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Submitted by :

Muhammad AItab Khan
BS-6 Geophysics
01-161082-073

Submitted to :

Mr. Aqeel Gohar
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/-|-..'-1----i

e thank to Mr. Aqeel Gohar, Mr. Saqib of Bahria Universty Islamabad for
arranging this educational field trip and helping us in understanding the Geology of
the assigned area with their proficiency and expert opinions.
And our special thanks to Mr. Shahaab from Azad 1ammu & Kashmir Universty
for his support and coordination because of which it was possible for us to explore
the area, and we gained a lot of field geology knowledge from him.





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TAaLc or CONTENTS

hapter-1
1.0 INTRODUTION ..........................(6)
1.1 Location, Topography ................................(7)
1.2 Tectonic map oI the Hazara Arc ....................(8)
1.3Climate, Population, Objective oI the Iield ..................(9)
1.4 Road accessibility ............................(10)
1.5 Road map oI Azad Kashmir and Hazara...... ...................................... (11)

hapter-2

2.1 Table oI Generalized stratigraphic section oI Hazara, Pakistan.........(13)
2.2 Stratigraphic sequence oI Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis ...............(14)
2.3 Precambrian:............................(14)
2.3.1Hazara Iormation...........................................................(14)
2.3.2Tanol/ Tanawal Iormation......................... (15)
2.4 ambrian ............................. (15)
2.4.1 Abbottabad Formation ........................(15)
2.4.2 Hazira Formation .........................(16)
2.4.3 Mansehra Granite : ..........................(17)
2.5 Triassic ................................(17)
2.5.1 Panjal Volcanics .........................(17)
2.5.2 Samana Suk Formation.......................... (17)
2.6 1urassic ...............................(17)
2.6.1 Samana Suk Formation.......................... (17)
2.7 Paleocene ................................(18)
2.7.1 Hangu Formation : .......................... (18)
2.7.2 Lockhart Limestone : ..........................(18)
2.7.3 Patala Formation : .........................(19)
2.8 Eocene ...............................(19)
2.8.1Margalla Hill Limestone : ..........................(19)
2.8.2 Kuldana Formation: .........................(20)
2.9 Miocene................................(21)
2.9.1 Murree Formation .........................(21)
2.10 Tectonics and its Subdivision ......................(22)
2.11 Main Faults in the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis................(24)
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hapter-3
,.....................(26)
Stop 1........................(26)
Stop 2........................(28)
Stop 3......................(29)
Day 2.....................(32)
Stop 1......................(32)
Stop 2........................(33)
Stop 3........................(35)
Stop 4 .....................(36)
Day 3.........................(38)
Stop 1.......................(38)
Stop 2........................(40)
Stop 3.........................(41)
Stop 4.........................(42)
Stop 5.......................(44)
Day 4...................(46)
Stop 1.....................(46)
Stop 2......................(48)
Stop 3.......................(49)
Stop 4......................(50)
Stop 5......................(51)
Stop 6......................(52)
Stop 7..........................(53)
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List of Photos
Photo 1 Argillaceous clay, Photo 2 Arrinaceous clay, Photo 3 Kohala landslide.....(55)
Photo 4 Drag Iold, Photo 5 Shearing.......................(56)
Photo 6 Linear landslide, Photo 7 Single limb Iold...............(57)
Photo 8 BBT, Photo 9 Rounded pebbles
Photo 10 Muree IormationPhoto 11 Degrade scarp...............(59)
Photo 12 Ripple marks, Photo 13 Active landslide...............(60)
Photo14 Pinchout Iold, Photo 15 Coal seems....................(61)
Photo 16 Clay oI Kuldana, Photo 17 MBT..................(62)
Photo 18 Meandering river, Photo 19 Hazara slate
Photo 20 Cherty dolomite, Photo-21:Rounded pebbles (murree Iormation)
Photo-22: Angular Iragments, (Photo-23: S-type Iolding .............(65)
Photo-24: phylite(hazara Iormation),Photo-25:Local Iault between hazira and samana suk
Iormation.................................(66)
Photo-26:Mansehra granite. Photo-27:Oolitic limestone..............(67)
Photo-28 : Chopboard weathering. Photo-29 : starolite mica schist .........(68)
Photo-30 : tanaki boulder belts, Photo-31: Angular relationship between tanaki boulder
beds and hazara slates, ...........................(69)
Photo-32 : chitta bata dike (quartzite), intrusion in contry rock.........(70)
..
ReIerences................................(71)


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ocation:
The Hazara and Kashmir areas lies in the lesser to sub Himalayas oI Pakistan. The
Himalayan mountain belt extend Irom india in the east and loops around the Hazara
Kashmir syntaxis and extend towards Hazara in the west. The area oI Hazara and azad
Kashmir are broadly situated along western and eastern limbs oI Hazara Kashmir
syntaxis
The area is well connected by roads, however there are some mountains up to 3500
meters. popular summer stations are Muree, Ayubia, Nathiagali and pir sohawa.other
parts oI the area linked by unmetaled and Iair weather accessible roads. The highly
interior, remote and hilly terrains are linked by Iootpaths, mule and camel tracks. Main
road connecting are are Murre-Abbottabadand, Lora maqsood.Tattapani and Yadgar are
linked Irom kotli and MuzaIIarabad respectively
The area oI study is mainly composed oI Hazara Kashmir Syntax. . The area lies
between longitude 73.28 East and latitude 34.22 north. . The area under study ranges
Irom just under 2000 It O.D near Islamabad to 9843 It at Noseri
near MuzaIIarabad. More than halI oI the area lies above 4000 It.
Topography:
The Hazara Arc a northeast-southwest trending crescent shaped trough situated on the
western limb oI the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis is the northen most extremity oI the
sedimentary succession oI the northwestern margin oI the Indian plat.the general slope oI
Hazara is towards Khanpur dam in the west and the river Jehlum in the east. In the
neighborhood oI the Abbottabad,the the general level oI the area Ialls below 2000 meters.
Mukuspuri is the highest peak in the area which is 3070 meters above sea level. The area
lies in the Ioot hills oI Himalayas. The landscape represents highly Iorested mountains
with steep slopes and deep incised V-shaped valleys. The relieI is usually lower on the
northeastern and southwestern side oI the area
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Figure: Tectonic map oI the Hazara Arc



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limate:
Hazara-kashmir syntaxis lies in a humid region in the access oI monsoon. In various parts
oI the are there is small scale variation in humidity and rainIall due to diIIerence in
altitudes. During summer, May to June temperature reaches upto 45C. At night
temperatures are low but the day is hot. Top oI the mountains are cooler than valleys. In
winter the maximum temperature drops to 3C.
Population:
The population oI the Azad Kashmir region was estimated to be over 4.5 million in
2005. The total area oI Azad Kashmir is 13,297 km
2

District Area (km) Population
(Millions)
MuzaIarabad 6,117 km
2
0.742 million
Mansehra 5957 2.4

Objective of the field:
The objectives Ior that Iield trip were to study and observe the Lithology, depositional
condition, sedimentary structures, rock types, contacts and Iossils oI these areas.
Another objective oI our Iield trip was to enhance our knowledge and to strong our grip
on Stratigraphy subject, especially to concentrate on geology oI hazara range and to study
the structures, Lithology, depositional environments and rock types.



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Road accessibility:
The areas were easily accessible and we went there through university bus. The journey
was pleasant and smooth. The Iield which we visited was unsteady; rocky along the
mountains. Main roads connecting the area are Muree-abbottabad and Lora-Maqsood.
Tattapani and Yadgar are linked Irom Kotli and MuzaIIarabad respectively. Local
transportation in this area is available however, a very skilled driver is required as the
roads are not that well developed.


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Road Map of Azad Kashmir and Hazara


Kaghan Jalley
Aeelum Jalley
Muzaffarabad
Balakot
Mansehra
Abbottabad
Khota Qabar
Haripur
Islamabad
1helum
Bagh
Rawlakot
Murree
1atta Paani
Aakial
Kotli
Mirpur
Morfhern Areos
Iunhor Piver
M.W.F.P
A;od Ioshmir
Punjob
Occupied Ioshmir
$ahensa
N
E
S

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^~- .
,..
,.


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In the Area oI Hazara-Kashmir Syntax, all three types oI Rocks, Igneous, Sedimentary
and Metamorphic are present within diIIerent Iormation

Stratigraphy

Generalized stratigraphic section of Hazara, Pakistan.

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Stratigraphic Sequence of Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis.

Precambrian:

Hazara formation
ocation:
The Formation has its type locality near Hazara Distric. Exposure around Baragali along
Abbotabad-Nathiagali Road can be regarded as its type section .
ithology:
Predominnently consist oI slates with interaction oI shales, mudstone, siltstone, and grey
wackes. The arenecious beds vary Irom paper thin layers to meter scale zones which are
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upto 200 m thick around nathiagali. These rocks exihibits cross bedding and ripple marks
and slump. The argelicious beds show graded bedding.layers oI alIal biostromesare
occasionally present.

Tanol/ Tanawal formation

ocation:
The Iormation is well exposed in the north and south oI mansehra granite the Iormation
consists oI quartoze schist, quartzite and schistose conglomerate.
ithology:
The souths oI mansehra granite consist oI medium grain quartzite and Iine grained mica
quartz schist. To the north oI Mansehra granite the Iormation mainly consist oI
granitebiotitenmuscovite-quartz schist
Thickness:
1666m

ontact
Tanawal Iormation underlies Abbotabad Iormation and overlies hazara Iormation.
In the area btw abbotabad and Gari hihabibullah the lower contact oI the tanawal
Iormation with the hazara Iormation is gradational. Tanawal Iormation is younger than
hazara Iormation but older than abbotabad Iormation.

ambrian :

Abbottabad Formation :

Type ocality
The it is located near Abbottabad town. The exposures are Iound between
MuzaIIarabad and Balakot and in the upper area oI Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis.

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ithology
The Iormation consists mainly oI cherty dolomite, chert bands and pure dolomite
bands with many lithologicIacies Irom place to place. At some places, basal
conglomerate is overlain by quartozose sandstone Iollowed upward by alternating
dolomite and limestone which is mainly Iractured with white, grey, creamish, oII
white and blue in colour. The large sized stromatolitesupto one meter radiuses are
present at based bedding plains especially in Yadgar area oI MuzaIIarabad.
Thickness
The Iormation is 100-900m thick in the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis.
ontact relationship
From Balakot to MuzaIIarabad city, it has unconIormable contact with over lying
Hangu Formation towards the northeastern Neelum valley and Thrusted contact
towards the south-western side with Murree Formation.

Hazira Formation :
OATION:
Type locality is near sand near hazara the Iormation is nearly calcareous ,shaly siltstone,
containing earthy calceration.
ithology
Two lithologic Iacies are recognized in the Iormation: the Hazira and Galdanian Facies.
The Hazira Facies is characterized by glauconite-bearing calcareous mudstone and
sandstone, while the Galdanian Facies is composed oI hematitic red mudstone, siltstone
and chert breccia. Thin phosphorite beds occur in the lower part oI the Iormation
THIKNESS:
125m it overlies abbotabad Iormation
ontact relationship
Its lower contact is conIormable and its upper contact is unconIormably



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Mansehra Granite :
Intrusions in the Tanol Formation, These gneisses are coarse grained with
augen structure. They are quartzoIeldspathic in composition and contain
muscovite, biotite, epidote and tourmaline .

Triassic:

Panjal Volcanics :
In Punjal Volcanics, Metamorphic Rocks are present including Marble and
Extrusive Igneous Rocks that is Green Stone are present .


1urassic:

Samana Suk Formation :

ITHOOGY:
In hazara area the limestone oI the Iormation is thin to thick bedded and include some
dolomitic sandy and oolitic beds
THIKNESS: 130 -160 m
ONTAT:
The lower contact is transitional with shinawari and upper contact with chichali.
It was observed that the samanasuk Iormation is an intra basnal Iacie because oI the
presence oI oolites



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Paleocene:

Hangu Formation :

OATION:
Near Iort lockhart and dhak pass in salt range as a principle reIerence session oI the
Iormation.
ITHOOGY:
The hangu Iormation consist oI variegated sandstone , shale , carbonaceous
shale and some nodular argillaceous limestone in the salt range. A 2m-3m thick
bed oI Ierruginous ,pisolitic sandstone occur at the base oI unit.
In Hangu Formation, Sedimentary Rocks including Sandstone and Shale are
present with Coal Seams in Upper Part oI the Iormation and Laterite and Bauxite
deposits in the Lower Part .


THIKNESS:
90meter at type locality, 50m at Hangu, 45 meter thick at dhak pass in the salt range.
ONTAT:
The Iormation unconIormably overlies the lumshiwal Iormation and conIormably
underlies lockhart limestone in the salt range

ockhart imestone :

TYPEOAITY:
A section exposed near Iort Lockhart in the Samana range has been designated as the
typelocality oI the unit.
ithology:
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In the Hazara and Kala Chitta area the limestone is dark grey and black in color and
containsintercalation oI marl and shale.
THIKNESS:
It is260 m thick in Kala Chitta and 90 to242m in Hazara area.
ONTAT:
The Iormation conIormably and transitionally overlies and underlies the Hungu
Formation andPatala Formation respectively.

Patala Formation :

TYPEOAITY: The Patala shales, which stratigraphcally occur between the
Lockhart and Margalla Hill Limestone, have the most oIten repeated outcrops in the area.
These repetitive bands extend Irom the Khanspur-Ayubia spur across the southern part oI
the kuza gali -dunga gali ridge top, into the drainage oI Barmian di Kasi between Kiza
Gali and Tuhidabad. The exposures are again repeated in the north oI the area between
Dunga Gali and Nathia- Gali
ithology: It contains shale oI brown and green colour with interbeds oI nodular
limestone and carbonaceous material in hazara area. Coal seems oI economic value
are present in upper part.
THIKNESS: 12 m
ONTAT: Both contacts are conIormable

Eocene :

Margalla Hill imestone :

TYPEOAITY: The name is derived from the Margala Hills in Hazara
ithology: The formation consists of limestone with subordinate marl and shale. The
limestone is grey, weathering pale grey, fine medium grained, nodular, medium to thick
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bedded are rarely massive. The marl is grey to brownish grey while the shale is greenish
brown to brown in colour
THIKNESS: 25 to 159 meters in the Hazara area.
ONTAT: The lower and upper contacts with the Patala formation and Chorgali
formation are conformable.

Kuldana Formation:

OATION:
It is located near kuldana village in hazara district
ITHOOGY:
It is composed oI shale and marl with occasional beds oI sandstone, limestone,
conglomerate and bleached dolomite. In hazara area shale and marl are dominant .the
shale is browm, gypsiIerous and arenecious.The marl is brown with Iew beds oI Iiberous
gypsum

THIKNESS:
150m in hazara area
ONTAT:
ConIormable contact wit chorgali and upper contact with murree Iormation
disconIormable.








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Miocene :

Murree Formation :

ithology
The Iormation is composed oI red thinly laminated siltstone, shale, clay, with subordinate
intraIormational conglomerate. The sandstone is Iine to medium grained, pale green to
grey, maroon coloured, calcareous and greywacke in nature. The beds oI sandstone, clay
or shale alternate with each other. This shows a cyclic deposition. In sandstone veins oI
calcite and quartz are common. At Iew places beds oI calcareous sandy conglomerates
are calcareous, Ilattened and squeezed in various shapes.
Thickness
The maximum thickness oI this Iormation is ten thousand in the northern part, where as
the minimum thickness is 30 Ieet in the western part.
ontact
In the Jhelum Valley it is thickly exposed and its upper Iaulted contact with
PunjalVolcanics throughout the area extending in SE direction to the occupied Kashmir,
in NW direction to the Neelum valley with in the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis. It is
unconIormably underlain by the Kuldana Formation oI Middle Eocene time









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Tectonics and its Subdivision

The Hazara Kashmir syntaxis is tectonically divisible into three main elements:
Sub Himalaya
Lesser Himalaya
Higher Himalaya
Sub Himalaya:
From the Indus River to the Chenab River, the Murree Formation occurs continuously
along the southern margin oI the Lesser Himalayan units, Iorming almost oI the sub
Himalayan unit. In the core oI the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis Iolding and subsequent
doming are the principal structural Ieatures, resulting in the exposure oI lower Cambrian
and Paleocene rocks along the hinges oI the MuzaIIarabad and kotli anticlines.
To the north, the Main Boundary Thrust, locally called the Murree Fault, borders the Sub
Himalaya
esser Himalaya:
The Lesser Himalaya is composed oI Iolded and thrusted rock Iormations, ranging in age
Irom Precambrian to Eocene. It is delimited to the south by the Tertiary molasses along
the Main Boundary Thrust, and to the north by Higher Himalayan crystalline rocks along
the Main Central Thrust. The metamorphism in this element is oI ver low to low grade. A
Iurther tectonic subdivision oI the Lesser Himalayas into separate rock units is necessary:

West oI Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, The Main Boundary Thrust Zone Iorms a complex
mosaic oI thrusts and Iolds consisting oI Mesozoic and Paleogene Formations. The
northern boundary is represented by the Nathiagali thrust. North oI the Nathiagali thrust,
the Hazara Unit contains a thick sequence oI the Upper Precambrian. The northern
boundary oI the Hazara unit is represented by the Mansehra Thrust. The interpretation oI
the Mansehra thrust as a continuation oI the Panjal Thrust suggests an equivalence
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between the Panjal and the Hazara units. In contrast, the age, metamorphism and
deIormational character oI the Iormations involved indicate that it is preIerable
To consider the Hazara unit as an Individual sheet, this is missing in the apex oI the
Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis. The Panjal unit is exposed in the apex and eastern limb oI the
Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis.
In the Hazara Area, the Tanol Unit consisting oI the Tanol Formation oI Upper
Precambrian age and oI the Cambrian Mansehra granite represents the highest structural
level oI the Lesser Himalaya.
In the apex and eastern limb oI Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, the uppermost Lesser
Himalayan unit is mainly represented by the Precambrian metamorphic rocks oI the
Salkhala Iormation.
Higher Himalaya:
The Higher Himalayan crystalline is exposed in the uppermost parts oI the investigated
area. The Basement is composed oI granitoid rocks, lithological similar to the Cambrian
Mansehra granite, intruded into older paragneisses perhaps corresponding to the
Precambrian Salkhala Iormation.
Recumbent Iolding and ductile thrusting, accompanied by imbrications, Iormed several
nappes have proposed the use oI the term crystalline unit Ior this basal, metamorphic
parts oI the Higher Himalaya.







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Main Faults in the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis
Balakot Bagh Fault :
The Balakot Bagh Thrust is running between the late Cambrian Abbottabad Formation
and Miocene Murree Formation Irom Balakot to MuzaIIarabad city . along the eastern
limb oI Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis. AIterward it occurred within the Miocene Murree
Formation upto Bagh towards south east direction .

1helum Fault :
It is a Right Lateral Strike Slip Fault between Hazara Formation and Murree Formation
with Reverse component . It runs through the Jhelum River .

Main Boundary Thrust :
Main Boundary Thrust is between CarboniIerous to Triassic Panjal Formation and
Miocene Murree Formation along the eastern limb oI Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis .






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~ r
Station # 1

ocation:
Murree Motorway

Formation:
Murree Formation.

Type ocality :
West oI Bharakoh
At this station we saw Murree Iormation. In murree Iormation we saw the bedding
and the lamination. Murree Iormation at this station consists oI alternating beds oI
shales and sands.
Features
In Murree Iormation two types oI sands are Iound.
i) Argillaceous : In Red Colour, Clay Content More . (see phoLo 1)
ii)Arrinaceous : In grey Colour, Clay Content Less . (see phoLo 2)
iii)silt
iv) grey sandstone

Both clays and sands are silicates..
1. Clay belongs to mica Iamily
2. Sand belongs to quartz.

Dip:65
0
N
Strike:N50
0
E
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amina: When the Argillaceous (clay) material gets compressed in between two beds,
Lamina shape develops, the thickness lamina is oI less than 1 cm
Bedding: A bed is a layer oI sediment material that is distinctly separate Irom other layers.
The measureable thickness oI bed is greater than 1cm


At this station we Ior distinguishing between shale and sand by their grain size,
hardness and structure.


SHAE :-

1. The grain oI Clay grains (shale) can only be seen by hand lens.
2. Shale is hard but relatively easy to break.
3. Shale breaks along plane.

SAND :-
1. Sand grain can be seen by naked eye as well as by hand len.
2. Sand is relatively more hard then shale because it contain quartz
3. Sand shows Iractures which are conchoidal.

We also learnt the diIIerence between claystone and shalestone. Claystone
contains less compressed clay whereas shalestone shows more compressed clay.
In claystone there was no layering present but in shalestone layering was present.

Age :
Miocene, Oligoncene



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Station # 2

Type ocality :
Kohala

ithology :
Argillacous Sandstone (High Clay Content),
Expansive Soils present .

Formation :
Murree Formation

ontacts :
Upper Contact : The Upper boundary is diIIicult to locate due to the transition to
overlying kamlial Iormation .
Lower Contact : It overlies Iormations oI Eocene unconIormably indicated by the
development oI conglomerates and reworked numilites oI Fateh Jang Member .
Features
deIormed strata
argillaceous sandstone
retention walls
active landslide
barnala landslide
very steep slopes

Age :
Miocene, Oligocene



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Station # 3

Type ocality :
Chattar Kalas

Structure :
Hazara Kashmir Syntax


Formation of Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis:
Indian plate broke up Irom Gondwana land and travelled in Tethys Ocean. Initially the
Indian plate was moving Northeast, when the Koshistan block resisted the movement oI
the Indian plate Iurther. Then in early Cenozoic Indian plate twisted a little bit
(anticlockwise) and changed its route Irom NE to NW due to the conventional currents in
the mantle. Indian plate oceanic part started subducting Iirst due to which two island arcs
Iormed when Indian plate started moving NW .The plate opposite to the Indian plate was
Eurasian plate also known as Asian plate which on collision overrides the Indian plate.
Island arcs were one oI the important Ieatures which were prominent with this
phenomenon and it Iormed long chains.
Indian plate collided with Eurasian plate in the Iorm oI wedge and on its leading edge
two island arcs were Iormed.
O Kohistan Island Arc (KIA)
O Ladakh Island Arc (LIA).
Ladakh Island Arc comprises oI Tibet, Kargil, Indian Kashmir and Nepal region. Ladakh
is not present In Pakistan and Kohistan Island Arc is parallel to Ladakh Island Arc.It is
not as important as Kohistan Island Arc.
O Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis
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O Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massive
The Nanga Parbat Haramosh Iorm between Kohistan and Ladakh sequence, they are
generally igneous.
The place between the two island arcs expericenes compression due to which the rocks
become twisted and the twisting is against the Indian plate movement. The twisting was
in NE so:
Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis twisting ( North-West)
Hazara Kashmir Syntax is divided into Three Parts :

Lower Part : Downward to MBT
Middle Part : Westward to Panjal Fault and MBT
Upper Part : Northward to Panjal Fault and MBT

Formations:
In Precambrian Age :
1. Lower Part is Tanawal or Hazara Formation .
2. Middle Part is Tanawal Formation .
3. Upper Part is Salkhala Formation or Shardha Group .

Dominant ithologies :
Schist, Phyllites, Slates, gneisses .

In Paleozoic (ambrian) :
1. Lower Part is Abbottabad and Hazira Formation
2. Middle Part is Abbottabad also known as MuzaIIarabad Formation .
3. Upper Part is Abbottabad Formation .

In Paleozoic :
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1. Middle and Upper are Panjal Volcanoes also known as Chushal Formation .

Dominant ithologies :
Fine Grained dolomite
and Cherty Dolomite .

In Mesozoic :
Mesozoic is missing in Upper and Middle
.

ower includes Six Formations :

1. Datta Formation,
2. Shanwari Formation,
3. Samana Suk Formation,
4. Chichali Formation,
5. Lumshiwal Formation,
6. Kawagarh Formation

In enozoic :

Middle and ower are
1. Lochart Formation,
2. Patala Formation,
3. Margalla Hill Limestone and
4. Chorgalli Formation .

In Upper, nothing aIter Panjal Formation . Directly Murree is present over
Hangu .
Features
Main Boundary Thrust
panjal Iault
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Panjal Iault
andslides in the Area:

We see three landslides in our way:-
1. Rara
2. Bagna
3. Kohala Landslide area (see photo 3)

To overcome these landslides Iollowing methods were adopted to reduce the eIIect oI
mass wasting :-


Retention wall
Weep holes
Gabens
Benching
Stone Pinching


~ .
Station #1

Type ocality :
Ambore (see photo 4)

Formations :
Murree Formation and
Hazara Formation
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Features:
Shearing, (see photo 5)
Folding is present in the Dolomite rocks oI Hazara Formation .

Dominant ithologies :
Murree Formation : Sandstone
Hazara Formation : Dolomite

ontacts :

Murree Formation :

ower ontact: UnconIormable with Kuldana Formation oI Eocene Age and
Upper ontact: UnconIormable with Siwalik Group oI Pliocene to Pleistocene
Age .

Hazara Formation : Lower Contact with the Basement Rocks and Upper
Contact with the Abbottabad Formation oI Cambrian Age .

Age :
Murree Formation : Miocene
Hazara Formation : Precambrian

Station # 2

Type ocality :
Rara

Formations :
Hazara Formation and
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34

Murree Formation

Description :
At Rara, there is a clear view oI the Fault between Hazara Formation Formation and
Murree Formation . There is terrace present between Hazara Formation and Murree
Formation . The Fault between Hazara Formation and Murree Formation is Jhelum Fault
. It is a Right Lateral Strike Slip Fault with some Reverse Component .

Structure:
At this stop we saw a Iault which was extension oI the Jehlum Iault, Iault scarp was
visible and drag Iolds were also present in this area. Mud Ilows are very active along
Jehlum Fault (see Photo-6)

Dominant ithologies:

Murree Formation :
Sandstone,
Claystone and
Shales
Hazara Formation :
Dolomite,
Slates,
Phyllites,
Schist

ontacts :

Hazara Formation :
ower ontact with the Basement Rocks and
Upper ontact with the Abbottabad Formation oI Cambrian Age .

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35

Murree Formation : Lower Contact UnconIormable with Kuldana Formation oI Eocene
Age and Upper Contact is UnconIormable with Siwalik Group oI Pliocene to Pleistocene
Age .

Features:
XSa`_US^\
SZV_VW
Mud Ilows

Age :

Murree Formation : Miocene
Hazara Formation : Precambrian

Station # 3

Type ocality :
Upper Chattar

Features:
Rounded Pebbles, (see Photo-21)
Sub-Angular Fragments (see Photo-22)
Singlon Folds (see Photo-7)
S-Type Folding (see Photo-23)

Due to the upliIting the River once present here sunk, and leIt all the Fragments that it
transported with it , these things can be predicted due to the presence oI Rounded and
Sub-Angular Fragments. Ancient Path oI River can be predicted with the help oI Dip
Direction oI the Pebbles . The Direction opposite to the Dip Direction oI the Pebbles is
the Flow Direction oI the River . With the help oI Pebble Imbrication, Ancient Path oI
River can be predicted . (see Photo-9)
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36


Station # 4

Type ocality :
Sundh Gali

Gali :- A Passage between two mountain.

Features:
At Sundh Gali, there are two Iaults

1) MuzaIIarabad Fault
2) Jhelum Fault

Jhelum Fault is present within the Gali area. . In Jhelum Fault, Murree Formation
Thrusts over Hazara Formation . Mud Flows are present in Jhelum Fault due to
the stress build up .

MuzaIIarabad Fault or BBT Present inIront view oI Sundh Gali in which
Abbottabad Formation thrusts over the Murree Formation . In MuzaIIarabad Area,
This Fault is MuzaIIarabad Fault and in Balakot Area, it is Balakot Bagh Fault.
(see Photo-8)

Formations :
1) Abbottabad Formation,
2) Murree Formation,
3) Hazara Formation .



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Dominant ithologies :

Abbottabad Formation :
Cherty Dolomites,
Chert Bands and
Pure Dolomite Bands .

Murree Formation :
Sandstone,
Claystone and
Shales

Hazara Formation :
Dolomite

ontacts :

Murree Formation :
Lower Contact UnconIormable with Kuldana Formation oI Eocene Age and
Upper Contact is UnconIormable with Siwalik Group oI Pliocene to Pleistocene
Age .

Abbottabad Formation :
It has UnconIormable contact with over lying Hangu Formation and thrusted
contact towards the south-western side with Murree Formation .

Hazara Formation :
Lower Contact with the Basement Rocks and
Upper Contact with the Abbottabad Formation oI Cambrian Age .
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~

Station # 1

ocation:
Chehla Bandi University Campus


attitude: 33 16 44 N

ongitude: 72 54 53 E


Transverse:
CY-1 (Chayla-Yadgar)

Murree Formation:
At this station we saw alternative beds oI sandstone and shale with
subordinate intra Iormation conglomerate. (see Photo-10)

Strike: N10
0
E
Dip: 51
0
N

At this stop we saw some primary structure like cross beddings. As well as
secondary structures i.e. Iractured and sheared sandstone. Calcite veins were
abundant.

At this station we saw diIIerent veins in sandstone that was oI calcite.
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The diIIerence between calcite and Quartz veins is that:

alcite:
calcite has hardness oI only 3 on the moho hardness scale and
calcite react with Hcl and produce gas.

"uartz:
quartz has hardness oI 7on the moho hardness scale
quartz does not react with Hcl

At this station we also saw the IntraIormational conglomerate.
IntraIormational conglomerate is conglomerate in which clasts and the
matrix are contemporaneous in origin. A conglomerate Iormed in the
midst oI a geologic Iormation.

1. Matrix supported conglomerate: II the conglomerate has more matrix
2. Clast supported conglomerate: : II the conglomerate has more pebbles
(Phenoclasts).

Features:
IntraIormational conglomerate
primary & secondary structures
cross bedding
ripple marks






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40

ontact :

ower ontact
UnconIormable with Kuldana Formation oI Eocene Age and
Upper ontact
UnconIormable with Siwalik Group oI Pliocene to Pleistocene Age .



Station # 2

Type ocality :
Chehla Bandi

Formation :
Abbotabad Formation,
Murree Formation,
Kuldana Formation

Degraded scarp (see Photo-11) is present oI Iault between Abbottabad Formation
and Murree Formation. On the right, there is contact between Kuldana Formation
in Black colour and Murree Formation with Alluvium cover.
At this stop we saw MuzaIIrabad Bagh Iault. It is an active Iault. It is a curved
thrust Iault plane. In this Iault Abbottabad Formation is hanging wall and Murree
Formation is acting as a Iootwall. Kuldana Iormation was present in Black colour
in small amount along this Iault.
The Balakot-Bagh thrust running Irom Balakot through MuzaIIarabad to Bagh
Azad Kashmir along the eastern limb oI the Hazara Kashmir syntaxis.
Stratigraphically this Iault occurred between the late Cambrian Abbotabad
Formation and the Miocene Murree Formation Irom Balakot to MuzaIIarabad city
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41

which is a major unconIormity while Irom MuzaIIarabad city to bagh through
Chikar it runs within the Murree Formation.
Features:
Degraded scarp cross bedding
MuzaIIrabad Bagh Iault

Station # 3

Type ocality :
Between Chehla Bandi and Yadgar
.
Formation :
Top oI Abbottabad Formation
Features:

Ripple Marks, (see Photo-12)
King Folds
synclines
pinchout Iold (see Photo-14)
active landslide (see Photo-13)
coals seems oI hangu Iormation in yadgar Iormation (see Photo-15)
clays oI kuldana at yadgar section (see Photo-16)

Dominant ithology :
Dolomite
ontact :
It has UnconIormable contact with over lying Hangu Formation and thrusted
contact towards the south-western side with Murree Formation .

Age :
Cambrian
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42


Station # 4

Type ocality :
Near Noseri

Formation :
Abbotabad Formation,
Hangu Formation,
Lockhart Limestone,
Patala Formation,
Margalla Hill Limeston,
Chor Gali Formation,
Kuldana Formation


Trend of bedding :
The trend oI bedding in this area is North-Western.

Dominant ithologies :
Abbottabad Formation :
Cherty Dolomites,
Chert Bands

Hange Formation :
Sandstone,
Laterite

ockhart Formation :
Nodular Limestone

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Patala Formation :
Shales with Limestone Bands

Margalla Hill Formation :
Nodular Limestone

horgali Formation :
Marls and
Shales

Kuldana Formation
GypsiIerous Shales

Murree Formation :
Sandstone,
Shales

Features:
laterite deposits
lamina
bedding

Age :
Paleocene / Eocene

ontact:

Laterides in the Hangu Iormation marks the unconIormity between Abbottabad
and Hangu Iormations.

The dolomite oI Abbottabad Formation is changing into limestone.
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44


Paleocene-ecoene rocks ( Hangu , Lockhart , Patala and Margalla Iormation) is
separated by the Chorgali Iormation with a transitional zone .

Chorgali has a contact with Kuldana Iormation


Station # 5

Type ocality :
Noseri

Formations :
Panjal Volcanics,
Murree Formation

Dominant ithologies :

Panjal Volcanics:
Marble,
Green Stone

Murree Formation:
Sandstones,
Shales


At Noseri, Kashmir Hazara Syntax is present, It is AntiIormal . It has Murree
Formation (Miocene Age) in its core, Main Boundary Thrust in its Middle and
Panjal Volcanics (Permian) in its limbs .
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45

There is Iault between Panjal Volcanics and Murree Formation . In this Fault,
Panjal Volcanics has thrusted over the Murree Formation . This Iault is known as
MBT or Main Boundary Thrust . (see Photo-17)
Fault Gouge is present oI Brown and Black Colour .
This place has the existence oI Drag Folds . (see photo 23)
In Panjal Volcanic Rocks, thick basaltic lava Ilows alternating with dm-thick
tuIIaceous layers are present .
The basalts are metamorphosed into an epidote and chlorite rich, weakly schistos
groundmass, containing amygdioles Iilled by epidote, quartz and plagioclase
aggregates .

ontact:
Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) has contact with Murree on the lower side and
Metamorphosed Limestone on the upper side.

Structures:
We also saw Intrusions oI Quartzite in the Panjal Volcanics
Features
drag Iolds
volcanic rocks
MBT
MCT

Age :

Panjal Volcanics : Permian
Murree Formation : Miocene




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~ -
Station # 1

Type ocality :
Lohar Gali

Geomorphology :
Meandering River (see Photo-18) is clear in view Irom this place . In this river,
deposition is on the Inner side oI the river and outer side is cutting the area .
Alluvial Fans are present . These Ians are the places where streams add to river .

Formation :
Hazara Formation

Description :
Hazara Formation is oI regional metamorphism .

Grades of Metamorphism:
On the north side the grade oI metamorphism increases than Irom on the south
side.
Browian Sequence:

1. Chloride ( lowest grade )
2. Biotite
3. Garnet
4. Staurolite
5. Kyanite/Silliminite


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47

Dominant ithology :
Slates

Metamorphism oI Shale changes it into:

Shale Slate Phyllite SchistGnesis.

At this station we learnt the diIIerence between slate and Phyllite

Slate: Hazara slate is usually Iine grained than Phyllite and minerals in slate are
diIIicult to identiIy and they cleavage along the planes. (see Photo-19)

Phyllite: Phyllite is medium grained and shiny (sheen) due to the presence oI
sericite.

At this station we also saw a special Ieature now as Oxbow lake. Which is
is a U-shaped body oI water Iormed when a wide meander Irom the main stem
oI a river is cut oII to create a lake. This landIorm is called an oxbow lake Ior
the distinctive curved shape.

ontacts :

Lower Contact with the Basement Rocks and
Upper Contact with the Abbottabad Formation oI Cambrian Age .
Features :
Meandering River
alluvial Ian
increasing grade oI metamorphism
river terrace
Oxbow lake

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48

Age :
Precambrian
Station # 2

Type ocality :
Near Garhi Habib Ullah

Formation :
Abbottabad Formation

It is divided into three groups :
Sanghar Gali Member
Mohammada Gali Member
Mirpur Member

Description :
Garhi Habib Ullah Syncline is present in this area in which Hazara Formation and
Abbottabad are Iolded .

Structures
Chopboard (see photo 28) weathering is present in the sandstone oI Abbottabad
Formation .

Dominant ithology :

Sanghar Gali Member :
Sandstone
Mohammada Gali Member :
Cherty Dolomite (see Photo-20)
Mirpur Member :
Sandstone,
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49

Shales,
Cross Bedded Sandstone

ontact :
It has UnconIormable contact with over lying Hangu Formation and thrusted
contact towards the south-western side with Murree Formation .

Age :
Cambrian

Station # 3

Type ocality :
Chitta Batta

Formation :
Mansehra Granet

Dominant ithology :
Granet

Description :

The Granet at this place is oI Cambrian age oI porIiritic texture . It is an Intrusive
Igneous rock with silica content greater than 65 . It is an intrusion in the country
rock . The country rock at this place is Tanol Formation oI Precambrian Age .
Quartz and Ieldspars are the phenocrysts in the Iine matrix . White Colour grains
that are shiny are Muscovite grains . Black shiny grains are biotite . Tormaline
and Schroal are present . Pyrite is present .

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50

Granite changes to Gneiss aIter metamorphism and Tanol is older than Mansehra
Granite (see photo 26) ( Relative Dating)

It has intruded the Granet body, the dike composition is Quartzite . There is a
cross cutting relationship between granet and quartzite . Quartzite is a
metamorphic rock .

Granite sample include:

Quartz 65
Feldspar 20 (white)
Tormaline 5-10


Feature :
Chitta Batta Dike (see Photo-32)
contact metamorphism
Intrusion ion in country rock
Quartzite
xenoliths

Age :
Cambrian (Mansehra Granet)

Station # 4

Type ocality :
Mansehra City (Asoka Block)

Formation :
Tanol Formation
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51

ithologies :
Stauralite Garnet Mica Schist (see photo 29)
Schist,
Brown Garnet,
Needle Like Structures are Stauralite, Biotite (More),
Muscovite

Description :
Stauralite Grade Metamorphism is present in the rocks oI Tanol Formation .
Features
Garnet
Stauralite Garnet Mica Schist
Biotite

ontact :
Lower Contact conIormable with the Hazara Formation and the
Upper Contact conIormable with Abbottabad Group .

Age :
Precambrian

Station # 5

Type ocality :
Near Tool Plaza mansehra city

Formation :
Tanol Formation

Dominant ithology :
Phyllite (see photo 24)
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52


Description :
At this station we observed the Tanol Phyllites. Shiny appearance in the rock is due to
the presence oI sericite .
Features
Tanol Phyllites (sericite .)

Station # 6

Type ocality :
Salhad

Formations :
Samana Suk Formation,
Hazira Formation

Dominant ithologies :

Samana Suk Formation
Oolitic Limestone

Hazira Formation
Sandstone,
Siltsone

Description :
Oolictic Limestone (see photo 27) present at this place is oI Yellow Colour due to
weathering .
There was the Iaulted contact between the Samana Suk Limestone oI cretaceous
and Hazari Iormation oI Pre-cambrain. (see photo 25)
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53

We recognized this Iaulted contact because oI presence oI Gauge, breccia etc

ontacts :
Samana Suk Formation :
Lower contact conIormable with Shinawari Formation and
Upper contact unconIormable with Chichali Formation .

Hazira Formation :
Lower contact conIormable with Abbottabad Group and
Upper contact unconIormable with Hazara Formation .
Age :
Samana Suk Formation Jurassic
Hazira Formation Cambrian
Station # 7

Type ocality :
Khota Kabar

Formation :
Tanaki Boulder Beds

ithologies :
Boulder Beds in Red Colour,
Slate in Black colour .

Description :
Tanaki boulder Bed is above Hazara Formation upon which there is Abbottabad
Formation . (see photo 30)
We observed phyllite and the conglomerates which are termed as Tanaki boulder
beds and they mark the unconIormity between the Hazara Iormation and the
overlying Abbottabad Iormation.
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54

There is Angular Relationship between Tanaki Boulder Beds and Hazara
Formation . (see photo 31)

Features :
UnconIormity between Abbotabad & Hazara
tanaki boulder beds

ontacts :

Hazara Formation :
Lower Contact with the Basement Rocks and
Upper Contact with the Tanol Formation oI Cambrian Age .

Age :
Precambrian (Hazara Formation)










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55


hoto 1Arg|||aceous c|ay at barakoh stop

Photo 2-Arrinaceous clay at barakoh stop

Photo-3:kohala active land slide
56

56


Photo-4:drag Iold at ambore stop


Photo-5:shearing on dolomite oI hazara Iormation

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57


Photo-6:linear landslide near jehlum Iault at ambore


Photo-7:single limb Iolding at upper chattar indicative oI stresses


58

58


Photo-8:view oI bbt Irom uppar chattar station

Photo-9:rounded pebbles indicative that once river Ilown Irom there

59

59


Photo-10:murre Iormation at chahla bandi


Photo-11:degraded scarp at the bbt Iault
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60


Photo-12:ripple marks at the yadgar section


Photo-13:active landsliding at the yadgar section
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61


Photo-14:phincout Iold at the yadgar section

Photo-15:coals seems oI hangu Iormation at yadgar Iormation
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62


Photo-16:clays oI kuldana at yadgar section


Photo-17:mbt at the noseri area
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63


Photo-18:view oI meandering river Irom lohar gali


Photo-19:slate oI hazara Iormation

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64


Photo-20:cherty dolomite oI abbotabad Iormation at gari habib ullah station


Photo-21:Rounded pebbles (murree Iormation).
65

65


Photo-22: Angular Iragments(murree Iormation).


Photo-23: S-type Iolding (murree Iormation).


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66



Photo-24: phylite(hazara Iormation).

Photo-25:Local Iault between hazira and samana suk Iormation.
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67


Photo-26:Mansehra granite.


Photo-27:Oolitic limestone.


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68


Photo-28 : Chopboard weathering.


Photo-29 : starolite mica schist.
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69


Photo-30 : tanaki boulder belts.


Photo-31: Angular relationship between tanaki boulder beds and hazara slates.



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Photo-32 : chitta bata dike (quartzite), intrusion in contry rock.












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References

O Stratigraphic aspect oI the recent earthquake occurred along the Balaot-
Bagh Iault, north-western Himalayas, Pakistan BY MUNIR-UL- HASSAN
MUNIR (Institute oI Geology, University oI Azad Jammu & Kashmir)
O Geology and Tectonics oI Pakistan, by A.H.Kazmi and M.Qasim Jan,
1997. Published by: Graphic Publishers, Karachi.
O Three Stratigraphic provinces at hazara-Kashmir boundary, Pakistan BY
Munir GhazanIar, M.Nawaz Chaudhry & M.A.LatiI (Institute oI Geology,
Punjab University New Campus, Lahore )
O Physical characteristics oI soils oI MuzaIIarabad Kohala area Azad
Kashmir BY M.Arshad Khan and M.Shohaib Qureshi (Institute oI
Geology, University oI Azad Jammu & Kashmir MuzaIIarabad Azad
Kashmir)
O Stratigraphy, Metamorphism and Tectonics oI the Hazara-Kashmir
Syntaxis area BY Greco Antonio (Geological Institute ETH-Zurich,
Switzerland)
O Shah, S.M.., 1977, Stratigraphy of Pakistan. Memoirs of Geological
Survey of Pakistan,
O Mr. Aqeel Gohar, Mr. Saqib oI Bahria Universty Islamabad
O Mr. Shahaab Irom Azad Jammu & Kashmir Universty
O http://www.scribd.com/doc/39646315/Field-Report-BS-VII
O GOOGLE