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International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 1

Engineering Functions for Bangladesh Socio-Economic Development Aspects

Md Mamunur Rashid, Management Counsellor www.ijbmt.com Page | 1

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 1

Abstract
The All branches of Engineers have in its roll more than 25000 engineers from 0.1 million engineers from 142.319 million people of Bangladesh with about 30% in the category of Fellows, 60% Members and the rest as Associate Members at the Institution of Engineers of Bangladesh for the commitment to develop better world. All Engineers in Bangladesh are acted with science; mathematics and management function for socio economic development aspects in Bangladesh. Besides, the sources of energy in nature are made useful to people in structures, machines, products, systems and processes through engineering and management activities for human being. While the most widely accepted functions of management are planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling for economic value adding purposes. Generally engineering activities is genetically compatible with management functions for also adding more value. In this paper is focused on engineering activities with management functions for all branches of engineering activities for socioeconomic aspect for human being in Bangladesh as well as the globe. Keywords Engineering Activities; Management Functions; Value adding; Socio Economic Aspects.

1 Introduction
Problem can be caused any difficulty or inconvenience. Common function to all engineering works can be solving these difficulties. Moreover, engineers normally face with the rapid technological development, free market economy and Uruguay round agreements, depletion of worlds natural resources, environment and development, human rights, role of government as executing agency of development, phenomenon growth of electronics and information technology [1-2]. The problems may involve quantitative or qualitative factors; physical or economical; abstract mathematics or common sense [3]. Although all engineering problems can be vary in scope and complexity [4]. For challenging the problems, an analysis of the situation and a preliminary decision on a plan of attack can be considered. Subsequently, the problem can be reduced to a more categorical question that can be clearly stated. Followed by the design can be always checked for accuracy and adequacy. Finally the results for the simplified problems can be interpreted in terms of the original problem and reported in an appropriate form [5]. According to above circumstances, management activity can be genetically worked with
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International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

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engineering activity for removing the difficulty for more value adding purpose in Bangladesh to achieve the vision 2021. This article is focused for engineering functions, how to more compatible with management functions to socio economic development in Bangladesh. The paper is divided into five sections: Disciplines of engineering Functional areas of all branches of engineering Discussion Recommendation Conclusion

2 Disciplines of Engineering
Many branches of engineering disciplines are in education and practices likes: Mechanical Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology, Aerospace Engineering, Nuclear Engineering, Military Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering, Water Resource Engineering, Recycling Engineering, Deepsea Engineering, Micro-manufacturing Engineering, Ceramics Technology, Composite Materials Technology, Bio-medical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Mechatronics, Industrial & Production Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, Instrument Engineering, Plastics

Technology, Genetic Engineering, Renewable Energy, Artificial Intelligence, Engineering Synthesis, Geo-system Engineering, Quantum Engineering and Information Physics, Robotics Engineering, Telecommunication Engineering, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineering, Power plant Engineering, Leather Engineering, Textile Engineering, Automobile Engineering , Refractory Engineering and Engineering Management. Among them of branches of engineering, the functions of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering and Engineering Management are discussed as follows due to their most important roles in Bangladesh:

2.1 Mechanical Engineering


The branch of mechanical engineering can be concerned with the design, manufacture installation & operation of engines, machines and manufacturing process. Mechanical engineering can be involved the application of the principles of dynamics, control,
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International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

Vol. 1 No. 1

thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, computational fluid mechanics, and strength of materials, material science, tribology, mathematics & computation [1-2]. While increasing knowledge of electronics and in particular of microprocessor is now also required for mechanical engineer in Bangladesh. However it can further added that the knowledge of economics, language (for communication), law, accountancy, environment and management etc. is now an integral part of mechanical engineering profession also considered in Bangladesh. According to encyclopedia Britannica [8], four functions of the Mechanical Engineer are following: the first is the understanding the Mechanical Science. Second is the sequence of research, design and development to meet present and future needs through mechanical science. Third is production of products and power, which embraces planning, operation, and maintenance. The goal is to produce the maximum value with the minimum investment and cost while maintaining or enhancing longer-term viability and reputation. Management oriented activities likes; Operations research, value engineering, and PABLA (problem analysis by logical approach) can be linked with mechanical activities for more value adding purposes. Moreover, mechanical engineers can also analyze customer requirements, recommend satisfying needs economically, resolving related problems and decide how assets to be used. In Bangladesh, mechanical engineers are doing above functions including maintenance and installation management works in fertilizer/ chemical/power plant; roads and highway maintenance equipment maintenance management; local government engineering works; water sanitation works; management consulting/counselor; teacher for university/ College/polytechnic institutions for socio economic development aspects.

2.2 Electrical and Electronics Engineering


The following functions can be concerned of electrical and electronics engineering branch; basic research in physics, other sciences, and applied mathematics in order to extend knowledge applicable to the field of electronics; applied research based on the findings of basic research and directed at discovering new applications and principles of operations; development of new materials, devices, assemblies, and systems suitable for existing or proposed product lines; design of devices, equipment and systems for manufacture; and field testing of equipment and systems. Besides, management activities can be done by electrical and electronics engineers to perform above tasks. In Bangladesh, electrical engineers are working above jobs including engineering management in telecommunication industry, power distribution, rural electrification and software/web development etc. for socio economic development aspects.
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2.3 Chemical Engineering


Roles of the chemical engineers are chemical engineers are employed in the design and development of both processes and plant items; plant operation and control is increasingly the sphere of the chemical engineer rather than the chemist, chemical engineering provides an ideal background for the economic evaluation of new projects and in the plant construction sector for marketing. The fundamental principles of chemical engineering underlie the operation of processes extending well beyond the boundaries of the chemical industry and chemical engineers can be employed in a range of operations outside traditional areas. Plastics, polymers and synthetic fibers involve chemical-reaction engineering problems in their manufacture with fluid flow and heat transfer considerations dominating their fabrication. The dyeing of a fibre is a mass transfer problem. Pulp and paper manufacture involves considerations of fluid flow and heat transfer. While the materials are different, these again are found in modern continuous production of foodstuffs. The pharmaceuticals industry presents chemical engineering problems, the solutions, which have been essential to the availability of modern drugs. The nuclear industry can be made similar demands on the chemical engineering, particularly for fuel manufacture and reprocessing. Fuel management can be involved specifying procuring and managing fuel throughout its plant lifetime & beyond. Chemical engineers are involved in many sectors of the metals processing industry, which extends from steel manufacture to separation of rare metals. Moreover, in Bangladesh chemical engineers are served for management oriented activities can be performed successfully to run the plant including hydrocarbon related activities like NG gas identification, exploration and distribution related engineering management activities for socio economic development in Bangladesh.

2.4 Civil Engineering


Civil engineers have to know their science, can be able to make use of that science and understand the restrictions and uncertainties in their practicing art even more to face the challenges. The functions of civil engineer can be divided into three categories [3]: those performed before construction (feasibility studies, site investigation and design), those performed during construction (dealing with clients, consulting engineers and contractors), and those performed after construction (maintenance and research). No major project today is started without an extensive study of the objective and without preliminary studies of possible plans leading to a recommended scheme, perhaps with alternatives. Feasibility studies may cover
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International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow

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alternatives methods e.g. bridge versus tunnels, in the case of a water crossing or once the method is decided, the choice of route. Both economic and engineering problems must be considered. An opening site investigation is part of the viability study, but once a plan has been adopted a more extensive investigation is usually crucial. Money spent in rigorous study of ground and substructure may save large sums later in remedial works or in changes made necessary in construction methods. The loadbearing qualities and stability of the grounds are important factors in any largescale construction. The engineering manager may be in charge of setting the overall projects schedule and budget and needs to have the ability to keep big picture perspective. In civil engineering perspective, the managing of a specific project during construction, usually called construction engineering management, project director is done as the main persons or company in charge of getting a project constructed, including preparing the overall bid, managing subcontractors and maintain the relationship with owner for socio economic aspects in Bangladesh.

2.5 Engineering Management


The engineering manager possesses abilities to apply engineering principles and skills in organizing and directing people and projects through effectively and efficiently [6]. Engineering management functions are linking for two types of jobs; the management of technical functions (such as design, production and maintenance) and the top management of engineering and technology companies [7]. Moreover engineering manager does not actually perform the technical engineering tasks through supervision the management of engineering and technology policy development, technology assessment, technology transfer, research, development, design, evaluation, production, commissioning or decommissioning of technical, electrical or electronic equipment/system, but coordinates the overall project effort by assigning the different technical tasks to the available staff. While management activities can be concerned include contract management, project management, partnering, office management, professional practice and development, financial management, human resources management, marketing and sales, ethics, technology and innovation management, information management, continuing education, organizational theory, strategic planning, conflict management, negotiating, risk management, globalization, networking, change management, teamwork, team building, communication, mentoring, coaching, and diversity for more value adding the engineering activity. All branches
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of engineering activity can be linked with management functions for better productivity in Bangladesh also for the humanity.

3 Functional Areas of all Branches of Engineer in the Globe


From the above study has been come to the following decision for the work of all branches of engineering and can be applied in Bangladesh for overcome the poverty, unemployment, GDP growth etc to achieve the vision 2021:

3.1 Research and exploration


Using mathematical and scientific concepts, experimental techniques and inductive reasoning, the research engineers in Bangladesh can be sought new principles and processes for advances of technology for human being at efficiently and effectively to change socio economic condition in Bangladesh.

3.2 Development and Improvement


Engineers can be applied the results of research to useful purposes through creative application of new knowledge for a working model of a new electrical circuit, a chemical process, or an industrial machine in Bangladesh for development and improvement socio economic situation of Bangladesh people.

3.3 Design
In designing a structure or a product can be preferred methods, specified materials, determined outlines, satisfied technical requirements and met performance specifications with the need of Bangladesh people aspects.

3.4 Construction
Engineer is responsible for preparing the site , determining procedures that can economically and safely yield the desired quality directing the placement of materials and organizing the personnel and equipment for the need of Bangladesh.

3.5 Production
Plant layout and equipment selections are the responsibility of the production engineer, who chooses processes and tools, integrates the flow of materials and components and provides for testing and inspection for complying with the need with people/customer of Bangladesh.

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3.6 Operation
Engineer can controlled machines, plants, and organizations providing power, transportation and communication; determines procedure and supervises personnel to obtain reliable and economic operation of complex equipment.

3.7 Management and other functions


Almost industries engineers can be analyzed customer requirements, recommend units to satisfy needs economically and resolve related problems for developed new product to accelerate the socio economic development in Bangladesh.

4 Discussions
The author is observed different branches of engineer activity with line of engineering management aspects in Bangladesh. In gist, at smaller companies, a single engineer can be suitable to perform most of this task. At larger companies, especially if working on enormous scale projects, an engineer can be appropriate to effort mostly one functional area. Engineers typically work in a team environment with constant communication among from each functional area or several depending on the size and complexity of the organization/project/programme using resources. The engineer can be made technological advances and availability of technology for people. Moreover, engineer can be actively participated to see that such progresses do really improve the welfare of people. The engineer can be concerned himself with the results of technological progress such as its effect on the physical environment and its social and economic impact, by virtue of his knowledge, skill and unique role in society. The results of engineering activities can be contributed to the welfare of people by furnishing food, shelter, and comfort; by making work, transportation and communication easier and safer; and by making life pleasant and satisfying. A successful engineer can be prepared for decision making on complex problems in broad areas; skilled in the use of sophisticated tools and creative in the development of new techniques; conceived vast projects, analyzed as integrated man-machine-environment systems, and the ability to predict technical performance and human impact. An engineer may be changed his profession 3-5 times for fasting changing the world due to information technology; to be flexible enough to adjust him with the changes in profession. Hence, engineering educational and professional institutions may be significantly affected. In this perspective, Bangladeshs engineer

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are now educated in Master in Business Administration (MBA) for coping their management activities with engineering activities for socio economic development aspects.

5. Recommendations
The author has been made following recommendations for engineering activities all over the world all engineers not only for Bangladeshs engineers to make better world: A comprehensive statutory registration system for engineers can be done by respective government of UN for regulating their jobs. This registration can be assisted in protecting public health and safety, it also can be provided information for consumers protects the community from unethical practitioners, reduced the costs of doing business. An engineering organizations can be attempted to transform themselves to compete successfully in the future through variety of following management initiatives: Total quality management Just-in-time (JIT) production and distribution systems. Time-based competition Lean production/lean enterprise Building customer focused organizations. Activity-based cost management Employee empowerment and Reengineering etc.

The engineers can be executed the own work independently control and direction by the use of initiative, skill and independent judgment, for this purposes an environment can be created by the respective authority /state/government. Moreover, the consultant for engineering activity can be performed , but not be limited to, the following: Examine the type of services and work provided by engineers in all branches of engineering and interrelated professions within the marketplace to determine the interrelationship that exists between the various branches of engineers and other interrelated professions. Review and analyze educational requirements of engineers. Identify the degree to which supplemental or overlapping work between engineering branches and interrelated professions occurs.
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Identify the manner in which local and state agencies utilize regulations and statues to regulate engineering work.

6. Conclusions
For all branches of engineering, setting up of exact specifications and precise measurements is one of the challenging aspects in the world of engineering functions in any engineering organization as it reduces inventory problems and simplifies maintenance not only in Bangladesh. It can be concluded that the manager for engineering functions and activities in an organization can be developed a good leadership style such as the contingency theory of leadership, which is flexible to accommodate the variety of problems and situations that keep cropping up for socio-economic development perspective in the Earth. Each engineer in the globe must be followed for human being advance with socio economic development aspects for their own business. Hence the 50th anniversary of independence of Bangladesh, percentage of GDP with industrial ancestry can be grown from the present 28% to 40%, and where the proportion of the labour force employed can be raised from the present 16% to 25% in 2021 according to proposed industrial policy 2010. Bangladesh has to be a continuous development of human resources, especially where it concerns manufacturing and energy security. The government of

Bangladesh can remain steadfast in taking environmentally-friendly and technologically-modern initiatives aiming at accelerating the growth of all important industrial sectors such as energy and fuel, agriculture and forestry, acquiring and processing of minerals, tourism and hospitality,

construction, information and communications technology by mobilizing capital and manpower especially engineers.

Md Mamunur Rashid* Management Counsellor Bangladesh Institute of Management 4, Sobhanbag, Mirpur Road, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh Email: mamun87245@gmail.com Phone:88-02-8117405~07 www.ijbmt.com Page | 10

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References
1. Azim, AM (2000), Mechanical Engineering in the 21st century, Proceedings of Annual Paper meet and International Conference, The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh, mechanical Engineering Division, 17-19 February 2000, Lecture no.1 pp 1-7. 2. Azim, AM (1999), Paradigm shift in engineering profession and the flexible engineer, Journal of Multidisciplinary, Vol. 23-24 (1-2) PP.1-5 3. Sobhan, AM (1999), Direction of civil engineering profession in twenty first century, Journal of Multidisciplinary, Vol. 23-24 (1-2) PP.14-21 4. Mohiuddin, GM (1999), Direction of engineering profession in twenty first century, Journal of Multidisciplinary, Vol. 23-24 (1-2) PP.22-30 5. Rashid, M.M. (2002), Engineering Functions in the 21st Century. Proceedings of the First Annual Paper Meeting and the First International Conference on Electrical Engineering, February 9, 2002, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, pp. 171-175. 6. Daniel L. Babcock, (1978), Is the Engineering Manager Different? Machine Design, March 9, 1978, pp. 82-85. 7. Dhillon, B.S. (1987) Engineering Management, Technomic Publishing Company Inc.,

Lancaster, PA, 1987. 8. http://www.britannica.com/; logging date July 5, 2011.

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