Anda di halaman 1dari 146

SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION

MOTOR AND SPECIAL


MACHINES
Electrical Machines 2
SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR
Electrical Machines 2
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Construction
s usual
Stator
Rotor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stator
'ery similar to stator of 3 phase induction
motor and 3 ph alternator
t is a hollow cylinder whose inner periphery
houses the conductors
mportant difference is that the conductors
are wound for single phase as against 3 ph
induction motor where the winding is a 3 ph
winding
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stator
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stator winding
s said earlier, winding in the stator is a
single phase winding
The reader can very well refer the 3 ph
winding discussed in the case of alternators
Here, it is emphasized that, Y and B phase
have no relevance here and only R phase
will be wound occupying the entire machine
R phase is referred to as mere phase
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Rotor
The construction of rotor is same as that of 3
ph induction motor
Rotor is normally wound with bars as in
squirrel cage induction motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Rotor
The construction of rotor is same as that of 3
ph induction motor
Rotor is normally wound with bars as in
squirrel cage induction motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Rotor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Rotor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Something worth discussing
s said, single phase induction motor has
single phase winding in its stator
This being the case, the flux produced by the
armature winding would be alternating rather
rotating
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
So,
There is no rotating magnetic field in the
stator of 1 phase induction motor
We know,
This RMF actually makes the rotor of 3
phase induction motor self starting
t actually, is equivalent to a rotating pole in
the stator
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
If RMF is absent, what actuaIIy
makes the motor to start
The fact is that the single phase induction
motors are not self starting
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Oh! Oh!! Then, how to start the
machine?
Have you seen people trying to rotate the fan
(single phase induction motor) when the fan
stays standstill even after switched ON
This act actually denote that there is a torque
present, to say, developed, the net effect of it
being zero
nd when the net torque was slightly
disturbed by giving it slight push, the fan
starts
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
The deveIoped torque ?!
The idea of developed torque and its net
effect taken as zero is beautifully summed up
in a theory
The theory is named as Doubled-Field
Revolving theory
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
DoubIe FieId RevoIving Theory
Double field What do we mean by it?
The name is with a purpose here
The theory says there are two (double) fields
revolving
These two fields revolve in opposite direction
which makes the net effect zero
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
It shouId be interesting by now
How to make it more interesting?
We will do simple analysis
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
So,
single phase quantity can be resolved in to
a rotating phasor
The top semi-circle is the positive half cycle
The bottom semi-circle is the negative half
cycle
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
In the DoubIe FieId revoIving
theory
This full cycle travelled by the phasor is
resolved into two phasors of half magnitude
each and rotating in opposite direction
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
In EuIer's Ianguage
We know(e), flux in the air gap is given as a
cosine function (remember, unit 1
alternators)
Euler's expression for cosine function cos 7
can be given as,
cos
2

0 0
7 7
7

MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
In EuIer's Ianguage
The term represents vector rotating in
clockwise direction
The term represents vector rotating in
anti-clockwise direction
Now, flux in the air gap is given as
The right hand expression represents two
oppositely rotating vectors of half-magnitude

cos
2
9 9
2
2
9 0 0




9
0

9
0

MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
ustification
The resultant of the two oppositely rotating
vectors burns down to a cosine function, so
the previous justification holds
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Torque deveIoped ?!
s already said, flux is alternating (not rotating or
revolving) and the conductors are stationary and so
an emf will be induced in the rotor conductors
This emf will definitely circulate current
nd this current interacting with the flux should
develop a torque
This torque as said is opposed by equally developed
reverse torque
This is the reason for the fan to run if rotated in a
particular direction
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Torque deveIoped
Coming back to the question of developed torque
and so-called reverse torque (backward torque), we
get
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Something about SIip
f s is the slip with respect to forward rotating flux,
then
From the expression,
We know(e), backward rotating flux rotates in the
opposite direction to the rotor, slip w.r.t backward
rotating flux is given as
8
8

8


8 8

8 47 8



8
8

8

2 8 8 8
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Fine, how to make it seIf-starting?
s said already, making the motor rotate in a
particular direction will disturb the equilibrium
This disturbance make the motor run in a particular
direction
s an engineer, we should resort to particular
method which automatically runs the motor at start
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Methods to seIf start the motor
We know(e), a rotating magnetic field actually self
starts the machine
For RMF to exist, we need three phases
Here, we have only one phase whose field is
alternating or pulsating and not revolving or rotating
We have to create RMF at start or something similar
to RMF for the motor to start automatically
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Methods to seIf start the motor
f the single phase winding is made three phase or
split into three phase, the field created would be
rotating
The most beautiful thing to note here is that the field
created by two phase winding would also be rotating
very similar to three phase RMF
t is easier to make single phase winding to two
phase than to make it a three phase
Before discussing the actual method in self-starting
the machine, we see how two phase field rotates
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
second phase in a two phase supply could be
thought as following the first phase after 90 electrical
degree as shown in the diagram
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
n vector representation, we have
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
The two vectors can be mathematically represented
as
t 0 degree, (refer waveform)

sin
2
9

2
sin 90
2
9

0

2
& sin 0 90
2

2 2

MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
Therefore, the resultant is
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
t 45 degree, (refer waveform)

2
& sin 45 90
2

sin 45
2

2
2


2
2
2


MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
Therefore, the resultant is
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
t 90 degree, (refer waveform)

2
& sin 90 90
2

sin90
2


2
0
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
Therefore, the resultant is
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
t 135 degree, (refer waveform)

2
& sin 5 90
2

sin5
2

2
2


2
2
2


MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
Therefore, the resultant is
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
t 180 degree, (refer waveform)

2
& sin 0 90
2

sin0
2

0
2

MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RMF
Therefore, the resultant is
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Thus,
two phase supply produces a rotating
magnetic field which when present in the air
gap of the machine makes the machine self
start very similar to 3 phase induction motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Now,
The point is to make available single phase
winding to a two phase winding
We call this as split phase winding
Remember, here, the available single phase
winding is split into two windings and no
separate second phase is employed
The previous discussion regarding RMF is to
show field created by two phase winding is
rotating
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Coming back to methods of
starting
There are basically three methods of starting
a single phase induction motor based on
the methods the induction motor is referred
as given below
Split phase nduction motor (splitting the
phase) (with inductor)
Split phase nduction motor (with capacitor)
Shaded pole nduction motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
SpIit Phase Induction motor
s given, single phase is split into two phases
One of the phase is made highly inductive
Connecting an inductor in series with the second
winding is also common
The first winding is referred to as main winding
The 2
nd
winding is referred to as auxillary winding
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
SpIit Phase Induction motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Torque - sIip characteristics
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
SpIit Phase Induction motor - one
more design
dding resistance in series with the auxiliary winding
is also followed in some cases
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
phase Induction Motor - with C
s the name goes, a capacitor is connected in seires
with the auxiliary winding
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Torque
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Torque - sIip characteristics
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Shaded PoIe Induction Motor
&nique way in producing the split in the
single phase winding
s usual, phase splitting is done in the stator
Rotor is squirrel cage type as in the previous
cases
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Shaded PoIe Induction Motor -
Stator
The stator is of projecting pole type
The pole has a slot cut almost one-third
distance from its edge
The pole has a shading ring in the teeth
formed
The following will help you to visualize
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Shaded PoIe Induction Motor -
Stator
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Shaded PoIe Induction Motor -
Stator
Without actually splitting the winding and
also without actually rotating the pole a shift
or rotation in the flux intensity is obtained in
the shaded pole induction motor
This is followed in the negative half cycle too
(?!) (do it as assignment)
But, starting torque is so low in this case
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Torque - sIip characteristics
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
EquivaIent circuit
Discussion later
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Performance Characteristics
Discussion later
MSEC, Chennai
SPECIAL MACHINES
Electrical Machines 2
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
SpeciaI Machines
There are variety of special machines available
Here, our territory includes
Stepper Motor
Hysteresis Motor
C series Motor
Linear Reluctance Motor
Repulsion Motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stepper Motor
Stepper Motor, derives its name from the fact that it follows
definitive step in response to input pulses
See to it, that the input is in the form of pulses
Straightaway it is understood that the input, being pulses, can
be controlled and in turn the output gets controlled
Wherever precise positioning is required stepper motors are
widely employed
Typical values stepper motors develop torque ranging from 1
3N-m upto 40 3N-m power output range from 1 W to 2500 W
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stepper Motor - prerequisites
s discussed, stepper motor follows steps in response to a
input command pulse
The angle through which the motor shaft rotates for each
command pulse is called the step angle .
f the step angle is small, greater is the number of steps per
revolution
Where, Ns = number of stator teeth (poles)
Nr = number of rotor teeth (poles)
m = stator phases
MSEC, Chennai


0
8 7
8 7


.

47
0
7
2
.
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stepper Motor - prerequisites
Resolution = No. of steps / revolution
Resolution =
Motor shaft speed,
Where, f = stepping frequency (or pulse rate)
Stepper motor can operate at extra high stepping rate in the
range of 20,000 steps per second
Operation at high speed is referred to as slewing
MSEC, Chennai
0
.

0
1
3 758
.

S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stepper Motor - prerequisites
nother extraordinary feature stepper motor has, is its ability to
stay at fixed position for a long time
What is new here?
We, here, mean that stalling is not a problem in the case of
stepper motor whereas in the continuous energy producers
(other motors), this will result in 'back emf collapse' leading to
heavy current drawn by the machine
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stepper Motor - types
There are three designs of stepper motors
available in the literature
They are
'ariable Reluctance stepper motor
Permanent magnet stepper motor
Hybrid stepper motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stepper Motor - Variable
Reluctance Stepper Motor
Operating principle
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Stepper Motor - Variable
Reluctance Stepper Motor
s usual, it has
Stator
Rotor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
- Stator
Stator is a hollow cylinder whose inner
periphery houses salient poles
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
- Rotor
Rotor is a solid cylinder whose outer
periphery has salient poles
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
When we emphasize that the operation just
performed is 1-phase-ON mode we indirectly
mean that we have something called as 2-
phase-ON mode and so on
s the name goes, 2-phase-ON mode
denotes 2 phases being switched ON at the
same time
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
2-phase-ON mode
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
When we started, 2-phase-ON mode, many
would have thought that step angle would be
15 deg
But the table in the previous slide shows the
step angle is same as that of the previous
case (30 deg, maintained)
But the position of the rotor is changed,
which is a desirable factor in some of the
position control experiments
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
f the step angle is altered from the original intended design, it
would add much to the application side of our machine
Can we bring any other step size here?
s it possible, first of all?
The answer is yes, it is possible
There is no restriction imposed on us in altering the
combination of switching pulses
n fact, the 2-phase-ON mode is the child of our manipulation of
combination of phases involved in switching
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
oing by the same discussion, if we resort to
the combination of 1-phase-ON mode and 2-
phase-ON mode we will end up with some
interesting operation
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
t is interesting to note here that this
discussion has no end in it
We have something called as micro-stepping
and the reader is advised to do it as an
assignment
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
'ariabIe ReIuctance Stepper Motor
ll the previous slides regarding 'ariable
Reluctance Stepper Motor can be confined to
what is referred to as single-stack variable
reluctance stepper motor
t becomes clear by now that we have
something called as multi-stack variable
reluctance stepper motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
MuIti Stack 'R Stepper Motor
s stated earlier, micro-stepping is not
possible with single stack 'R stepper motor
Multi-stack 'R stepper motor comes handy
in such cases
First of all, we should clear ourselves with
what is stack
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
MuIti Stack 'R Stepper Motor -
Stator
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
MuIti Stack 'R Stepper Motor -
Rotor
lso note that the same arrangement is carried out
in the rotor
The first stack of stator is designed corresponding to
the first stack of the rotor
Similarly for the second and third stacks
t the outset, the stator has a common frame and
the rotor has a common shaft
Which comes out as three different machines in a
single set up
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
MuIti Stack 'R Stepper Motor -
If present in the Rotor (!?)
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
MuIti Stack 'R Stepper Motor -
Rotor
Here, what we have to understand is that, each
phase of the stator windings are individually wound
with each stack say phase for stack phase B
for stack B phase C for stack C
f phase is energized, rotor of stack will align
itself
f phase B is energized, rotor of stack B will align
itself
f phase C is energized, rotor of stack C will align
itself
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
MuIti Stack 'R Stepper Motor -
Rotor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor
t is very similar to 'ariable Reluctance
stepper motor
The only difference being that the rotor is
made up of permanent magnet
n 'R motors, the rotor is a magnetic material
(t can carry the flux lines through it)
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor
Stator and Rotor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor
The stator phases can be excited with either
positive current or negative current
Positive current in phase will create a set
of poles while the negative current will create
opposite poles
Similar is the case with phase B
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor
Consider positive current in phase
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor
dvantages
Permanent magnets require no external
exciting current low power loss
High inertia
Develops more torque than 'R motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor
Disadvantages
t is very difficult to produce permanent
magnet rotor with more number of poles
This makes the design of PM motors with
higher step angle
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hybrid Stepper Motor
Hybrid stepper motor combine the features of
'R and PM stepper motors
The stator is an electromagnet
The rotor is a permanent magnet
The difference in the rotor is that the rotor
magnet is axial with one end completely
north pole and other, south pole
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hybrid Stepper Motor
The confusion, if any, can be better
illustrated with the schematic representation
given below
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hybrid Stepper Motor
The side view of the axial permanent magnet
in the rotor is shown below
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hybrid Stepper Motor
The operation is left as an assignment for the
reader
The reader can build on this idea that the
rotor alignment would be based on the
attraction between formed stator poles (this
being electromagnet) and permanent rotor
poles
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AppIications
Type-writers
Tape drives
Floppy disk drivers
Process control systems
X-Y plotters
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
SpeciaI Machines
Stepper Motor
Hysteresis Motor
C series Motor
Linear Reluctance Motor
Repulsion Motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hysteresis Motor
This is based on the principle of hysteresis
Basically this is a constant speed motor
similar to synchronous motor
s is always the case
t has a
Stator and a Rotor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hysteresis Motor - Stator
Stator of hysteresis motor is similar to single
phase induction motor
The stator winding can be either split phase
type of shaded pole type
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hysteresis Motor - Rotor
Rotor is a smooth cylinder made of chrome-
steel
Materials of high resistivity comparable to
that of an insulator are normally chosen to
make the eddy current loss zero which make
the core loss equal only to hysteresis loss
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hysteresis Motor - Operating Principle
The concept of hysteresis is the basis
of such motor
s we know, hysteresis is the lagging
of magnetic flux density (B) with
respect to magnetizing field strength
(H)
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hysteresis Ioss
Remember, the very old hysteresis curve
t looks as shown
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hysteresis Ioss
t the outset, what we can elaborate is that if an
attempt is made to induce pole in a magnetic
material with higher retentivity the induced pole will
not loose its magnetic property even though the
induction is taken out completely
t is like remembering some event even after the
event is over (retaining something)
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Hysteresis Ioss
Where this come in the machine?
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
O.K what is the reIation between hysteresis
Ioss and the hysteresis motor?
Worthy question to ask?
This property is exploited here in this
motor
material with higher retentivity is
chosen such that poles formed is left
as such
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
O.K what is the reIation between hysteresis
Ioss and the hysteresis motor?
The hysteresis property of the rotor material
actually helps in retaining the pole induced in
it
The induced and retained pole in the rotor
gets locked with the rotating magnetic field of
the stator and the motor runs synchronously
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
The typicaI hysteresis Ioop for the
rotor materiaI
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Torque - SIip characteristics
The torque slip characteristics of hysteresis
motor has some interesting points to note
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AppIications
Precision udio equipments
Record players
Electric clocks
Tele-printers
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
SpeciaI Machines
Stepper Motor
Hysteresis Motor
C series Motor
Linear Reluctance Motor
Repulsion Motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor
n C motor with commutator and brush
assembly is referred to as commutator motor
(Remember commutator and brush assembly
in the wound rotor of an nduction motor)
There are two types of commutator motor
C series motor
&niversal motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor
What would happen if a normal dc series motor is connected to
ac supply?
The motor will run normally as the torque will still be
unidirectional
This is due to the fact that current and flux will change direction
simultaneously (dealt during 3 ph M)
But, power factor would be very poor due to very high
inductance of armature and field windings
t the same time, alternating flux would induce eddy emf in the
core leading to heavy eddy current loss in the machine
lso, sparking occur at brushes during the commutation period
due to heavy voltage and current
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor
These disadvantages make the machine
unsuitable with C supply
Proper modifications can make the machine
suitable with C supply
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor - Required
Modifications
Eddy current loss and the associated heating
loss can be overcome by properly laminating
the machine's armature core and field core
The power factor can be controlled by
decreasing the reactance of armature
winding and field winding
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor - Modifications
Elaborated
Decreasing the reactance of the field winding
increases the speed of the machine due to reduction
in the air gap flux
ncrease in the speed gives rise to decreased torque
Now to improve the torque, armature turns has to be
increased proportionately
But this will again increase the effective reactance of
the machine which is undesirable
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor - Modifications
Elaborated
To keep the armature reactance minimum and the
associated armature reaction reactance effect, a
special compensating winding is provided
The compensating winding is connected in such a
way so that the flux produced by the compensating
winding will be exactly in opposition to the flux
produced by the armature winding
This will neutralize the armature reaction reactance
effect
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor - Modifications
Implementation
This compensating winding can be connected in two ways
Based on the connection it is referred as conductively
compensated and inductively compensated
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor - Modifications
Implementation
nother major set back is the sparking associated
with commutation
n dc motors, this is overcome by commutating
poles (com poles) or inter poles
The voltage induced in the short circuited armature
winding is huge enough (this voltage is absent in the
case of dc motors) which creates undesirable
sparking even when inter poles are provided
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor - Modifications
Implementation
One method to reduce sparking connecting a shunt
resistance with the commutating winding of the
machine
By adjusting the resistance, voltage across the
compole winding is adjusted
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
AC series motor - Characteristics
The characteristics of C series motor are very
similar to dc series motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
UniversaI Motor
s the name indicates, universal motor runs with C
as well as with DC supply
t is a smaller version of C series motor
Typical power rating lies between 5 to 150 W
s far as construction goes, it comes in two types
Concentrated-pole non-compensated type
Distributed-field compensated type
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
UniversaI Motor - construction
Concentrated-poIe non-compensated type
t is very similar to dc series motor
&sually designed with 2 pole
Stator is fully laminated to reduce eddy current loss
Rotor is wound type similar to dc motor
Rotor is also fully laminated
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
UniversaI Motor - construction
Distributed-fieId compensated type
s the name goes, the stator is similar to split-phase
motor
Stator is fully laminated to reduce eddy current loss
Rotor is wound type similar to dc motor
Rotor is also fully laminated
Compensating winding is employed to reduce the
armature reaction reactance when the machine runs
on ac supply
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
UniversaI Motor - construction
Distributed-fieId compensated type
s the name goes, the stator is similar to split-phase
motor
Stator is fully laminated to reduce eddy current loss
Rotor is wound type similar to dc motor
Rotor is also fully laminated
Compensating winding is employed to reduce the
armature reaction reactance when the machine runs
on ac supply
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
UniversaI Motor - Characteristics
'ery similar to dc series motor
The characteristics can be had from the previously
discussed ac series motor
One important difference is that compensated
universal motor has better speed-torque
characteristics than non-compensated type (find out
why)
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
UniversaI Motor - Speed Control
There are many methods by which control in speed
can be brought out
Resistance method
Tapping-field method
Centrifugal mechanism
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
UniversaI Motor - Speed Control
Resistance method
s specified, it is something with resistacne
By carefully varying the resistance connected in
series with the winding, current and hence speed is
controlled
Tapping-fieId method
Field is provided with varying tappings and the
speed is controlled by carefully selecting the
tappings required
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
UniversaI Motor - Speed Control
CentrifugaI Mechanism
When the motor speed goes beyond the set speed,
the centrifugal device opens the contacts and
includes resistance in series with the motor
When the motor speed is below the set value, the
centrifugal device closes the contacts and take the
resistance out
capacitor is also connected in parallel with the
resistance and the contacts (guess why?)
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
UniversaI Motor - Speed Control
CentrifugaI Mechanism
When the motor speed goes beyond the set speed,
the centrifugal device opens the contacts and
includes resistance in series with the motor
When the motor speed is below the set value, the
centrifugal device closes the contacts and take the
resistance out
capacitor is also connected in parallel with the
resistance and the contacts (guess why?)
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
SpeciaI Machines
Stepper Motor
Hysteresis Motor
C series Motor
Repulsion Motor
Linear Repulsion Motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor
t has a
Stator
Rotor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Stator
Stator is a hollow cylinder whose inner periphery
houses armature conductors
Winding is excited with single phase supply
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Motor
Rotor is a solid cylinder whose outer periphery has
conductors
t is very similar to the armature of the dc motor with
commutator and brush arrangement
The brushes are short circuited by low resistance
jumper (why?)
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Operation
The operation of the repulsion motor is shown with
stator designed as salient pole type
The operation will remain same with stator discussed
as salient pole type
But take it that the stator is distributed type with slots
carrying single phase armature conductors
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Operation
To make it clear
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Operation
Then, how to make the motor start?
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Shortcomings
Speed changes as the load is changed
t becomes very high (dangerously high) at no load
Working power factor is very poor
Likely sparking at brushes
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Shortcomings
Speed changes as the load is changed
t becomes very high (dangerously high) at no load
Working power factor is very poor
Likely sparking at brushes
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Overcoming the
disadvantages
n attempt in overcoming the disadvantages has
given way to new types of Repulsion motor
Compensated RepuIsion Motor
Here, an extra winding called the compensating
winding is added in series with the armature winding
This winding is placed in the inner slots of the stator
The main purpose of compensating winding is to
improved the power factor (as in the case of
compensation provided in the C series motor) and
to improve the speed regulation
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Overcoming the
disadvantages
RepuIsion-start Induction-Run Motor
s the name indicates the motor starts as a
repulsion motor and after attaining 75 percent of the
speed the brushes are lifted and the armature
winding is shorted as nduction Motor
This arrangement is advantageous as the brushes
would not any current during operation
There are also designs in which the brushes ride on
the commutator throughout the operation
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Overcoming the
disadvantages
RepuIsion Induction Motor
This is the third design in which stator is the same as
in normal repulsion motor
But the rotor has two separate windings
One winding carries commutator and brush
arrangement similar to dc motor
Other winding is squirrel cage winding similar to
cage induction motor
Both these windings operate during the entire period
of operation of the motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
RepuIsion Motor - Overcoming the
disadvantages
Squirrel cage windings are placed deep inside the
rotor and remains inactive during start due to its high
reactance
When the rotor attains 85 % of the speed, squirrel
cage windings takes control
Commutated windings provide the starting torque
which is seen to well above 350 percent of the full-
load torque
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
SpeciaI Machines
Stepper Motor
Hysteresis Motor
C series Motor
Repulsion Motor
Linear Repulsion Motor
Linear Induction Motor
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Linear Induction Motor
The readers are advised to do this part as an
assignment
nterested people can this important points before
taking up the assignment
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Linear Induction Motor
normal nduction motor has a stator and a rotor
Stator is a hollow cylinder with conductors in its inner
periphery
Rotor is a solid cylinder with conductors on its outer
periphery
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Linear Induction Motor
f the stator is cut in to half parallel to its axis (t will
look as english alphabet U" from the front end), the
motor is referred to as sector nduction Motor
The important to note is that the motor will work
developing almost 30 % of its power rating
nyway the voltage has to be reduced to prevent
saturation since the number of conductors has been
reduced to half of its original value
MSEC, Chennai
S.B. Sivasubramaniyan
Linear Induction Motor
f the & shaped stator and cylindrical rotor is made
flat, then the machine is referred to as Linear
nduction Motor
s a passing reference, the reader can note that this
type of machine is employed in trains which operate
on the principle of Magnetic Levitation
MSEC, Chennai