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Biserici Biserici

onasteries

M~n~stiri [i biserici din Romnia

Monasteries and Churches of Romania


Transilvania

Transylvania

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a Romniei DINESCU, DAN IOAN M~n~stiri din Romnia: Transilvania / foto.: Dan Ioan Dinescu, Mircea Savu, tefan Petrescu; text: Iustin Marchi[; trad.: Alina Crc; grafic~: Adrian Sorin Georgescu. -Bucure[ti: NOI Media Print, 2005 ISBN: 973-7959-25-6 I. Savu, Mircea (foto.) II. Petrescu, tefan (foto.) III. Marchi[, Iustin (text) IV. Crc, Alina (trad.) V. Georgescu, Adrian Sorin (graf.) 726.7(498.4)

Cuprins

Contents
Biserica de lemn din Brsana M~n~stirea Brncoveanu Bisericile de lemn din Bude[ti Bisericile de lemn din C~line[ti Biserica din Densu[ Biserica din Gurasada M~n~stirea Hodo[-Bodrog Bisericile de lemn din Ieud M~n~stirea Moisei M~n~stirea Nicula Biserica de lemn din Plopi[ M~n~stirea Prislop M~n~stirea Rme] Biserica de lemn din Rogoz M~n~stirea S~raca Bisericile de lemn din Srbi Biserica Sfntul Nicolae Biserica din Strei Biserica din Strem] Biserica de lemn din urde[ti M~n~stirea Topli]a The wood church of Barsana The Brancoveanu Monastery The wood churches of Budesti The wood churches of Calinesti The Densus Church The Gurasada Church The Hodos-Bodrog Monastery The wood churches of Ieud The Moisei Monastery The Nicula Monastery The wood church of Plopis The Prislop Monastery The Ramet Monastery The wood church of Rogoz The Saraca Monastery The wood churches of Sarbi The Saint Nicholas Church The Strei Church The Stremt Church The wood church of Surdesti The Toplita Monastery

12 16 22 26 28 32 36 38 44 46 48 52 54 58 62 64 66 68 72 74 78

M~n~stiri [i biserici din Romnia

Monasteries and Churches of Romania


Transilvania

Transylvania

Cteva repere de istorie [i arhitectur~ sacr~

A Few Landmarks of History and Religious Architecture

nd am luat hot~rrea de a intra n via]a monahal~, ca fiu al Eparhiei Clujului, am avut de ales ntre M~n~stirile Nicula [i Rohia, pe atunci singurele din Transilvania. Cu mult~ greutate, chiar n ziua plec~rii spre m~n~stire, chiriarhul locului mi-a dat binecuvntarea pentru a fi primit n ob[tea M~n~stirii Cozia, care era [i a r~mas cea mai veche m~n~stire din Romnia cu via]~ monahal~ aproape nentrerupt~. Am amintit acest detaliu biografic pentru a ar~ta celor de azi situa]ia m~n~stirilor din Transilvania la sfr[itul anilor 70: existau pu]ine a[ez~minte monahale, pu]ini monahi [i monahii, dup~ ce n anul 1959, printr-un decret al puterii seculare, multe dintre acestea fuseser~ nchise, iar vie]uitorii lor obliga]i s~ le p~r~seasc~ [i s~ se ncadreze n munc~. Aceasta dup~ ce, n trecut, via]a monahal~ din Transilvania mai fusese greu ncercat~: peste 150 de schituri [i m~n~stiri, ne spun istoricii, au fost distruse de tunurile generalului austriac Bukow, n a doua jum~tate a secolului al XVIII-lea. Vizitatorii pot vedea pn~ ast~zi, ntr-o reproducere cu biserica M~n~stirii Smb~ta, de lng~ F~g~ra[, ce a r~mas n urma obuzelor. Via]a bisericeasc~ din Transilvania a fost profund marcat~ de momentele importante din istoria acestei p~r]i a Romniei; zidirea de biserici, ntemeierea a[ez~mintelor monahale, nflorirea culturii [i a artei liturgice ortodoxe nu cunoa[te o dezvoltare de amploarea celei din Moldova sau ara Romneasc~. Chiar datele sau m~rturiile despre l~ca[urile de cult sau arta bisericeasc~ sunt mai pu]ine, comparativ cu cele din restul provinciilor romne[ti, predominnd studiile privind istoria acestei regiuni [i cele ce subliniaz~ influen]a apusean~ n dezvoltarea arhitecturii [i artei decorative din Transilvania. De aceea o prezentare a l~ca[elor de cult din Transilvania trebuie s~ porneasc~ de la a aminti momentele esen]iale din istoria acestei provincii.

hen I decided to take up monastic life, as a son of the Cluj Eparchy I had to choose between the Monasteries of Nicula and Rohia, the only ones in Transylvania. With much difficulty, on the very day of my departure to the monastery, the bishop of the place gave me the blessing to join the community of the Cozia Monastery, still the oldest monastery in Romania with almost uninterrupted monastic life. I mentioned this biographic detail just to show younger persons the situation of Transylvanian monasteries in the late 70s. Few monastic establishments had been left standing following a 1959 decree of the lay power, and their monks had been forced to leave and get secular jobs. Not that monastic life in Transylvania had been free from hardships in the past. According to historians, more than 150 sketes and monasteries had been destroyed by the guns of Austrian General Bukow in the late 18th century. To this day, visitors can see in a reproduction of Sambata Monastery, near Fagaras, the damages inflicted by canon balls. Church life in Transylvania was deeply marked by important moments in the history of this Romanian region. The building of churches, the foundation of monastic settlements, the flourishing of Christian Orthodox liturgical culture and art did not record the same impetus as in Moldavia or Wallachia. Even data or testimonies about religious abodes or religious art are less numerous as compared to the other Romanian provinces. Prevailing are studies of regional history or those stressing Western influence in the development of Transylvanian architecture and decorative art. That is why a presentation of religious abodes in Transylvania should set out from an outline of the major events in the history of this province. After the occupation of Transylvania by the Hungarian Kingdom, Orthodox abodes were replaced

Dup~ ocuparea Transilvaniei de c~tre Regatul Maghiar, l~ca[urile de nchin~ciune ortodoxe sunt nlocuite cu cele catolice sau chiar distruse, iar o parte din cler, datorit~ prigoanei asupra Bisericii Ortodoxe, c~reia i se refuz~ dreptul la propriet~]i, se catolicizeaz~. Reforma, [i n special propaganda calvin~ n rndul ortodoc[ilor majoritari, va duce n cele din urm~, pentru Ortodoxie la statutul de religie tolerat~. O dat~ cu st~pnirea habsburgic~ (1688) [i ac]iunile ini]iate de iezui]i care \ntr-un final vor duce la Unirea cu Roma prin promisiuni f~cute clerului ortodox leg~turile cu ara Romneasc~ [i Moldova devin din ce n ce mai dificile. Monahii (ntre ei, Visarion [i Sofronie), dar [i preo]i (ca Moise M~cinic din Sibiel [i Ioan din Gale[) [i chiar ]~rani (cum este cazul lui Oprea Micl~u[) sunt mpotriva unia]iei [i ndeamn~ poporul s~ refuze slujbele oficiate de preo]i unia]i. Ei vor deveni m~rturisitori ai dreptei credin]e fiind pomeni]i n calendarul ortodox pe data de 21 octombrie. Al~turi de ace[tia nu trebuie s~-i uit~m pe ierarhii m~rturisitori Ilie Iorest [i Sava Brancovici, mitropoli]i ai Transilvaniei n acele vremuri, pomeni]i n calendarul Bisericii Ortodoxe Romne pe data de 24 aprilie. Dar cea mai grea lovitur~ are loc n secolul al XVIIIlea, cnd mai sus pomenitul general Bukow, din ordinul mp~r~tesei Maria Tereza, distruge cu tunurile bisericile [i m~n~stirile. Monahii sunt alunga]i, mul]i dintre ei refugiindu-se n chinoviile din Muntenia [i Moldova. Dintre ace[tia, unii se vor ntoarce [i, cu experien]a duhovniceasc~ dobndit~ n m~n~stirile n care au vie]uit, vor rectitori vechile l~ca[uri distruse sau vor ridica noi m~n~stiri [i schituri cu binecuvntarea ierarhilor locului. De[i att de ncerca]i n timp, romnii ortodoc[i din Transilvania r~mn lega]i de Biserica lor. Chiar dac~ Sinodul episcopilor catolici din Ungaria, ntrunit

by Catholic ones or downright destroyed, and part of the Orthodox Church clergy, subject to persecutions and denied the right to own property, became Catholic. The Reform, and particularly the Calvinist propaganda among the majority Christian Orthodox was to bring about eventually the statute of tolerated religion for Christian Orthodoxy. With the Hapsburg rule (1688) and the actions of the Jesuits who were finally to result in the Union with Rome following the promises made to the Orthodox clergy the bonds with Wallachia and Moldavia weakened ever more. Monks (among them, Visarion and Sofronie), priests (Moise Macinic of Sibiel and Ioan of Gales), and even peasants (like Oprea Miclaus, for example) spoke against Uniatism and urged the people to refuse services officiated by Uniate priests. They were to become the representatives of the true faith, being celebrated by the Orthodox Calendar on October 21. Alongside these we should not forget hierarchs Ilie Iorest and Sava Brancovici, metropolitans of Transylvania in those times, and mentioned in the calendar of the Romanian Orthodox Church on April 24. The harshest blow was incurred in the 18th century when General Bukow, on orders from Empress Maria Theresa, gunned down churches and monasteries. The clergy was chased away, many of them having to take refuge in the cenobitic communities of Wallachia and Moldavia. Some of them returned and, with the religious experience acquired in the respective monasteries, rebuilt the abodes destroyed, or erected new monasteries and sketes with the blessing of the superior clergy of the place. Seriously tested all that while, the Romanian Orthodox of Transylvania stayed attached to their Church. The Synod of the Catholic bishops of Hungary, reunited in 1278, forbade schismatics
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Trvanis an a Transyl
n 1278, interzicea schismaticilor (adic~ ortodoc[ilor) s~vr[irea slujbelor [i ridicarea de noi biserici, romnii continu~ s~ zideasc~ biserici [i m~n~stiri iar n cele existente s~-[i duc~ via]a de ob[te. Cea mai veche m~n~stire din Transilvania, men]ionat~ n documente la 1391, este cea din Peri, stavropighie a Patriarhiei de Constantinopol. Tot din secolul al XIVlea este [i M~n~stirea de la Prislop, ridicat~ dup~ tradi]ie de ucenicii Sfntului Nicodim de la Tismana, cel care a avut un rol important n via]a monahal~ a romnilor. M~n~stirile din Hodo[Bodrog (secolul al XII-lea), Rme] (unde e pomenit numele primului ierarh ortodox romn, Ghelasie), Voievozi (secolul al XIV-lea), Geoagiu sunt primele men]ionate n documentele istorice. Se spune despre ele c~ aveau o via]~ grea, a[a cum erau [i vremurile: monahii lucrau p~mntul, copiau c~r]ile sfinte, nv~]au buchiile chirilice. Pe lng~ aceste vechi m~n~stiri s-au p~strat pn~ n zilele noastre biserici romne[ti din piatr~, unele din secolele XIII-XIV. ntre acestea, cea din Densu[, restaurat~ de curnd, unic~ n arhitectura romneasc~ prin folosirea n construc]ie a materialelor provenite de la Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, apoi cele din Strei, Gurasada, Snt~m~rie-Orlea (ajuns~ mai trziu n minile calvinilor) unde se p~streaz~ valoroase [i originale fragmente de pictur~ mural~. Nu n ultimul rnd trebuie amintite bisericile din Ostrov, Le[nic, Ribi]a, Crscior, ultima fiind ctitorie a voievodului Blea, cea mai veche zidire romneasc~ p~strat~ integral. Unele dintre acestea au fost ridicate cu sprijinul domnitorilor [i boierilor munteni sau moldoveni, ca de exemplu Biserica Sfntul Nicolae din Scheii Bra[ovului (secolul al XV-lea), sau Biserica din Vad (secolul al XV-lea), amndou~ importante loca[uri de cult [i valoroase monumente de arhitectur~ ce preiau elemente gotice asemeni bisericilor moldovene[ti din aceea[i epoc~. (i.e. the Romanian Orthodox) to carry out services and to build new religious abodes. Yet the Romanians continued to put up churches and monasteries and pursued their religious life in the places still standing. The oldest monastery of Transylvania, mentioned in documents from 1391, is the one of Peri, stavropighia of the Constantinople Patriarchy. From the 14th century also dates the Monastery of Prislop, erected according to the tradition by the apprentice of Saint Nicodemus of Tismana, who played a consequential role in the Romanians monastic life. The monasteries of HodosBodrog (the 12th century), Ramet (where the name of the first Romanian orthodox priest, Ghelasie, is mentioned), Voievozi (the 14th century), and Geoagiu are the first mentioned in historical documents. Their life was as difficult, they say, as the times. The monks used to till the land, copy holy books, and learn old church Slavonic letters. Besides these old monasteries, Romanian stone churches have been preserved to these days, some dating from the 13th-14th centuries. Among them mention should be made of the Densus one, recently restored, unique in the Romanian architecture as it used materials from the Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa citadel; then the Strei, Gurasada, Santamarie-Orlea (later taken over by Calvinists) where valuable original fragments of murals can still be admired. Last but not least we should speak of the churches of Ostrov, Lesnic, Ribita, Crascior, the last a foundation of Ruler Balea, the oldest Romanian construction fully preserved. Some of them were raised with the support of Wallachian or Moldavian princes and boyars, like, for instance, the Saint Nicholas Church of Scheii Brasovului (the 15th century) or the Vad Church (the 15th century), both important religious abodes and valuable architecture monuments featuring Gothic elements like the Moldavian churches of the same epoch.

silvania ia
n secolul al XVII-lea, vechilor m~n~stiri care [i continu~ existen]a li se adaug~ altele noi: Topli]a, Moisei, metoc al M~n~stirii Putna, Smb~ta de Sus ctitoria lui Constantin Brncoveanu. n afara lor, existau n Transilvania peste 180 de schituri din lemn, ridicate prin rvna, evlavia [i jertfa credincio[ilor; cea mai mare parte dintre ele au fost incendiate n secolul al XVIII-lea, iar altele au fost mutate n sate nvecinate sau au fost apoi transformate n biserici de mir. i n Banat, unele m~n~stiri au fost desfiin]ate din ordinul mp~ratului Iosif al II-lea dar s-au ref~cut ulterior. M~n~stirea S~raca, a c~rei biseric~ a r~mas pn~ n zilele noastre p~strnd valoroase fragmente de pictur~, este una dintre cele mai vechi din aceast~ regiune. De[i a trecut prin multe perioade dificile, arhitectura bisericeasc~ a p~strat [i n Transilvania tr~s~turi specifice. Predomin~ stilul autohton, cu plan dreptunghiular [i cu turn-clopotni]~ pe fa]ada apusean~; s-au ridicat ns~ [i biserici de plan triconc, m~rturie a influen]ei muntene[ti n arhitectura bisericeasc~ transilv~nean~. De o deosebit~ originalitate sunt ns~ bisericile de lemn din Maramure[; ele preiau elemente ale arhitecturii ]~r~ne[ti att n planimetrie ct [i n decora]ie. Elementul specific r~mne turnul foarte nalt, ridicat deasupra pronaosului. n acest stil s-au construit bisericile din Brsana, Susani, Ieud, urde[ti, pentru a le aminti doar pe cele mai cunoscute dintre ele. Un fenomen unic n ntreaga Ortodoxie [i specific Transilvaniei este pictura de icoane pe sticl~, f~cut~ deopotriv~ de monahi [i ]~rani. Icoana f~c~toare de minuni de la Nicula, pictat~ pe lemn de preotul Luca din Iclod-Cluj, p~strat~ n biserica m~n~stirii, a sporit evlavia iconarilor care au continuat pn~ ast~zi s~ zugr~veasc~ chipuri de sfin]i pe glaj~. Me[te[ugul pict~rii icoanelor pe sticl~ preluat de la Nicula se r~spnde[te [i n alte locuri din Transilvania, fiind un fenomen viu [i de mare amploare. In the 17th century new monasteries were added to the ones still standing: Toplita, Moisei, a subsidiary of Putna Monastery, Sambata de Sus, the foundation of Constantin Brancoveanu. Besides these, there are more than 180 wood sketes in Transylvania, built thanks to the dedication and sacrifice of the faithful. Most of them were burnt in the 18th century, and others were moved to neighboring villages or turned into churches (independent of monasteries). In Banat some monasteries were dismantled on order from Emperor Joseph II, and then remade subsequently. The Saraca Monastery with a church still standing to these days, boasts numerous fragments of painting, being one of the oldest in the region. For all the difficult spells it went through, religious architecture preserved specific features in Transylvania as well. The prevailing style is local, with a rectangular plan and a belfry on the western side. There are also trefoil churches, a token of Wallachian influence on the Transylvanian architecture. Highly original are the wood churches of Maramures, which feature elements of peasant architecture both in matters of design and decoration. The specific elements is the very high tower above the pronaos. This is the style of the churches of Barsana, Susani, Ieud, and Surdesti, to name only some of the most famous. A unique feat of the entire orthodoxy, specific for Transylvania is represented by icons painted on glass, a trade both of the clergy and of the peasantry. The Nicula icon that works miracles, painted on wood by priest Luca of Iclod-Cluj and kept in the church of the monastery, has boosted the dedication of icon painters who even today paint saints on glass. This art spread from Nicula to other places in Transylvania so as to become a living, wide-scope phenomenon.

Cultura scris~ a fost sprijinit~ [i ea de domnitori din ara Romneasc~ Constantin Brncoveanu a nzestrat M~n~stirea Smb~ta cu c~r]i de slujb~ tip~rite n ara Romneasc~ care s-au r~spndit n bisericile romne[ti din principatul transilv~nean, fiind caligrafiate cu grij~. ntr-o vreme n care limba slavon~ era pe cale de a disp~rea din Biseric~ [i pu]ini o mai n]elegeau, preo]i [i monahi nv~]a]i copiau cu mult~ rvn~ [i trud~ c~r]ile pentru slujbele de fiecare zi. M~n~stirile erau n acela[i timp [i loca[uri n care tinerii deprindeau cititul [i scrisul, al~turi de nv~]~tura [i cnt~rile Bisericii. i tot prin purtarea de grij~ a preo]ilor, monahilor [i dasc~lilor romni s-au mpodobit cu icoane [i picturi l~ca[urile sfinte. Dup~ 1990, voca]ia ctitoriceasc~ a romnilor din Transilvania, Banat [i Maramure[ continu~; ei nu vor zidi doar biserici noi n m~n~stirile vechi sau vor ridica m~n~stiri noi, ci [i incinte n care sunt ad~postite colec]ii cu valoroase obiecte de art~ bisericeasc~ din trecut [i biblioteci cu manuscrise [i c~r]i vechi dar [i numeroase volume de teologie, istorie [i art~. Noile edificii cople[esc prin stil [i propor]ii vechile zidiri; le lipse[te ns~ autenticitatea, sobrietatea [i frumuse]ea acelora. Este cazul noilor construc]ii de la Gai, Bodrog, Moisei, Nicula, Rme]i, Rohia, Topli]a, Brsana [i altele. Cu toate acestea, pelerinii [i vizitatorii de ast~zi se bucur~ de tinerii monahi pe care i ntlnesc, majoritatea dintre ei cu studii teologice [i laice, vorbitori de limbi str~ine [i unii chiar cu doctorate n ]ar~ [i str~in~tate. Monahiile continu~ tradi]ia, brodnd [i croind ve[minte, pictnd icoane pe lemn [i pe sticl~, ]esnd covoare, dup~ cum monahii sculpteaz~ n lemn cruci [i mobilier bisericesc [i picteaz~. i unii, [i al]ii au descoperit me[te[ugul cnt~rii tradi]ionale, deprins n m~n~stirile din ara Romneasc~ [i Moldova.
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Written culture was assisted by numerous princes from Wallachia, like, for example, Constantin Brancoveanu who endowed the Sambata Monastery with religious books printed in Wallachia that spread to several Romanian churches in the Transylvanian principality, being penned with much care. At a time when Old Slavonic was disappearing from Church and few could still understand it, bright priests and monks copied the books for every day service with extreme self-sacrifice. In monasteries, young people could learn to read and write alongside the Church teachings and songs. Thanks to the dutiful conduct of priests, monks and teachers the holy abodes acquired paintings and icons. After 1990, the constructive vocation of Romanians in Transylvania, Banat and Maramures continued with the same diligence. They not only build new churches in the old monasteries but also new monasteries and shelters for valuable collections of old religious art, libraries with precious manuscripts, volumes of theology, history and art. The new edifices with their sumptuous style and proportions overwhelm the old walls. Still, they miss the latters sobriety, genuineness and beauty. Such is the case of the new constructions of Gai, Bodrog, Moisei, Nicula, Rameti, Rohia, Toplita, Barsana, and others. Nonetheless, pilgrims and visitors today are glad to meet young priests, most of them with both theological and lay studies, speaking several foreign languages, and having a Ph.D obtained in this country or abroad. Monastic abodes promote traditions, still embroidering or cutting clothes, paintings icons on wood and glass, weaving carpets, carving in wood crosses and church furniture and painting them. From the monasteries in Wallachia and Moldavia they have all discovered the delight of traditional singing.

Toate acestea stau m~rturie despre schimb~rile radicale care s-au petrecut n aspectele exterioare ale vie]ii m~n~stirilor [i monahilor, n timp ce via]a interioar~ le este ritmat~ de slujbe la care chemarea se face ca dintotdeauna cu toaca [i clopote. Sunt unele l~ca[uri ntre acestea n care rnduiala athonit~, cu privegheri [i slujbe de noapte, e urmat~ cu rvn~. n ultimii 15 ani nu doar pelerinii, ntre care tot mai numero[i sunt tinerii catehiza]i n [coli, ci [i vizitatorii obi[nui]i merg la m~n~stiri [i se nchin~ la sfintele icoane f~c~toare de minuni [i la moa[tele unor sfin]i. O parte dintre ei [i pleac~ genunchii la spovedanie [i primesc pov~]uire duhovniceasc~, de la mari duhovnici. La Nicula l ntlnesc pe nv~]atul arhiepiscop al Clujului, Bartolomeu Anania, traduc~torul celei mai recente edi]ii a Sfintei Scripturi, care le treze[te interesul pentru [tiin]a biblic~. La Smb~ta l ntlnesc pe P~rintele Teofil care le d~ sfat [i curaj; n Mun]ii Apuseni l caut~ pe P~rintele Rafail Noica, acesta transmi]ndu-le cultura duhului, iar la Prislop g~sesc, lng~ mormntul P~rintelui Arsenie Boca, nt~rire duhovniceasc~. Ei cuprind astfel n c~ut~rile [i evlavia lor trecutul [i prezentul, pe cei de ieri [i cei de azi [i dau n~dejdi Bisericii care ne cheam~ pe to]i, arhierei, clerici, monahi [i laici la slujirea celui s~rac, fl~mnd, gol, bolnav, dar [i a celui ntristat, singur, dezn~d~jduit [i f~r~ credin]~, nt~ri]i fiind de pilda Maicii Domnului, chip al des~vr[itei smerenii [i iubiri. Ieromonah Iustin Marchi[

All this stands proof of the radical changes in exterior aspects undergone by monastic life, while interior life continues to be settled by services to which the monks are called by bells and the specific toaca. There still are some abodes where the athonite rites are obeyed, with night vigils and services. In the last 15 years not only pilgrims, more and more of them youths catechized in schools, but also ordinary visitors go to monasteries and pray at the miraculous icons or the remains of saints. Some of them kneel to be blessed and to receive spiritual guidance from great clergy. At Nicula they can meet the learned archbishop of Cluj, Bartolomeu Anania who made the latest translation of the Holy Bible, and is widely knowledgeable in biblical science. At Sambata there is Father Teofil who administers advice and urges courage, in the Apuseni Mountains Father Rafail Noica may be found, who conveys spiritual warmth, and at Prislop, near the tomb of Father Arsenie Boca, or can meet with several men of the cloth. Their quests and dedication include the past and present, and they are the hope of the Church, which calls all, lower and higher orders of priests, monks and lay men alike, to be in the service of the poor, of the hungry, naked and sick, and also of those who are melancholy, lonely, despondent and faithless, steeled by the example of the Mother of the Lord, an image of immaculate meekness and love.

Hieromonk Iustin Marchi[

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Biserica de lemn din Brsana

The wood church of Barsana


Serafimi, pictur~ mural~ Seraphim, mural painting

Biserica, avnd hramul Intrarea Maicii Domnului n Biseric~ a fost construit~ n 1720, dup~ devastarea [i incendiarea satului de c~tre t~tari (1717), ca biseric~ de m~n~stire ortodox~. Apar]ine grupului de biserici tipice pentru Maramure[, de dimensiuni reduse, cu acoperi[ n dou~ ape. A servit ca biseric~ aba]ial~ (sub autoritatea c~lug~rilor unia]i bazilieni \ncepnd cu a doua jum~tate a secolului al XVIII-lea), apoi a fost transformat~ n biseric~ parohial~ n 1806, cnd a fost mutat~ pe locul actual (brnele p~streaz~ nc~ numerotarea incizat~ necesar~ noii ridic~ri). Pictura realizat~ n cursul aceluia[i an de Toader Ponor [i Ioan Plohod, este de o valoare deosebit~, constituind un ansamblu decorativ structurat dup~ legile barocului, cel mai coerent din jude]ul Maramure[. Iconostasul se ncadreaz~ n acela[i stil.

The church dedicated to the Virgins Entry was erected in 1720, after the Tartars devastated the village and set it on fire (1717), as an Orthodox monastery church. It belongs to the group of typical Maramures religious abodes of small size and coupled roof. First it was an abbey church (under the authority of Uniate Basilian monks beginning in the second half of the 18th century), then, in 1806, turned into a parish church, and moved to the current location. Its beams still preserve numbers incised at the start of the new construction. The abode was painted in the same year by Toader Ponor and Ioan Plohod. Of exceptional value, the painting makes up a decorative ensemble based on Baroque rules, the most consistent structure of the kind in Maramures County. The iconostasis pertains to the same style.

Biserica Intrarea Maicii Domnului n Biseric~ Vedere general~ dinspre nord. The Church of the Virgin Entering the Temple General view from the north.

13

Heruvimi, pictur~ mural~ Cherubim, mural painting

Picturi murale pe peretele de sud al naosului Mural paintings on the southern wall of the naos

14

Fragment de iconostas Iconostasis fragment

Col]ul de nord-est al naosului The north-eastern corner of the naos

15

M~n~stirea Brncoveanu

The Brancoveanu Monastery


Biserica veche a m~n~stirii [i turnul por]ii v~zute dinspre sud-est The old church of the monastery and the gate tower seen from the south-east

A fost ntemeiat~ de Preda Brncoveanu, biserica de lemn ini]ial~, fiind nlocuit~ la sfr[itul secolului al XVIIlea cu cea actual~, de zid, de voievodul Constantin Brncoveanu, care a ref~cut [i m~n~stirea. n 1785 a fost distrus~ (ca [i alte m~n~stiri din Transilvania) de armata generalului Bukow, r~mnnd p~r~sit~ pn~ n 1936. n anii 1925-1936, mitropolitul Nicolae B~lan a restaurat, treptat, biserica (cu dou~ hramuri: Adormirea Maicii Domnului [i Izvorul T~m~duirii) [i chiliile, la cteva sute de metri dep~rtare de aceasta. M~n~stirea a fost ref~cut~ integral n perioada 1984-1993, corpul de cl~diri din nord cuprinznd [i o biseric~ mare cu hramul Sfin]ii Martiri Brncoveni, care a fost sfin]it~, mpreun~ cu ntreaga m~n~stire nou-zidit~, la 15 august 1993 (Adormirea Maicii Domnului) de patriarhii Bartolomeu I [i Teoctist, mpreun~ cu un mare sobor de ierarhi, preo]i [i diaconi. M~n~stirea are o colec]ie renumit~ de icoane pe sticl~, multe dintre ele provenind din [coala de pictur~ pe sticl~ de aici, ntemeiat~ de c~lug~rul Timotei Toh~neanu.

Founded by Preda Brancoveanu, the abode featured a wooden church replaced, in the late 17th century, by the present, brick one, by Constantin Brancoveanu, who also remade the monastery. In 1785, it was destroyed, like many other monasteries in Transylvania, by General Bukows army, and remained abandoned until 1936. Between 1925 and 1936 metropolitan Nicolae Balan gradually rebuilt the church (dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin and The Healing Source) and the cells, a few hundreds meters away. The monastery was fully reconstructed between 1984 and 1993, the northern ensemble containing also a big church dedicated to the Holy Brancoveanu Martyrs, and hallowed together with the newly built monastery on August 15, 1993 (the Dormition of the Mother of God) by patriarchs Bartolomeu I and Teoctist, together with a great assembly of hierarchs, priests and deacons. The monastery boasts a renowned collection of glass icons, many of them creations of the local glass painting school, founded by monk Timotei Tohaneanu.

Vedere aerian~ dinspre sud-est Birds eye view from the south-east

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Foi[orul din corpul de cl~diri de pe latura nordic~ a incintei The belvedere of the ensemble of buildings on the northern side of the precincts

Vedere aerian~ dinspre nord-vest Birds eye view from the north-west

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Schimbarea la fa]~
Pictur~ mural~ pe bolta pridvorului bisericii vechi.

The Transfiguration
Mural on the vault of the old church porch.

Biserica nou~ a m~n~stirii Col]ul de sud-est al naosului. The new church of the monastery The south-eastern corner of the naos.

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Biserica veche a m~n~stirii n pridvor. The old church of the monastery On the porch.

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Bisericile de lemn din Bude[ti

The wood churches of Budesti


Biserica de lemn din Bude[ti-Josani Vedere general~ dinspre sud-vest. The wood church of Budesti-Josani General view from the south-west.

Biserica din Bude[ti-Josani, construit~ din lemn de stejar n 1643 (conform inscrip]iei \ncrustate pe rama u[ii), cu modific~ri n secolul al XVIII-lea, a fost nchinat~ Sfntului Nicoar~ (vechiul nume romnesc al Sfntului Nicolae). Este o biseric~ tipic~ pentru Maramure[, de plan dreptunghiular, cu absid~ poligonal~, turn nalt pe pronaos, prev~zut cu coif [i patru turnule]e [i acoperi[ cu dubl~ poal~. Pere]ii interiori sunt acoperi]i cu picturi murale populare ce dateaz~ din 1762. Biserica din Bude[ti-Susani, construit~ n 1760, cu transform~ri datnd din secolul al XIX-lea, este pu]in interesant~ ca arhitectur~. n schimb, pictura mural~ executat~ de Alexandru Pronehalski (1760) este reprezentativ~ pentru fenomenul de rusticizare a artei de tradi]ie medieval~.

The church of Budesti-Josani, built in oak wood in 1643 (according to the inscription incised in the door frame), with modifications brought in the 18th century, was dedicated to Saint Nicoara (the old Romanian name of Saint Nicholas). It is a typical church for Maramures on a rectangular design, with a polygonal apse, tall tower on the pronaos provided with cover, four turrets and a saddle roof. Inside, the walls are adorned with murals in the folk style dating from the 1762. The Budesti-Susani church, erected in 1760, with modifications from the 19th century has a less interesting architecture, its highlight being the murals executed by Alexandru Pronehalski (1760). The painting is representative of the rusticization of medieval tradition art.

Pictur~ mural~ de Alexandru Pronehalski Biserica din Bude[ti-Susani. Mural painted by Alexandru Pronehalski The Budesti-Susani Church.

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Pictur~ mural~ popular~ (fragment), 1762 Biserica din Bude[ti-Josani. Folk-style mural (fragment), 1762 The Budesti-Josani Church.

Remu[carea lui Cain


Pictur~ mural~ (detaliu), 1760, biserica din Bude[ti-Susani.

Cains Remorse
Mural painting (detail), 1760, the Budesti-Susani Church.

R~stignirea
Pictur~ mural~ (1762), biserica din Bude[ti-Josani.

The Crucifixion
Mural painting (1762), the BudestiJosani Church.

Purtarea crucii
Pictur~ mural~ (1760), biserica din Bude[ti-Susani.

The Carrying of the Cross


Mural painting (1760), the BudestiSusani Church.

Bisericile de lemn din C~line[ti

The Wood Churches of Calinesti


Biserica Na[terea Domnului Vedere general~ dinspre sud. The Birth of the Lord Church General view from the south.

Biserica, avnd hramul Na[terea Domnului, construit~ n anul 1663, a fostei m~n~stiri C~eni, avea ini]ial un plan dreptunghiular cu absida poligonal~ [i, pe pronaos, un turn-clopotni]~ cu foi[or. n secolul al XIX-lea a fost amplificat~ prin ad~ugarea, pe latura nordic~, a unei nave mai nguste, ceea ce i confer~ o asimetrie expresiv~. Pridvorul este decorat cu crest~turi n lemn. n interior are un valoros ansamblu de pictur~ mural~, executat~ n 1754, de Alexandru Pronehalski. Biserica mai posed~ icoane pe lemn [i pe sticl~ de la sfr[itul secolului al XVIII-lea. n satul Susani, apar]innd aceleia[i comune, mai exist~ o biseric~ de lemn din secolul al XVIII-lea, pre]ios martor al influen]ei moldovene[ti n Maramure[.

The church dedicated to The Birth of the Lord, erected in 1663, of the former Caeni Monastery, had initially a rectangular design, with a polygonal apse, and a belfry with a belvedere on the pronaos. In the 19th century a slimmer nave was added on the northern side, which resulted in an expressive sort of asymmetry. The porch is decorated with wood incisions. The interior features a valuable ensemble of mural paintings created in 1754 by Alexandru Pronehalski. The church also has icons on wood and glass dating from the late 18th century. In Susani village that belongs to the same commune there stands another wood church from the 18th century, a valuable witness of Moldavian influence in Maramures.

Arhanghel
Pictur~ mural~ (detaliu), 1754.

Archangel
Mural painting (detail), 1754.

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Biserica din Densu[

The Densus Church


Biserica Sfntul Nicolae Vedere dinspre sud-est. The Saint Nicholas Church View from the south-east.

Biserica, avnd hramul Sfntul Nicolae, este una dintre cele mai vechi biserici romne[ti, fiind ridicat~ \n secolul al XIII-lea pe locul unei construc]ii din secolul al IV-lea; nc~perile anexe de pe latura sudic~ au fost ad~ugate \n secolele XIV-XV. Construit din pietre scoase din ruinele Ulpiei Traiana Sarmizegetusa, biserica are un plan ptrat (6 x 6 m), naosul fiind strpuns de un turn n jurul cruia se afl un spa]iu ngust, acoperit de o bolt de sprijin. Acoperi[ul este din pl~ci de piatr~. Valoroasele fragmente de pictur mural (din 1443) sunt opera unei echipe de me[teri conduse de me[terul tefan, unul din primii zugravi romni cunoscu]i.

The church dedicated to Saint Nicholas is one of the oldest Romanian churches erected in the 13th century on the spot of a construction dating to the 4th century. The annex constructions on the southern side were added in the 14th-15th centuries. Built with stones taken from the ruins of the Ulpia Trajana Sarmizegetusa citadel, the church features a square plan (6 x 6 m), the naos being pierced by a tower around which there is a narrow space covered by a supporting vault. The roof is made of stone slabs. The previous fragments of mural painting (from 1443) were created by a team of artists headed by Stephan, one of the first known Romanian painters.

Interiorul bisericii Imagine interbelic~. Interior of the church Inter-war picture.

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Picturi murale (detalii), 1443 Biserica Sfntul Nicolae din Densu[. Mural paintings (details), 1443 The Saint Nicholas Church of Densus.

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Interiorul navei n stlpul din primplan, o lespede cu inscrip]ie roman~. Interior of the nave A slab with a Roman inscription in the pillar in the foreground.

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Biserica din Gurasada

The Gurasada Church


Biserica Sfntul Arhanghel Mihail Vedere dinspre sud. The Saint Archangel Michael Church View from the south.

Biserica, avnd hramul Sfntul Arhanghel Mihail, dateaz~ din secolul al XIII-lea fiind men]ionat~ \ntr-un document din 1292 al regelui maghiar Andrei al III-lea. Construit~ din piatr~ brut~ [i mortar, nucleul central, de plan cvadrilobat, este ncununat cu o turl~ cu sec]iune dreptunghiular~ suspendat~ deasupra bol]ilor celor patru abside. Ulterior, spre vest au fost construite mai multe nc~peri anexe [i un turn-clopotni]~, prev~zut cu foi[or de lemn. Picturile au fost realizate \n 1765 de zugravii Ioan din Deva [i Nicolae din Pite[ti.

The church dedicated to Saint Archangel Michael dates from the 13th century, being mentioned in a document from 1292 of Hungarian King Andrew III. Built in raw stone and mortar, the central core on a fourlobed design is crowned by a turret with a rectangular section suspended above the vaults of the four apses. Subsequently, several annexes and a belfry with a wooden belvedere, were erected to the west. The paintings, created in 1765, are signed by artists Ioan of Deva and Nicolae of Pitesti.

nvierea lui Iisus Pictur~ mural~ (1765). The resurrection of Jesus Mural painting (1765).

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n~l]area Domnului Pictur~ mural~ (1765). The Ascension of the Lord . Mural painting (1765).

Judecata de Apoi, cu scene de critic~ social~ Pictur~ mural~ (1765). The Last Judgement with scenes of social criticism Mural painting (1765).

Schimbarea la fa]~ [i Prinderea lui Iisus Picturi murale (1765). The Transfiguration and Jesus being captured . Mural paintings (1765).

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M~n~stirea Hodo[-Bodrog

The Hodos-Bodrog Monastery


Turnul clopotni]~ (secolul al XIV-lea) [i biserica nou~ Vedere pa]ial~ a m~n~stirii dinspre sud. The belfry (14th century) and the new church Partial view of the monastery from the south.

Este o ctitorie c~lug~reasc~, prima atestare documentar~ datnd din 1177. Dup~ tradi]ie, ar fi construit~ n urma descoperirii unei icoane a Maicii Domnului (care se p~streaz~ n~untru, deasupra u[ii) de c~tre un taur, prin scormonirea cu coarnele. n locul bisericii de lemn din secolul al XII-lea, acum disp~rut~, s-a construit n secolul al XIV-lea actuala biseric~ (cu hramul Intrarea Maicii Domnului n Biseric~) de plan triconc, asem~n~toare bisericilor unor m~n~stiri din ara Romneasc~ (Curtea de Arge[, Cozia, Tismana [.a.); din acela[i secol dateaz~ [i turnul-clopotni]~. St~re]ia [i cl~dirile din partea de r~s~rit s-au construit n a doua jum~tate a secolului al XVIII-lea, iar paraclisul [i chiliile din partea de apus, n anii 1904-1907. M~n~stirea a fost desfiin]at~ n 1959, devenind gospod~rie anex~ a episcopiei. Renfiin]at~ n 1975, a suferit ample lucr~ri de restaurare [i consolidare n anii 1979-1985; dup~ 1990 s-a restaurat [i pictura bisericii, cea din naos [i altar datnd din secolul al XIV-lea.

It was founded by monks, being attested for the first time in a document dated 1177. Tradition says it was build on the spot where an icon of the Mother of God was found by a bull that poked the soil with its horns. The 12th century wood abode gone, it was replaced by the present church, erected in the 14th century and dedicated to the Virgin entering the Temple. The construction is trefoil, similar to the monastery churches in Wallachia (Curtea de Arges, Tismana, a.o.). The belfry tower dates from the same century. The abbey and the buildings of the eastern side were erected in the second half of the 18th century, and the chapel and cells on the western side between 1904 and 1907. In 1959 the monastery was dismantled, and turned into an annex of the bishopric. Reopened in 1975, it was amply restored and consolidated between 1979 and 1985. After 1990 the church paintings were also restored, particularly those in the naos and the altar, dating from the 14th century.

Biserica Intrarea Maicii Domnului \n Biseric~ Vedere general~ dinspre sud. The Church The Virgins Entering the Temple General view from the south.

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Bisericile de lemn din Ieud

The Wood Churches of Ieud


Biserica Na[terea Maicii Domnului Vedere general~ dinspre sud-vest. The Birth of the Virgin Church General view from the south-west.

Biserica Na[terea Maicii Domnului din Ieud (biserica din deal) este una dintre cele mai frumoase l~ca[e de cult din Transilvania. Amplasat~ \n cimitirul satului, pe un versant pietros, pe malul rului Ighi[, dateaz~ din prima jum~tate a secolului al XVIII-lea, fiind construit~ pe locul unei biserici de lemn mai vechi (secolul al XIV-lea) distrus~ de invazia t~tar~ din 1717. Avnd un acoperi[ n dou~ ape (tipic pentru bisericile din Maramure[), biserica se remarc~ prin silueta sa relansat~ [i prin boga]ia decora]iei sculptate. Pictura interioar~, de factur~ popular~ care acoper~ \ntreaga suprafa]~, este opera lui Alexandru Pronehalski (1782). n Ieud se mai afl~ o biseric~ de lemn (biserica din [es, 1717), exemplar str~lucit de arhitectur~ \n lemn, caracteristic~ pentru Valea Izei.

The Birth of the Virgin Church of Ieud (the church on the hill) is one of the most beautiful cult abodes in Transylvania. Situated in the village graveyard, on a stony slope on the bank of the river Ighis, it goes back to the first half of the 18th century, being erected on the place of an older wood church (the 14th century) destroyed by the Tartar invasion of 1717. With a saddle roof (typical for the churches of Maramures), this abode stands out by its slender silhouette and the richness of its sculpted decoration. The folk inspired painting covering almost all the interior surfaces was created by Alexandru Pronehalski (1782). Ieud also features another wooden church (the church in the plain, 1717), a brilliant example of wood architecture characteristic for the Iza Valley.

Fa]ada sudic~ a bisericii Femei la slujb~. The southern faade of the church Women during mass.

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Ieud Vedere panoramic~, iarna. Ieud Panoramic view, in winter.

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Judecata de Apoi (fragment)


Pictur~ mural~ pe peretele vestic al pronaosului.

The Last Judgement (fragment)


Mural on the western wall of the pronaos.

Col]ul de sud-est al pronaosului Picturi murale [i icoane. The south-eastern corner of the pronaos Murals and icons.

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Heruvim
Pictur~ mural~ pe tavanul naosului (detaliu).

Cherubim
Mural on the naos ceiling (detail).

Intrarea lui Iisus n Ierusalim


Pictur~ mural~ pe peretele sudic al naosului.

Jesus entering Jerusalem


Mural on the southern wall of the naos.

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M~n~stirea Moisei

The Moisei Church


Biserica de lemn (1672) V~zut~ dinspre sud-vest. The wood church (1672) Seen from the south-west.

Este amintit~ n documentele vremii la 1637, dar, dup~ unii cercet~tori, ar data din secolul al XIV-lea. Biserica de lemn, sfin]it~ de mitropolitul Sava Brancovici n 1672, a fost restaurat~ n anii 1928-1929. Pe pere]ii interiori, mai ales pe bol]i, se mai p~streaz~ fragmente de pictur~. n aceast~ m~n~stire a func]ionat, la nceputul secolului al XVII-lea, o [coal~ de pictur~. Biserica de zid, cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, a fost construit~ n anul 1911, n stil neoclasic, renovat~ [i repictat~ n anii 80. St~re]ia [i chiliile s-au construit n ultimii ani.

Documents from 1637 mention this abode but there are researchers who claim it dates from the 14th century. The wood church, hallowed by metropolitan Sava Brancovici in 1672 was restored between 1928 and 1929. The inside walls, especially the vaults, still evince fragments of paintings. In the early 17th century this monastery had a famous school of painting. The wall church dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin was erected in 1911 in neo-classical style, and then refurbished and repainted in the 1980. The abbey and the cells were put up in recent years.

Biserica mare (1911) Fa]ada vestic~. The big church (1911) The western faade.

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M~n~stirea Nicula

The Nicula Monastery


Biserica de lemn (1701) [i turlele bisericii Sfntul Ioan Botez~torul Vedere general~ dinspre nord-est. The wood church (1701) and the turrets of the Saint John the Baptist Church General view from the north-east.

Acest a[ez~mnt monahal dateaz~ din secolele XVI-XVII. Biserica de lemn, construit~ de pustnicul Nicolae cu ajutorul credincio[ilor, a ars n 1973; pe clopotul ei era scris anul 1696. n locul acesteia a fost adus~ alta, tot de lemn, din 1701, din jude]ul Bistri]a-N~s~ud. Biserica de zid, cu hramul Sfntul Ioan Botez~torul, a fost construit~ n anii 1875-1879, \n stil neoromanic, n form~ de nav~, cu dou~ turnuriclopotni]~; iconostasul, unic ca stil, are multe elemente brncovene[ti, iar pictura, n tempera, este n stil bizantin. M~n~stirea Nicula este un vestit centru de iconari pe sticl~, nfiin]at n secolul al XVIII-lea, ale c~ror lucr~ri, r~spndite n toat~ Transilvania, se recunosc prin desenul naiv, expresiv, compozi]ia simpl~ [i coloritul viu. Are o valoroas~ colec]ie de c~r]i vechi [i icoane (pe sticl~ [i lemn) din secolele XVII-XX.

This monastic abode dates from the 16th-17th centuries. A wood church erected by hermit Nicolae with the help of other faithful burnt in 1973. Its bell read the year 1696. In its place another wood church was brought from Bistrita-Nasaud County in 1701. The stone church dedicated to Saint John the Baptist was built between 1875 and 1879 in the neo-Roman style, shipshaped, with two belfries. The iconostasis, unique in style, features several Brancovan elements, and the tempera painting is Byzantine. The Nicula Monastery is a famed center of glass icon makers, set up in the 18th century, from where icons have been disseminated throughout Transylvania. Their feature a naive trademark, expressive drawing, simple composition, and vivid colors. The monastery boasts a valuable collection of old books and icons (on glass and wood) from the 17th-20th centuries.

Biserica Sfntul Ioan Botez~torul Iconostasul. The Saint John the Baptist Church The iconostasis.

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Biserica de lemn din Plopi[

The Wood Church of Plopis


Biserica Sfin]ii Arhangheli Vedere dinspre vest. The Saint Archangels Church View from the west.

Sfnta Treime
Pictur~ mural~.

Biserica din satul Plopi[, cu hramul Sfin]ii Arhangheli, construit~ n anii 1796-1798, este una din cele mai reprezentative realiz~ri ale arhitecturii de lemn din Romnia, avnd influen]e ale bisericilor tipice Transilvaniei de nord, ct, mai ales prin configura]ia volumetric~ [i siluet~, ale celor din Maramure[. De plan dreptunghiular, cu absida decro[at~ [i cu pridvor pe latura de vest, se caracterizeaz~ prin n~l]imea deosebit~ a turnului-clopotni]~, cu foi[or [i acoperi[ prelung, decorat cu patru turnule]e. Pictura mural~ dateaz~ din 1811 [i i apar]ine me[terului tefan (conform unei inscrip]ii de pe una din icoane).

The church from Plopis village, dedicated to the Saints Archangels and built between 1796 and 1798 is one of the most representative achievements of Romanian wood architecture, featuring obvious influences from northern Transylvanian churches, and also from Maramures churches, in what regards volumes and silhouette. Erected on a rectangular design, with an out-of-step apse and a porch on the western side, the abode stands out by the tallness of the belfry tower, with a belvedere and long roof, decorated with four turrets. The mural painting dates from 1811 and was created by artist Stephan (as the inscription on one of the icons tells us).

The Holy Trinity


Mural painting.

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Coborrea de pe cruce
Pictur~ mural~.

Descent from the cross


. Mural painting.

Biserica Sfin]ii Arhangheli Vedere general~ dinspre est. The Saint Archangels Church General view from the east.

Sfntul Prooroc Ilie


Pictur~ mural~.

The Saint Prophet Elijah


Mural painting.

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M~n~stirea Prislop

The Prislop Monastery


Biserica Sfntul Ioan Evanghelistul Fa]ada vestic~ cu icoana de hram. The Saint John the Evangelist Church The western faade with the dedication icon.

Biserica m~n~stirii, avnd hramul Sfntul Ioan Evanghelistul, ar fi fost zidit~, pe locul unei a[ez~ri sih~stre[ti mai vechi, dup~ tradi]ie [i caracteristici, de ucenicii lui Nicodim de la Tismana, n jurul anului 1400 cu ajutorul primit de la Mircea cel B~trn. Biserica actual~ avnd o arhitectur~ specific~ bisericilor din Muntenia [i Moldova, a fost ctitorit~ [i \nzestrat~ de domni]a Zamfira, fiica lui Moise Basarab al ~rii Romne[ti, la 1564. n secolul al XVI-lea a fost re[edin]a episcopului Siliva[ului, ulterior fiind preluat~ de greco-catolici (secolul al XVIII-lea). Incendiat~ de generalul Bukow \n anul 1762, a fost restaurat~ de mai multe ori \n secolele urm~toare. n perioada 1959-1976 a fost desfiin]at~. n prezent este m~n~stire de maici, n ea func]ionnd [i un seminar monahal pentru fete.

The monastery church dedicated to Saint John the Evangelist is said to have been erected, with the assistance of Ruler Mircea the Old, in the place of an older hermit abode belonging, according to the tradition, to the apprentices of Nicodemus of Tismana, around 1400. The present day church has an architecture specific for Wallachian and Moldavian churches, and was founded and endowed, in 1564, by Princess Zamfira, daughter of Moise Basarab, Ruler of Wallachia. In the 16th century it was the residence of the bishop of Silivas, and subsequently it was taken over by the Greek Catholics (the 18th century). Set on fire by General Bukows armies in 1762, it was restored several times in the following centuries. Between 1959 and 1976 it was dismantled. At present, it is a nunnery, also featuring a monastic seminar for girls.

Vedere general~ a m~n~stirii dinspre est General view of the monastery from the east

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M~n~stirea Rme]

The Ramet Monastery


Incinta m~n~stirii, cu cele dou~ biserici v~zute dinspre nord-est The monastery precincts, with the two churches seen from the north-east

Conform tradi]iei, a fost ntemeiat~ n anul 1214, de doi c~lug~ri Ghenadie [i Romulus. Biserica veche, cu hramul Izvorul T~m~duirii, are mai multe straturi de pictur~, datnd din anii 1300, 1310, 1377, 1450, 1600, 1714, 1809. A[ez~mntul, cel mai puternic centru ortodox din Transilvania, a fost distrus de generalul Bukow n 1762 [i 1785, fiind p~r~sit apoi timp de 100 de ani; n 1826 a fost transformat n biseric~ parohial~, redevenind m~n~stire de c~lug~ri n 1932, iar n 1955, m~n~stire de maici. n 1960 a fost desfin]at~ [i transformat~ n caban~ turistic~. n 1968, o parte din fostele maici s-au stabilit aici ca lucr~toare de covoare, reu[ind, sub conducerea ieromonahului Dometie, s~ construiasc~ o caban~ n afara m~n~stirii, pe care au dat-o n schimbul cl~dirilor m~n~stirii. n perioada 1982-1992 a fost construit~ biserica nou~, cu hramurile Adormirea Maicii Domnului [i Sfin]ii Apostoli Petru [i Pavel. n anii 1987-1989 a fost restaurat~ biserica veche, apoi st~re]ia [i cl~dirile cu chiliile. M~n~stirea are un muzeu cu c~r]i vechi, icoane pe lemn [i sticl~, obiecte de cult [i etnografice.

The abode was founded, according to tradition, in the year 1214 by two monks, Ghenadie and Romulus. The old church dedicated to the Source of Healing features several layers of painting, dating from 1300, 1310, 1377, 1450, 1600, 1714, and 1809. The monastery, the most powerful Christian Orthodox center in Transylvania, was attacked by General Bukows armies in 1762 and 1785, being then abandoned for 100 years. In 1826 it was turned into a parish church, then in 1932 it became again a monastery of monks, and of nuns in 1955. In 1960 it was turned into a tourist chalet. In 1968 part of the former nuns settled in the locality as carpet weavers and, under the guidance of hieromonk Dometie, they managed to build a chalet outside the religious abode, which they traded for the monastery buildings. Between 1982 and 1992 a new church was erected dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin and to Saints Apostles Peter and Paul. Between 1987 and 1989 the old church was restored, then the abbey and the buildings of cells. The monastery boasts a museum of old books, wood and glass icons, religious and ethnographic utensils.

M~n~stirea [i Cheile Rme]ilor Vedere panoramic~. The Monastery and the Rameti Gorges Panoramic view.

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n~l]area Domnului
Pictura mural~ \n biserica veche (naos).

The Ascension of the Lord


Mural in the old church (naos).

Biserica nou~, v~zut~ dinspre est The new church seen from the east

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Deisis
Pictur~ mural~ \n biserica veche (absida altarului).

Deisis
Mural in the old church (altar apse).

Biserica de lemn din Rogoz

The Wood Church of Rogoz


Biserica Cuvioasa Paraschiva Vedere dinspre sud-est. The Pious Paraschiva Church . View from the south-east.

Biserica cu hramul Cuvioasa Paraschiva a fost ridicat~ n 1663 [i ref~cut~ \n 1717 dup~ invazia t~tar~. Avnd o configura]ie planimetric~ tipic~ pentru majoritatea bisericilor din ara L~pu[ului (pronaos, naos [i altar desprins din intrarea situat~ pe partea de sud), se deosebe[te de bisericile maramure[ene prin spa]iile interioare mult mai mici: pere]ii nedep~sind 3 m \n~l]ime, bolta semicilindric~ pleac~ de la acest nivel. Acoperi[ul are o siluet~ asimetric~, datorit~ stre[inii l~rgite c~tre nord ce confer~ turnului clopotni]~ un aspect fragil [i impozant n acela[i timp. Monument reprezentativ pentru ara L~pu[ului, este remarcabil prin frumuse]ea siluetei [i prin bog~]ia decora]iei, prezent~ att la nivelul pere]ilor exteriori ct [i a celor interiori, n special n altar. Frumoasele picturi murale au fost executate de Radu Munteanu din Ungureni (1785) [i de Grigore Badea (1834) dup~ cum atest~ inscrip]iile cu caractere chirilice, p~strate n altar [i n peretele de sud al naosului.

The church dedicated to the Pious Paraschiva was erected in 1663 and remade in 1717 after the Tartar inroad. On a design typical for most of the churches in Lapus region (pronaos, naos, and altar detached from the entry situated in the south), it stands out among other Maramures churches by the much smaller interior spaces, its walls never exceeding three meters in height, with a semicircular vault going from this level up. The roof is asymmetrical because of the eaves enlarged to the north, which makes the belfry tower seems frail yet imposing. This representative monument of Lapus region has a tremendously beautiful silhouette and an extremely rich decoration both on the outer and inner walls, particularly the altar. The exquisite murals are the work of Radu Munteanu of Ungureni (1785) and Grigore Badea (1834), as attested by the inscription in Old Church Slavonic, preserved in the altar and on the southern wall of the naos.

Facerea femeii
Pictur~ mural~ (1785).

The making of the woman


Mural painting (1785).

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Sfntul Mucenic Iraclie


Pictur~ mural~ (1834).

Saint Martyr Iraclie


Mural painting (1834).

Decora]ii n lemn pe fa]ada vestic~ Wooden decorations on the western faade

Biserica de lemn [i cimitirul din Rogoz Vedere general~ dinspre nord-est. The wood church and the cemetery of Rogoz General view from the north-east.

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M~n~stirea S~raca

The Saraca Monastery


Maica Domnului Platytera
Pictur~ mural~ pe bolta pronaosului bisericii.

Mother of God Platytera


Mural on the vault of the church pronaos.

Na[terea Maicii Domnului


Pictur~ mural~ \n pronaosul bisericii.

Documentele istorice atest~ existen]a m~n~stirii, cu o bogat~ activitate, n anii 1270-1271. Exist~ unele men]iuni de la nceputul secolului al XV-lea, cnd superiorul c~lug~rilor franciscani raporta c~ m~n~stirea este o ap~r~toare a schismaticilor. n anul 1778 a mp~rt~[it soarta altor m~n~stiri romne[ti, pe care mp~ratul Iosif al II-lea le-a trecut n proprietatea statului; n 1782 a fost cump~rat~ la licita]ie de marele dreg~tor Ioan Ostoici din Timi[oara, care a f~cut din ea cavoul familiei sale. C~zut~ n paragin~, a revenit n 1934 sub obl~duirea Episcopiei Caransebe[ului; n anii 1948-1987 a avut statut de parohie. Biserica, cu hramul Schimbarea la fa]~, are form~ de cruce greac~; pictura n fresc~, dateaz~ din secolul al XVI-lea [i a fost restaurat~ n 1730 (fapt consemnat n pisania g~sit~ de curnd). Din 1983 s-au ntreprins lucr~ri complexe de restaurare, a picturii [i a cl~dirii.

Historical documents attest to this monastery with a rich activity back to the years 1270-1271. There are some mentions from the early 15th century, when the father superior of the Franciscan monks reported that the monastery was a defender of the schismatics. In 1778 the abode shared the destiny of other Romanian monastery which Emperor Joseph II put into the property of the state. In 1782, it was purchased on auction by high steward Ioan Ostoici of Timisoara, who turned it into the crypt of his family. Fallen into dereliction, in 1934 it returned to the Bishopric of Caransebes, and between 1948 and 1987 it held the status of parish. The church, dedicated to The Transfiguration, is shaped as a Greek cross. The fresco painting dates from the 16th century, and it was restored in 1730 (a fact recorded in the votive inscription recently discovered). From 1983 ample restoration works of the painting and of the building have been undertaken.

Birth of the Mother of God


Mural in the church pronaos.

Biserica m~n~stirii v~zut~ dinspre nord-vest The monastery church seen from the north-west

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Bisericile de lemn din Srbi

The Wood Churches of Sarbi


Biserica de lemn din Srbi-Josani Vedere general~ dinspre sud. The wood church of Sarbi-Josani General view from the south.

Asemenea majorit~t~]ii localit~]ilor de pe Valea Cos~ului, comuna Srbi are dou~ biserici de lemn: una \n satul Susani, cealalt~ \n Josani. Biserica din Susani, cu hramul Sfnta Paraschiva, a fost construit~ din lemn de stejar \n 1532. Tmpla altarului a fost pictat~ la 1760 de c~tre me[terii Iosif, Iacob [i Alexa. Pictura interioar~ a fost par]ial restaurat~ n 1800 de tefan Amachievici. Biserica de]ine icoane pe lemn din secolul al XVIII-lea, realizate de Radu Munteanu. Biserica din Josani a fost construit~ la 1667 tot din lemn de stejar, n apropierea locului unde exista o veche m~n~stire, pe Gruiul Maiului", distrus~ la invazia t~tarilor din 1717. Pictura de pe pere]i este distrus~ n cea mai mare parte, dar s-au p~strat o serie de icoane pe lemn [i sticl~. Interiorul, ca [i exteriorul bisericii, aminte[te de o cas~ ]~r~neasc~.

Like most of the localities on Cosaul River, the commune of Sarbi boasts two wood churches: one in the village of Susani, and the other in Josani. The church of Susani, dedicated to Saint Paraschiva, was built in oak wood in 1532. The altar screen was painted in 1760 by masters Iosif, Iacob, and Alexa. In 1800, Stefan Amachievici partly restored the inner paintings. The church holds wood icons from the 18th century, created by Radu Munteanu. The Josani church was built in 1667 in oak wood, close to the place of an older monastery, on the Mai Hill, pulled down by the Tartars in 1717. Most of the wall paintings have been destroyed but several wood and glass icons have been preserved miraculously. The interior as well as the exterior of the abode remind of a peasant household.

Plngerea lui Iisus


Pictur~ mural~ \n biserica din Srbi-Susani.

Mourning Jesus
Mural from the church of Sarbi-Susani.

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Biserica Sfntul Nicolae

The Saint Nicholas Church


Biserica Sfntul Nicolae, ntr-o litografie de acum dou~ veacuri The Saint Nicholas Church in a two-century old lithograph

Valoros monument istoric, biserica Sfntul Nicolae din Scheii Bra[ovului a fost construit~ pe locul unei biserici de lemn de la 1403 [i ref~cut~ de mai multe ori n perioada 1518-1594, cu ajutorul voievozilor din ~rile Romne: Vlad C~lug~rul, Neagoe Basarab, Petru Cercel, Aron Vod~ [i Mihai Viteazul. nf~]i[area actual~ a bisericii (plan triconc, cu dou~ paraclise laterale) se datoreaz~ transform~rilor din secolul al XVIII-lea. n 1760 a fost ref~cut~ [i cl~direa al~turat~, a vechii [coli romne[ti din secolul al XV-lea, ast~zi muzeu de art~ veche romnesc~. ncepnd din secolul al XV-lea, preo]ii romni de aici, au primit danii n ve[minte, odoare [i c~r]i de la domnitorii munteni [i moldoveni, ai c~ror t~lmaci sau soli au fost (dup~ cum atest~ mai multe documente [i hrisoave). Cea mai cunoscut~ familie de preo]i, familia Tempea, a slujit aici timp de [ase genera]ii, a l~sat o istorie [i o cronic~, cu rol important n p~strarea credin]ei [i identit~]ii romnilor bra[oveni.

A valuable historic monument, the Saint Nicholas Church of Scheii Brasovului was erected on the spot of a wood church of 1403, remade several times between 1518 and 1594 with the help of Wallachian Rulers Vlad the Monk, Neagoe Basarab, Petru Earring, Aron, and Michael the Brave. The present design of the church (trefoiled, with two lateral chapels) is the result of the transformations undergone in the 18th century. In 1760 the abode was remade. The adjoining building of the 15th century old Romanian school is today a museum of old Romanian art. Starting with the 15th century the Romanian priests here received donations in attire, precious objects and books from Wallachian and Moldavian rulers whose translators or messengers they were (as attested by numerous documents and parchments). The most celebrated family of priests, Tempea, served here for six generations, and left a history and a chronicle with a considerable role in the preservation of the faith and identity of Brasov Romanians.

Biserica Sfntul Nicolae Vedere general~ dinspre sud. n prim plan, lng~ capel~, mormntul celebrului diplomat [i om politic Nicolae Titulescu (1882-1941). The Saint Nicholas Church General view from the south. In the foreground, close to the chapel, the grave of the famous diplomat and politician Nicolae Titulescu (1882-1941).

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Biserica din trei

The Strei Church


Biserica Adormirea Maicii Domnului Vedere dinspre sud. The Dormition of the Virgin Church View from the south.

Biserica din cimitirul satului (pe locul unei villa rustica romana), avnd hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, dateaz~ din secolul al XVIII-lea, fiind printre cele mai vechi monumente romne[ti p~strate. De mici dimensiuni, construit~ din piatr~ brut~, are un turn-clopotni]~ pe fa]ada vestic~, o nav~ scurt~ cu bolt~ de scnduri [i un altar dreptunghiular boltit n cruce pe nervuri masive de piatr~. Odinioar~ pictat~ [i la exterior, ast~zi mai p~streaz~ nc~ un valoros ansamblu de picturi murale interioare executate de me[terul zugrav Grozie sintez~ de influen]e bizantine [i norditaliene din a doua jum~tate a secolului al XIV-lea.

The church in the village cemetery (taking the place of a Roman villa rustica), dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin, dates from the 18th century, being one of the oldest Romanian monuments preserved. Small, in rubblework, it features a belfry tower on the western faade, a short nave with a plank arch vault and a cross-shaped vaulted rectangular altar on massive stone nervures. Once painted on the inside and the outside, today the abode preserves only a valuable ensemble of inner murals crated by Grozie, a synthesis of Byzantine and North Italian influences from the late 14th century.

Biserica Adormirea Maicii Domnului Portalul de pe fa]ada vestic~. The Dormition of the Virgin Church The portal on the western faade.

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70

Picturi murale de interior (secolul al XIV-lea) Biserica Adormirea Maicii Domnului. Interior murals from the 14th century The Dormition of the Virgin Church.

Iisus n glorie [i Cortegiul apostolilor


Pictur~ mural~ \n altarul bisericii.

Jesus in Glory and the Cortege of Apostles


Mural painting in the church altar.

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Biserica din Strem]

The Stremt Church


Vedere general~ a bisericii dinspre sud General view of the church from the south

A fost intemeiat~ n 1521-1525 de voievodul muntean Radu de la Afuma]i ca m~n~stire ortodox~ [i transformat~ ulterior \n sediu de episcopat ortodox (1557). Biserica, avnd hramul Intrarea n Biseric~, a suferit o serie de transform~ri \nainte de 1724, fiind singurul edificiu din vechea m~n~stire care s-a p~strat pn~ ast~zi. Decora]ia fa]adelor cu un bru median demonstreaz~ influen]a arhitecturii din ara Romneasc~. n interior se p~streaz~ pictur~ mural~ valoroas~, cu caractere artistice postbrncovene[ti, realizat~ \n 1724 de zugravii Ion [i Nistor.

The abode was founded in 15211525 by Wallachian Ruler Radu of Afumati as an Orthodox Church, and then turned into the headquarters of the Orthodox Bishopric (1557). The church, dedicated to The Entry in the Temple, underwent several transformations before 1724, being the only edifice still standing from the old monastery. The decoration of the faades, with a medium-height belt, shows a Wallachian influence. Inside, the murals preserved are highly valuable, evincing postBrancovan touches. They are the work from 1724 of artists Ion and Nistor.

Maica Domnului cu Pruncul


Pictur~ mural~ (1724).

The Virgin with the Infant


Mural painting (1724).

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Biserica de lemn din urde[ti

The Wood Church of Surdesti


Biserica Sfin]ii Arhangheli Vedere dinspre sud-vest. The Holy Archangels Church View from the south-west.

Naosul, iconostasul, interiorul bisericii The naos, the iconostasis, the interior of the church

Biserica Sfin]ii Arhangheli a fost ridicat~ conform unei inscrip]ii s~pate \n partea superioar~ a ancadramentului u[ii din brne de gorun \n 1724 de me[terul Toma Macarie. La construc]ie, turnul prezenta \n vrf o semilun~, amplasat~ de c~tre s~teni, pentru a feri biserica de distrugerea t~t~rilor. Biserica, unicul exemplar cu dubl~ poal~ din Valea Chioarului, se remarc~ prin silueta prelung~ a turnuluiclopotni]~, cu patru turnule]e, \nalt de 54m (\nal]imea total~ de la sol este de 72m), fiind considerat~ cea mai nalt~ construc]ie de lemn din lume. Pridvorul de pe latura vestic~ a fost ad~ugat ulterior [i prev~zut cu dou~ rnduri de arcade suprapuse, crestate. Acoperi[ul este etajat, cu dubl~ strea[in~, pe por]iunea de perete cuprins~ ntre stre[ini existnd un al doilea rnd de ferestre, identice cu cele aflate la nivelul inferior. Remarcabil este [i brul n funie r~sucit~. Interiorul, este decorat cu picturi murale [i icoane valoroase executate de tefan Zugravul \n 1783.

The Holy Apostles Church was erected, according to an inscription carved up on the door frame, from common oak beams by master Toma Macarie, in the year 1724. Initially, the tower had a crescent top, which the villagers had erected in order to guard the church from the Tartars inroads. The abode, the unique piece with a saddle roof on the Chioar Valley, stands out by the elongated silhouette of the 54-m tall belfry tower, with four turrets, (total height from the soil, 72 meters), being considered the tallest wood construction in the world. The wood porch on the western side was added subsequently and provided with two rows of superposed, indented arcades. The roof is tiered, saddled. On the wall between the eaves there is a second row of windows identical to the ones below. The entwined rope girdle is downright outstanding. The interior is decorated with murals and admirable icons painted by artist Stephan the Painter, in 1783.

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Necredin]a lui Toma


Pictur~ mural~ (1783).

Picturi murale interioare tefan Zugravul, 1783. Inner murals Stephan the Painter, 1783.

Thomas the Disbeliever


Mural painting (1783).

Biserica de lemn din urde[ti Vedere general~ dinspre sud. The wood church of Surdesti General view from the south.

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77

M~n~stirea Topli]a

The Toplita Monastery


Paraclisul [i corpul de chilii v~zute dinspre nord-vest The chapel and the buildings of cells seen from the north-west

Este ctitoria episcopului Miron Cristea (devenit primul patriarh al Romniei, 1925-1939), care a adus aici, n 1910, o biseric~ de lemn din Stnceni-Harghita, din 1847, a c~rei arhitectur~ mbin~ stilul moldovenesc cu cel transilv~nean; a fost pictat~ n 1927 de Dimitrie Belizarie. Cl~direa st~re]iei a fost ridicat~ n 1928, s-a restaurat n 1975-1976, iar n 19851990 s-au f~cut extinderi prin construirea unui paraclis [i a unui depozit pentru obiectele biserice[ti cu valoare de patrimoniu cultural na]ional din jude]ul Harghita. Acesta [i muzeul m~n~stirii cuprind obiecte de art~ valoroase, multe provenite din biserici ortodoxe de pe teritoriul jude]ului, r~mase f~r~ enoria[i. Men]ion~m din muzeu: dou~ tmple (catapetesme) din 1747 [i 1844, icoane din secolul al XVIII-lea, c~r]i rare ca Psaltirea din 1544, manuscrisul Cazaniei lui Varlaam, 1643 [i cel al unei Evanghelii de la nceputul secolului al XVIII-lea.

This is the foundation of bishop Miron Cristea (who was the first patriarch of Romania, between 1925 and 1939). In 1910, he brought here, from Stanceni-Harghita, a wood church dating to 1847. Its architecture is a blend of Moldavian and Transylvanian styles. It was painted in 1927 by Dimitrie Belizarie. The abbey building was erected in 1928, restored between 1975 and 1976, and between 1985 and 1990 is gained a new chapel and a storeroom for religious utensils of extreme value from the county of Harghita. This and the monastery museum feature precious art objects, many of them coming from Orthodox Churches in the region left now without parishioners. Two altar screens from 1747 and 1844, icons from the 18th century, rare books like The Psalter of 1544, the manuscript of Varlaams Lectionary, 1643 and of The Gospels from the early 18th century make the pride of the museum.

Vedere general~ a m~n~stirii dinspre sud-vest General view of the monastery seen from the south-west

79

Introducere

Introduction

Ieromonah / Hieromonk Iustin Marchi[ Selec]ie imagini [i legende Selection of the images and captions

Valeriu Cimpoeru Versiune englez~ English version

Alina Crc Imagini Photograph Credits

Dan Ioan Dinescu tefan Petrescu Mircea Savu Grafic~ [i DTP Layout and DTP

Roxana Enciu Redactare Editing

Irina Spirescu Dana Voiculescu Coperta Cover Design

Adrian Sorin Georgescu (MECENA Consult srl.) Coordonator proiect Project co-ordinator

Arpad Harangozo Ovidiu Morar

NOI MEDIA PRINT B-dul. Nicolae B~lcescu nr. 18 Bloc Dalles, Bucure[ti Tel. 021 222 79 72 Fax: 021 202 91 82 E-mail: nmp@nmp.ro