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SMMS

ItandHns

Volume 16

Number 1

January/March 1996

15 Years of Conveyor Belt

Nondestructive Evaluation
Alex Harrison, USA

Summary
The year 1979 marked the beginning of
a new

cern.
a

This thrust encompasses stress analysis of the belting

as

technology

that

permitted
this

the

testing of conveyor belt damage and degradation

composite material Finally, any analysis that does not consider the starting or stopping forces is lacking in terms of complete evaluation of belting condition
are considered to be the optimally correct approach to evaluating belting condition Belt nondestructive testing applies to both steel cord [5] and fabric belting [6] Testing is designed to maximize information about the belting

For the first time, steel cord belts were tested for corrosion and technology has now been in constant commercial use since 1981
-

These directions

belts for

fifteen years The invention of a method to test moving damage and loss of strength led to more complex ap-

plications including broken cable detection and splice signature analysis Fabric belt testing was developed next, followed by cable belt and pipe belt testing New advances have been made that provide a more sophisticated application of belt monitoring, including the development of safety factor (SF) analysis based on NDT signal analysis This paper will grve an historical overview

2.

State-of-the-Art in Testing Procedures


1 shows the

and describe the state-of-the-art

1.
A

Introduction

procedure used to obtain vital data for safety production based on belt damage or manufacturing quality There are three distinct phases required in the evaluation of belting condition in relation to the conveyor system Phase 1 is considered to be the data collection phase, Phase 2 is the anal-

Rg

factor

great deal of knowledge has been gained dunng the past 17 years on the subject of conveyor belts and their modes of degradation This new knowledge was made possible through techniques developed to monitor the reinforcement of conveyor
belts
In retrospect the science of belt nondestructive testing (NDT) was bom in Australia in 1979 with the patenting of a system that came to be known as the "cbm" or conveyor belt monitor The

Rg

Process used to

analyze damage and anomalies

in a

steel cord belt

O/>g/na/ Safery fecfor SF


Phase*

USED BELT

NEW BELT

NDT Process

research of Harrison

[1,2]
the

resulted

in a series

of papers and

(cord Plane Scan

patent applications

on

new

technology
Extract damage Information

Once the concept that a belt could be tested by non-contact methods was demonstrated, it became an established method for testing belts worldwide The ramifications to the manufacin terms of quality assessment, and to the mine in terms of damage evaluation, have been quite profound Research contmues to discover new facts about belt and splice condition In

Detect Cord Plane

Variations

turer

Calibration

Calibration

this paper, the evolution of belt nondestructive testing into the


science

Compute Stress
Concentrations at Problem Area

Phase 2

of

safety factor (SF) analysis

is

discussed

application of this research has been in belting safety factors at a damage or defect site This procedure was developed for steel cord belts as early as 1981 [3,4] No longer is it acceptable to simply measure the levels of damage in the belting, but rather the industry requires an evaluation of belting strength at the location of greatest conThe natural direction for
evaluation of
Prof Dr Alex Harrison President Scientific Solutions Inc Managng MemConveyor Technologies Ltd LLC 2200 Chambers Rd Unit J, Aurora.
, ,

Graphical Display

(^De-

rate Belt SFO

SFf

[Measure
(^De

or

>

P/iase 3

Model Belt Dynamic Factor

ber

CO 80011. USA Tel

+1 303 344 9024


on

Fax +1 303 344 9102

De-rate Bett SF1

Details about the author

page 149

13

Nondestructive Conveyor Belt Testing

ysis of the data in terms of actual belting SF relative to the ongmal design value, and Phase 3 considers the ramifications of the

starting
In

or

stopping forces

on

the actual

belting SF value
the

at lo-

Transmitter

Receiver

Processor

cations of
an

damage

or

cord

plane defect

tions are

analysis of the applied

true

belting factor SF,

following

equaMagnetic Pocket
Break

(D
Mass

Steel Cord

*2
where =10
-

(2)
=

NDT

Signal

and

Signature
time

(fabric belt nominal) and SFq 6 67 (steel cord SFq belt), where /(., is the computed stress concentration factor at the damage site or at the irregularity in the reinforcement (usually /c, > 1 2) and /Cg is the ratio of the highest dynamic belt force Tpeak to the highest static belt tension 7"^
Based
ods at
on

OUTPUT
Breaks

Y
time

the

has been described


are

procedure outlined in Fig 1, computation of /c, in detail by Harrison in [7] Analytical meth-

Fig

Schematic of

modern steel cord NDT

system

used here to determine the stress concentration factors


sites

(broken reinforcement) and at manufacturing (buckles) In other words, the factor /c, is directly related to the damage or defect magnitude as detected by non-contact NDT methods Application of this theory using computer generated stress fields is discussed in a later section
defect locations of this paper
the computation of /Cg is overstress in the belting, based

damage

3.2
In

Damage Monitoring

general, sensing systems similar to those shown in Fig 2 are used to test conveyor belts The system in Fig 2 has been developed to monitor corrosion and broken cables in steel cord belting without the need to magnetize the belt This technique has significant advantages over earlier monitoring systems in that belt magnetization or pre-conditioning is not required to remove spurious signals (magnetic pockets) from the belting (US Patent 4,864,233) Fig 3 shows typical raw data recorded from a test rig designed a 4 m length of belting The data was obtained from a system described in Fig 2 Full scale deflection of the signal that represents one broken cable depends on the sensor geomto simulate

Finally,

either

starting

or

directly related to the dynamic on the highest belt tension for stopping according to the equation
f
=

/ 7
max'

peak

(3)

in

which

kg

puter [8]
in

either directly measured or modeled on a comThe application of this method is also discussed later
is

the paper

3.

NDT

Systems for Steel Cord Belts Phase 1 Testing


General

etry, as is the case with "cbm" systems Nevertheless, the monitoring system is highly immune to magnetization in the belting, making it an ideal testing system particularly when some of the

belting is magnetized and some is new and unmagnetised This system removes the complexities associated with magnetic conditioning and data interpretation
Some typical NDT signals of damage in a steel cord belt are illustrated in this paper Similar types of signal may be recorded
from fabric belt tests

3.1

Background

During Phase 1, the belt is tested by non-contact NDT methods Sensors available for testing steel reinforced belting include magnetic, eddy current, electromagnetic, x-ray and vibration sensor systems Sensors available for testing fabric belts inelude force transducers, electric field devices, vibration measurtest the

Fig 3

Outputs of

monitoring system

immune to

belting fields

ing systems and x-rays Each of these systems continuity of the belting reinforcement
are a

are

employed

to

There

number of steel cord NDT systems that have been

developed over more recent years as alternatives to the original Conveyor Belt Monitoring system ("cbm") invented in Australia by Harrison in 1979 (US Patents 4,439,731) During 1990, an array sensor system was developed at The University of Newcastle, Australia These sensors are used by Conveyor Technologies Ltd (CTL) and TUNRA USA Inc to monitor steel cord
belts

Other less well known alternative monitors include


rent

an

eddy

cur-

system developed in Germany, a modified wire rope testing device (also developed in Germany) and a steel cord monitoring system developed in Canada that displays NDT data in graphical form on a computer screen Many of these alternative monitonng systems need to develop a track record in order to provide the

industry with the necessary confidence that the data being correctly interpreted

is

Clearly, there
belts

are a

number of systems that


can

can

test steel cord

Fabric belts
is in

testing
CTL

also be tested but in many cases the not cost effective The belt monitoring system used by

the USA

(BeltScanner)

lends itself to diverse applica-

the testing of cable belts, pipe belts, flexowalltype belts and belts with any physical shape

tions,

including

14

SOlidS
handling

Volume 16

Number 1

January/March 1996

Nondestructive conveyor Belt Testing

Press

Baiting

Length

NOT

i->u__J,
I
Broken

Cords-^ I

Tracking Edge of Belt


lot End
inner

Edge

at Press

Overlap

Direction of fabrication

Fig.
Fig.
4:

7:

NDT signals

showing deterioration

at

manufacturing

defect sites

Typical
effect

NDT belt

on

signals mistracking

of broken cables and

faulty splice

snowrtg the

fects

Fig. 4 shows a record of a steel cord belt magnetic break signal, together with the tracking data, in a region of a faulty and failing splice. This data was collected with a system shown in Fig. 2. The splice exhibited considerable edge sag and mistracking, along with an irregular splice signature. Fig. 5 shows a steel cord belt with periodic damage that results from either rock spillage or ice lumps traveling around a pulley in the system.

displacements of some cables and reported for many years [9]. This type of departure from a flat plane of reinforcing cables is a defect that is responsible for cable breakdown over a period of time. A mechanism that describes the generation of these defects has been published [10].
are

in fact small vertical

their existence has been

The greatest problem with defects that involve cable or fabric layer displacements is reduced belt life and increased stress

concentrations at the defect site,


is therefore

lowering

belt SF. Its detection

just

3.3

Testing Manufacturing Quality Commissioning Scans


of belt will

inforcement in

important the belting.


as

as

the detection of

damage

to re-

a new commissioning scan anomaly that is related to belting cord plane signature with fringing magnetic fields every 30 ft, which happens to be the press length in manufacture. These ef-

generally discover any fabrication. Fig. 6 shows a

the

7 shows the inter-relation between cord plane defects and resulting NDT signal when displaced cables fatigue and break [9]. This figure shows the general location of cable plane anomalies in relation to the press length. A similar process may

Fig.

occur in

fabric belt fabrication.

iiiiiiiiiiii?ii-

1-

No. B
1
1

Fig.

5: 6:

NDT NDT

signals of

belt with

damage from rock and ice lumps

Fig.

signals for

belt with

manufacturing anomofies

at a press

length

h:.

Mi

rrtr

k
t:::

n
H

fl
I;..

:|!

n
tl:.

m
i

::' i

rj-|,

BB iBll iBSfl

Bj
-;:

i
,7Tnr"T!ilJlfir:
1
tt::

Ill

BE

I
11
T'rrllir?

HiS
::::
.

15

Nondestructive Conveyor Belt Testing

Volume 16

Number 1

January/March

1996

Stage 3

Fig

Computer generated reference signatures of example splices

arms of Phase 1 in Fig 1 are completed from analysis perspective With regard to steel cord belting, the problems associated with cable displacement during the curing process are not restricted to one particular belt supplier To solve this problem the belt manufacturer needs to first be able to compute the magnitude of the cable pre-tension, based on time-dependent, thermally-induced strain during vulcanisation The general equations for determining a steel cord cable pretension necessary to prevent buckling are

At this point, both


an

developed to aid in the interpretation of splice NDT signatures [11, 12] This involves the computer generation of reference magnetic signatures of the particular splice lay-up or geometry Reference signatures are unique to each splice design Stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3 splice reference signatures for a particular splice lay-up pattern are shown in Fig 8 A BeltScanner monitonng system was used to measure these splices Fig 9 shows
some

examples of splice signatures recorded from

P(K, A7",

a,
in

/_)

>

(4)

belts with stage 1, 2 and stage 3 signatures, respectively Departure from the ideal signature indicates either a small lay-up
difference
are in
or the existence of damage In addition, splices that the process of failing have distinctive changes in their NDT signatures Another use of this technology is in determining an

where

Fq

is

the initial
is

pre-tension

ding

covers, P
on a

the Euler

buckling

the cables prior to embedload for a cable stiffness K


a

based

change A7~ in the length L Buckling

thermal expansion coefficient a and press heating cycle, and for


will

temperature
initial cable locked-in

an

unknown

splice lay-up based

on

signature matching

usually

be initiated at the exit end of the


are

press rather than at the entry end Cable buckles


to the rubber matrix once rubber curing takes

place

4.

Phase 2

Safety Factor Analysis

3.4

NDT of

Splices

As part of the NDT process outlined in Phase 1 testing, conveyor belt splices are also monitored because splices are a po-

tentially weak
Fig
9

link

in a

steel cord belt A

technology has
1 2 and 3

been

nondestructive^ tested, there was no begin analysis of the effect of damage and defects on the actual working stresses in a belt This problem was particularly relevant to the high tension steel cord belts because of the possibility of lowered safety factors (SF) to reduce capital costs

Until belts could be

knowledge available

to

Measured NDT

splice signatures

of

typical stage

splices

As discussed
terms of

in

Fig 1,
belt

weak locations

in a

is

the natural step after the detection of to analyze their relative importance in
to

potential early failure From 1985

1991,

number of

papers were initiated from the above NDT research that mvestigated SF issues [13-17] A notable paper was published in 1990

"Safety Factor Calculations for High-Strength Inclined Belts on NDT Analysis" [16] This paper showed how stress concentration factors can be developed and used to generate computer-based tension distributions across the width of a belt at sites of damage or loss of reinforcement tension
on

based

Fig

10

Model result for

46 cord

system

with 4 broken cables

CSF CSF 2 464


=

sisna T(i)

Cord Stress Factor = 1 8888

i a

Coda data AH 8

Composite Non-edge Break Model


No of B 8 Breaks
1 1 1 1 1
-

4
1 1

(fro
1 1 1

cord
1 1

2
1
1

>
1

1,1

II

46

Cords

per

Uidth

16

SIMS
handlin

Volume 16

Number 1

January/March 1996

Nondestructive Conveyor Belt Testing

tions used
TENSION RE-OtSTRIBimON
6 CORO BREAK IN A 96 CORD BELT

reinforcement and the rubber in the shear zone Analytical soluby Randall [18] for fabric belts have been developed
belt

apply to steel cord belts Fig 11 shows that when significant damage is detected, stress factors increase considerably in adjacent unbroken cables, and in some cases result in operating SF values that are close to unity
to

5.

Phase 3

Dynamic Safety Factor

Analysis
In conveyor

conveyor

is

strength so (fabric) is maintained Belt


are

design, the highest belt running tension along a generally used as the basis for setting the belt that a SFq of between 6 67 (steel cord belt) and 10
tensions based on these SF values
as

referred to
in

7^

in

earlier sections

Forces

the belt above


can

value of

/Cj
is

(3) This
\MOTHOFBGLT(9n

7"^ need to be predicted so that the be used to further de-rate SF, according to Eq achieved by dynamic analysis of the conveyor to obtensions
in

tain the

highest

the belt

on

either

starting

or

stopis

ping Conveyor profile determines the type of situation that likely to produce high forces
Rg
11

Stress factors at

a site

of

significant cable damage

During

1991

tion of more

a partition model was developed to allow prediccomplex stress patterns in a belt with damage A

All attempts should be made to reduce transient stresses in belts on starting or stopping [19] In braked downhill conveyors, for example, stopping stresses in the belt will most probably overshadow any starting forces Take-up type and location has a good deal of influence on dynamic stress amplitudes Certain

partition model allows the broken reinforcement to reside at any position across the belt The research was experimentally
tested
on 4

and 5

ply

fabric

belting [17]

Fig 10 shows the application of "Cord Stress Factor" (CSF) modeling to determine the amount of overstress and stress redistribution near reinforcement damage This example shows
the stress distribution
in a

types of conveyor profiles will generate problems with either high or low dynamic belt tensions on starting or stopping An assessment of each conveyor on a case-by-case basis is neeessary to property evaluate the dynamics of the drive and the belt as a mechanical system [20 24]
-

46 cable steel cord belt with the 3rd

Assuming that there are dynamic forces above 7"^, then the dynamic analysis will permit the extraction of peak forces from
which

to 6th cords broken The

application also correctly predicts the


2 464, which
=

CSF values for fabric belts with buckled plys


In

/Cj

and hence
a

SF2

are

calculated

Fig 10,

the CSF

is

computed
is

to be

/c,

means

that the SF of the belt

SF,

6 67/2 464

27 This lowered

conveyor with a very small fall in elevation, driven at the tail and operated with a brake Braking stops the conveyor in about 8 seconds There are no booster drives, and
a

Fig

14 shows

SF does not allow for any additional stresses from transitions, dynamic forces and loading stresses

winch at station 6

is

locked

on

stopping This type of conveyor


at
a

might feed coal Major


1

to and from a
concern

stockpile

power station
are:
on

Figs
a

11 and 12 show the results of


across on

bution both

and

along

the belt The

modeling the stress redistndecay of strain along

points of

with this conveyor


to

design

the amount of

pretension needed

prevent drive slip

belt depends
12

the relative ratio of the shear modulus of the

starting,
Fig
13

Fig

Compound breaks

are

analysed by interacting fields

Contour maps of the data

in

Bg

12

Multiple

Break Tension
on a

Analysis

6 & 4 cord breaks

40 cord belt

5S 5SE
in

II II II
II

I I 1 I

II
II 11

I r

Mill 1 mi 1 mi 1 mi
1 IB 1 11

1 1 1 1 1 1 11 11 11
1 I 1I 11

j
i

11 11

1I 1 l

I!
II 'I 1 II

I
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 I 1 1 1

1 il 1 1 I

II Illll IHII
Illll Ulli Illll Illll

Width of Belt

1
1

17

Nondestructive Conveyor Belt Testing

jme

16

Number 1

January/March 1996

SOlidS
handling

BELT PROFILE GRAPH

AH 1990 Uer 4 StatUaue Belt Lcc


=

Belt Load KYc


=

Rating
=

2200 kN/n

Project:
Date:

tailflat

1353

2500 T/hr

11-28-1995

Temp *C:

-6 n Lift = KXc = 10.402 hVw 0.800 N/n KXr =


Pnain
=

Velocity

=3.50

m/s

263 kU

XVr = Tl = 103 kN

0.0203 0.0150

T2

28 kN

Hain Driue

Brake

Station 1 Power
=

TU

Station 6

Md' 1 Driue 0 station 0

0 kU

Fig

14.

Belt

profile

2. belt forces when

braked stop is activated,

3. belt stresses under

braking conditions if there is belting dam-

is 103 kN, the ^ tension rises from 28 kN to 190 kN during a stop. The arrow in Fig. 15 shows the tension 7 ^ used in the

age.
To address these concerns, more than a static tension analysis is required. The dynamic tensions resulting from starting may be modeled

analysis.
In this case,
an

overstress at

7g of
=

190 kN, relative to the

design

[25]

to determine the amount of additional

pre-tension
a

tension of 103 kN, is the basis of the SF calculation. The calculation produces a value of /^ 1.84.

needed to prevent drive slip on starting. Generally, controller would be recommended in this situation.

soft start

Suppose the belt parameters are similar to those described in Fig. 10, then the following de-rating of the belt is made:

complex. The tensions at the output of on stopping. Although the belting SF may be based on the highest 7^ running tension, braking can cause tensions in the belt to rise beyond predicted levels. Peak dynamic forces of this nature will further reduce belt SF particularly in areas of the belt that are damaged.

Stopping

can

be

more

Original

belt:

the drive will rise and fall

Belt with 4 broken cords: Addition of


The

SFq SF^
SF

6.67

SF/2.464

2.7

peak dynamics:

SF^/ZCg

1.46.

Fig. 15 shows the 3D modeling of the tensions in the belt on stopping. From the data produced by the model, the peak
forces at the output of the drive (7g) rise from their static level of 103 kN to 190 kN on the second wave, approximately 6 seconds after shutdown. Since the

example illustrates the importance of the complete analysis of a belt SF when both damage and dynamic forces are present. The complete procedure illustrated by Fig. 1 is now completed, and shows that an analysis based on a system approach is required on a case by case basis.

"T,

or

tight

side

running
during

tension

6.
The

Conclusions

Fig. 15.

Dynamic analysis 3D plot showing peak cycle

overstress

the stopping

importance of a systems approach to belt nondestructive testing has been described in this paper. The methodology developed over the past 15 years encompasses all known aspects of the problem of evaluating belting viability.
analysis of the ultimate belt SF has been monitoring methods for testing steel cord and fabric belts. Application of the monitoring technology in its own right has been beneficial to industry. Demand for this type of information has led to the development of alternative monitoring systems, however the experience in belt nondestructive testing application is usually essential. The use of belt nondestructive testing has been developed beyond the simple testing phase.
A

Stopping
Tensions

the

key element in development

the

of

150000

^120000

g
t

"

90000 60000 30000 0


20
10
Time

A most often asked

Tail
T1

(sec)

question has been, "what does the damage monitoring system really mean in terms of belt reliability?" To address this question, research was initiated on safety factor (SF) analysis. Analytical tools have been developed and tested over many years, including software that permits the analysis of NDT data from any sensor system. The coupling of belt stress distribution analysis at damage sites and belt dynamic analysis methods, to the NDT problem, has resulted in a technology that answers the vital question regarding belt reliability.
detected

by

18

SOMS
luntfHnfl

Volume 16

Number 1

January/March 1996

Nondestructive Conveyor Belt Testing

References
[1]
Harrison, A.: New development in conveyor belt monitoring; Aust. Machinery & Production Eng., Vol. 32 (1979) No.

[19] Harrison, A.: Transient stresses in long conveyor belts; Proc. Symposium on Belt Conveying of Bulk Solids, Universrty of Newcastle, November, 1982, pp. 9.1-9.8.

[20] Harrison,
veyor

A.: Criteria for minimising transient stress

in con-

12, p. 17.

belts;

Mechanical

Engineering

Transactions,

[2]

Determining conveyor belt serviceability using signature analysis; Process Eng., Vol. 8 (1980) No. 6,
Harrison,
pp. 22-25.

A.:

IE(Aust),Vol. ME8, No. 3, 1983, pp. 129-134.

[21] Harrison,

A.:

Reducing dynamic loads

in

belts

[3] [4]

Harrison, A.: Developments in bulk handling research Australia; Aust. Coal Miner, November 1981, pp. 62-65. Harrison, A.: Trends
in

three wound rotor motors; bulk solids (1985) No. 6, pp. 1153-1157.
in

powered by handling Vol. 5

[22] Harrison,

A.: On the

appropriate

use

of

the

veyor belts; South African Mech. June, pp. 139-143.

application of troughed conEngineer, Vol. 33 (1983)

models for conveyor design; bulk solids (1988) No. 6, pp. 677-680.

dynamic handling

stress

Vol. 8

[5]

deterioration

Harrison, A.: A magnetic transducer for testing steel-cord in high-tensile conveyor belts; NDT Int., Vol. 18 (1985) No. 3, pp. 133-138.
new

[23] Harrison, A.: Modern design of belt conveyors in the context of stability boundaries and chaos; Philosophical Transactions Royal Society, London, Vol. 338, 1992, pp. 491502.

[24] Harrison, [6]


Harrison, A.: A
233.

tonng, bulk solids

development in textile-ply belt momhandling Vol. 8 (1988) No. 2, pp. 231-

on

the

design of conveyor drives; Proceedings


on

A.: Influence of belt creep and relaxation rates 5th Interna-

tional Conference

Bulk Materials

Storage, Handling

&

Transportation, Newcastle, 1995, pp. 23-30.

[7]

Harrison, A.: Performance of corded composites with and misaligned reinforcement; Proc. Inaugural Asia/Pacific Composites Institutes Conference, Adelaide.

damaged

[25] Harrison, A.: Simulation of conveyor dynamics; handling. Vol. 16 (1996) No. 1, pp. 33-36.

bulk solids

Aust. 1989.

[8]

namic

Harrison, A.: Future design of belt conveyors using dyanalysis; bulk solids handling Vol. 7 (1987) No. 3,

pp. 375-379.

[9]

Harrison, A.: Internal fatigue mechanisms

in

steel cord
pp. 839-

belting;
842.

bulk solids

handling

Vol. 11

(1991) No. 4,

[10] Kasper,

S and Harrison, A.: Steelcord


and field

measurement

belting: Standards, performance; SME Congress,

Reno, NV, Feb., 1993, pp. 165-172.

[11] Harrison, A.,

and Ghys, S.: Evaluation of the inverse

method for NDT of steel cord belt splices; Proceedings 12th World Conference on NDT, Amsterdam. 1989. pp. 330-335.

RD
(TRANSPORTGUMMI GmbH
Made
in

[12] Harrison,

A.: Use of reference

signature

to monitor belt

splices; SME Conference, Phoenix, AZ, 1996.

Germany

[13] Harrison, A.: New techniques for monitoring defects in underground steel cord belts; 21st International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, Sydney, Austraha, 21-25 Oct. 1985, pp. 213-217.

STEEL CORD CONVEYOR BELTS

[14] Harrison,
with

edge

A.: A failure model for corded composite plates fractures; J. Strain Analysis, Vol. 22 (1987) No.1,

pp. 49-53.

TEXTILE-PLY CONVEYOR BELTS


A.: Stress distribution
in

[15] Harrison,
Vol. 8

steel cord belts with

cord plane defects and inlaid repairs; bulk solids (1988) No. 4, pp. 443-446. A.:

handling

[16] Harrison,
and

belts based

Safety factor calculations for high-strength NDT signal analysis, Proc. Coal Handling Utilization Conference, Sydney, June 19-21, 1990,
on

Rudolstdter Strae 23
D-07422 Bad

pp. 289-295.

Blankenburg

[17] Harrison,
site
in

A.: Stress concentration prediction at a fracture composite bimatenal plates under axial load; Proceedmgs International Conference on Fracture of Engineenng Materials and Structures, Singapore, 6-8 August,

Phone:
Fax:

(004936741)5302
(004936741)5440

1991, pp. 277-282.

[18] Randall,

R.B.: Theoretical stress distribution

in

splices

in

rubber-fabric belts; Mechanical Vol. 5. 1969, pp. 42-50.

Engineering Transactions,
Reader Service Card No. 7

19