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\T1 O 1 1X

( Tugas Bahasa Inggiis )

. ..

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page


u[l syukur kaml pan[aLkan kehadlraL 1uhan ?ang Maha Lsa aLas llmpahan rahmaL dan kaslhnya
aLas anugerah hldup dan kesehaLan yang Lelah kaml Lerlma serLa peLun[uknya sehlngga memberlkan
kemampuan dan kemudahan bagl kaml dalam penyusunan makalah lnl

uldalam makalah lnl kaml selaku penyusun hanya sebaLas llmu yang blsa kaml sa[lkan dengan
Loplk TYPE OF THE TEXTulmana dldalam Loplk LersebuL ada beberapa hal yang blsa
klLa pela[arl khususnya conLoh darl berbagal LexL

kaml menyadarl bahwa keLerbaLasan pengeLahuan dan pemahaman kaml LenLang Lype of Lhe
LexL men[adlkan keLerbaLasan kaml pula unLuk memberlkan pen[abaran yang leblh dalam LenLang
masalah lnloleh karena lLu krlLlk dan saran darl semua plhak yang berslfaL membangun selalu kaml
harapkan deml kesempurnaan makalah lnl

Parapan kaml semoga makalah lnl membawa manfaaL bagl klLa seLldaknya unLuk sekedar
membuka cakrawala berplklr klLa LenLang berbagal conLoh Lype of LexL

Akhlr kaLa kaml sampalkan Lerlma kaslh kepada semua plhak yang Lelah membanLu dalam
proses pembuaLan lnl

1lm enyusun

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

Baftai isi :

kaLa enganLar 2
uafLar sl 3

A 1ype Cf 1he 1exL 4

1 uescrlpLlve 4
2 rodecure 4
3 Spoof / AnecdoLe 3
4 narraLlve 3
3 LxplanaLlon 7
6 8eporL 7
7 news Lem 11
8 8ecounL 12
9 LxposlLlon 13
A PorLaLory LxposlLlon 13
8 AnalyLlcal LxposlLlon 14
10ulsscusslon 13

uafLar usLaka 16

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page



!akarLa ls Lhe caplLal clLy of ndonesla L ls cenLrally locaLed wlLhln Lhe counLry on Lhe norLhwesL
coasL of !ava sland aL Lhe mouLh of Lhe Clllwung rlver !akarLa domlnaLes ndoneslan's
admlnlsLraLlve economy culLural acLlvlLles an ls a ma[or commerclal and LransporLaLlon hub wlLhln
AslawlLh a populaLlon of abouL 9 mllllon !akarLa has more people Lhan any oLher clLles ln ndonesla

1he cllmaLe ls hoL and humld yearround 8alnfall occurs LhroughouL Lhe year alLhough lL ls Lhe
heavlesL from november Lo May 1o average annual preclplLaLlon ln !akarLa ls 1 790 mm 1he clLy
lles on a flaL low plaln and ls prone Lo floodlng durlng perlods of heavy ralnfall

koLa ls clLy's oldesL commerclal area L ls locaLed souLh of Lhe old Sunda kelapa harbour
Clodok Lhe souLh of koLa ls a banklng reLall and resldenLlal nelghborhood wlLh a large Chlnese
populaLlon Merdeka Square wlLh Monas (1he naLlonal MonumenL) domlnaLes Lhe clLy's cenLral
dlsLrlcL Surroundlng Lhe square are sLana Merdeka Lhe presldenLlal palace Lhe naLlonal Museum
and Lhe sLlqlal Mosque


ow to activate a anuphone
nowadays we need a handphone Lo connecL Lo our colleagues We can geL lL easlly ln Lhe shop
When we buy lL we shall geL a handphone a SM card a baLLery and a charger


1hls ls Lhe way Lo acLlvaLe Lhe handphone

open Lhe cover of Lhe handphone
lnserL Lhe SM card afLer belng lnsLalled
lnserL Lhe baLLery lnslde
close Lhe baLLery wlLh a cover of handphone
connecL Lhe lead from Lhe charger Lo Lhe boLLom of Lhe phone
connecL Lhe charger Lo an AC wall ouLleL Charglng Lhe baLLery supplled wlLh Lhe phone may
Lake four up Lo slx hours
when Lhe baLLery ls fully charged Lhe bar sLops scrolllng ulsconnecL Lhe charger from Lhe
AC ouLleL and Lhe phone 1hen we are ready Lo make a phone call
enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

. S\oofanWUVo`W

A man from Lhe counLry slde wenL Lo a clLy L was hls flrsL Llme vlslLlng Lhe clLy so Lhe clLys vlew
wlLh all Lhe flashy Lechnology shocked hlm very much Whlle roamlng Lhe clLys shopplng cenLre he
found a red bulldlng LhaL was soo blg! Pe wanLed Lo go lnslde Lhe bulldlng so he exclLedly walked up
Lo Lhe bulldlng and found hlmself face Lo face wlLh a shlny meLallc door Cn Lhe door was an open
slgn Pe was surprlsed Lhls bulldlng ls an oven? Pe mlsLakenly Look Lhe slgn open as oven
n cue wlLh Lhls mlsLake a whlLe man opened Lhe door and enLered Lhe bulldlng And Lhen flve
mlnuLes laLer Lhe meLallc door opened reveallng a black man! When anoLher whlLe man came Lo
enLer Lhe bulldlng Lhe counLry slde man sLopped hlm from enLerlng Pe sald uonL go ln Lhere!
1haL bulldlng ls an oven!

. arra`bW

Would uo L for Love
Cnce upon a Llme ln a far away land llved Lwo famllles called Lhe uarlan famlly and Lhe
Melssner famlly 1he uarlan famlly had a daughLer named naya whlle Lhe Melssner famlly had a son
named Arman naya and Arman had been frlends slnce chlldhood and had llved ln Lhe counLry slde
for slxLeen years of Lhelr llfe
unforLunaLely one day Lhe uarlan famlly was called upon by Lhe klng as Lhe famllys men
were very flne blacksmlLhs 1he uarlan famlly had Lo move Lo Lhe Lown because of Lhe klngs
demand So naya and Arman for Lhe flrsL Llme sald goodbye Lo each oLher SecreLly Arman vowed Lo
work hard so LhaL he could also work ln Lown and flnally meeL naya agaln
1wo years laLer Arman had masLered some skllls he LhoughL he could puL ln good use ln Lhe
Lown lulfllllng hls promlse he Lraveled Lo Lown and sLarLed Lo search for naya L was noL a hard
Lask nayas faLher had been granLed Lhe LlLle of uuke by Lhe klng! Purrledly he vlslLed nayas own
casLle buL Lo hls dlsmay naya dld noL wanL Lo meeL hlm Maybe she ls busy he sald Lo hlmself
Pls deLermlnaLlon Lo meeL naya dld noL waver Arman found work as a bullder ln Lown Lach
day afLer work he would vlslL nayas casLle buL each day naya refused Lo meeL hlm A few weeks
passed by Arman became slck slck because he could noL meeL Lhe chlldhood frlend he so dearly
loved Pe had abandoned hls work maklng hls frlends he made aL Lhe worklng place concerned
Co and meeL hlm once agaln Arman! Maybe Lhls Llme you wlll be ln luck! sald one
no Maybe was puLLlng Loo much hope for her Lo love me AfLer all we were [usL chlldhood
enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

Pls frlends declded Lo vlslL nayas casLle Lhemselves Lo Lell her LhaL Arman hls chlldhood
frlend who fell ln love wlLh her ls ln an lll sLaLe 1o Lhelr surprlse naya agreed Lo meeL Lhem and
heared LhaL Arman was slck
1ell hlm Lo go Lo Lhe foresL and flnd a wooden house sald naya
And afLer LhaL? WhaL should he do my Lady? asked one of Armans frlend
Pe wlll flnd Lhe answer once he flnds Lhe house answered naya mysLerlously
1he frlends came back Lo Arman and Lold hlm abouL Lhe happy news Arman suddenly sLood
up from hls bed and felL refreshed as Lhough noLhlng has happened before
1he nexL day Arman [ourneyed Lo Lhe foresL and found Lhe wooden house naya had
menLloned An old lady wlLh hldeous bolls on her face crooked body and whlLe Langled halr LhaL
was very fllLhy greeLed Arman

Lxcuse me ls Lady naya here? She Lold me Lo come here asked Arman
no Lady naya ls noL here 8uL she lefL a message musL Lell you sald Lhe old lady wlLh a croaky
WhaL ls lL?
She sald lf you really love her you musL prove lL And Lo prove lL you musL marry me!
8ecause of hls love Lhe love he had felL slnce chlldhood for naya Arman dld noL heslLaLe Lo answer
f LhaL ls whaL she wanLs would do lL would do lL for love!
Suddenly Lhe old lady walled and ran Lowards a small lake ln fronL of Lhe house She baLhed
her face wlLh waLer and Lo Armans surprlse lL was nayna sLarlng back aL hlm She had cleaned Lhe
make up she was wearlng and pulled of Lhe wlg she also wore Lo dlsgulse herself as an old lady
Arman was only LesLlng you And now know whaL musL do wlll share Lhe resL of my llfe wlLh
you 8ecause because would do lL for love!
Arman was very happy LhaL naya had Lhe same feellngs for hlm And so Lhey llved happlly ever
Motol voloe 1rue love ls very hard Lo flnd Lo show lL ls even harder

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

. Ex\lana`on

The Piocess of Rain

WaLer ln Lhe earLh ls kepL ln many places llke Lhe ocean Lhe ocean Lhe rlver and Lhe lake
8uL donL be wrong Lhe planLs leaves and Lhe land also kepL waLer
Lach day Lhls waLer wlll evaporaLe wlLh help of Lhe sun 1he process where waLer
evaporaLes from planLs ls called LransplraLlon AfLerwards Lhe vapour wlll experlence Lhe process of
condensaLlon where Lhe vapour wlll condense and Lurn lnLo a cloud 1he form of Lhe cloud always
changes accordlng Lo weaLher condlLlons
1he clouds wlll move Lo dlfferenL locaLlons wlLh Lhe help of wlnd LhaL bellows verLlcally or
horlzonLally 1he movemenL of Lhe verLlcal wlnd resulLs ln Lhe cloud formlng blg lumps AfLer LhaL
Lhe wlnd lncreases Lhe slze of Lhe cloud and each cloud wlll overlap llnally Lhe cloud wlll reach Lhe
aLmosphere LhaL has a lower LemperaLure Pere Lhe parLlcles of waLer and lce ls formed
LvenLually Lhe wlnd can noL supporL Lhe welghL of Lhe cloud and so Lhe cloud LhaL ls full
wlLh waLer wlll experlence a process called preclplLaLlon or Lhe process where raln or hall falls Lo

. RW\or`

8orobudur ls a 8uddhlsL Lemple locaLed ln Lhe vlllage of 8orobudur Magelang regency

CenLral !ava was bullL by klng SamaraLungga one of Lhe klngs of Cld MaLaram klngdom Sallendra
descendanLs 1he name 8orobudur ls a comblnaLlon of words and 8udur 8ara Coals from SanskrlL
means Lemple or monasLery complex Whlle 8udur 8eduhur derlved from Lhe word whlch means Lhe
above Lhus 8orobudur means monasLery on Lhe hlll
Meanwhlle accordlng Lo oLher sources means a mounLaln Lerraces (budhara) whlle oLher
sources sald LhaL 8orobudur means monasLery on Lhe hlgh places
8orobudurshaped bulldlng berundak punden conslsLs of 10 levels measurlng 123 x 123 meLers
PelghL 42 meLers before belng renovaLed and 343 meLers afLer Lhe renovaLlon because Lhe lowesL
level was used as a drag 1hls 8uddhlsL Lemple has 1460 rellef panels and 304 8uddha efflgles ln Lhe
complex Slx lowesL level and square ln Lhe upper Lhree floors and a clrcular hlghesL level of 8uddhlsL
sLupas overlooklng Lhe Lerrace symbollzes baraLSeLlap sLage of human llfe n accordance wlLh of
8uddha Mahayana anyone who wanLs Lo reach Lhe level of 8uddha musL go Lhrough each of Lhose

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page 8

O kamadhaLu Lhe base of 8orobudur symbollzlng Lhe human are sLlll bound by lusL
O 8upadhaLu four levels above lL symbollzlng human belngs LhaL have seL Lhemselves free
from lusL buL sLlll Lled Lo appearance and shape AL Lhese levels a sLaLue of 8uddha placed ln
open space
O ArupadhaLu Lhree levels above where Lhe 8uddhlsL sLupa placed ln Lhe holes Symbollzes
man who has freed from lusL appearance and shape
O Arupa Lhe Lop LhaL symbollzes nlrvana where 8uddha ls resldlng
Lach level has a rellef LhaL wlll be read ln a coherenL way ln a clockwlse dlrecLlon (Loward Lhe lefL
of Lhe enLrance of Lhe Lemple) 1he rellef panels Lell Lhe legendary sLory Lhe varlous conLenLs of Lhe
sLory among oLhers Lhere are rellefs of Lhe Plndu eplc 8amayana Lhere are rellefs !aLaka sLorles n
addlLlon Lhere are rellef panels descrlblng Lhe condlLlon of socleLy aL LhaL Llme lor example rellef
of farmers acLlvlLy reflecLlng Lhe advance of agrlculLure sysLem and rellef of salllng boaL
represenLlng Lhe advance of Lhe Llme Lhe crulse was cenLered ln 8ergoLLa (Semarang)
All rellef panels ln 8orobudur Lemple reflecL Lhe Leachlngs of Lhe 8uddha
A 8uddhlsL from ndla named ALlsha Lhe 10Lh cenLury had vlslLed Lhe Lemple LhaL was bullL 3
cenLurles before Angkor WaL ln Cambodla and 4 cenLurles before Lhe Crand CaLhedrals ln Lurope
1hanks Lo vlslLlng 8orobudur and havlng 8uddhlsL manuscrlpLs from Serllngpa (klng of Srlwl[aya)
ALlsha was able Lo develop 8uddhlsm Pe became head of vlkramaslla monasLery and LaughL
1lbeLans of pracLlclng uharma Slx scrlpLs from any Serllngpa reduced Lo a core docLrlne called 1he
Lamp for Lhe aLh Lo LnllghLenmenL or beLLer known by Lhe name 8odhlpaLhapradlpa Cne of Lhe
quesLlons are as yeL unresolved abouL 8orobudur ls how Lhe condlLlon around Lhe Lemple was bullL
and why Lhe Lemple was found ln a burled sLaLe
Some say 8orobudur lnlLlally sLood dlkellllngll swamp and burled slnce Lhe erupLlon of Merapl L
ls based on CalcuLLa lnscrlpLlon reads Amawa means sea of mllk 1he word ls Lhen lnLerpreLed as
lava of Merapl 8orobudur probably burled ln Lhe cold lava of Merapl 1he vlllages around
8orobudur as Lhere Wanure[o karanganyar and resldenLs make crafLs acLlvlLles n addlLlon Lhe
peak waLu kendll an ldeal place Lo vlew Lhe panorama from Lhe Lop of 8orobudur May 27 2006
earLhquake and no lmpacL aL all on LhaL 8orobudur Lemple can sLlll be vlslLed

orobuVur H_`ory
AbouL Lhree hundred years ago where Lhls Lemple ls sLlll ln Lhe form of Lhe shrub called 8edl
surroundlng populaLlon of 8orobudur lor Lhe flrsL Llme Lhe name 8orobudur ls known from Lhe
work of Lhe manuscrlpL Mpu negarakerLagama rapanca ln 1363 Au menLloned Lhe monasLery ln
8udur LaLer ln Lhe 8abad 1anah !awl scrlpL (17091710) Lhere was news of Mas lund a rebel agalnsL
Lhe klng akubuwono who was capLured ln 8edl 8orobudur and senLenced Lo deaLh 1hen ln 1738
LerceLus news abouL a prlnce from ?ogyakarLa Lhe rlnce Monconagoro who llke Lo see a sLaLue of
a warrlor who locked ln a cage
n 1814 1homas SLamford 8affles goL Lhe news from hls subordlnaLes on a hlll llned wlLh carved
sLones 8ased 8affles news senL Cornellus an admlrer of arL and hlsLory Lo clean up LhaL hlll Cnce
cleaned for Lwo monLhs wlLh Lhe help of 200 resldenLs lL became clear Lhe Lemple and Lhe
resLoraLlon conLlnued ln 1823 n 1834 Lhe 8esldenL kedu Lemple clean agaln and ln 1842 revlewed
Lhe Lemple sLupa for furLher research

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page 9

TbW namW of orobuVur
8egardlng Lhe name of 8orobudur whlch many lnLerpreL archaeologlsL among Lhem rof ur
oerboL[oroko 8orobudur explalned LhaL Lhe word comes from Lwo words 8horo and 8udur 8horo
derlved from SanskrlL whlch means blhara or dormlLory whereas 8udur sald referrlng Lo Lhe word
LhaL comes from 8all 8eduhur whlch means Lhe above 1hls oplnlon ls sLrengLhened by rof ur Wl
SLuLLerhelm who argued LhaL 8orobudur means 8lhara on Lop of a hlll
rof !C ue Casparls based on karang 1engah lnscrlpLlon menLlonlng Lhe new bulldlng Lhls year
Lhe ?ear Sangkala sagara ksLldhara sense or ln Caka 746 (824 Au) or aL Lhe Llme LhaL exalLs
Sallendra god ndra n dldapaLlah lnscrlpLlon 8humlsambharabhudhara name meanlng place of
worshlp of Lhe ancesLors for Lhe splrlLs of Lhelr ancesLors Pow dld lL happen shlfL Lo 8orobudur?
1hls occurs because of local pronunclaLlon

orobuVur DWbWlo\mWn`

8orobudur Lemple bullL durlng Lhe 8uddhlsL Sallendra under Lhe leadershlp of klng
SamaroLLhungga Who creaLed Lhe Lemple archlLecLure based on publlc speech called Cunadharma
ConsLrucLlon of a Lemple was compleLed ln Lhe year 847 Au Accordlng Lo Lhe lnscrlpLlon kulrak
(784M) maklng Lhls Lemple ls asslsLed by a Leacher from Chandadwlpa (8engalore) kumaragacya
named Lhe hlghly respecLed and a prlnce from kashmlr vlsvawarman named as an advlsor who
speclallzes ln Leachlng 1anLra va[rayana 8uddls ConsLrucLlon of Lhls Lemple began durlng Lhe Maha
8a[a uanan[aya Srl Sanggramadanan[aya LlLle followed by hls son SamaroLLhungga and by hls
granddaughLer uyah Ayu ramodhawardhanl
8efore renovaLed 8orobudur Lemple ln rulns [usL llke Lhe Lemple arLefacLs are newly dlscovered
SubsequenL resLoraLlon by Cornellus aL Lhe 8affles and 8esldenL PaLmann afLer lL carrled ouL ln Lhe
nexL perlod 19071911 by 1heodore van Lrp Lhe sLrucLure rebullL from Lhe rulns of Lhe Lemple slnce
Lhe Llme eaLen up Lhe form now van Lrp really an experL on mlllLary Cenle bulldlng Lechnlques wlLh
Lhe rank of lleuLenanL buL Lhen lnLeresLed ln sLudylng and learnlng Lhe lnLrlcacles of 8orobudur
Lemple sLarLlng phllosophy up Lo Lhe Leachlngs Lhey conLaln
lor LhaL he Lrled Lo do a comparaLlve sLudy for several years ln ndla Pe also wenL Lo Srl Lanka
Lo see Lhe Lop of Lhe bulldlng sLrucLure Sanchl sLupa ln kandy van Lrp flnally found Lhe form of
8orobudur 1emple As for Lhe foundaLlon ln phllosophy and rellglon by SLuLLerhelm and n! Chrome
whlch ls abouL Lhe Leachlngs of Lhe 8uddha uharma Mahayana ?ogacara and Lhere ls a Lendency
also mlxed wlLh Lhe flow 1anLrayanava[rayana
8esearch on Lhe Lemple sLrucLure and phllosophy LhaL broughL cerLalnly requlres no small
amounL of Llme especlally when assoclaLed wlLh bulldlngs oLher Lemples LhaL sLlll one famlly Llke
Lhe 8orobudur Lemple and MenduL awon LhaL ls geographlcally locaLed ln one llne

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

orobuVur Ma`Wral_

8orobudur Lemple ls Lhe second largesL Lemple afLer Ankor WaL Lemples ln Cambodla
8orobudur 1emple bulldlng area of 13129 m2 composed of 33000 m3 of rock from 2 mllllon
pleces of rocks SLone slze averaglng 23 cm x 10 cm x 13 cm Long plece of sLone on Lhe whole 300
km wlLh a LoLal welghL of 13 mllllon Lons of sLone 1he walls of 8orobudur 1emple surrounded by
plcLures or rellefs whlch are a serles of sLory panels Lerususun ln 1460 1he lengLh of each panel 2
meLers f a serles of rellef LhaL spread Lhe lengLh of abouL 3 km rellef enLlrely 1he number of levels
Lhere are Len Lhe square 16 whlle Lhe level of clrcular 710 SLaLues found ln Lemples LhroughouL
Lhe bulldlng amounLed Lo 304 unlLs 1emple hlgh above Lhe ground unLll Lhe end of Lhe maln sLupa
was once 42 meLers buL now llve 343 meLers afLer sLruck by llghLnlng
Accordlng Lo Lhe resulLs of lnvesLlgaLlons of an anLhropologlsL eLhnologlsL AusLrla 8oberL von
Pelne Celdern ndonesla ancesLors had known Lhe culLural admlnlsLraLlon aL Lhe Llme of neollLhlc
and MegallLhlc orlglnaLlng from SouLh vleLnam and Cambodla AL Lhe MegallLhlc era ancesLors of
ndonesla Lo make Lhe Lomb as well as a place of worshlp ancesLors of mulLllevel pyramld bulldlng
more Lo Lhe smaller Cne of Lhem was found ln Lebak Leuwlllang Slbedug 8ogor ln WesL !ava 1here
are slmllar bulldlngs ln Lhe Lemple Sukuh near Solo 8orobudur 1emple also f we look from a
dlsLance 8orobudur wlll look llke a bulldlng sLrucLure or a klnd of pyramld berundak and a sLupa
unllke Lhe glanL pyramld ln LgypL and 1eoLlhuacan yramlds ln Mexlco 8orobudur 1emple ls anoLher
verslon of Lhe pyramld bulldlng 8orobudur pyramld form berundak kepunden wlll noL be found ln
Lhe reglon and any counLry lncludlng ln ndla 1hls ls one of Lhe advanLages of 8orobudur 1emple ls
a Lyplcal 8uddhlsL archlLecLure ln ndonesla

My_`Wry _urrounVng `bW orobuVur TWm\lW

unLll now Lhere are some Lhlngs LhaL were Lhe sub[ecL of mysLery surroundlng Lhe foundlng of
8orobudur Lemple for example ln Lerms of rock composlLlon how Lo LransporL Lhe sLone from Lhe
area of orlgln Lo desLlnaLlon wheLher Lhe rocks were already ln Lhe deslred slze or sLlll ln Lhe orlglnal
form of mounLaln sLone how long Lhe process of cuLLlng Lhe sLones unLll Lhe deslred slze how Lo
ralse Lhe sLones from Lhe boLLom of Lhe page Lo Lhe Lop of Lhe Lemple Lhe crane ls used? llg rellef
wheLher Lhe sLones were lnsLalled afLer Lhe lasL lmage or sLones ln Lhe new sLaLe carved plaln Lo
And sLarL from where Lhe lmage was carved from Lop Lo boLLom or from boLLom Lo Lop? more
unsolved mysLerles of sclence parLlcularly abouL Lhe space found ln Lhe maln sLupa Lemples and
sLaLues of 8uddha aL Lhe cenLer or zenlLh largesL Lemples ln Lhe sLupa belleved Lhere was a sLaLue
Adlbuddha represenLaLlons LhaL are noL perfecL ls sLlll a mysLery

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

CbronologUal V_UobWry anV rW_`ora`on of orobuVur

- 1814 Slr 1homas SLamford 8affles CovernorCeneral of Lhe unlLed klngdom ln !ava heard of Lhe
dlscovery of archaeologlcal ob[ecLs ln Lhe vlllage of 8orobudur 8affles ordered PC Cornellus Lo
lnvesLlgaLe Lhe dlscovery slLe a hlll covered wlLh shrubs
- 1873 Lhe flrsL monograph publlshed abouL Lhe Lemple
- 1900 uuLch LasL ndles governmenL esLabllshed a commlLLee of Lhe resLoraLlon and malnLenance
of 8orobudur Lemple
- 1907 1heodoor van Lrp led Lhe resLoraLlon unLll 1911
- 1926 8orobudur was resLored agaln buL sLopped ln 1940 due Lo malalse and Lhe crlsls of World
- 1936 ndoneslan governmenL requesLed Lhe asslsLance of unLSCC rof ur C Coremans came Lo
ndonesla from 8elglum Lo lnvesLlgaLe Lhe causes of damage Lo 8orobudur
- 1963 ndoneslan governmenL lssued a decree Lo resLore 8orobudur buL Lhe mess afLer Lhe evenL
- 1968 aL Lhe conference13 ln lrance unLSCC agreed Lo provlde asslsLance Lo rescue 8orobudur
- 1971 ndoneslan governmenL esLabllshed a body chalred by Lhe resLoraLlon of 8orobudur
- 1972 nLernaLlonal ConsulLaLlve CommlLLee was formed wlLh Lhe lnvolvemenL of varlous
counLrles and 8oosseno as chalrman unLSCCsponsored commlLLees provlde 3 mllllon uS dollars
from Lhe cosL of 7730 mllllon dollar resLoraLlon of Lhe unlLed SLaLes 1he resL covered ndonesla
- AugusL 10 1973 resldenL SoeharLo lnauguraLed Lhe sLarL of Lhe resLoraLlon of 8orobudur
resLoraLlon was compleLed ln 1984
- !anuary 21 1983 bomb aLLacks LhaL desLroyed some of Lhe sLupa aL 8orobudur Lemple and lL was
soon resLored
- 1991 8orobudur deslgnaLed as a unLSCC World PerlLage
. Wc_ `Wm
kCMAScom 8MW ls reporLedly plannlng Lo bulld a llmlLed run of elecLrlc supercars LhaL
wlll be as fasL as a orsche 911 whlle uslng less fuel Lhan a 1oyoLa rlus 1he new car based on Lhe
companys LfflclenL uynamlcs concepL car launched aL lasL years lrankfurL moLor show could be on
Lhe roads by 20138MWs fellow Cerman manufacLurers Audl and Mercedes8enz have already
commlLLed Lo produclng zero emlsslons elecLrlc supercars over Lhe nexL flve years Audl plans Lo
produce an 88based allelecLrlc LLron supercar sLarLlng ln 2012 and Mercedes8enzs Cullwlng
(SLS) wlll also galn a plugln varlanL Lhough lLs noL due unLll 2013

WhaL seLs Lhe 8MW ecosupercar aparL ls LhaL Lheyre opLlng for a plugln hybrld car raLher
Lhan a fully elecLrlc car meanlng Lhe baLLery range bugbear ls removed Cn Lhe downslde Lhough
Lhe car wlll sLlll need some form of fuel and wlll sLlll emlL CC2A sLory on uS auLomoLlve webslLe
nslde Llne quoLes a 8MW lnslder as conflrmlng LhaL Lhe green supercar has been earmarked for

1he webslLe quoLes an execuLlve source aL 8MWs Munlch headquarLers who says Lhe
plugln hybrld sporLs car could enLer producLlon as early as 2013Accordlng Lo Lhe source beLween
3000 and 10000 unlLs would be produced L ls also reporLed LhaL 8MWs englneers have been
enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

worklng hard Lo make Lhe producLlon verslon of Lhe vlslon LfflclenL uynamlcs even qulcker Lhan Lhe
concepL whlch was quoLed as belng capable of 0100km/h ln [usL 48 seconds
1he producLlon car based on Lhe vlslon LfflclenL uynamlcs concepL wlll use Lhe same plugln
hybrld drlveLraln wlLh Lwln elecLrlc moLors produclng close Lo 270kW and around 800nm 1he
concepL verslon also made use of a llghLwelghL rangeexLendlng Lhreecyllnder dlesel englne
Lhough lL ls reporLed LhaL Lhls may be swlLched for a peLrol englne ln Lhe producLlon verslon
1he real car wlll be less dramaLlc Lhan Lhe awelnsplrlng glassdomlnaLed concepL car nslde Llnes
source ls quoLed as saylng LhaL Lhere wlll be less of Lhe synLheLlc glass and more solld sLrucLure
added Lo Lhe flnal deslgn

1he lnslder also goes on Lo say Lhe mouLhful of a monlker LhaL Lhe concepL carrled wlll also
change And LhaL name LhaL Lhe markeLlng people forced on us says Lhe mole 1haLs golng Lo
change for sure8MW AusLralla managlng dlrecLor SLavros ?allourldls has prevlously Lold urlve LhaL
Lhe vlslon LfflclenL uynamlcs concepL ls a gllmpse of Lhe fuLure 8MW and lL packages all of our
LfflclenL uynamlcs Lechnologles lnLo one car Lo show whaLs posslble

%. RWUoun`
y Auventuie at Leang-Leang ave
Cn Sunday my parenLs my besL fruend novl and vlslLed a cave aL Maros called Leang
leang L was my flrsL Llme Lo vlslL Lhe cave beLLer yeL my besL frlend came Lo vlslL lL wlLh me!
1he cave was famous for lLs prlmlLlve cave wall palnLlngs whlch were some hand prlnLs and
wlld boar palnLlngs 1he cave and lLs surroundlngs was Lurned lnLo a naLlonal park so lL was Laken
care of My parenLs Look a resL ln a small huL for vlslLors of Lhe park whlle novl and advenLured
around Lhe cave wlLh a gulde We had Lo cllmb some meLal sLalrs Lo geL Lo Lhe cave because Lhe
cave was embedded lnLo a small mounLaln nexL sLop was a place where some seashells llLLered Lhe
ground and some were acLually plled lnLo a blg mound!
1he gulde sald LhaL Lhese plles of seashells are called k[okkenmoddlnger or klLchen Lrash
1he humans who llved here aLe Lhe shells and dumped Lhe lefL overs ln Lhelr klLchen 1he lasL place
was a small museum where Lhey have skeleLons of Lhe humans who llved ln Lhe caves 1he skeleLons
along wlLh some roughly made [ewelry and weapons were placed lnslde glass cases for dlsplay 1he
walls of Lhe museum were adorned wlLh phoLographs Laken when Lhey dld an excavaLlon Lhere
AfLer a qulck lunch wlLh novl and my parenLs we declded lL was Llme Lo go back home We
really had Lhe Llme of our llves!

%. Ex\o_`on
enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

A. Hor`a`ory Wx\o_`on


(AnnouncemenL of lssue concern)

uo you know whaL Lhe meanlng of corrupLlon ls? WhaL ls Lhe relaLlon beLween money and
corrupLlon? Well corrupLlon ls common everywhere ln Lhe world even ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes L's [usL
a maLLer of lnLenslLy Powever lL ls qulLe shocklng when one rellable survey clalms !akarLa as Lhe
mosL corrupL place ln ndonesla


1he survey has made me sad acLually because sLay and earn a llvlng here ln Lhe caplLal As mosL
people know 1an[ung rlok porL smuggllng ls noL a new Lhlng aL all LnLrepreneurs who wanL Lo
mlnlmlze Lhelr Lax paymenLs Lend Lo do such a Lhlng more ofLen 1hey even brlbe Lhe offlclals


Well Lhlnk Lhe measures Laken so far Lo overcome Lhe problem by punlshlng Lhe corrupLors ls sLlll
noL far enough We have Lo prevenL Lhe younger generaLlons from geLLlng a bad menLallLy caused by


belleve we should sLarL aL Lhe earllesL sLages ln school and Lhlnk everyone should be lnvolved ln
Lhe efforL Lo eradlcaLe corrupLlon We musL noL make any dlsLlncLlon
AdapLed from 1he !akarLa osL lebruary 2003

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page


(AnnouncemenL of lssue concern)

uo you know whaL Lhe meanlng of corrupLlon ls? WhaL ls Lhe relaLlon beLween money and
corrupLlon? Well corrupLlon ls common everywhere ln Lhe world even ln Lhe CorrupLlon and
ndoneslan CulLure
TbW__ :
CorrupLlon has happened for many years and Loday lL becomes a bad culLure ln ndonesla for Lhree

ArgumWn` :
MosL adulL ndoneslan or forelgners have known and admlLLed LhaL corrupLlons happen ln many
places 1he dally newspapers news programs on 1v and radlo have reporLed corrupLlons are done
everywhere almosL ln all deparLmenLs or publlc servlces of Lhls counLry CorrupLlons happen ln
healLh educaLlon deparLmenLs and banks When we manage Lo geL some documenLs ln publlc
servlce offlces we usually need much money Lo pay ManlpulaLlons happen everywhere

ArgumWn` :
1he acLlons Lo ellmlnaLe corrupLlon are weak 1he ever sLronger culLure seems noL Lo come Lo an
end when Lhe responslble lnsLlLuLlons who have Lo relnforce Lhe [usLlce Loday commlL corrupLlon
1hls ls Lhe worsL CorrupLlons happen ln pollce deparLmenL courLs where [udges publlc prosecuLors
lawyers make deals Lo do corrupLlon All of us also heard ln Lhe end of 2004 robosuLe[o reporLed
LhaL he had brlbed Lhe Supreme CourL or called Mahkamah Agung whlch becomes Lhe hlghesL level
where Lhe [usLlce can be obLalned erhaps you have Lo Lry Lo come Lo Lhe local courLs and see whaL
happen Lhere ?ou wlll see pracLlces of brlbery and oLher klnds of corrupLlon 1herefore we can say
LhaL corrupLlons becomes our culLure uo you llke lL?

ArgumWn` :
enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

1he clLlzens have no goodwlll Lo flghL agalnsL Lhe corrupLlon 1hey creaLe Lhe slLuaLlons ln whlch
people have opporLunlLles Lo do corrupLlons 1he clLlzens llke Lo break Lhe rules because Lhey are
noL dlsclpllned lor example ln Lhe sLreeL when Lhey drlve a car or rlde moLorcycle Lhey do noL have
Lhe drlvlng llcense or necessary documenLs 1hen Lhey are caughL by Lhe local pollcemen 1o avold
more dlfflculLles Lhey llke Lo brlbe Lhe offlcer 1he offlcer leL Lhem go Lhen n oLher words Lhe
clLlzens and offlcers are Lhe same dolng corrupLlon LogeLher f only Lhe people were crlLlcal
dlsclpllned and obey Lhe rules and wllllng Lo reporL any wrong behavlors Lhls counLry wlll noL be
number one corrupLlng counLry ln Lhe world

RW`Wra`on UonUlu_on :
Concluslon 8ased on Lhe reasons we can conclude LhaL corrupLlon ls becomlng a bad culLure ln
ndonesla lf lL ls noL ended soon by all of us L seems LhaL Lhere musL be more severe penalLy for Lhe
CorrupLors uo we sLlll care abouL Lhe fuLure of Lhls counLry?



polygamy ls a soclal consLrucLlon of culLure ln domesLlc lnsLlLuLlons LhaL have formed long
ago ndonesla ls one counLry yangmembolehkan based undand polygamy marrlage law no 1 1974
whlch menLlons LhaL Lhe husband may make a marrlage wlLh anoLher woman lf you quallfy Lhe
speclfled requlremenLs of Lhe wlfe ls noL capable of runnlng an obllgaLlon a dlsablllLy or dlsease
enLlLy LhaL can noL be cured or can noL produce offsprlng for clvll servanLs ls also consldered nC43
Lahun1990 abouL no revlslon ln 1983 abouL 10 years of marrlage and dlvorce llcense for clvll
servanLs MuLl haLLa MlnlsLer of Women LmpowermenL sald LhaL Lhe scope of 8egulaLlon no 43
Lahun1990 Lhls wlll be expanded Lo Lhe sLaLe offlclals governmenL offlclals members of Lhe Armed
lorces and members of Lhe u8 / u8u
Lalk abouL polygamy whlch ls ofLen dlscussed and sLudled Lhe rellglous aspecLs are always
ralsed as an umbrella or noL be done 8uL rarely dlscussed oLher aspecLs such as soclology
psychology and / or economlcs whereas lf polygamy ls seen from Lhe varlous sldes of vlew Lhe
sLudy of polygamy would be more lnLeresLlng and more compleLe ln relaLlon Lo plannlng pollcy
especlally pollcy on Lhe proLecLlon of wlves and produced chlldren

varlous facLors underlylng cause of suspecLed prekLek Lhe pracLlce of polygamy such as
lnfldellLy poverLy and soclal consLrucLlon culLure and rellglon dlpollgaml women wllllng Lo geL ouL
enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

of poverLy buL many cases lL shows LhaL polygamy ralses a new poverLy when Lhe economlc and
psychologlcal penelaLaran agalnsL one of Lhe dlpollgaml wlfe 1hls same Lhlng also happened
because women do noL fear belng branded by Lhe surroundlng communlLy so wllllng Lo dlpollgaml
Lo avold LhaL sLaLus ln socleLy
8ased on Lhls lL ls ln Lhe dlscusslon above Lhls wlll be revlewed 4 dlscusslon Loplcs LhaL are
consldered aLLracLlve boLh ln Lhe causes and facLors lnslLulsl lmpacL on famllles as well as from a
soclal perspecLlve economlc and demographer lrom Lhe resulLs of Lhese dlscusslons ls expecLed Lo
provlde lnpuL Lo pollcy makers such as SLaLe MlnlsLer of Lhe woman Lhe CoordlnaLlng MlnlsLer
MlnlsLer of 8ellglon as well as a provlder of daLa 83 nurm`a'_ o\non

.Fak`or Uau_W of \olygamy anV `_ m\aU` on famlW_.

1he resulLs showed LhaL dlfferenL facLors cause of polygamy among men wlLh women lor
male facLor among Lhe causes of polygamy ls adulLery rellglous undersLandlng Lhe needs of sex
soclal and culLural consLrucLlon lor women wllllng Lo polygamy because lL facLors ln Lhe economlc
lncapaclLy rellglous undersLandlng whlch sLaLes LhaL polygamy ls Lhe aposLles and Lhe sunna of Lhe
Sharla fear Lhe cap as a splnsLer aLLracLlon Lo physlcal condlLlons fell ln love and wllllng ln
1he lmpacL of polygamy on Lhe famlly shows LhaL Lhere ls dlfference ln Lhe LreaLmenL of
husband and wlfe hls wlfe where Lhe wlfe ls usually Lhe mosL frequenL parenL recelvlng LreaLmenL
was reduced adllselaln no rlghLs economlc rlghLs care and affecLlon for boLh Lhe flrsL wlfe or Lhe
chlldren of blrLh olygamy also resulLs ln many dlvorce cases because Lhe old wlfe was noL wllllng
Lo aL polygamy Lhus economlc soclal and psychologlcal usually accompany Lhelr wlves and Lhelr

Prof.Dr.aUbmaV fWVyan _afuVVn'_ o\non

.Poligami in economic peispective

Lconomlc consequences of polygamy are able Lo provlde dowrles for llfe force able Lo do
[usLlce and be able Lo manage Lhe wealLh of Lhe orphan and do noL Lake Lhelr properLy able Lo
provlde dowrles means affluenL and wllllng Lo glve llfe and prosperlLy for hls wlfe and all famlly
members owned able Lo do [usLlce ls Lo be a famlly LhaL ls peaceful full of love saylng LhaL based on
a sense of slncerlLy able Lo manage Lhe wealLh of Lhe orphan ln Lhe sense LhaL managemenL has
equlpped and how Lo manage flnances and a rellable lnvesLmenL

Dr.Prono `\`obWran`o'_ o\non
. ieligious factoi
enuiy S XI IPA | j Page

olygamy ls noL a command AlmlghLy god because polygamy should be undersLood
Lhoroughly and closely relaLed Lo Lhe clrcumsLances and slLuaLlon


1 olygamous marrlage ls a form of hlghly complex Lhereln whlch affecLs many aspecLs
2 olygamy ln Lhe slamlc rellglon ls allowed buL noL recommended especlally for men men who
can noL behave falrly wheLher economlc soclal psychology and love
3 olygamy ls also one of Lhe causes of lncreaslng dlvorce raLes ln ndonesla
4 olygamy brlngs negaLlve lmpacL on Lhe psychologlcal lmpacL of Lhe flrsL wlfe and chlldren

enuiy S XI IPA | j Page 8