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Massive Construction Hybrid Construction Filigree Construction

Defn|t|on Mass|ve construct|on methods from earth and stone.


Produce bu|ky, p|ast|c, most|y heavy bu||d|ng masses.
The product|on of spaces fo||ows d|rect|y.
-> Heavy construct|on method
Hybr|d construct|on methods comb|ne the best of both, as |ong as resources are ava||ab|e:
Ouest|on: What |s the mot|vat|on for comb|nat|on?
F|||gree construct|on methods from s|ender, ||near e|ementens.
Produce ||ght, a|ry structures.
Oomp|ementary measures needed for the product|on of spaces.
-> ||ght construct|on method
1. Raw mater|a|s M|nera|:
Masonry, Stone (espec|a||y ||mestone und Mar|y O|ay}
Grave|
Sand
Earth
O|ay, |oam, S||t
|ater:
Ore compos|te rock (Meta|}
-> Ava||ab|||ty of mater|a| resources?
-> Ama|gams?
Organ|c:
P|ant fbers (Ootton}
Ha|r (H|des, Woo|}
Bones
Rods, Branches, Bamboo
Trees
|ater:
Ore -> Meta|
Tree sap (Oaoutchouc} -> Rubber
Oe||u|ose -> v|scose
Orude o|| -> B|tumen, P|ast|cs
2. Modu|es
(ln|t|a| refnement of raw
mater|a|s}
Amorphous aggregate, p|ast|c (|n mo|st state}, harden|ng
- O|ay
-> Adobe (modu|ar handfu||s}
-> Rammed earth (|n formwork, w|th too|s}
- Ooncrete
-> Oast (|n formwork}
-> Oement br|ck (modu|ar}
Modu|ar bu||d|ng b|ocks, compress|on res|stant
- Stone (un-/smoothed}
- Br|ck (formwork}
-> a|rdr|ed
-> fred
- v|tr|fed br|ck -> fred at h|gh temperature (s|ntered}
(- G|ass -> chunks of fused quartz sand und s|||cate}
Surfaces (wa||s, 2d+}
- P|aster
- Mosa|c, T||es, S|ab cover|ng (Stone or Synthet|c stone}
Mater|a| ama|gams:
-> O|ay + Straw
-> Ooncrete + Stee| fber Adm|xture of fbers to
-> Ooncrete + G|ass fber re|nforce m|nera| mater|a|s
-> Ooncrete + P|ast|c fber
-> Ooncrete + Stee| mesh
||near Modu|es:
- lnherent|y unstab|e:
A. P|ant fbers, Oords, Ropes, An|ma| ha|r, P|ast|cs and P|ast|c fbers
(|ong, organ|c mo|ecu|ar cha|n}
B. W|re, Stee| cab|e, G|ass-, Oeram|c- and Oarbon fber
(|ong, |norgan|c mo|ecu|ar cha|n}
-> Text||e fabr|c (cover|ng}
-> Knots (connect|ons, t|es}
-> Re|nforcement (meshes, fbers, str|ps}
- lnherent|y stab|e:
A. St|ff modu|es:
|ogs, Squared t|mber, Stee| prof|es
-> Posts (vert|ca| modu|es}
-> Beams (hor|zonta| modu|es}
B. F|ex|b|e, respect|ve|y e|ast|c modu|es:
Rods, Branches, Po|es, Bamboo-Tubes, Stee| prof|es
Surfaces (wa||s, 2d+}:
- F|||gree surfaces:
A. lnherent|y stab|e, st|ff: Wood pane|||ng (saw|ng}
B. lnherent|y stab|e, p||ab|e: Meta| (dr|v|ng}
O. lnherent|y unstab|e, fex|b|e: Text||e (tens|on|ng}
-> Text||e or Tens||e cover|ng
3. n|ts
(Jo|n|ng of modu|es vert|-
ca||y and hor|zonta||y}
E
vert|ca|
:
-> Wa|| - |nter|ocked or cast 3d-bu||d|ng mass
E
hor|zonta|
:
-> Arch (see open|ngs} = ||near span (spann|ng d|stance/p|tch}
-> vau|t (= 2d+ arc}
- Oorbe| vau|t
- Rad|a| vau|t
- Oast vau|t
Spann|ng d|stance:
- O|ay 3-4 m
- Stone/Br|ck 5 m
- Ooncrete 6-7 m
-> Dome (= Rotat|ona| arc}
- Oorbe| Dome
- Rad|a| Dome
- Oast Dome
Spann|ng d|stance:
- O|ay 3-4 m
- Stone/Br|ck 5 m
- Ooncrete 6-7 m
E
vert|ca|
:
-> Part|t|ons
- Re|nforc|ng |att|ce + O|ay Ooat|ng Pr|nc|p|e
- Beam- und Framework Oonstruct|on Re|nforcement
E
hor|zonta|
:
-> Oompos|te F|oor S|abs
(lmprovement of |oad bear|ng capac|ty, fre protect|on or acoust|c |nsu|at|on!}
- Wood Jo|sts + O|ay
- Wood Jo|sts + Ooncrete stay-|n-p|ace formwork
- Prof|e Sheet|ng + Ooncrete w|th or w|thout dowe| jo|nts

E
vert|ca|
:
-> Part|t|on
- |ayered-hor|zonta||y (Str|p-/|og construct|on}
- |ayered-g|ued (|n sect|ons: Pane| construct|on}
- Jo|nted, ||near modu|es
(Post and Beam-, Framework-, Beam construct|on}
E
hor|zonta|
:
-> S|ab
- Jo|sts
- Oassette Oe|||ng
-> Roof
- Jo|sts
- Str|p Pyram|d
- |ayered Dome, -Oon|c
- |att|ce Dome, -Oon|c
Spann|ng d|stance:
- Tent construct|on 4-5 m
- Wood construct|on 5 m
- Stee| construct|on 8-10 m
4. Structure
A. Structura| compos|t|on:
- Structura| framework
- Stab|||ty
- Earthquake
(st|ff-fex|b|e}
- F|re res|stant
Oomb|nat|on E
vert|ca| mass|ve
+ E
hor|zonta| mass|ve
Wa|| compos|t|on
(Wa|| ang|e and -s|ope, Oorner |nter|ock|ng, Wa|| curvature}
Wa|| th|ckness B
Reference va|ue B = 1/10 H (wa|| he|ght} for freestand|ng wa||s
Opt|m|zat|on:
- S|ope (Sect|ona| so|ut|on}
- Stepp|ng (Sect|ona| so|ut|on}
- R|bbed (P|anometr|c so|ut|on}
- Super|mpos|t|on of p|anometr|c- and sect|ona| so|ut|on
Prob|emat|c |n Earthquake zones St|ff structures w|th many hor|zonta| jo|nts
(hor|zonta| jo|nts = many jo|nts |n sect|on}
H|gh fre res|stance
Typ|ca| comb|nat|ons: E
vert|ca| mass|ve
+ E
hor|zonta| f||gree
(Wa||-S|ab-systems, Wa||-Roof-systems}

Recent|y |n contemporary wood construct|on a|so: E
vert|ca| f||gree
+ E
hor|zonta| mass|ve
(Pane| construct|on + Re|nforced concrete-fat s|abs / Pane| construct|on-Oompos|te foor s|abs}

Re|nforced concrete (-Wa||s}
-> She||- and Fa|sework
-> Oo|umn-S|ab system

Stee| construct|on (fram|ng}:
-> Oompos|te foor s|abs |n re|nforced concrete (prof|e sheet|ng as Removab|e Formwork}
Oomb|nat|on E
vert|ca| f||gree
+ E
hor|zonta| f||gree
Wa|| compos|t|on
(Str|p-, |og construct|on, Ba||oon frame}
Max|mum |ength accord|ng to modu|e (Posts, Beams}
- Wa||s (Str|p-, |og construct|on, Ba||oon frame}
- Frames (2d+, Beam-, Post and Beam- und Framework construct|on}
- Pane|s (Pane|-, So||d Wood construct|on}

Wa|| th|ckness accord|ng to modu|e, transverse st|ffen|ng through brac|ng
(d|agona| members} a|so transverse wa|| connect|on
St|ffen|ng through d|agona| members, d|agona| shutter|ng or pane|||ng
|att|ce, Open fram|ng (3d} -> var|ab|e st|ffness = F|ex|b|||ty |n earthquakes
|ow fre res|stance
5. Structure
B. O||mate
lnfuenc|ng factors:
Temperature, W|nd,
Hum|d|ty, Ra|n
- Stacked mass -> tendency to (a|r-} t|ghtness
= Heat reta|n|ng (temperature-phase sh|fts}
= Mo|sture reta|n|ng
= W|nd screen|ng
- Open|ngs through perforat|on of the mass enab|e:
-> A|r c|rcu|at|on
- Sparse ra|n -> Domed vau|t (c|ay}
- Much ra|n -> vau|t/Dome (stone, concrete}
- Heavy -> requ|res much embod|ed energy (for product|on, transport, recyc||ng}
-> Mass|ve exter|or wa||s w|th f||gree roof structure:
- P|tched roof (much ra|n}
- F|at roof (|.e. jo|sts w|th c|ay coat|ng, sparse ra|n}
- F|at roof (re|nforced concrete - fat s|abs, much ra|n}

-> Mass|ve exter|or wa||s w|th f||gree Mashrab|ya (wood gr|||}:
w|nd screen|ng wa||s w|th w|nd permeab|e apertures (f|ter/w|ndow}
-> Beam construct|on: E
vert|ca| f||gree
+ lnf|| -> Sea||ng of jo|nts
-> Sp||t |ayer (facade construct|on}: Mass|ve she|| + lnsu|at|on |ayer
- Open fram|ng -> tendency to (a|r-} permeab|||ty
= Non heat reta|n|ng
= Non mo|sture reta|n|ng
= W|nd permeab|e
- Enc|osure through dens|fy|ng the framework:
-> A|r t|ghtness (therma| regu|at|ng}
- Much ra|n -> P|tched roof
- Sparse ra|n -> F|at roof
- ||ght -> requ|res ||tt|e embod|ed energy (for product|on, transport, recyc||ng}
6. Structure
O. Space product|on
- Space format|on
- Space d|str|but|on
- Open|ng rat|o
D|rect and |mmed|ate space format|on
-> Room d|v|s|on (+ exter|or-|nter|or-part|t|on}
-> Space d|str|but|on, dependent upon spann|ng capac|ty
(p|an-determ|n|ng}
- O|ay construct|on 3-5 m
- Masonry construct|on 5 m
- Ooncrete construct|on 7.5 m
Open|ng rat|o: too few open|ngs
-> Perforat|on of the wa||: Open|ngs (w|ndows, doors, connect|on between rooms}
as d|srupt|ons |n the wa|| structure.
-> Frame for open|ngs: Jamb (Seam}
-> Br|dg|ng: Arch (Spann|ng d|stance ca. 3 m, re|at|ve to spann|ng d|stance - p|tch!}
-> P|an-|ntens|ve (|.e. Wa||-S|ab-systems}
Oe||u|ar-systems
-> Sect|on-|ntens|ve (|.e. Oo|umn-S|ab-systems}

Oomb|nat|ons:
- Framework + lnf|| (sea||ng}
- vert|ca| members + G|ass membrane (g|az|ng}
- Wa|| open|ng + W|ndow e|ement (frame}
- ||nte| (|n masonry}: Wood, Re|nforced Ooncrete, Stee|
- Oo|umn-S|ab-system + Ourta|n wa|| (g|az|ng}
On|y |nd|rect, arch|tectura| space product|on w|th frame- or |att|ce structures
(except|ons: Str|p-, B|ock- or Pane| construct|on |n wood}
-> Room d|v|s|on
-> Open co|umn gr|d (|att|ce structures, max. beam spann|ng d|stance}
- Wood construct|on 5 m
- Stee| construct|on 8-10 m
Open|ng rat|o: too many open|ngs
-> Structura| open|ngs (frame- or |att|ce |nterva|}
-> Fasteners:
- Enc|os|ng (tents, huts}
- Oover|ng (Roof construct|on}
- Pane|||ng (Wood construct|on, Stee| construct|on, P|asterboard}
- lnf|| (|.e. ||ght stee| fram|ng}
7. Oonstruct|on methods O|ay construct|on
- Adobe (by hand}
- Rammed earth (w|th formwork}
Masonry construct|on
- Stone (un-/smoothed} -> Stereotomy
- Br|ck, v|tr|fed br|ck (modu|ar formwork}
Ooncrete construct|on
- Roman concrete-> Formwork: wa|| construct|on (removab|e formwork} + pour|ng
- Oast concrete (w|th formwork}
O|ay construct|on (Adobe} on |att|ce (rods, = Re|nforcement}
O|ay construct|on/Masonry construct|on (E
vert|ca|
} + S|ab, Roof (E
hor|zonta|
= Jo|sts}
Post and Beam construct|on:
- Framework + lnf||
- Framework + |att|ce + Adobe or P|aster coat
Re|nforced Ooncrete construct|on
Stee| construct|on (3d-mesh} + fat s|ab |n re|nforced concrete compos|te (grav|ty t|ed}
Framework construct|on
- Tents (fram|ng + cover|ng: Text||e or Tens||e construct|ons}
- Huts (|att|ce of Rods, Branches, Fo||age and s|m||ar}
Wood construct|on
- Str|p construct|on -> B|ock construct|on
- T|mber Frame construct|on -> Frame construct|on
- Pane| construct|on
Stee| construct|on (3d-|att|ce, Frame construct|on}
ProIessor Aodrea 0ep|azes, 0epartmeot oI Arch|tect0re, Th I0r|ch, Lect0re |o 0oostr0ct|oo |||l|V, FS 2010, Nass|ve - F|||gree: Archetypes oI 0oostr0ct|oo copyr|ght 2010
Archetypes oI 0oostr0ct|oo - Tab|e oI Nass|ve-, F|||gree- 0od hybr|d 0oostr0ct|oo Nethods