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Analysis of Alternative EGR Systems on the DEUTZ BF6M 2013C Diesel Engine

Dr. F. Schmitt

2000 GT-Suite Users Conference 30.10.00 2000 GT-Suite October 30, 2000 - Frankfurt, Germany User Conference / Deutz AG

1) Deutz is an independent engine manufacturer. The engines are basically designed for industrial engine applications like agricultural and construction machinery, power generation as well as for transport applications in commercial vehicles like Volvo. One of these commercial vehicle engine is the engine 2013. My talk is about Analysis of Alternative EGR Systems on this DEUTZ BF6M 2013C Diesel Engine.

Contents
Introduction - engine series 2013 - injection system - egr concept Modelling of egr and injection system Simulation / Testing of egr Summary
30.10.00 2000 GT-Suite User Conference / Deutz AG

2) I will start my talk about some basics about the engine 2013, I have to model in GTPower. Further technologies to consider are the injection systems and the egr concepts of this engine. For each of new the technologies I will also give some information about the modelling in Gtpower. Further I will compare testing and simulation. Finally I will give a summary.

Engine family DEUTZ 2013


Engine specification compactness low fuel consumption 4 -v a l v e, 4- a n d 6- c y l i n d e r
Engine Data
Injection system Combustion system Turbocharger Bore / Stroke Displacement Connecting Rod length Compression ratio Max Power M e a n e f f . p r e ss u r e Emission standard d Vh l

Series
UPS, 6-hole DI, w/o egr ATL with WG

Research
C R , 7 und 8-hole with egr VGT

98 mm / 126 mm 5,7 dm3 194 mm 18,5 18,1

P eff

1 9 0 k W @ 2 5 0 0 m i n -1 2 1 b a r @ 1 2 0 0 - 1 6 0 0 m i n -1 EURO3 EURO4 (target)

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2000 GT-Suite User Conference / Deutz AG

3) The engine family DEUTZ 2013 is very compact, has low fuel c o n s u m p t i o n a n d i s a v a i l a b l e a s a 4 v a l v e, 4- a n d 6 - c y l i n d e r e n g i n e. F u r t h e r E n g i n e D a t a i s g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e. T h e s e r i e s e n g i n e , that fulfills t h e E U R O 3 E m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d , has a U n i t P u m p I n j e c t i o n s y s t e m ( U P S ) w i t h a 6- h o l e n o z z l e. T h e C o m b u s t i o n s y s t e m i s a DI s y s t e m w i t h o u t e g r . A t u r b o c h a r g e r o f 3 K w i t h w a s t e g a t e i s u s e d. Bore of 98 m m and Stroke of 1 2 6 m m l e a d s t o a d i s p l a c e m e n t o f 5 , 7 liter. W i t h a compression ratio of 18.5 a maximum power of 190 kW @ 2500 U/min and a mean effective pressure of 21 bar in the range of 1200 to 1600 r o u n d p e r m i n u t e c a n b e r e a c h e d. F o r t h e r e s e a r c h e n g i n e a C o m m o n R a i l I n j e c t i o n S y s t e m with egr is u s e d. A t u r b o c h a r g e r w i t h v a r i a b l e t u r b i n e g e o m e t r y i s u s e d i n s t e a d o f w a s t e- gate atl. T h e a i m o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w a s t o r e a c h o r t o get close t o E U R O 4 emission standard without exhaust aftertreatment like particle filter or S C R s y s t e m

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4) T h i s p i c t u r e s h o w s t h e e n g i n e 2 0 1 3 . C h a r g e a i r m a n i f o l d a n d e x h a u s t
p i p e s a r e o n t h e s a m e s i d e. B e t w e e n c y l i n d e r 1 a n d 2 a n d c y l i n d e r 5 a n d 6, y o u c a n s e e t w o f l a n g e s f o r e g r v a l v e s .

GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013 intake and exhaust manifold

C h a r g e air Valve cover R o c k e r arm housing Sealing Cylinder head Cylinderhead gasket Exhaust pipe manifold

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5) A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o t t h e i n t a k e a n d e x h a u s t m a n i f o l d i s g i v en
h e r e. F o r t h e G T P o w e r M o d e l w e h a v e t o c o n s i d e r t h e s p e c i a l c h a r g e a i r m a n i f o l d. Air l e a v e s t h e c h a r g e a i r p i p e a n d e n t e r s t h e r o c k e r a r m housing. Then the airflow is separated into a main swirl pipe and a main filling pipe. T h e s e p i p e s a r e s e p a r a t e d a g a i n i n t o t h e t w o n e i g h b o u r i n g cylinders.

EGR Concept:High-Pressure E G R p u l s e- E G R
T c h a r g e air
P charge air Reed valves

Charge air c o o l e r E G R -cooler E G R -control valve

ECU electr. governor m air VTG

6) N e x t p i c t u r e s h o w s a s c h e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e n g i n e 2 0 1 3 w i t h
c o m p r e s s o r , c h a r g e a i r c o o l e r , c y l i n d e r s a n d t u r b i n e. T h e h i g h p r e s s u r e e g r s y s t e m c o n s o s t s o f t h e e g r- c o n t r o l v a l v e s , t h e e g r -c o o l e r a n d t h e reed valves.

GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013 high pressure E G R

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7) T h e G T P o w e r M o d e l l o o k s l i k e t h i s . Air e n t e r s t h r o u g h t h e
compressor and the charge air cooler into the cylinders. The intake m a n i f o l d i s m o d e l e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x p l a n a t i o n a l r e a d y g i v e n. F u r t h e r you can see the exhaust gas system till the outlet after turbine. The egr s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f t h e e g r-c o n t r o l v a l v e s , t h e e g r p i p e s , t h e e g r-c o o l e r and the reed valves. The Modeling of the reed valves and the common rail injection system is given in a more detailed way.

EGR concept: reed valves

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8) T h e r e e d v a l v e s l o o k l i k e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s . I n o u r
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w e u s e d t h e o n e o n t h e r i g h t s i d e, m a d e b y P i e r b u r g.

EGR: charge air pressure und boost pressure before Turbine

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9) H e r e y o u c a n s e e t h e c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e a n d t h e b o o s t p r e s s u r e
b e f o r e t u r b i n e a s a f u n c t i o n o f c r a n k angle. E a c h t i m e p r e s s u r e b e f o r e t u r b i n e i s h i g h e r t h a n c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e, e x h a u s t g a s f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e o p e n r e e d v a l v e s i n t o t h e c h a r g e a i r p i p e. I n t h e o t h e r c a s e, t h e reed valves are closed.

GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013 reed valves

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10) I n G T P o w e r t h e V a l v e R e e d R e f e r e n c e i s u s e d. W i t h t h e E x c e l
M a c r o C h k v a l 5 0 . xls the input w a s d e f i n e d . T o d e f i n e t h e p a r a m e t e r s f o r t h e E x c e l -f i l e s o m e t e s t i n g s f o r t h e u s e d r e e d v a l v e h a v e b e e n d o n e t o e s t i m a t e p r e s s u r e n e e d e d f o r o p e n i n g t h e v a l v e a n d t h e p r e s s u r e for t h e c a s e, t h a t v a l v e i s f u l l o p e n .

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Injection system of the engine family 2013


Electric unit p u m p system ( U P S ) Common Rail System (CRS)

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11) F o r o u r s e r i e s e n g i n e a U P S i s u s e d. T h i s i n j e c t i o n s y s t e m h a s b e e n
r e p l a c e d b y a C R s y s t e m i n t h e r e s e a r c h e n g i n e. U s i n g a C R s y s t e m , we have the possibility for multiple injections. In our case the influence of pre- a n d p o s t -i n j e c t i o n w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e p i c t u r e s s h o w s t h e t w o system.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013 Injection system

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12) I n t h e G T P o w e r M o d e l o f t h e e n g i n e 2 0 1 3 , f o r m o d e l l i n g a c o m m o n
r a i l s y s t e m , the injection profile of the needle lift is given as a f u n c t i o n o f c r a n k angle. F o r U n i t p u m p s y s t e m, w e u s e d t h e i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013 unit p u m p injection system ( U P S )

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13) T h e p r o f i l e s o f i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e, n e e d l e l i f t a n d c y l i n d e r p r e s s u r e
a r e g i v e n f o r a n e x a m p l e i n t h i s p i c t u r e.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013 common rail injection system (CR)
Influence of P o s t Injection on Emissions and S F C:

E S C -t e s t p o i n t 3 :

1 8 4 5 r p m, 9 . 7 b a r
C R S with post injection
b e: NOx: 218.4 g/kWh 263 p p m

cylinder pressure needle lift heat release rate

BSZ: 0.11

CRS w/o post injection


b e: NOx: 216.7 g/kWh 278 p p m

BSZ: 0.25

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14) C o n s i d e r i n g c o m m o n r a i l i n j e c t i o n w e h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e s of
c y l i n d e r p r e s s u r e, n e e d l e l i f t a n d h e a t r e l e a s e r a t e . I n t h i s c a s e E S C T e s t (E u r o p e a n S t a t i o n a r y C y c l e T e s t ) point 3 w i t h 1 8 4 5 r p m a n d 9.7 b a r i s i n v e s t i g a t e d. T h e i n f l u e n c e o f p o s t i n j e c t i o n i s a l s o s h o w n . Particle concentration decreases very much while fuel consumption and N o x c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t a y a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s a m e. C a l c u l a t i o n i s s h o w n for E S C T e s t (E u r o p e a n S t a t i o n a r y C y c l e ).

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C o m p r e s s o r m a p E S C-T e s t w / o E G R

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15) T h e E S C p o i n t s w i t h o u t e g r a r e s h o w n i n t h i s c o m p r e s s o r m a p . T h e
speeds of 1480, 1845 and 2200 with full load and several part load cases are in this map.

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C o m p r e s s o r m a p E S C-T e s t with E G R

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16) E g r l e a d s t o s m a l l e r m a s s f l o w r a t e s f o r t u r b i n e a n d c o m p r e s s o r s .
The E S C point lead according to a sum formula t o the ESC Test values.

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testing / calculation: Results for E S C- Test high pressure / pulse egr


testing high pressure egr
0.12

simulation high pressure egr

0.10

Particles [g/kWh]

0.08

EURO3

UPS-injection system, CR-injectionsystem w/o preinjection, ATL with WG

0.06

0.04

CR-injection system with postinjection, ATL with WG EURO4 CR, VTG


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0.02

0.00 0 1

NOx [g/kWh]

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17) I n t h i s m a p i n c l u d i n g t h e E U R O 3 a n d E U R O 4 e m i i s i o n s t a n d a r d s ,
t h e t r a d e - o f f s f o r p a r t i c l e s a n d N o x a r e s h o w n. T h e s e r i e s e n g i n e w i t h U P S a n d w a s t e- g a t e t u r b o c h a r g e r, we fulfill the E U R O 3 e m i s s i o n standard. The C R system without pre injection leads t o similar results. The results with pre injection are show by the second trade off. Turbine w i t h variable turbine geometry leads t o the third trade off. For this case testing ( black) and simulation (red) are shown. With rather small egr rates of about 1 0 p e r cent , a r e d u c t i o n o f N o x f r o m 6 t o 4 . 5 g / k W h c a n b e r e a c h e d. A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t e s t i n g a n d s i m u l a t i o n i s v e r y g o o d . Fuel consumption stays constant . For higher erg rates the results are rather poor regarding reduction potentials and agreement .

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testing / calculation: E S C-T e s t


220 200 180 engine power [KW] 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 200 max. cylinder pressure [bar] 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 5.0 4.5 charge air pressure [bar] 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 gem. Ladedruck ber. Ladedruck ohne AGR exp.erm. Znddruck mit GTPower ber. Znddruck ohne AGR gem. Motorleistung ber. Motorleistung ohne AGR

Good Agreement between measurement and calculation for: engine power max . cylinder pressure charge air pressure

Nr. [-]

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18) T h e r e s u l t s f o r e a c h t e s t p o i n t o f E S C t e s t w i t h o u t e g r a r e g i v e n
h e r e. T h e r e i s g o o d a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t e s t i n g a n d c a l c u l a t i o n f o r e n g i n e p o w e r, c y l i n d e r p r e s s u r e a n d c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e f o r e x a m p l e.

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testing / calculation: E S C-T e s t with egr


220 200 180 Motorleistung [KW] 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 200 180 160 Znddruck [bar] 140 120 100 80 60 40 5.0 4.5 4.0 Ladedruck [bar] 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 "inneres" Verbrennungsluftgem. Ladedruck ber. Ladedruck ohne AGR ber. Ladedruck mit AGR gem. Znddruck ber. Znddruck ohne AGR ber. Znddruck mit AGR 5 ber. V ohne AGR ber. V mit HD-AGR gem. Motorleistung ber. Motorleistung ohne AGR ber. Motorleistung mitAGR

E G R : R e g u l a t i o n of c h a r g e a i r pressure by V G T controler i n n e r a i r-f u l e r a t i o V c a l c u l a t e d f r o m fresh air flow and air ( o x y g e n ) in boost:

Kraftstoff-Verhltnis V [ - ]

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Nr. [-]

Nr. [-] 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

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19) W i t h e g r t h e r e s u l t s a r e still v e r y g o o d. F o r e g r c a l c u l a t i o n a n d
t e s t i n g, t h e c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e i s c o n t r o l e d b y V G T c o n t r o l l e r . T o h a v e s a m e e m i s s i o n l e v e l s , t h e i n n e r a i r -f u e l r a t i o, c a l c u l a e d f r o m f r e s h a i r and oxygen i n boost, is similarly constant .

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E G R C o n c e p t : L o w -P r e s s u r e E G R
T charge air C h a r g e air

Charge air c o o l e r

mair E l e c t r. VGT governor

ECU

Egr control valve

E g r- c o o l e r

Diesel particle filter

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20) T h e s e c o n d s y s t e m , t h a t h a s b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d i s t h e l o w p r e s s u r e e g r. A part of
t h e e x h a u s t g a s h a s t o b e c l e a n e d i n a particle filter, a n d f l o w s t h e n t h r o u g h a n e g rc o o l e r a n d a n e g r -c o n t r o l v a l v e.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013 low pressure EGR

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21) T h e G T P o w e r m o d e l l o o k s l i k e f o l l o w s. T h e m o d e l i s s i m i l a r t o t h e h i g h p r e s s u r e
egr model.

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testing / calculation: Results for E S C- Test low pressure egr


testing low pressure egr
0.12

simulation low pressure egr

0.10

UPS-injection system,

Particles [g/kWh]

0.08

EURO3

CR-injectionsystem w/o preinjection, ATL with WG

0.06

0.04

CR-injection system with postinjection, ATL with WG EURO4 CR, VTG


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0.02

0.00 0 1

NOx [g/kWh]

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22) T h e r e s u l t s a r e a l s o s h o w n i n the particles - n o x m a p . T h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t i s d i f f e r e n t


t o t h e r e s u l t s f o r h i g h p r e s s u r e e g r. F o r e g r r a t e s o f a b o u t 1 1 p e r cent , a r e d u c t i o n f o r n o x i s o b t a i n e d f r o m 9 to 6.5 g/kWh. B u t t h e p a r t i c l e s i n c r e a s e s v e r y m u c h i n t h i s c a s e. T h e r e s u l t s a r e e v e n w o r s e r t h a n m o v i n g o n t h e t r a d e o f f w i t h o u t egr.

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Summary

I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f different e g r s y s t e m s Detailed Modelling of - E G R -s y s t e m - C R injection system - implementation of V T G Good agreement between testing and simulation results Fulfilling of E U R O 4 : f u r t h e r o p t i m i z a t i o n s (i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e, c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e, E G R ) E T C : a f t e r t r e a t m e n t D i e s e l particle filter or S C R

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23) L e t m e s u m m a r i z e t h e r e s u l t s. W e i n v e s t i g a t e d H I G H P R E S S U R E a n d L O W
P R E S S U R E egr systems for the D E U T Z diesel engine 2013. The detailed modeling of egr and injection system has been discussed. The results shows good agreement b e t w e e n t e s t i n g a n d s i m u l a t i o n. For fulfilling E U R 4 e m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d i n s t a t i o n a r y t e s t , further optimizations have t o be investigated. For transient test E T C exhaust gas aftertreatment like particle filter or S C R are needed.

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... k n o w i n g i t s D E U T Z

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