cities IWI
Aftl' ! lal ll1: llling the disartic ul ati on between bnnch-ph1l11 production and the res t or III,
"':lIl111 Ill)'. ,lilt! tlte general char acter of local ecoll omi es, Beckford (a nd, 1,11(' 1
11i" .1 ,1I 1l 1 1,\'\,1 11 i ll ll tl il h'd ot her structllral feat u res of the plan ta tion economy whi ch
1II Idl'I l kwh 'jl ll H'III :
1,II1d [('!J "
in
' ll1en" of l'I ,l llt;tliOIJ I' rociu..:l illlllt' ndl' d til Il:SII i('1 dOllles li c food f)rod ucti l) n;
krill ' II I (hllk .,flCI! .I1'lL'ri ll r.llt'd ;IS ri, ing li.(h l ,1 11 .1 101111'1 ill 'l ' ll rh presell ted Iwl;lllce of
oI iil i, 111 1
:. I,I!J II .II I1 (r il l"'.! III III "11"" 111 11'111< 1", I dl\l' l\ ill l ,llillll (11'ti ll ll' J il l!
ill 11'1 I ,\ ,'11 1"/1 1.,
1;1l\\', 11I ( 1'1 ',11 , , . i, ,',1 Il" III
1'. 11,1,11 , .l Id" 11"1 I" ,I/ dy ( 11 ,1111 /""" <I(ll il
IIi ,II , i ll l; 'I II,1I 111. 11 1,' 1, 11 11': \\';1 ,\I 1" 11,,,1 I'd 11, 11 111 1 "I
II I,)III""lir , 111.1 .1I ,, 1' .}.: I' . .I li d
" .' '',1\\'' 1111' 111 dil.' 11'I',i!lli ,I t lllll,"IIII I," IlI k ill ii', 1,l.ltHIII
,!, III II h ,1 11 .1
I! I,' j' 111 ,1)' g.l tit er I h,\ . 1I 11Iik,' Ihej J' ,I,t-',-I ill, ", . \' 111111 1" ' 1.,1 I I', ;" 1.. 11 iII :\ llll'rll :l. 11 ,0.;1
l.t loll ." rl'li l'd less Oil l' xtern.1i dll" 1 1111111 ',11'1 1'1.1 11,1111111', In (" pl,li n Car ihbe.lJ1 II ndt'1
ii i Ib,llI 1111 lit e ill/crt/al work Ings II I l'(Pllll1l1 il':o, 1(1 ;llL'Ount for lltL:
111' 1" 1111 "11, )"I' vell as the)' were C<I rci'u I to nolL' lit at Ihe characteri sli cs ort il csl' CL'Olltl ll l ll
\ 1'.\, I 11I1 " I"nial relati ons between Br it ain and the \Ves t i ndics. J)cpendis(lIs il nd
HII III !I IIll'!' hand , placed tbe ceDt re- peri phery relat ions Lil ey depict within tit c ..ollt 1\ 1
hl : I""I, d lo rcl's, inlellt on locking perjpheral societies into an unyieldi ng. ,II III
i P ilI! 1'" Vl'l'I }'.
"1\11 II llugil. \ValIer Rodney, a Guyanese historian, and jamajcall polili cal I
" ili i ,." '!l ltld he said 10 have framed Caribbean development in such determini stic
I il k\ oIlI glcd out the social legacy of the piantation experience as especiall)1 dr uiti!. 11 ill!)
h' l' 1.1,,'\, Iloth were in$pired by Marx's historical materialist met hod, but H,odl1l'Y \,'; 1:,
I lIt.1'l' lit ,11 nation buil ding in the region had to be about renewing spiri ts, conslnll,III'f!,
hill I lil'l'ralio n and pursuing self-rel iance, Trevor Munroe's perspectivc was l')'l' rl's\nl
r"i,d 11111 Iluanced terms, as he was m indful of t he pla ntation slavery expe ri ence, I,,
1111' II ,,,, It-I'dcvclopment in the regi on was the predi ctable outcome ()f ull devclopt'd l. 1. 1"
,I ,II I'"rll y per petuated by t hat mi x or domesti c policies whi ch threw th e tL: rril urk'
'1,, 1111' 1110" ,l et ivi I)' <lll d on tradj tioual metropolitan dependence. The extent o( lile til'. ill
Ii 11 ' 11," "d, ill fras lruct ural and resource development will pose a challenge to
OIL1(,I ,," II II11nl i tted to CGl1s tructing a capital ist economy,
\\'1" it 1l1l'l'l'e1', Best's dependency perspective evinced a deep-seated alllhil ,tivlI l'
oI i,\. () urses Oil development.. Perhaps he was self-consciolls of the post ':Ullll1i ,d
i" II I ,"(' It litnary lransacti ons, of the dangers of succumbing to the nenl.'Lh.\i, ,Ii
, ' II ()Pl' lI ecoll omies aud automatic economic growth, In the conte.x t of' 1,1 ./ 111 ,1 <
,iii, . ,. !l l. 1I ,ISS Ulllpti ol1s muddled an already complex sit uation, Best argLll11. II I,
i" ' I' '1 '' '1 liVl' was consistently embedded in extended and detailed analyses or
'" Illl lII address ing the aforement ioned fea t ures of neocolonial dependeJi C) ill lit ,
,iii ,ltd " !II Ihe shared outlook of Caribbean el ites and Western developmcnt pldlllll ' l ,
I hl ,d I "II erkct ing meaningfuJ socio-econom ic t ransfor mati on, Not surprisi ll gl}" iii "
1' 1!1I1 ,I ', hilt ill the register of social consciousness on the part of the ruli ng di/l', I'/a
10 ,1 111'"' ' I ' '1' '' 1'1 . Bl'st f,liled to draw sufficient atten ti oIl to the degret' of ( I,ISS I
. 01,. ''' llIl i/,l li ()1I "s nl'W class forces LH OV to reorient tbe social system and the ",till \"
',)','.1 (' Ill,
il ,1.1\\1 11'.1. Ihl' New World movell1cnl shunl cd tn a halt as divisioD arose ove r stl'; ll cgil" "
11 1;1,1. " " I IL',is l. l!lce to Il coLll lll ni:tli slIl. I' Ihi s lillie, Iksl WclS (,spec iall y cr iti l ,tllIl III.:
I 1111' Idl-1 1 hI' ,\;11\' as Nl'w W!l rld \ 1.1 1.11 ,111 1, 11 Iill II Ii> r gll\'L' f'llln ell ts. ,Ind il Il'lI d"1I 1 \' I"
' " i"lI k d rl'sl', lrclt rIll' 11111 11 '111 101,111\,' '0, I " ' Tl.Isi li gly, Sll t'll kI1l>\\' I,'d!".
111'111 1; 111', 1, .11 1111 '"1 11'1 1 .111'" II 11111 11< 1111 ' ", .1 11.1 ,1\ 'iI, \1 Wl'I'L' ,II"
\\,,, ".i/-;")I'\ II, 1 ,"I III IIII' it! ,' ,1 lIi ,11 IIi (' NW( , 10111.1
1. " 11 (,1 11 I h," , f. 1<I"j"lI l 1" 1111\. ,ii' 1.1 111 111\ I hi ,'1 1111\',,;11 /[-fl[1 1 wll, tl hI ' 1,:lllH
ii i, .. 1 !\l,\\' \\'totl,l
oI i..ill l. " t hL' '\J\\"I 1\ "111 '1.1,1, 1fi!;.l lil il l tht; (1lI Clili'! lIll,i\, 11 1, \ IliaII )' 10 th..: Il1tl1l
01 1. 1t.' rc. ll" I, o i t le t' 1\ 10llii 1' ,1\... 1C(ltlllllli III I I i.' I.l'l.lh' d ke v .\ d\ 1111
II I 1,,', l\li.11.1I1 .ldII1l'1 i,l r.l li(1I1 "I I II .' I 'nlh, ",\I,I I' '" 11 11 rq.:ion
"1'114'.11, 11" 111 gl ll'lT' led l nil";J 1..tn u pi 'Ij.-( I ",. 1 1,11 1( t' , But tbere ,.II!!
,, 1,1.11 " will, II h lt'"d cillph.bis 0 11 till' inlc rJ wl .lll!lIl1ll'llh hd\\'l'lll .Ind oth ers Oil d[
nl 1\ 1.'\\ \-\ ..rlJ's rel.l'\ ana: an d its activis l nricnla liol1. '11 1l.'i r ill1alysi<;, in my vi c\" 1, ,[1
, IIIlfl 11l.:L.llIsl' l h<:y do not recognize suffi cicnLly that Nl:I\ World. li kc allY "van l
11111\'l' III <:II I, I)<: l'aill c (o mpromisl'd 110 t so much by bourgeois .Icccptance as by lluSo rp t iOlI illlil II
III J1'illgl'II/sili . Atll.'l1dunce to carCCI', admin istrat io n and publi c service would spawn a ,"11 ",
Ill .lIkd hy keynolc audrcss, col:k.lall altcndaJ1CC an d doctoral auth ority, Consequ en tl y, thl: 110
WCIl' 1(1 bc found on the o utski rts o f black power movemen Ls , drawn less 10 it, iJw\' ,
I Ii :l ll I,. til t rugglc for worker fre edo m and justice.
nil .1 widl.' r intellcctual plan e, Nev. World could be said to suffer t he slu mp it did largel y 'I
l ilt , til !I "Ih.lt- Ill) W llccpt it se lf lacked lasting explanatory power. Overall, tll ere was a I!
d,,' d" I"'llIkll l Y .Irgumcn l: dependent cOlUl tr ies are those which lack th e ca paci ty fo r aulo nnllll !l :
I 11",1 Ii. ,II I" Ihey lack this because their str uc t ures are dependen t Ol1 es, Other sch olars bavl .d
III ,I' II II", I" Ii nl developmen t in the world economy being, in fact , depel1r1enl developnu q!
III Ifll' t:ign investment relat ionshi ps between co re states and By dle late 197(b, III
"I1I IIIi,\ '" '' ,lI lIlI ng nco- lVbrxist s shi fted ,l\vay from al) i_ndepelldent weight p laced on (depend(.ll,
" 1\lld, ' II ,(hlc, tl)wmds ci lhcr a normati ve condemnat ion of state capitalism or an appea l toJ hi!
\\1111 .1 III IIcgotia tr the scope of their depe ndency.
Summary: Back to the future
II Wt' p(Jsil that open ings for dissent arc as necessary to democracy as securing consent, I I",
\ " II ihbcJl l civ il and un civi l society can C0l1tiJ1 UC to offer si tes [or object ion and challenge. But ,h. J
ill'l: n Il O NC I\ World equivalent emergi ng ou l 01 th e tensions of the present neoliberal pl.'l
11m' Ihe ri )c and influ ence of no n-governtnC l1t ,t1 organi Z<ltions (NGOs) , pa rticularly \\'0111\ J!
lmdc.s unions and Ihe galvanizing wo rk of the Caribbean Policy Developll"!11
( :, 'lll l'l' , .dllng wit il til at of critical scholars, bave served to exert prcssme on i Ilcreasing public Ir,111
1';lrL'nl Y , llld inclusi on, To be sure it is not at aLl clear that NGOs co nsti tute an in tr.i.o sicall y \'11 11
1111, 1;lr(<: 1(lr the colle't ive good , These can rUIl .1 similar cC)u rse to tha t of the New World, fk
,I (c rl"in poi nt . NGOs may lose the criLi cal el ement that caused th em to com e into exis tcn(
1il l')' rt:I1Jcr scrvices LO governance agencies. t ake runcL, from them Or (cross over' to lVork for,,"
VI II l m' n l insli tlili ons JIl J orgilili zalions wnich Lhey p reviously ch all enged, Markel mCnLaiiti ... 1'1
dOl l1 il lolt c il l gl\Vl rnmc nt burc<llIcracies, business firms and academy in the early twent, Iii
lI 'lltur}. /i'()m the L1\V J, partic ularly social scientists, arc exhorted by lI1edi ,l, hWe
illl d gOV\.'J'I1l11l.'ll t lum mcIH,ltor::. to gi ve advice and attent ion to the teclmicali ty of ,,,II
11 ''\ Ilr ,mJ other reforms. 111 most issue ruling of l c,.; nnudilli
n l l\' lli se ,l ll cm.l llvc Pl'fspCC lwcs ilrbi tmril y, T he UW1\ role i n thi, nlll
" Irp ' i.. 's fo r rdc\' ,lm:c and til hllJgc l lfCiciclKY JIII1lIi
1111 .I. 11111.1 ll' wit cl'll(ln lunnil} 10 the pl'I;v;l ilil1 g . 1l111 1111111'il'II,. ' \l','rn, Ill \. f(lr rL
1' 1 " ,',I. lllllIling. t ""lr1l1 ing I ",Jldl !IIII" "'l!ljl l ll L'i, I" II ill'lIP", l'uli lil'<ll "I1J illll' l h
II hm', 1"",41 l' I"'Vili li l1gl' l l\II 1I11I1.,'l i l, I'll .. ' II .. ls l lI"' j, ,, til
S" .:I "''' 1",11, I', 01" ... lnt" I .IIlIt ,lIl' 1111(1"' I II
1,,1/ .. ' '':'" l\lIlld '''':.I\''l,1 ,.' h,ii ,!j ' I"II I"II I .I Il IlIl1L! illl!1
It',J", Ii III :l'w\\'or l. l. 1"""01i ,I . 11"\11 1.0111,1 (
I.hnl .. l lw dl i ll ih ..1 pi
1\ 11.11111 ,\ 11 l \'I k ,1 I"r LI 'IL,H
, , " i ' III "lI l .lgl'l I.11I II l ll'I.',lll1 t, ' 1111) 1'L'1I1111i.1I
ii, [ d'lH !lIic ll(f ")1111 p I 1111 11
'
1" :1, 1
I III ", 1,1', III IIIIl' cI ,III Il1 ldlc\:1 u.1! "i til ,III
i ,1\ 1'.1)',Jdi gIllS e1l1 ll' 11l1t1!'1 , II, d" II '!I
[I ... ,,1,1111," IlIlId ,' II I ,lu ' lllIlI
III li lt' J(1:i i'l l. ,111.1
, 1" J 1 /'I'I.' ;SIt'I/I /'o, 'erly: Ull dcrrlcvc!op r"cllt i ll [J/al1l l/ tioll /':COI/OI11;es of/ he rhm/ ll i.r, lrI, 1\1111.111 1
,01" ,11101 I ,IIl1dllll: ,\hi r()()l1 Ho use and Zed
, I 1", 11111: Whilher \;cw Worl d: Nt'>" \\foriri, lV( I ): 1- 6.
I I ..." III, k ( I ,)C,K,l 'Outlines of a model of pure plantation economy', Socilll (Illd !'cellllllll;, .'i11l, 11,
I 11101 I Il, (1 98 '1) lJcvc/opmerll rheory ill frarm/ io l1, London; Lcd Hooks.
i ll ; I' h<ln(1Illi c dependence: A quant ita tive interpreta tion', Sodal lllIri [ colllll1li( SIII.I;, ',. l!( I )
1,,01 , 1 ( 1')% 1 Choices (/li d Challge: Ref/'clillllS all II,e Carillbeal/ , Wa.shingto ll , 1)( :; 111 1,1
;; , 11, 11 d,\'
I i '1111(0 ) ' In tegra ted deli beration: Reconci li ng civil society's cluJl ill deli bnati w .1 "1111"
"" I, ,Ii ',I"t/it's, :;, !; 486- 508,
1" ' 11'11 \\'ttltt'/' J1odl/ ey's Jwel/cerulIl (lnd Polit;cal Thol/gill , Ki llgsfO n, laJlJ,!i ca. ami [)cl r<li l , 1\1 1
,.,,1 II I Illl' W"I Indi es Press and Wayne State Unive rsity
i I I! , ii / 'lit' 'J 'il cory of' EC<H1omic Growth . London: Allen and Unwi n,
I j ,I , ' 111111 ) 'i\(;ldcmic Ir.I\'Jils and a oCU\V l social Fro\l1 hLstory .Jlld , I I
1111 in C. llowe (cd.) Hig/ler EduClIlion ;l1 t/1I' Arlgl op/lO lIe Caribbeall : PeW, Ph',,'llt Ii/f,/
Ill" /J,I" " \luna. Jam aica; Uni versily of Ihe 'vVesl pp. 59
, i ", 111 1/<111/<1;('(/1/ Politics: A Marxist Perspecti ve i ll '/i-{/r1sitiol1 , Kill gslOn.lamai(a, "lId Bmildl'l , I (1
.. , " il l l' I,I.li shl'r,; (C'a ribbt!a n I. imited) and Lynne Rienncr
11, 1 '1 IIe"" 1:lIl'ope Umlerdel'(:/opcfl Af rica , Lo ndon: Pengui n.
World-systems theory: Cores, peripheries and
mi-peripheries
III
111 1,, 11 ',1,1 , ' 111 d,lk , 1',lI:k':I'CIII III
I, h, 1\ 1'1111 '1' " 1111 I 'il ll,;I.!.! li p I h.
,I" d 11 1'"11
11 11 11I1 1il l \
i, i ", I 11111 ,1
, I, \" 1"1' '' 11 111 h: .1 1 llor It,d ...t' i"dh' j;hhl l U1UII\1 !ll, Itl wli/.:!I it: Ji It ,h' IIl,dl } ', 1,.11 fll' Ili nd , II' ,11, 1111 111 1. ,1iII f', I.,I! lli ,d
I ' ,d"iI,' , ',j I<YIl LlllI'll: 111:11 10;, " ' ,1'1
\"lIoId ,\,kl , 111""
II'L', Ii .I III'I1 . ,lIIei hdl, IVl( II II. i\ Ill!!!!1
W<"' I' h.1' doll J1 II 'd J 1lIIl I,I'n' ,\. IltftllHII.11 ",il h Ihl I
.,"d'i ll ,il il \, 01 .1l:li"i!;.. l' lw' l' .ill,,",,1 IIII' r ,-,.ilf'I I, iC h"i"l l" ,lIld hw,; I', or V;!JjI\l
dl'lr,lIill ll s. l lw lll.lJI l fllr \\'\1 ,Ill' il ,IIIll'd .,n(' r lht, I{U''''II
who llisC'lIwl't'lt lhe'm in the I';) 20:;. ," l"'lg 11 "/1'<:, I,hh "hlll l! SO to (ll) v,
ali d n: pr<!Sc nl \ il (lltaJ iIUlivd), pll<l,<e of gl obill w pil J li sm . 11 01 jml .1 IllCldHicati on (] iI !
cycl e, Komlratidl LyCleS an: di vided inlo a jJl'liod I " l' XP'lnsioll and hl "'I:jI H
ti on. There is ursl ;111 A- ph'he o/" upswing, economic eA'}lans ion and quasi -monopolist ic prolilll 'iI
ity. fuelled by ,t echnological innovat iom and orga nized by Il l' W ass), lTl etri caJ institutional I'lih
Price infl atjo l1 increases during the f\ -phasc. T hi s then leads i.nto a B-phase of incre,lsed comp,]11
tjon, profi t decline, econom ic slowdown and price deflation. The profit squeeze towards lht iC n
of th e B-phase motivates capi tal ists and policymakers to crcate new and in novative ways to ,IL' ,I'
OluJate capital They work to shi ft investment out of established economi c sectors, regulated lll\'i
ronments and pwductioll locations. aJ1d thereby create tlle conditions for a new Kondratieflu ,l
(Knox el aL 2003).
The previous Kondratieff cycle began In the 19405, expand ed unti11967- 73 (A-phase), and 1111
contracted through the 1980s W-phase). Each cycl e's organizi.ng institutions and mlcs arc b,' ll
economic and political. For this cold war cycle, key ecollon1i c rules and structmes mcluded I
doUar as the global currency, and supranati onal bodies such as the World Bank, thc IMF and II.
G7. Political strLIot ures includ.ed tbe UN aDd the geopo.litical divisions brokcred at tbe Yaltu , ,,,,
fercnce. Thi.s divided Europe i.n to US- <lJJ d Russian-dominated lOnes, pitted global capitn" l
against Russia n-led state socialism (communism), and presented the developiJlg world as idcol ll
icall y cont ested turf. The dawn of the twenty-first century finds tbe world in a new cycle, N
i.nstitutillns and rules, such as the World TraJe Organization (WTO) , neoliberal free lrade ,1,,01
global financial li berali zation, aim to stabili ze and ensure quasi-monopolislic profitability ,II '
global power for core countr.ies. As in the cold war cycle, the Uni ted States remains the 1' 1,
emi nenlt core (and thus global ) power, but begemony is now contested by other sl renghlCl lIii
core countries and semi -peripheral cOUJ.1 ltries, notably China.
Schol ars and disoipl inesinfluencing, and inflluenced by, WST
WST is almost synonymous with ,its principal architect, Immanu el Wallerstein, Indeed. It
intluential theoretical perspectives are so dosel)' linked to ODC wntcmporar y scholar. W-., I
conccptua[ roots are largely in Marxism. Wall erst ein ( 1979) says thai W ST foll ows 'the spiril "I
Marx if not the letter'. Evidence of Marx'6 incl ud es WST's emph.asis all class, the
imper.ialism and control over the means of prnduction and labour power. WST's objection I,
cl assi cal Marxism include concern over n theoretical component known as dcvcLopmclI lf1fi ill
This is the idea that socie[ics move sequentiall y through fe udalism, capitalism and social islll i'1
communi sm, and that IJ1CY can be an al ysed and transformed indi viduall y <lnd separately 111111
t he world system. WST\ ..l!crlDti ve ,"lew - that U1cre has been for centu ries but one wlll l,1
economy, drlyen by capi tal ,1C,,: ull1 uJ,u io ll - empl oys conce pt of mude or ,protit](l ioll II
';(
tha t of Karl Polanyi than lhm of Marx.
WST has mudl rdc\<i nl.l.:. :lIa l h.I'> II'l' li' I;H' ,1111 ,11 led IHlIII ,II I.J
dct rac1 urs From the ',o,inl 'l: icn":l's. w.... '\' ''' 111 1,1''111' I" dll l., d 1" " l1l1 l)ll, :111. i1}'sis 1'011\1 ,1
I.'
111"
'

I"
" I
I'"
1"
, II
,, 1,lI ly
II. ,II,
1t'IOlJ l tl p hy of WST: Thre(' 9'(11111" n i llillioll st(lLes
1111 " '1 ,11 "yd..:., of systt:mi( 'II de!', tllriHlience, Ir<1miti on ,U1 d (1 1
I, ,, . I 11 11011\)' pl<ly out variably g<.: ugr;lphical space. The world-system is very lI ne(( ". d
' II' "'"rld theori sts argue, hecause of) severa] cent u.ri cs of world wide eC() 110II lIl
11 .11111 tr;lde, and more than <l haJf-cent ury of \oVorld Ba.nk-l ed international dcvl'i PI'
1,, 1.. 11 illcqll,diti es continue to ri se. The difference ill per-capita i ncome separating the II
l'd' '',,!.1 coull tries was 3: 1 in 1820,,35: 1 in 1950,72:1 in 1992, and 108:! in 2004 (UNI)I'
111 1111 VV ithin thi s hi ghl y lUlequal wo rld order (i re place-specific dynamics. At time'\;, rc:j;\illl1
III " I.tli in terms of power, development 3Jld economi c potential. WST describes thi" gIll"
Itflt' i, IIli .lIed space with reference to nation stat es and region al groupi.ngs thereof. I,d l
lii l '1 It'gories (see fi gure).
ill ',II," 10 long waves, tbe geographical components of the world are less COJ1CCptli
lill l " dlld empiricall y specifi ed. WitJ] tllis caveat in mund, general geographical tcalul'l" l.111
i tlH' lI . Countri es of the core, or ccntre, are the sites of global econom ic (and eSpl' l i:tl il
(I " II I l'ower and wealth, and the associated political LlI1d military strength iUlld il.1tluenc('. CIIIl'
If k ,lllIre higher-sk ill, capit al-intensive productioJl. Politically, tl1ey coll ectivel y
ti ll I. " Ihe rules of the global order and, through these advan tages, appropriate surphu; I'rol ll
'"lIlltrics. The semi-periphery is positioned between the core's strengths and the pc l'i pl l
, II IIl'sses. It mixes character,istics of the core {e.g.. industry, eXjJort power" pmsperi lylllild
1'1'1 1"1Y(e.g. poverty, primary produci reliance, vulnerability to core decisiclJ] making) .
II\,hery is the most turbule nt category, in tJl al its members most frequently ri se (I I' f.ll l i ll
I"(', I! hierarchy. In semi-periphera.l countries, there is much bope for deve lopment JI'l d jlli ll
I,. . " r" countries, and narrow windows of opportunity to do S() . nut there are ;tlS<1 illl (' II',1
1I , IIIS. with core countries bent (m fostering their own capital accumulati on by mai nl,1 11I1I1."
", hical status quo. The periphery is the backwater of the world system. It provhJ('" III" ,
1\ III<.. tiun and raw materials for industries elsewhere. It has poor Li ving condiLions <l l,d
1'1 1\1 '111 prospects. Tbe semi -periphery versus periphery di stinction for non-core il
II 1111. It avoids groupjng such a heterogeneous set of countries with respect to developllh:11 1
111. dllation, trade, resou rce control and geopoli tics. Still, putti ng the world's 200 COlli 11 Iil
lilll Iilree groups inevitably glosses over mucb in tra-gro up heterogeneity. No te til e rl'gi(\ II,,1
1" lI l1f \ of coun tr ies i.n tbe three categori es i.n the figllre. At present the core mailll y NIIIII!
I. Western Europe, Australasia and Japa n. The sem i-periphery is essentiall y Cast 1..11 111
" .1', I.,rgcr countri es and most of the former Sovjet real m. The per iphery is ever} Ih int:; (, " <',
' ,"-('rica.
I! ,11 1111 slatc's posit ion in the worl d system is hi stori call y pa th-dcpendcIl1, but not dckrn1i ll i,
NOII ion slat6 am move between ca tego ries over ti nile, depending on their accull \l'I 1.11ill il
IiI[ " dl'wl op lll ent and international aid and alli ances. Indeed, WST is quil l' Wo,L' lld
I! .'/\\ illg the Upvv<ll'd and downward 1lI0Vl' l11enl of colllltl'ies over timc. There is nol i1gn'l' II I,' t) I
,., It l. ollntr)' ',,; categorizati on, d" P"ll d ill g Oil Ilw defini ll g and til (' ir il1ln IJl"'I.1
11I .lddiliun. rd at iVt' 11 ;,1/111 ,",I L)I III II' l' IllIl'(' call also ,hit't OWl lilill' .
, I \\1" ili lls tl',l k " tbl' ...L: 1l 1i 1" '1
1
1' 111 11"" 1'"I' lill ,1! ,Il l,] IllIi Jld!'l l(l' (.[ ,t! o 11101)
in tht' tradil iolls o( ,11'1't'lI/I,m!" tJlI'rll1 ,lTd" ,,, (Ilei 1,110 II" "1 ' " 1' 1/ ' l'!'/ I ,I, ' I'''!0l'llIl'I1 r <<""11 11 , ji \I. I III <I ".., iVl' l ll\ aid ,Ill, I i III Ii " Ir I,'" I'" II r '0\' II, '" ,, ', III ,I. I , " I" ,>, "'0 III Il I":." l' , I It'l" II', \'1 11"
)91' ,11 ,11111 tll'IlIlid/"1I ri "I'd"p"II'w ( I V.II" I" 'I) \ L"'"tjlllldir , "" 1. 11 '1' "1)',, hlll I. , I 1111 Iil L' UI I;':\ g;I ... . . il ' il ,, 1' 1,11 01) h' 1111' I' )I) } l\ ... i1il l 1111. 11 11 1. .1
,','111 11111 '" ii . IIHI hLI III, illlhll' llli.!I .Illrlll." ,,,: Ii ) j, 0111
1
.r lw,, 1 ,l l1 pl,\),1 1l .l o., ll .I \ li liull.llI \, IW" I! I'dll'll l: ;.oi , itld ill I ,. " 1' .1 ... ,III. , II II ,'!' ,"II)I' d 1/11
,II ,I IIIUIi ,.I Iii III \\ '01 r I I.' 1') .1.lli,.I\;!1 ii, " " illlr' I!1 I I till'''l\ . 1 I" III Ii 1('1 \ . III ', II I. II', " ... 1 I, 1111 d, II\'I , I, lJii 1(', "i ill i Iii. j!I (1\\' 11, I, I ," I "" J 1d II ' , III. tI ,'\ 1.11 1I II/I
I" ,,1111 1,11 1.)j" ,:'.'1 '.11' 1"ijll l.lli;II, df ' il lII il;J . h1111lih t'I ' l'(' I,lli'llI:l 1" I\\'t"" , I' III""L!' if ill nt hll'" l. ' ll',l I ,11 11 11 ' Ili i iol lllllj'.I III I" lioill ' 11 11 1 II , .1.1 111 '. .1'. dil l w,l d. !'
---- .....

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""l. lIlI it l , IIIlI l it , ' 1"1'1(1', , ll'(n,: ,11111 11 \1
I Id11,1\ 1\ 11 1It. 1I I V'l l l ll) ,
1-" I(lOe; l.
\
tie I'. ms of WST
Ijl ildlist world e COrl OfIiV. (llv ld,111 hV '((oldr, ,11,.[[ , Vl l< ' ' . '.[Il eu el t ledst 1450
7
I \\ , subscribe to WST\ IOI , ti llill): t;llIh, d 1",1< 11 )' Itl it dlCctivcl }' to undersland l'Cecn!
j"I' II H'llt ? Compared tIl W., lIcrsll'i I1 , lew wril,'!s t.' lllpll)ying a WST fr<lmework art.' as deeplY
III, .d. and few Lreat economi c acti vi ties during pI'Cv iollS centur ies in such a globall y holistic
work. for example, has been done to identify the evo lvi ng features of capjtaJi sm associ
(Yl
2:-
0
lilt live Kondratieff cycles extending b<lck onl y to 1789. M,my other WST-intlucllccd schol
(j)
.r:: ..
II. '" on the dynamics of contempomry capit<ll isll1. WST purists Illay reject these approaches
Q iii
C >.
"lJil iently hi storical. (j)
OJ
' .r:: III It- Kondratieff cycles have considerable historic<ll and empir ical support (Mandel 1980).
Q (j)
III
Q C (j)
E ";:: C
(j)
u
a (j) 1"IIl ,I in controversial. Others have assembled evidence to cast dOllbt on the existence and sig
(f) 0...
\!l II I' " of long waves, and to suggest instead that capitali sm moves through phases of differing
OJ
5( " . problems and fe,-\t ures (e.g. Maddi son \99 1). As mentioned earlier, the regulati on school
I DO
CI.I
Ilkrnative conceptuali zation of contemporary capit<1lisl dynamics.
'" III
OIl
C.
il!Pory7
::I
01
-.=
110 1 I he considerabl e empi rical analysi s of Kondratieff cycles and their associated production
'"
\. hnological features, many WST cl aims remain untested and are perhaps LLntestabl e. Most
.E
I IIl lIlI cll ced sch()larsh ip foc uses on the contemporary global politi cal economy, Jnd the lack
c
II. ,crics data Limits tes ting. how coLLld U1C simple th ree-categor y spatial d ivision of
0
.s:
"li d system be tested? WST-inspired writ ing tends to read li ke an opcn-l'nded an<ll ysis of oil
E
QI
1"lIlg worl d events. Critics can d<lim that thi s method all ows one to fin d <Lud (it the data anec
I" III the theory. Better to think of a world-system approach, analysis or perspective thaJl a

c
I wsl"crn theory.
0
2:- '.j;;
:J
+-'
C
-.=
<l.I
v 'Sj , I of the local ?
I\l
i:i
'+
tli llg at the glob<ll level and concerned with economic cycles over dec<ldes, if not centuries,

:>,
>
+-'
OIl I , ioo holi stic to acco unt for local dYIl <ll11i cs. Indeed. WST underplays the generat ive role of
<l.I
+-'
I. liv ities, initi<lti ves. social movements <llld people.
C
3: 1;
C
<l.I .:j
..c
0
+-'
V
'+
0
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Ill lusion
c ?
.....
3:
til
0
1.1 'I'stem, theory, wi th its keen sense of his torical. cyclical, technological and geographical
-u C
<l.I 0
I ' '' . has lI lldoub tl.:d ly deepened our understanding of the global. political economy. It is it
'';:;
+-' III
.s:
+-' t: " " Ig antidotc to the reductionism, al-ustor icism and superficiality in most popul ar interpre
til
.!!!
E
a. II. "I' economic ch,1.11 ge. WST's historjcal and holi stic perspective <lnd ,level-headed ness
(lJ
+-'
III l(lLintcr the recent hyperbole about the uniqueness of globali zation and the inevitabjl C
'" >
':"
-;:)
It!
II 111 lI lihcralism.
0
-.:: ...
0
Iii 11I. ll tin' . I1m 11)" employing it \tVST perspective downplay the detaitls and measurc
3:
1\1
ill "I 111 l" l )'1I.., (II "1"\\ III )', and dmvn:;wi ng in the global economy. They focus inl' tead prima-
0\1 '"
l ' l i , "I,II 'iIll"I""\ I I> IJ, I . lI ll1 l .. dIJI' l ;1 '111.,lit<ltivc approach to understandi ng hu sincs, t.:yck ' "
.W', le HI , 11'101 IiiI: "I \'.lI IlIl, 111 11.11 .llld I'OWl I ,:)1
hi I .l il1 l l, ,, ".1 PI ' I\II II ,I I ' 1,1 11\ \-cl"" >llIi:.t " ,11 1.1 ,"1111' \\ ,I 1' 1111,1\, 1\'\Jldd .;udg ... il Ilion: q WI Illll 1
I'l'r, jOllul \ "'<., '1' 10 lu ri gnmu:. J ll d Il le ldull' l ldi ci cnl. WST
\\I(l llJd cUlI nh' 1 lh.1 1 .1 qll,ll illil il'l' J ppro<l c.: h giWl 1 tllL' ir aim to see the ' hig pkl "
and to , b ;ipitl r ,IIlJ Ict lily t'lll1 klllpnnu'y ccOIlOll1i( .I..\lJ 11 ,1 Iili11 iJ l sl itutions dnJ options.
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING
Gwynne, R., Klak, T. ,lnd Sha w, 0. (2003 ) AJrc:,."ali ve Capita/isl11s: Geographies of' Elllergillg Regions', U11I11",
Hodder Amo ld , and New Yo rk: Oxford University Press. Empl oys WST to examine the recent reconhp
ratioJl or C<lu ntries ill the semi -peripher y of tlle global ecoll omy.
Kn ox, P., Agnew, J. and IvIcCar thy, L. ( 2003) Tile GeograpllY of lite Wo dd Economy, fourth editioD, Lond,,
Hodder Arnol.d. Couples \lVST wilh econom ic gcogl'aphv to explore tbe workings of the contemp(1""
gl obal eCOll OIll)'.
Shannon, T. R. ( 1996) An 1111 roduCl ion to the World-System Perspective, second edi tion, Boulder, CO:
Press . Usefu l overview of WST, endorsed by Wall erstelil.
Wallerstein , L (2004) World-Syst em Analysis: An Introduct ion, Durham, NC: Duke Universi ty 1'1
Wallcl'stein's own introduction to the ti.eld.
Wallerstein , L (cd,) (20(H) The Modern \!Iforld System ill the Longue DlIree, Boul der, CO: Paradigm Publishl' l
Wide-ra nging sct of chapters b), leading worl d-system scholars, providing a useful ove rview of VVST
USEFUL WEBSITES
l:cm'lnd Braudel Center (or the Study of Economi es, Histori cal SYStClllS, and Civili l <1 tions, Binghmll l'"
Universit y, State Uni ve rsit y o( New York, bllp:llfbc. binghamt on. edu/ index.htm. The Center "
'the anal ysis of large-scal e socia.l chan ge over long peri ods of histori cal time',
/UIIrl/II/ or World -Systems /(esearch, Institut e for Resea rch on World-Systems, University of Cali f"! ",,
Riverside, http: //jwsl.lI cr.cdu/ index. php. Free online journal devoted to WST.
United Nalions Devel opment Programme, HlIIlI all De l'eiop 111 CI1.t Report s, http: // hdr.undp.org!. Cl obal ,,",
((lITlpar;lIivl' country data for a range of development indi cators.
REFERENCES
1\ ;lil, I. (20(JS) 'Clohal capilalism and coll1ll1odi ry chains: Looking back, going forward ', Co mpel iliou til
<):
(:!rdnso, r. ,1I1d I'alello, E. ( 1')79) / Jepel1 riellc), lind Developmenl in La/i n Al1Ieriw, Berkeley, CA: Univ('rsll) ,
I ',,1 i rom i,1
1'1', 1"', I'. ( 1<J7lJ) /JC/'(.'/II/Cllt /)(TeioplIJelll: The AI/iance of !Villitil/minna/, Statc, (.ll/d row / Capita/ in HilI
l'ri n,,'lolI , NI: PrincL'l cm Li nil'Crsi ry Press.
l'I"ll k, i\ (;. ,lIld Cills, 1\. (L'ds ) (1993) The World System: Five Hundred Ycars or Five TllOw(1l1t l? Lond""
I{O Ulkdt:'"
c,1\1' 11 Il l', Ii., 1-: 1.,1;, T. .IIId P. (20fl3) Alln,.,u tive CII/lilll /N II S: Geogrnphies 1.111101"
II"dd,', Arl,, >l oI , oIn d Nt'w )'LJ rk: lhli ml l 'lliw rs ity
" ,,"\, I' , J. ,lIld I>ld ,11' 11'11' , 1. ( 20! H i I'if ,' (;"" \: " '/'/'1 "J IIII' 'Nor/Ii er n/Willi', Ii'llrth edili on, l uud",
11",101, , ,\ mnl".
,\ 1.,,1 .1 1"'11 \ ' I"lj l /'),11/111111 lil/,<" ill (II,;,.d", 'Irq/"/"II,1I1 , hIL lrJ : Oxl(H'J I'n""
f\ 1.1 1" 10-1, I ( I'/rill l / 'I//I! \ \ ,11',', ,'I ( "T'II"" ', ' / '1'] I I " II<III.h't: Coli 11 ill ... , i 1\ 1'1," ' .
t , I I I" , I' I 'III II i J", I' I " ,1 1111 .11 1' I IIII ,lit, , ,I \I, ,1 111." I! i ,II I II' ,I It ' lI g Wd\ I ,I I'" 1\"" II 1',1 ..w! It Ipl I 'H.d I'
1111 , ,," \ , ,,,I.,, .. ,,, , 110" ,1 !j'I' ; " ,I,1I "',,,,, oj Il,f,lfllil/'"f",,, tf 1,, 'I/ ,lI/lI'-'. \ 1'1 II
::i'" i iI , , ( 1(1111) I 1,'1,,/ {I ,./,,/ "IWN t.' NI/IIITr I IJ/'iUI, tll'd fill' I" .'/111 1111 1/ ,,/ '-;""'1'. N.:\, ,,,t! 11 1. 1, I 1\ til
I I' tl "
Iii', I '11/11,) 1111 11 11111 1" " "' /"1" ,,,"/1 "
' 11\' , ,J I ) I' " ,',
;, I 1 1' / ' i) I'll,' ( '''/'/f" II " ..ll/
lob, ' 1
,"I I'll1lldi , I'; ( .' lIO'" '( hlll.,\ 1\111(, 11111\ 11
ndigenous knowledge and development
, lit Itlt)
Ii . knO\\' ledge systems developed particul a.rl y d uring til( 19X()s, l' r i11 1.11 d, \Ii
lei cll', '",tisfaction with modernization as a means or impr ov ing ljl'ing oland,ml , Inl 1111
,.e 11\1' population of the South, Mode rniz ation , Ihrough the diffll sion "I 1I 1IIT\ ,tI
'lid k dlni(al knowledges from the Nonb to the Global Soutb , has bee.n see n tt l ,II I
II !II eradicating povert)', Consequently, development h as frequ ently been W llu'l ' III,tI
IItH l.lIl ll' lltally tecl1Jl ical issue, dri ven by the dominant science cli scourscs o f "mopl' ,11101
i. ,I HI' the 19S0s, however, it had become clear that thi s transfer had not ..... 1It II "
Itl! III tl. lI lslilfining lives o f m ony, especiall y in Africa.
ill! ! ' " '. wnl' sought , and in promoting local-level, eve n anti develop mclll , a ppn i,ldl'"
1'"" II X ) perhaps captures th e spirit best wn en he wri tes: ' t11e remaki ng or dcvd tll',lh'
Il
I
I i \ ' )' "\, llllilling local constructions, 10 the exten t tb at tth ey aTe t.h e life aDd ,d I I Il
(;: iI I, I he conditions of anal for change', Thi:-. highlights the importance or IOl ;11 Il'wl hi .
II 1,l loIlI t' ., and soc.iocultural constructs in under standing community -JevcJ dcw ln l" II ': 111
1111 lIl' l' d for a m ore explicit acknow ledgem ent of indigenoLls kn owledge as a v; lI l.i I,. ,d\
It d!:, I Il" p ile this, much current development lhi nking still re flects the do tn ill .1l1(1 II I III
II., , Ir 1' <'lopmen t rema ins a tech n ical challenge and the voices of t be poor ;t I,d d \" 1"
1
Itil ilt t k heard, However, th e challe nge for OJ new vision re ma i li S, an d there i<; ill\. 1 ,
1,1/ ti l<' view that 'there is now an expli cit understan ding among many ,111.1
lli ,ll lilrlner participato ry research h as clear advantages for the devc lrl l' fl ll lil "I
,:f"' lIolllllentaUy friendly and sustainabl e production s)'S lem s' (Okali, SUIllIIlIH .llIll
" 1' 111 I 11).
Ii, h It I', ,"11 ), in th e last quarter of the tI'\fe nticth century that the int erest in
III, "' I,licitly em erged in the Literatu re, Ithere were elem ents of an embryon ir imltW
I. dl" 1ll' 1' H'C then, Although Will iam AJLm 's (1 965) cla ssic, The Africa n [JUSiJIIIUI7I1 ( /lI, i,
\."Io l.tr d dC\'L' loplllent narrati ve of its ti me, focusing on iss ues of pop ula tioll ;1I\ d I.lltd
tI"., h 1IOIIIdhdess an acknowledgem ent that indigenous agri cull Ur;tl sys tC'm,> .1\, 11111 /1
il lei' 1,II1k knowledge of, and symp athy wit h, the env ironm ent. The Ill .li n!' II ';
i i '\' I,' ""11 ', knowledge in devel o p ment, howeve r, can be traced to a ( oUectio n 111' P,I I1C' I' il l
II, /I II III I'J7 lJ (sec, for example, 'I lowes 197 9). This was foU owed by all im p CII'I;lltl 1.,11.\
I. " Ii i, ',11,1 Il rtlkl'nsha, W;nl'cl1 an d Wern er ( 1')80), Ri chm'ds ( 1985) t()ok thl' ,kh,lll' II"
II Ii ', 1111 1\ which shmVl' <i how (\lril,11I i'.trl1llTS IIsed their own knowled ge ,)'slo'i m ,I' Ih, '
II, , , lui ic lilllll'. tl r' llI.iLltll! 1I 1 Illt l Il ",lill gl\' , study r<li sc); Ill l' I ..
Ih, , 1" , .iI 1, \iIl'.vkdgL' "y,,"' "I " . 1I " III ' ",1 .1 , \ I" Cit Wlll: til ," 11" '1 ,Iii'
I " I" ,iI ,tllt'llI,ll iw" wil il li h ! i 1'l' iI ., I tl, . ' ." ' )5. 1' 1' 11 ,I Ii ' l ll ' , lIld 1'1 1111 il ii" III IIII .J!
j IlItll I, " I Ill' 1t,I', !In 11 \ "" ill, " ', I\I'1 \,.I\
"I I ii, II .! I '