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Final report ABAQUS project

By Jan Gaute Frydendahl, MTMT

The main steps of building a model in ABAQUS: -Sketching the geometry of the model and dividing it into apropriate sub-regions. -Create one or more materials with the right properties and link them to the different subregions with the Section tool. -Defining assembly and sets in the regions that are important for analysis. -Creating steps, which define when and where forces are applied to the specimen. -Configuring output requests from the sets. Field Output Requests Manager for large areas, or the whole model, that only need output at low frequencies. History Output Requests Manager for single nodes, or small areas, that need output variables updated more frequently. -Applying boundary conditions and loads and in which steps they act. -Creating seeds on the boundaries and edges of the sub-domains, which act as nodes for the mesh, which is created afterwards. -Finally, the analysis job is created, simulating how the model reacts to the currently applied conditions. Results and data can now be retrieved and plotted from the output files, via the Results tab. Theoretical background for the stress intensity factor K: The stress intensity factor is a measure of the stress state, or intensity, near the tip of a crack caused by remote load or residual stresses in a material. It completely describes the crack-tip conditions in a linear elastic material, but breaks down very close to the tip, where plastic distortion typically occurs. When K reaches a certain critical intensity, KIC, fracture will occur. The following relation has been used in this report:

The J-integral The J-integral is a contour path integral that is used as a way to calculate the strain energy release rate, or work per unit fracture surface area, of a non-linear material.

Where E=E for plane stress, and E=E/(1-v)^2 for plane strain.

CTOD-CMOD Crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) is the displacement at the crack tip after an initially sharp crak blunts with plastic deformation. This opening at the crack tip is used as a measure of fracture toughness. The CTOD is difficult to measure directly, so the crack-mouth-opening displacement (CMOD) is often measured instead, and the CTOD is calculated from this.

Results:

Fig.1: The deformed model

From the output data:

Displacement Total reaction force 0 0 0,1 -6273,44 0,2 -12546,9 0,3 -18820,3 0,4 -25093,8 0,5 -31367,2 0,6 -37640,7 0,7 -43914,1 0,8 -50187,5 0,9 -56461 1 -62734,4

Fig. 2: Global load-displacement curve To find the nominal stress-strain curve, the following equations have been used:

Stress 0 418229,3 836460 1254687 1672920 2091147 2509380 2927607 3345833 3764067 4182293

Strain 0 0,666667 1,333333 2 2,666667 3,333333 4 4,666667 5,333333 6 6,666667

Stress-Strain
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Using a path along the crack ligament, the stress distribution along the edge has been found:
Distance from crack Stress distribution Stress intensity factor 0 11698,8 0 0,5 8362,11 14821,45407 1 6244,38 15652,33947 1,5 5242 16092,83581 2 4566,35 16187,28928 2,5 4106,63 16275,91878 3 3758,28 16316,97674 3,5 3485,91 16347,07769 4 3264,75 16367,02932 4,5 3081,4 16384,91789 5 2820,77 15810,39107 7,5 2371,59 16280,21651 10 2006,07 15901,42398 12,5 1736,35 15388,00122 15 1510,5 14664,1297 17,5 1302,04 13653,16331

500000 1E+06 2E+06 2E+06 3E+06 3E+06 4E+06 4E+06 5E+06

20 22,5 25 27,5 30

1093,58 870,451 617,156 314,234 74,559

12259,01259 10349,64663 7734,903397 4130,564944 1023,647985

Stress distribution 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35