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I/C NO : 941020-12-5420










The aims of carrying out this project work is to enable students to :

a) Apply mathematics to everyday situations and appreciate the importance and the beauty of mathematics in everyday lives . b)Improve problem-solving skills , thinking skills , reasoning and mathematical communication . c) Develop positive attitude and personalities and instrinsic mathematical values such as accuracy , confidence and systematical reasoning . d)Stimulate learning enviroment that enchances effective learning inquiry-base and teamwork. e)Increase students interest and confidence in developing mathematical knowledge .

History of cakes
The history of cakes, goes a long way back. Among the remains found in Swiss lake villages were crude cakes make from roughly crushed gains, moistened, compacted and cooked on a hot stone. Such cakes can be regarded as a form of unleavened bread, as the precursor of all modern European baked products. Some modern survivors of these mixtures still go by the name 'cake', for

instance oatcakes, although these are now considreed to be more closely related to biscuits by virtue of their flat, thin shape and brittle texture. Ancient Egypt was the first culture to show evidence of true skill in bakin, making many kinds of bread including some sweetened with hone. The Greeks had a form of cheesecake and the Romans developed early versions of fruitcakes with raisins, nuts and other fruits. These ended up in 14th century Britain. Chaucer mentions immense cakes made for special occasions. One was made with 13 kilograms of flour and contained butter, cream, eggs, spices, currants and honey.

Moulds, in the form of cake hoops or pans have been used for forming cakes since at least the mid-17th century. Most cakes were eaten accompanied by a glass of sweet wine or tea. At large banquets, elaborately decorated cakes might form part of the display, but would probably not be eaten. By the mid19th century the French were including a separate "sweet" course at the end of the meal which might include 'gateau.' During the 19th century, technology made the cake-baker's life much easier. The chemical raising agent bicarbonate of soda, introduced in the 1840's, followed by baking powder ( a dry mixture of bicarbonate of soda with a mild acid), replaced yeast, providing a greater leavening power with less effort. Another technology breakthrough was more accuate temperature controlled ovens. In most of NW Europe and North America a well-developed tradition of home baking survives, with a huge repertoire of cake recipes developed from the basic methods. The abililty to bake a good cake was a prized skill among housewives in the early to mid-20th century, when many households could produce a simple robust, filling 'cut and come again' cake, implying abundance and hospitality. Although the popularity of home baking and the role of cakes in the diet have both changed during the 20th century, cakes remain almost ubiquitous in the

western world. They have kept their image as 'treats' and maintain their ceremonial importance at weddings and birthdays.

Task 1
Best Bakery shop received an order from my school to bake a 5kg of round cake . The volume given for 1kg cake is 3800cm3 . Height of the cake is 7.0cm .

The dimensions of the oven given as of 80.0cm in length , 60.0 cm in width and 45.0 in height . Students are needed to : Find the diameter of the baking tray. Tabulate different values of heights and the corresponding diameters. State and explain the range of heights that is not suitable for the cake . Represent the linear relation between height and diameters by plotting a graph based on the equation representing the relation. - Use the graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required to bake a cake of 10.5cm in height . - Use the graph to estimate the height of cake obtained for a cake of diameter of 42cm

Task 2 Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream . The thickness of the cake is set uniform layer of 1cm . Students are needed to : - Estimate the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake - Suggest three suitable shapes for the cake that will have the same height and volume . - Estimate the amount of fresh cream needed for each cake - Determine the shape of cake that requires the least amount of fresh cream.

Task 3 In part 3 , students is required to : - Find the dimension of a 5kg round cae that is requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate . - Use two different methods including calculus.

- State and explain whether we would choose to bake a cake with such dimensions .

Task 4 We were required to do a futher exploration . We helped the Best Bakery to find the volume for each of the multi storey cake , and explain the number patterns formed by the volumes . We also have to calculate the maximum number of cake need to be baked if the total mass should not exceed 15kg .


Part 1


Cakes comes in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties , Hari Raya , weddings and etc . Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and decorating . Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and decorating and write about you findings .

When we make a cake with many layers , we must fix the difference of diameter of the two layer . So we can say that it is used arithmetic progression . For instance,when the diameter of the first layer of the cake is 8cm and the diameter of the second layer of the cake is 6 cm , then the diameter of the third layer should be 4cm . We can also use ratio , this is because when we prepare the ingredients needed for each layer of the cake , we can use fraction to divide the cake according to the total people that will eat the cake .

On a large scale you need to calculate what ratio of ingredients are needed . You also need to be more mindful of the ordering of supplies .we can also use math when cooking and baking to estimate the cost of a certain dish . We can understand that cheesecake is more expensive to make than a batch of cookies , particularly when people buy ingredients such as flour , sugar and butterin bulk and cream cheese is more expensive . When comparing recipes , it may be beneficial to estimate the cost of each recipe . Mathematical skills are used quite frequently when baking and cooking . It can be very helpful to understand how maths affects the quality of culinary in order to make the most delicious meals and treats .

Geometry is used to determine suitable dimensions for the cake , to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and design and to estimate the volume of cake to be produced . Differentation is used to determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake baking and to estimate the minimum or maximum amount of cream

needed for decorating and lastly to estimate minimum or maximum size of cake produced . Progressions is used to determine total weight or volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions and to estimate total ingredients needed for cake baking .

Part 2
Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5kg of round cake as shown in diagram 1 for the Teachers Day celebration .

1) If a kilogram of cake has a volume a volume of 3800cm3 , and the height of the cake is to be 7.0 cm , calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school . ( Use = 3.142 )

1 ) Volume of 1kg of cake = 3800 cm3 Volume of 5kg of cake = 5 x 3800 = 19000 cm 3


r2h = 19000 r2(7) = 19000 r2(7)

r2(7) = 6047 r2 r2 r = = 863.87 = = 29.39 cm Diameter , d = 2r = 2(29.39) = 58.78 cm

2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length , 60.0 cm in width and 45.0 cm in height . a) If the volume of cake remains the same , explore by using different values of heights , h cm , and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used , d cm . Tabulate your answers .


Formula used = r2h

Height , h ( cm ) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

Diameter , d ( cm ) 155.52 109.97 89.79 77.76 69.55 63.49 58.78

8.0 9.0 10.0

54.99 51.84 49.18

b) Based on the values in your table , (i) state the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes Explain your answers. (ii) suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake . Give reasons for your answers .

Answer b) i) h < 7cm , h > 45cm This is because any heights that is less than 7 cm will result the diameter of the cake for being too big to even fit on the baking tray and also the baking oven furthermore making the cake look less attractive , while any heights that is more than 45 cm will cause the cake for being too tall to fit into the baking oven .

ii) I suggest the dimensions that is most suitable for the cake is 8cm in height and 54.98cm for the diameter of the cake . This is because the dimensions of the cake shows that the cake is big enough for the Teachers Day celebration at my school that consist more than 100 teachers . This cake will also be more attractive and can fit into the oven very well and the size is suitable for easy handling .

c) i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d . Hence , plot a suitable graph based on the linear equation that you have formed . [ You may draw your graph with the aid of computer software ]

ii) a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5 cm , use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required.

b) If Best Bakery used a 42cm diameter round cake tray , use your graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained .


c) i) ( )

( )

Log h 0

Log d 2.19

1 2 3 4

1.69 1.19 0.69 0.19

ii) a) h = 10.5 cm , log h = 1.021 , log d = 1.680 r2h = 19000

r2 (10.5) = r2 r = =

= 23.99cm d = 2r = 2(23.99) = 47.98cm

b) When , d = 42cm , log d = 1.623 From the graph , When , log d = 1.623 , log h =1.140 Therefore h = 13.80cm

3) Best bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream . The thickness of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1 cm . a) estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii) b) suggest three other shapes for cake , that will have the same height and volume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii) . Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes .

c) Based on the values that you have found which shape requires at least the amount of fresh cream to be used ?

Answer a)

Face of cake = ( ) = ( = ( ) )

= 2375 cm3

Curved side of cake = 2

( )

= 2 (


= 1382.23 cm3

Total volume of fresh cream = Face of cake + curved side of cake = ( ) ( )

= 2375cm3 + 1382.23cm3 = 3757.23 cm 3

b)i) Square shaped cake

Volume of square shaped cake = 19000 = 19000 = = = 2375



Volume of cream = 2(area of left and right side surface)x(height of cream) + 2(area of front and back side surface)x(height of cream) + (volume of top surface)

= = = 3935cm3

ii) Triangle shaped cake

Volume of triangle = x

x x

19000 = x 8 x = = 2375

= 4750

Assuming Slant length

Amount of cream = 2( area of slant rectangular left and right side surface ) x (height of cream ) + (area of front side ) + ( volume of top cream ) = 2 ( 98.23 x 8 ) (1) + ( 95 x 8 ) + (2375) = 4706.68 cm3

iii) Pentagon shaped cake

Volume of pentagon = base area x h Base area Base area = = 2375

Pentagon has 5 similar side . Therefore,

2375 = 5 ( x =( )

= 475


Amount of cream = 5(area of side surface) x (height) + (volume of top surface) = 5(8 x 19 ) + 2375 = 3135 cm 3

c) From the table above , as conclusion pentagon shaped cake requires the least amount of fresh cream to be used less than the three other shape .

Type of cake





Volume of cream needed (cm3)





Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate . Use at least two different methods including Calculus . State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions . give reasons for your answers .



Assuming that the surface area of the cake is proportionate to the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake .

Volume of cake 19000 = =


Volume of fresh cream =




V= V= V=

V = 3.142r2+38000r-1 ( ) = 2(3.142)r2 + (-1)(38000)r-2 ( ) = 2(3.142)r

If minimum amount of fresh cream , then 0 = 2(3.142)r

= 2(3.142)r r3 =
r= r= 18.22 d = 2r d = 2(18.22) = 36.44cm substitute r into



Volume cream = V V = r2h + 2rh

19000 = r2h Completing the square

V = h r2 + 2r + ( ) = = = 3.

( )

(a=3.142 (positive indicater minimum value ) , minimum value V = r=



19000 = (3.142)( h)2 h h3 = 6047.104 h = 18.22

substitute h=18.22 into 19000 = (3.142)r2(18.22) r = 331.894 r = 18.22

Therefore , h=18.22cm d=2r =2(18.22) =36.44cm

I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions , this is because its dimensions are not suitable , the height is too high and it will cause the cake to be less attractive . Futhermore , such cakes are very difficult to handle easily .

FUTHER EXPLORATION Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration , as shown in diagram 2 .

The height of each cake is 6.0cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0cm . The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake , the radius of the third cake is 10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on . a) find the volume of the first , the second , the third and the fourth cakes . By comparing all these values , determine whether the

volumes of the cakes form a number pattern ? explain and elaborate on the number patterns .

Height of the cake = 6cm Radius for the cake is 31cm

Radius 1st cake 2nd cake 3rd cake 4th cake 31cm 27.9cm 25.11cm 22.599cm

Volume (31)2(60) = 18116.772 (27.9)2(60)=14674.585 (25.11)2(60)=11886.414 (22.599)2(60)=9627.995

The volumes of the cakes form a number pattern.The pattern formed is a geometrical progression. This is proven by the fact that there is a common ratio between subsequent numbers , r = 0.81 . When 10% of the radius deducted continuos cake , 19% of the volume also deducted . Therefore it said to be that the radius is directly proportional to the volume .

Ratio = = 0.81 b) if the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15kg , calculate the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake . Verify your answer using other methods .


Sn = 57000 , V = 18116.772 , r =0.81

57000 Sn

=* =

1 0.81n = 0.59779 Log0.810.40221= n n= n= 4

By doing this futher exploration I learnthat the knowledge of differentiation , progression and volume calculation can be used to solve daily problems . Throughapplying all these formulas , I can save materials used in all sort of production .

Besides that , I also able to estimate the number of production with certain limited factors . Lastly , I know the how to apply these formulas that needed to be used in certain circumstances .

Through the completion of this project , I have learned many skills and techniques on why maths is used in our daily life . I have done many researches on the internet and discussing with some friends and teachers who really helped me a lot . This project really helped

me to expose the techniques of application of additional mathematics in real life situations . This project really encourages students to work together and share their knowledge . It is also encourage us students to gather information from the internet , improve our thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication . This project showed me that how fun and interesting additional mathematics is . It gave me the interest to learn more about additional mathematics method and calculation based on our daily life .