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AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 005 1

Acilu [gentilicium, cognomen] add Found in ET AH 1.11.


alil 'offering room' modify Changed translation to 'offertorium, offering room'.
Aminθ [deity] add Found on a 3rd century mirror from Volsinii, ET Vs S.21 with a host of
other deities and heros. The Bonfantes claimed that this winged child
is similar to Eros and identified as Amor, the Roman personification
of “Love” (Bonfante/Bonfante, The Etruscan Language: An
Introduction (2002), rev.ed., p.194). I'm rather skeptical of this claim
because it has been custom in the past to translate Etruscan words and
names through the misguided inspiration of Latin vocabulary, even
though the languages are not related. If this were an Etruscan name,
the underlying root would appear to be am “to be”, not “to love”.
Nonetheless, we can at least surmise that Aminth is equivalent in some
way to a Roman genius or guardian spirit.
Amuce [mythos] add Borrowed from Amykos of Greek mythos, a barbarian king defeated
by Pollux after challenging the Argonauts to a boxing match. Amuke
is found on a 4th to 3rd century mirror from Tarquinia, ET Ta S.13.
This is a homophone of amuce “(he/she/it) has been, was”, the
perfective preterite of am “to be”, as found in the Pyrgi Tablets.
Ariaθa “Ariadne [mythos]” add Found as Araθa in ET Vs S.21. I reason that if Greek delta here was
pronounced with full voice (i.e. with early voicing onset as with
French d), it would be particularly possible for Greek -d- to be
mistaken for an aspirated stop -θ- particularly if Etruscan medial stops
alternated freely with voiced counterparts (n.b. voicing is not
phonemically distinctive in Etruscan anyway). I would also expect the
normalization of the odd cluster -dn- and omission of -n- given
Etruscan phonotactic constraints on clusters which are stricter than
those of Greek.
aśu 'sphinx' add A hapax found on a fragment of a vase (TLE 766), written beside a
partial image of a winged sphinx. As far as I can tell, the exact
Egyptian word for 'sphinx' is unknown. The word 'sphinx' comes from
Greek and has a Greek etymology although some try to explain it as
Egyptian šsp ȝnḫ 'living image', even though the Middle Egyptian
pronunciation of ȝnḫ was probably *ʔānaḫa (> Sahidic Coptic onx)
with the first vowel having conclusively a [+back][-round] quality as
in the 'o' of Canadian English 'pot' /pʰɑt/ which is very dissimilar to
the Greek -i- in sphinx. There's of course other possibilities
concerning this word that can't be ruled such as a) the word is merely
descriptive of the sphinx in the scene, b) the word is a personal name
of the sphinx, or c) it's part of a longer inscription that can't be
recovered from this fragment. I'm optimistic that through a careful
compilation of Etruscan vocabulary, with painstaking comparative
work with other Proto-Aegean languages such as Eteo-Cypriot and
Minoan, and with future archaeological discoveries, the meaning
behind this word may still one day be known.
Atilina [gentilicium] add Found in TLE 156.
Avina [gentilicium] add Found in the directive case as Avines in TLE 346.
aθeli [type of inanimate offering] modify Changed to aθil based on a grammatical reinterpretation of attested
aθeliś in LL 5.xxii.
Caiśra [city] modify Modified form to Caizra. This has to do with how best to represent
these words while respecting underlying phonotactics. In this case, the
name is always represented as Caizra even though z regularly hardens
before certain phonemes like 'r'. While the phoneme was surely once a
sibilant speaking etymologically, this item has no possible
alternations in form to have made this evident in speech, unlike what
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 005 2

we see in the verb stem acas (acasce versus acazri).


Capuva [city] modify Corrected type from 'na.(II)' to 'ni.(II)'.
Caθarna [male praenomen] modify Modified translation to [gentilicium]. TLE 876 mentions a person
named Θanaχvilus Caθarnaial. I'm now understanding it as a
doubly-declined name to which the devotion was made. Thus
*Θanaχvil Caθarna in the nomino-accusative case. So far, I've not
encountered another instance of Caθarna and it appears to be a
hapax legomenon. Considering the pertinentive-ablative ending -na
which is often used for gentilicia however, it's likelier to be a family
name than the praenomen of a husband.
cena 'gift, offering' modify Changed form to cenna to better reflect what I think is the underlying
etymology (cen- plus pertinentive suffix -na). Double 'n' is non-
distinct in pronunciation from single 'n' in Etruscan, and so in spelling
single letters are usually used regardless.
Cleupatra [female praenomen] add Found in CII 1056 and borrowed from Greek Κλεοπάτρα
(Cleopatra). I enter it under an unsyncopated form which would be
the original shape of the name when the Greek loan would have first
been borrowed.
Cleusinas [city] modify Corrected type from 'na.(II)' to 'ni.(II)'.
Cnaivie [gentilicium] add Adding this to the preexisting identical entry as a male praenomen.
The name seems to be used as either, depending on context. In CIE
925 (lar : cnaeve), it must be a gentilicium. The name is derived from
Latin Gnaeus.
Crauzaθu “of the Crauzae (gens)” add Found in TLE 176 as Cravzaθuras in the genitive animate plural.
Cupana [gentilicium] add Based on Cupana [CIE 570] and Cupna [CIE 571]. D'Aversa calls it
a cognomen.
Curtun [city] modify Corrected type from 'na.(II)' to 'ni.(II)'.
Curuna [gentilicium] modify Changed form to Curvana based on genitive Kurvenaś in TLE 669.
fav [verb for religious dedication] modify Changed form and translation to fau 'to receive' due to my ongoing
quest to standardize the phonotactics in my headings.
favi [a kind of place] modify Changed translation to 'offertorium, offering room'.
Hipucrate [male praenomen] modify Changed translation to '[male praenomen, gentilicium]' because in the
context of TLE 155 (aχapri Rutile Hipucrates), this name is behaving
like a gentilicium rather than a praenomen, despite its self-evident
source, the Greek praenomen Ιπποκράτης (Hippokratēs).
Larezu [male praenomen] modify Changed form to Larizaiu due to phonotactic constraints, etymology
(obviously from the praenomen Lariza) and evidence from Larziu of
ET Cl 1.2002. This name is thus a diminutive form of its root (i.e. -iu
is a commonly used diminutive suffix).
Larza [male praenomen] modify Changed form to Lariza and changed type from 'na.(I/II)' type to
'na.(I)'. I'm seperating data concerning Larza from Larezu.
Larθia [female praenomen] modify Changed form to Larθiia because of phonotactic reasons (syllabic
constraints).
Lazi [male praenomen] modify Changed form and translation to Lazie '[male praenomen]'. Whoops.
The gentilicia ending in genitive -s that accompany this praenomen
indicate that Lazie is a male name since a female's last name will
typically be marked in the locative case ending, -i. Example, TLE 30:
Mi tafina Lazia Vilianas. Hooray, I successfully nabbed another one
of my insidious typos.
Laziiu [male praenomen] add Diminutive of Lazie (see Lazi above). It's found in CIE 3037 as
Laziu in the unmarked nomino-accusative case.
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Leθe [male praenomen] modify Changed form to Leθaie. The personal name Leθaes is found in the
genitive in CIE 5043.
lin 'to slay' add Found in the simple preterite as line in TLE 419.
Maiflna [gentilicium] modify Modified form to Maifulana to conform to Proto-Etruscan
phonotactics as well as to Pfiffig's claim that this is a borrowed from
the Greek name Μήφυλα (Mēphula). I'm currently seeking
verification of that name's existence. Note however Latin name
Mēflanus as well.
Marcena [gentilicium] modify Changed form to Marcina.
Mutu [cognomen] add Found in the genitive Mutus in CIE 5037.
natiś 'haruspex' add Based on TLE 405 where natis is inscribed on a gem with the image
of a man examining an organ and TLE 419. who inscription is
dedicated to natisal puia, presumably “the wife of the haruspex”.
netiś 'body organ, viscera' modify Changed the form and translation of the pre-existing entry netiś
(distinct from the newly added natiś) to natiśviś 'haruspicy'. The
form netśvis is found twice, in TLE 697 and 978. I previously
interpreted this as a genitive plural, but it appears that natiśviś may be
the singular nomino-accusative form in both of these inscriptions.
netiśraχ 'haruspical, pertaining to modify Changed form to natiśraχ. I'm aligning together this word and other
haruspicy' related forms based on the same stem. (See under natiś and netiś.)
Pupluna 'Populonia [city]' modify Modified form to unsyncopated Pupuluna based on Proto-Etruscan
phonotactics as well as the sound change of p>f neighbouring
tautosyllabic u. Besides, the word is of Latin origin and it shows the
lost vowel: Populōnia. The belief that Latin populus is an Etruscan
word is borne out of desperation in finding a more adequate
etymology for that word, since there is no correlating word in attested
Etruscan. We musn't assume Etruscan etymologies to Latin words
whose purported Etruscan origins cannot be verified.
Pupluns 'Pupluns [deity]' modify Modified form to unsyncopated Pupuluns based on Proto-Etruscan
phonotactics as well as the sound change of p>f neighbouring
tautosyllabic u. Normally the deity is called Fufluns but he ultimately
must be of Latin origin where the lost vowel is shown: Populōnius.
The belief that Latin populus is an Etruscan word is borne out of
desperation in finding a more adequate etymology for that word, since
there is no correlating word in attested Etruscan. We musn't assume
Etruscan etymologies to Latin words whose purported Etruscan
origins cannot be verified.
rane 'frog' modify Changed form and translation to ran '[unknown transitive verb]' and
changed type from 'ni.(II)' to 'v.tr'. My idea of 'frog' was based on a
loose possibility that Latin rana 'frog' is an Etruscan loan which is
based on an interesting article from the Summer 2006 edition of
Etruscan News concerning ancient herb terminology (oddly enough)
but it's not yielding results for me. So I'm redirecting my focus
towards another crazy hunch pointing to Eteo-Cypriot ra-nu that
would be a transitive participle if Etruscan morphology is any
indication and would possibly have a funerary connotation. What else
do we have but hunches so far?
Rufe [gentilicium] modify Changed form to Raufe because of its attestation in TCort xiv.
Śarśinaia [gentilicium] add From TLE 154.
Semu [male praenomen] modify Changed form to Śemu based on TLE 670. (See under Śemuna.)
Śemuna [gentilicium] add Based on its connection with Śemu as well as Zemnal of CIE 2280
with initial sibilant hardened to an affricate. (See under Semu.)
Smucinθiuna [city] add Based on ET OA 4.1: mi selvansl smucinθiunaitula. I'm assuming
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 005 4

here that it is a city but there's no guarantee. I've found no secure and
sensible translation by others. The general consensus is that it is part
of an epithet of the god Selvans but its exact meaning is unknown.
snuiapi 'more numerous, greater' modify Changed form to snuiap. I think that the form snuiapi is on the right
track but that it doesn't represent a Proto-Etruscan form so much as a
Pre-Proto-Etruscan form. Originally there must have been an -i at the
end of the comparative ending before some kind of Pre-Etruscan
syncope affected word-final vowels (c.f. a form of the 1ps: mini-pi
for the unsyncopated form of the suffix). This syncope is not to be
confused with the second, historical syncope which occurred around
500 BCE due to the adoption of a strong stress accent and which not
only affected word-final vowels but unstressed medial ones as well.
snuza 'a few, some' add This is found in TCap 2.ix. I believe that it relates to the words snuia
and snuiaφ which seem to pertain to the description of quantity. If so,
the diminutive in -za would then describe a small quantity, hence
“few”.
snuθ 'to count, to tally' add Found three times in TLE 75 as snutri.
svel 'to live' modify Changed type from 'v.tr.' to 'v.i.'. Obviously I keyed that in wrong as a
transitive. Evidently it's impossible to literally “live somebody or
something else”.
svelθ 'to live' add Based on svalθas [TLE 126]. I'm interpreting -θ as a derivational
suffix for verbs, perhaps a kind of stative marker (which would make
it homophonous with the intransitive participle marker). This is to
account for pairs like ten/tenθ which seem to behave as separate
stems with their own separate paradigms. (See tenθ.)
tamera “vase” modify Precised translation further to “urn”. I've noticed that the word
consistently pops up in funerary inscriptions. The Bonfantes'
translation “name of magistracy” which merely follows Pallottino's
views before them is so wildly off in my opinion that I could cry. In
fact, I'm crying right now and don't have any more kleenex left.
tameraiś “little vase” modify Precised translation further to “little urn” by association with the
change I made to tamera. (See above.)
Tarχe modify Changed form to Tarχie. We find on a mirror (NRIE 759) the
inscription pava tarχies. From what I've read so far, the exact
meaning of this is uncertain but to me it looks like a male gentilicium.
I need to research this further. I'm trying to figure out how this is
supposed to relate etymologically, if at all, to the legendary figure
Tarchon.
Tarχuna [city] modify Corrected type from 'na.(II)' to 'ni.(II)'.
taśiri [type of religious offering] modify Changed form and translation to taś '[funerary object]'.
tenθ 'to present' modify Changed translation to 'to be presented'. (See also svelθ.)
Tetaie [gentilicium] add This may help explain CIE 1553 Teta as it explains the name Tetie in
CIE 2822. I'm not willing to get rid of the idea that teta is a kinship
term (as per Bonfante, for e.g.) so I presume that the name is built on
the term, hence Tetaie (? < teta 'aunt' + -ie [gentilicial]) and it
reminds me of possibly parallel kinship-based names such as Atiie
(ati 'mother'), Seχie (seχ 'daughter' ) and Papana (papa 'uncle') whose
significance and precedence in other cultures I must still search out.
tezan 'cippus' add Pallottino had claimed that this word might have something to do with
teś- which he translated as 'to look after'. Trombetti described tezan
as a 'placed thing'. Meanwhile, In each instance (CPer A.iv, TLE 571,
TLE 621, TLE 626), it is found on a stone cippus.
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 005 5

tiiu 'boy' add Found on the Magliano Lead as tiu in the nomino-accusative. We find
it often in the genitive as tius as in ET Cl 1.133, ET Cl 1.134 and TLE
460, all from Chiusi. In my view, it has no relationship with tiiur
'month; moon' whatsoever.
tiiuza 'boy' add Found in ET Cl 1.133, ET Cl 1.134 and TLE 460.
Upaliie [male praenomen, add This is based on forms which appear to indicate names in CIE 1566,
gentilicium] CIE 1567, CIE 3037, ET Ta 1.180, TLE 193 and TLE 626. (However,
see uple below.)
Upilsiie [gentilicium] add Found in CIE 3938 in the nomino-accusative Upelsi and in CIE 3941
in the genitive case Upelsiś. Equivalent of Latin Obulsius.
uple 'disease, illness' modify Changed form and translation to upil 'soil' based on grammatical
considerations and contextual issues in some inscriptions that I've
been focussing on lately. I now interpret this word as a deverbal noun
stem marked with -il, much like usil. I've been linking it with
instances of ufleś (TLE 626) and ufli (LL 11.x) where p>f
neighbouring tautosyllabic u is a widespread change in later Etruscan
(n.b. pulumχva/fulumχva) however ufleś has been linked to an
Oscan name Upfals (See Upaliie.) The curious thing about TLE 626 is
that it's a cinerary urn and found in the 19th century (during the wild,
wild west of archaeology). I need more info on this artifact but it
appears to be taken out of its archaeological context like many other
artifacts during that time period. Regardless, the item in Liber Linteus
is certainly not someone's name, and so because of that, the existence
of a common noun of this form is secure no matter what the outcome
of my fiasco with Etruscan names.
Vaituluna [city] modify Corrected type from 'na.(II)' to 'ni.(II)'.
Velaθera [city] modify Corrected type from 'na.(II)' to 'ni.(II)'.
Velθuna [city] modify Corrected type from 'na.(II)' to 'ni.(II)'.
Velχ [city] modify Corrected type from 'na.(II)' to 'ni.(II)'.
versa 'fire' modify Changed form and translation to veras 'to burn', in line with other
verbs in -as- like acas, while also treating Macrobius' admittedly
dubious statement about an Etruscan phrase arse verse in good faith
for now, considering versum in LL 1.xix and versie in TLE 622.
versaie 'firepot' modify Changed form to verasie in conformity with my change of its base
from versa to veras.
Vircina [gentilicium] add Vircenas (CIE 5043) and Vercenas (CIE 4991) are found declined in
the genitive case.
Visal [city] modify Corrected type from 'na' to 'ni.(II)'.
zuθeva [type of offering] add The item is found once in LL 10.xx showing that it is a physical,
countable object (zuθeva zal). The ending -va is consequently not a
an inanimate plural ending since inanimate nouns are never given
plural ending when modified by numerals, unlike animate nouns
which never take -va as a plural ending. Thus the noun stem here is
zuθeva.
zuχ 'to slay' modify Changed translation to 'to bleed, to let blood from'.
zuχana 'sacrifice' modify Modified form and translation to zuχiana 'bloodletting cup' based on
zucieneś from CPer B.xi-xii and zuχuna of TLE 878. In the Cippus
Perusinus, I reparse the misanalysed phrase *zuci eneści as the words
zucieneś ci. Thus the phrase points to a noun numbering three and
which, by lacking a plural ending before the numeral, is therefore
grammatically inanimate.
Zuχu [male praenomen] add Zuχu is found in CIE 2633 in the nomino-accusative case.
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Zuχunaie [gentilicium] add The name Zuχni is found in CIE 2248 and probably built on the male
praenomen Zuχu of CIE 2633.
θapana 'pitcher, lamp' modify Changed form and translation to θapuna 'shallow bowl'. The
Bonfantes' claims that θafna means "cup" and θapna means "vase
(for offerings(?))" is disproved by the consistent use of this word on
pateras, a kind of shallow pan or bowl for ritual drinking and
libational offerings. (See also θapanaza.)
θapanaza 'little pitcher' modify Changed form and translation to θapunaza 'small shallow bowl'. My
reasoning behind changing the medial vowel from -a- to -u- involves
a need to explain the p>f sound change which occurs consistently in
the presence of tautosyllabic u in other words like
pulumχva~fulumχva 'star'. (See also θapana.)
θu 'one (combining form)' modify Modified translation to 'whole, entire, all'
θui 'together, united' delete Merged with θu 'whole, entire, all'.
θunχul 'cave' modify Precised further on translation: 'cave; chamber'.
θuva 'whole, entirety' delete Merged with θu 'whole, entire, all'. I misanalysed θuvas and θuves as
declined forms of an adjective *θuva but I'm confident now that these
are declined forms of the numeral.
Φisie [male praenomen] add Found as Latin Phisius and as Etruscan genitive Φisis in the bilingual
TLE 470.