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Activity 9.2 (Experiment) 128 Investigating the level of pollution in several different sources of water To investigate the level of pollution in several different sources of water. Industrial area Housing area From the hill / river Distilled water (control) What is the level of pollution in several different sources of water? The water sample from the housing area drainage is the most polluted. Manipulated variable: water samples from different sources. Responding variable: Time taken for methylene blue solution to decolourise Fixed variable: Volume of water sample, size of reagent bottles, concentration and volume of methylene blue solution Methylene blue solution Water samples Distilled water Reagent bottles (250 ml) with stoppers Beakers Syringes Stopwatch Measure and record the time taken for the methylene blue solution to decolourise by using a stopwatch

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Number Pg. Title Aim / Objective of the Study Problem Statement Hypothesis

Activity 3.1 (Experiment) 20 The movement of substances across a semipermeable membrane To study the movement of substances across the Visking tubing

What factor influences the diffusion of substances through a semi-permeable membrane? The diffusion of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane is based on the size of the molecule Variables Manipulated variable: Size of the solute molecules in the Visking tubing Responding variable: Colour of the solution in Visking tubing Fixed variable: Time, volume of solutions and surrounding temperature Material Benedicts solution 1% starch suspension Iodine solution 30% glucose solution Distilled water Apparatus Visking tubing Cotton thread Test tubes Beakers Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand & wire gauze) Technique Test for the presence of starch and glucose with used iodine and Benedicts solution respectively ================================================

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Activity 3.2 (Experiment) 23 Studying osmosis using an osmometer To demonstrate the process of osmosis using simple osmometer What substances can diffuse through a semipermeable membrane? Osmosis takes place when water moves from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute soncentration across a semi-permeable membrane Manipulated variable: Concentration of solution Responding variable: Increase in the level of sucrose solution / The level of sucrose solution in the capillary tube Fixed variable: Concentration of sucrose solution, surrounding temperature 30% sucrose solution Distilled water 25 cm capillary tube Visking tubing Retort stand and clamp Cotton thread Ruler Marker pen A pair of scissors 250 ml beaker Syringe Stopwatch Measure and record the increase in the height of sucrose solution with a ruler.

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Activity 4.3 (Experiment) 36 Studying the effects of temperature on salivary amylase activity To study the effects of temperature on salivary amylase activity What are the effects of temperature on salivary amylase activity? The rate of reaction catalysed by salivary amylase is highest at 37C / The optimum temperature for salivary amylase is 37C Manipulated variable: Temperature of medium of reaction Responding variable: The rate of reaction catalysed by salivary amylase Fixed variable: Volume of saliva, volume and concentration of starch suspension and pH of medium 1% starch suspension Saliva suspension Iodine solution Ice cubes Distilled water Beakers Test tubes Test tube rack Syringes Droppers Glass rods White tile with grooves Thermometer Bunsen burner Tripod stand Wire gauze Stopwatch Test the presence of starch using iodine test Record the time taken for the hydrolysis of starch to be completed.

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Activity 4.1 (Observation) 33 Differentiating between reducing and non-reducing sugars To differentiate between reducing and non-reducing sugars Benedicts solution Dilute hydrochloric acid Sodium hydrogen carbonate powder 10% glucose solution 10% sucrose solution Test tubes Test tube holder Beaker Dropper Bunsen burner Tripod Wire gauze Carry out testing for the presence of reducing sugars with Benedicts solution

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Activity 6.3 (Experiment) 65 Determining the vitamin C content in various fruit juices To determine the vitamin C content in various fruit juices Do different types of fruit juices contain similar amounts of vitamin C? Lime juice contains a higher concentration of vitamin C compared to pineapple juice and orange juice. Manipulated variable: Types of fruit juices Responding variable: Volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution Fixed variable: Volume of DCPIP solution and standard concentration of ascorbic acid solution 1.0% dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) solution 0.1% ascorbic acid solution Freshly prepared lime juice Freshly prepared pineapple juice Freshly prepared orange juice Specimen tubes 1 ml syringe 5 ml syringes with needles 50 ml beakers Gauze cloth Knife / Scalpel Measure and determine the volume of standard vitamin C solution needed to decolourise of a fixed volume of DCPIP. Measure and determine the volume of juice needed to decolourise the same volume of DCPIP. Calculate the vitamin C content of juice by comparing it with the standard vitamin C solution.

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