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Name: Nguyn Th Khnh Giang ID: BAFNIU10297

CONCEPT: RACISM AGAINST AFRICAN AMERICANS.


Race is a concept which is completely definited by society. No one gene or characteristic is considered that is better than another one. But in America a country which always thinks high that democratization, racism and discrimination is really existing in modern life. Black people or African Americans never have a status equalling to White people; they are not treated normally and received a worth respectation. Even though US government has promulgated the law to improve these state, equality for African Americans has met many difficulties because of the long history of racism. It needs a process and apreciate mannersto solve this problems. For having an insight view about racism and discrimination in American, we have to consider about three main points: History, Struggling to gain equality, and their status in the America modern life. First, for history, the first reason is African countries which is the colonies of America in the War so the black person must serve for white person. When these people immigranted to the US had been regarded with inequal status. They were enslaved and treated as property, this period was called institution of slavery. After that, the slaves were free and slavery was ended, but policies in US were not stop againsting black people. There were then some social theorists who believed that genetically blacks and other minorities were inferior to whites. In addition, in US history, although black people began as slaves, they were the main labor in US economy at the time. They supported not only US economy, but also US independence, just because they were not "naturalized" citizens, they could play no part in voting, owning properties, serving on juries, or holding offices. Even that, in the period of time 1876 and 1965; Jim Crow Laws were stated , which was the laws of racial segregation, directed against blacks.In this law, they said that separate but equal, they led all of blacks living in the Sounthern of US, which was seperated from the white community. In real, this law also acted that enforced blacks work to provide to whites, but they did not receive any benefit from education or social advantages. Even Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places and public

transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated. Although, this law were break due to many new thoughts and efforts to ask equality for all of people who were non-white people, discriminition and racism in US are real. Under the inequality from the US government and white people, blacks people held many organisations which acted to ask their own worth rights. In the early part of the 19th century, a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they want greater freedom. During the 1820s and 1830s the American Colonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in Africa, and in 1821 the A.C.S. established the colony of Liberia, assisting thousands of former African-American slaves and free black people to move there from the United States. The colonization effort resulted from a mixture of motives with its founder Henry Clay stating; "unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off. Besides nowadays, the affections of world organisations like UN and America still has some prejudices against other races. In the view of the US Human Rights Network, a network of scores of US civil rights and human rights organizations, "Discrimination permeates all aspects of life in the United States, and extends to all communities of color." Discrimination against African Americans, Latin Americans, and Muslims is widely acknowledged. Members of every major American ethnic minority have perceived racism in their dealings with other minority groups. In the recent years, the condition of blacks in America (a minority group) is still almost as subordinate as they ever were. The forms of discrimination and prejudice are just different, but the reasons are the same. Whites maintain the upper hand by reaping the benefits of things about: education, economy and polistics. For example, discrimination takes much more subtle forms. Schools understand that "separate is inherently unequal" according to Brown vs. the Board of Education, and yet schools are still segregated. They are not segregated because blacks are not allowed in schools but because housing discrimination has not provided minorities the opportunities to move to the suburbs, where the good schools are. Because of the geographical places they live (spatial segregation); they do not have the same access to quality health care and many

times, live in urban areas where pollution and other environmental problems are high. They do not have the opportunities to be mobile and escape this. The discrimination is more covert, but it is definitely still there. But many cite the 2008 United States presidential election as a step forward in race relations: White Americans played a role in electing Barack Obama, the country's first black president. In fact, Obama received a greater percentage of the white vote (43%), than did the previous Democratic candidate, John Kerry (41%).Racial divisions persisted throughout the election; wide margins of Black voters gave Obama an edge during the presidential primary, where 8 out of 10 AfricanAmericans voted for him in the primaries. Racism is still seen clearly in the distribution of wealth and power in this country. These inequalities are passed on from generation to generation, so that it is very hard to believe that blacks can even have close to equal opportunity in this country. There are no easy answers to these problems, but they are not simply the problems of black people; they are societal problems. People simply became smarter about hiding their prejudices under other guises. We need to dig deeper to rid society of their underlying ideas about race. We need to educate people about the truths of white privilege and make efforts to undo the long-lasting effects.