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Variable Refrigerant Flow ASHRAE Handbook Chapter XX VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW (VRF) DEFINED2 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS...

16 User Requirements17 Diversity and Zoning.18 Installation..20 Refrigerant Pipe Design.20 Maintenance Concerns...20 Sustainability23 TYPES OF VRF SYSTEMS...16 EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM STANDARDS...23 AHRI Certification Programs....23 Ventilation Standards.....23 Refrigerant Management30 Green Buildings.....34 COMPONENTS AND SYSTEM LAYOUT34 Software for Designing Systems.....23 Indoor Unit Styles....23 Controls....23 Refrigerant Circuit and Components23 Typical System Layout23 SYSTEM OPERATION..36 Explanations of P-H Diagram (Refrigerant Characteristics Table) ................ 36 Concept of Basic Refrigeration Cycle ............................................................ 37 Points of Refrigerant Control of VRF System ............................................... 38 Cooling Operation........................................................................................... 38 Heating Operation........................................................................................... 39 Control of Electronic Expansion Valve........................................................... 41 Heating and Defrost Operations..43 Heat-recovery Operations43 APPLICATIONS BUILDING TYPES (NEW CONSTRUCTION AND RETROFIT)... 43 Offices.43 Schools and Universities.43 Limited Care Facilities; Nursing Homes.43 Multi-tenant Dwellings, Apartments...43 Hotel and Motel...43 Churches..43 Residential...43 Hospitals..43 REFERENCES... 44

VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW DEFINED


Many HVAC professionals are familiar with mini-split systems: an air conditioner or heat pump with more than one factory-made assembly (e.g., one indoor and one outdoor unit). A variation of this product, often referred to as a multi-split or a variable-refrigerant flow (VRF) system, typically consists of: 1. A condensing section housing compressor(s) and condenser heat exchanger, 2. Multiple indoor direct-expansion (DX) evaporator fan-coil indoor units with electronic expansion devices, temperature sensing capabilities, and a dedicated microprocessor for individual control, 3. A single set of refrigerant piping that interconnects the condensing unit and the evaporator units, 4. A zone temperature control device that may or may not be interlocked with a system controller. VRF multi-split products are fundamentally different from unitary or other types of traditional HVAC systems in that heat is transferred to or from the space directly by circulating refrigerant to evaporators located near or within one conditioned space. In contrast, conventional systems transfer heat from the space to the refrigerant by circulating air (in ducted unitary systems) or water (in chillers) throughout the building. The main advantage of a VRF system is its ability to respond to fluctuations in space load conditions by allowing each individual thermostat to modulate its corresponding electronic expansion valve to maintain its space temperature set point (see Tables 1 and 2 for a comparison of VRF to other systems).
Table 1 Comparison of VRF and Unitary HVAC Systems Item 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Description VRF System Condensing units components Single or multiple compressor Yes Oil separator for each compressor or for all Yes compressors Oil level control Yes Active oil return Yes Option for heating and cooling Yes Simultaneous heating / cooling Yes Air cooled or water cooled condenser Yes Liquid receiver Yes Control of the refrigerant level in the liquid receiver Yes Condensing temperature control Yes Capacity control by the suction pressure Yes Compressor cooling capacity control by speed Yes (RPM) or steps Suction accumulator Depending on the System Refrigerant lines Long liquid lines to many evaporators Yes Refrigerant pipes special design procedure due to Yes pressure drop and oil return Internal units Several units any size Yes Independent control for each evaporator by an Yes electronic expansion valve Mechanical sub-cooling Provided for pressure drop (if necessary) and to improve performance Unitary System Yes Yes Yes In some units Yes for hot gas defrost No Yes Yes Yes It is an option Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Provided to improve performance

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Expansion valve able to handle different cooling capacities and pressure differential Coil and drain defrost Air filter Drainage pump Controls Microprocessor control condensing unit Microprocessor in the evaporator BMS available Inverters for power Alarm codes

Electronic expansion valve Only necessary for the external unit heating Yes Depends Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Thermostatic or electronic expansion valve Operational and protection Not necessary Depends Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Table 2 Comparison of VRF and Chiller Systems Item Description 1.0 Sensible cooling capacity 1.1 Latent cooling capacity Chilled Water System OK selection will always meet the thermal load and air flow OK selection will always meet the thermal load. It will be necessary to add a heating device to control humidity OK selection will always meet the thermal load VRF System There is no option to select equal to the thermal load and air flow There is no option to select equal to the thermal load Comments Usually sensible cooling load for VRF is lower than the air flow, you may have to oversize the unit Usually latent cooling load for VRF is a consequence from the sensible load it will be necessary to add electrical heating for humidity control Usually total cooling load for VRF is lower than the thermal load or you may have to oversize the unit Chilled water is more flexible. VRF was design to be compatible with usual Offices and comfort jobs SHF from 0.70 to 0.80 VRF was design to be compatible with usual Offices and comfort jobs SHF from 0.70 to 0.80

1.2

Total cooling capacity Capacity Increase or adjustment for Sensible Heat Factor Air Cooled Condenser Capacity Increase or adjustment for Sensible Heat Factor Water Cooled Condenser Air flow in m3/h

1.3

There is no option to select equal to the thermal load and the air flow Possible new coil and There is no option, it control valve selection or should be another change in chilled water equipment or another temperature refrigerant lines Possible new coil and control valve selection or change in chilled water temperature Adjustable it may need a motor change Adjustable it may need a motor change It should be provide room for expansion or capacity increase easy to be done. Difficult to change the sensible heating factor There is a band for adjustment between a maximum and minimum value There is a tap in the motor for adjustment for a higher value It uses a standard a low efficiency filter 50% efficiency gravimetric test not better than MERV 4 Lower efficiency Depends on the model

1.4

2.0

Usually you should oversize the cooling capacity to match air flow Very narrow band to adjust for VRF. If there is duct, the duct should be calculated according to the external pressure of the internal unit VRF there are options up to 85% efficiency dust spot test MERV 11, but will reduce the external pressure and will have a higher cost There is no option to change the motor for VRF. Not good for

2.1

Air flow pressure drop

2.2

Air filter efficiency

Compatible with almost air filter efficiency

2.3

Electrical motor efficiency internal

Higher efficiency, could be better than 90%

3.0 4.0

unit Condensate water drainage Long pipes - Air Cooled Condenser Long condensing water lines Refrigerant lines safety and leakage Air cooled units Refrigerant lines safety and leakage Water cooled units Coefficient of performance

minimum 60% Inside the machine room, It may need pump and no problem needs proper insulation Increase chilled water pump power but doesnt change capacity It reduces the capacity for long lines up to 75%. It reduces the latent cooling capacity Increase condensing Increase condensing water pump power but water pump power but doesnt change capacity doesnt change capacity Only in the machine It is all over the building room or in the outside air difficult to control and to locate the leakage. High risk for the occupants Only in the machine It is all over the same room or in the outside air floor not so difficult to control and to locate the leakage. High risk for the occupants Easy to calculate it Condensing unit is depends on the % almost constant cooling capacity and the regarding the cooling outside air capacity, but depends of the outside air Leaving water Suction pressure of the temperature keep compressor keep constant, by the capacity constant by the capacity control on the control on the compressor compressor speed or stages Shell and tube condensers, standard procedures and easy to clean

4.1 4.2

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 Very unreliable for VRF Equipment may be over electrical devices Very important to verify the real capacity, including the suction pressure drop for VRF. Great issue Both are very similar Very difficult to certified the VRF system according to ASHRAE 15/1999 VRF system may be possible to certified according to ASHRAE 15-2007. High efficiency Chilled Plant could be 0.8 kW/Ton and VRF condensing units could be 0.95 kW/Ton all year around average for Sao Paulo, Brazil Constant pressure control in the suction line near the compressor keeps the COP constant, but it doesnt gives the same value for the evaporator due to the pressure drop. Reduces the latent cooling capacity for VRF Higher initial cost but very low maintenance for VRF

4.3

5.0

5.1

Capacity control

5.2

Water cooled Condenser

6.0 6.1

Plate heat exchanger or tube in tube, it needs a closed circuit with the use of an intermediate heat exchanger Heating and cooling Needs four pipes to heat Almost standard easy to and cool at the same time do and low cost with heat recovery Cooling and Very sophisticate not so Easy to use is the same Heating Control easy to use for the as the mini-split costumer

Advantage for the VRF Advantage for VRF, it doesnt need trained personal to operate

There are two basic types of VRF multi-split systems: heat pump and heat recovery (see Figure 1). Heat pumps can operate in heating or cooling mode. A heat-recovery system, by managing the refrigerant through a gas flow device, can simultaneously heat and coolsome indoor fan coil units in heating and some in cooling, depending on the requirements of each building zone. The majority of VRF systems are equipped with variable-speed compressors. Often called variable-frequency drives (VFD) or inverter compressors (Figure 2), this component responds to indoor temperature changes, varying the speed to operate only at the levels necessary to maintain a constant and comfortable indoor environment. Due to this flexibility, VRF systems that include inverter compressors are inherently energy efficient. Heat-recovery systems increase VRF efficiency because, when operating in simultaneous heating and cooling, energy from one zone can be transferred to meet the needs of another. 4

Figure 1: Heat-recovery and Heat-pump Systems

Figure 2: Compressor Frequency

VRF outdoor units can have cooling and heating capacities from 12,000 Btu/h (3,508 W) to 300,000 Btu/h (87,692 W); VRF indoor units can have cooling and heating capacities from 5,000 Btu/h (1,462 W) to 120,000 Btu/h (17,538 W). The outdoor unit may support up to 50 indoor evaporator units with capacities that collectively add up to 150% capacity of the condensing unit. VRF equipment is divided into three general categories: residential, light commercial, and applied. Residential equipment is single-phase with a cooling capacity of 65,000 Btu/h or less. Light commercial equipment is generally three-phase, with cooling capacity greater than 65,000 Btu/h and is designed for small businesses and commercial properties. Applied equipment has cooling capacities higher than 135,000 Btu/h and is designed for large commercial buildings.
Definitions

Heat pump multi-split. An encased, factory-made assembly or assemblies designed to be used as permanently installed equipment to take heat from a heat source and deliver it to the conditioned space when heating is desired. It may be constructed to remove heat from the conditioned space and discharge it to a heat sink if cooling and dehumidification are desired from the same equipment. It normally includes multiple indoor conditioning coils, compressor(s), and outdoor coil(s). Such equipment may be provided in more than one assembly, the separated assemblies of which are intended to be used together. The equipment may also provide the functions of cleaning, circulating and humidifying the air. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) System. An engineered direct exchange (DX) multi-split system incorporating at least one variable capacity compressor distributing refrigerant through a piping network to fan coil units each capable of individual zone temperature control, through proprietary multiple indoor zone temperature control devices and common communications network. VRF heat-recovery multi-split system. A split system air-conditioner or heat pump incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units at least one variable-speed compressor or an alternate compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by three or more steps, multiple indoor fan coil units, each of which is individually metered and individually controlled by a proprietary control device and common communications network. This system is capable of operating as an air-conditioner or as a heat pump. The system is also capable of providing simultaneous heating and cooling operation, where recovered energy from the indoor units operating in one mode can be transferred to one or more other indoor units operating in the other mode. Variable refrigerant flow implies 3 or more steps of control on common, interconnecting piping. VRF multi-split system. A split system air-conditioner or heat pump incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units, at least one variable speed compressor or an alternative compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by three or more steps, multiple indoor fan coil units, each of which is individually metered and individually controlled by a proprietary control device and common communications network. The system shall be capable of operating either as an air conditioner or a heat pump.

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


User Requirements The user primarily needs space conditioning for occupant comfort. Cooling, dehumidification, and air circulation often meet those needs, although heating, humidification, and ventilation are also required in many applications. Components other than the base outdoor and indoor units may need to be installed for VRF systems to satisfy all requirements. Applications VRF systems have many advantages over more traditional HVAC units. The advantages and disadvantages for a VRF system, when compared to a chilled system, are presented in Table 1. Table 1: VRF System Advantages and Disadvantages
Item Description 1 2 3 Human Comfort Process cooling, heating, humidification and dehumidification Internal Air Quality Variable Refrigerant Flow AC System Partial no humidity control, not so good air distribution Not applicable - no humidity control, not so good air distribution Partial needs a auxiliary air make-up system and special filters No duct work is good Similar Little higher at full load 1.25 kW/ton Chilled Water AC System Good true air conditioning Good - May by designed for any condition Good may be designed for any condition. Ducts need to be cleanable Similar At full load 1.18 kW/ton

4 5

Initial Cost Operational Cost

Cooling capacity

Increasing cooling capacity

Good performance until 100 m equivalent length Poor performance above 100 m equivalent length Not so easy, it may be necessary to change the refrigerant lines and the condensing unit Good performance and control Good - full control Very important Partial. It is necessary to solve the compatibilities issue during the design Up to 100 m is OK, more there is a cooling capacity reduction up to 75% Difficult it depends on the design of the system for monitoring, identification and repair Easy and simple Good Very important To many parts and components and long refrigerant lines Acceptable Up to 15 years - Acceptable Depends on the design, access may be a problem It is necessary to verify, the say what the customer would like to listen, but not all is true

Distance is only a matter of pumps selection and operational power consumption It could be done by changing the control valves and or the coils. Chiller plant doesnt change or chilled water pipes Good performance and control No control on the operational and maintenance cost Fully compatible No problem. Concentrate in a single equipment easy and simple Good Not so clear to customer Acceptable More reliable, just a few parts and equipment Good Up to 25 years Good No problem - Good To much engineering stuff, difficult for the costumer to understand

8 9 10 11 12

Operation at partial load Customer or tenant control on the operational cost Compatibility with standards, guides and regulations Long distance pipes Refrigerant management

13 14 15 16 17

Customer operation Malfunction Possibility Operational life expectation Maintenance Sales strategy

VRF systems are not suitable for all applications. Some limitations include: There is a limitation on the indoor coil maximum and minimum entering dry- and wetbulb temperatures, which makes the units unsuitable for 100% outside air applications especially in hot and humid climates. The cooling capacity available to an indoor section is reduced at lower outdoor temperatures. This limits the use of the system in cold climates to serve rooms that require year-round cooling, such as telecom rooms. The external static pressure available for ducted indoor sections is limited. For ducted indoor sections, the permissible ductwork lengths and fittings must be kept to a minimum. Ducted indoor sections should be placed near the zones they serve.

Diversity and Zoning The complete specification of a VRF system requires careful planning. Each indoor section is selected based on the greater of the heating or cooling loads in the area it serves. In cold climates where the VRF system is used as the primary source for heating, some of the indoor sections will need to be sized based on heating requirements. 7

Once all indoor sections are sized, the outdoor unit is selected based on the load profile of the facility (Example 1). The combined cooling capacity of the indoor sections can match, exceed, or be lower than the capacity of the outdoor section connected to them. An engineer can specify an outdoor unit with a capacity that constitutes anywhere between 70% and 130% of the combined indoor units capacities. The design engineer must review the load profile for the building so that each outdoor section is sized based on the peak load of all the indoor sections at any given time. Adding up the peak load for each indoor unit and using that total number to size the outdoor unit likely will result in an unnecessarily oversized outdoor section. Although an oversized outdoor unit in a VRF system is capable of operating at lower capacity, avoid oversizing unless it is required for a particular project due to an anticipated future expansion or other criteria. Also, when indoor sections are greatly oversized, the modulation function of the expansion valve is reduced or entirely lost. Most manufacturers offer selection software to help simplify the optimization process for the systems components.
Sizing Example 1 Peak cooling load for Zone 1 3 ton Peak cooling load for Zone 2 2.5 ton Peak cooling load for Zone 3 4 ton Zones peak load = 3 + 2.5 + 4 9.5 ton Building peak load 7.0 ton Available sizes for outdoor unit 7.5 ton and 10 ton Selection: Unless additional indoor units are planned for the future, select a 7.5 ton outdoor section.

Installation 8

In deciding if a VRF system is feasible for a particular project, the designer should consider building characteristics; cooling and heating load requirements; peak occurrence; simultaneous heating and cooling requirements; fresh air needs; electrical and accessibility requirements for all system components; minimum and maximum outdoor temperatures; sustainability; and acoustic characteristics. The physical size of the outdoor section of a typical VRF is somewhat larger than that of a conventional DX condensing unit, with a height up to 6 ft. (1.8 m) excluding supports. The chosen location should have enough space to accommodate the condensing unit(s) and any clearance requirements necessary for proper operation. Refrigerant Piping Design Building geometry must be studied carefully so that refrigerant piping lines are properly designed. The system should not be considered if the expected pipe lengths or height difference exceed those listed in the manufacturers catalog. In buildings where several outdoor locations are available for the installation of the outdoor units, such as roof, setback, and ground floor, each condensing section should be placed as close as possible to the indoor units it serves. Although manufacturers routinely increase the maximum allowable refrigerant pipe run, the longer the lengths of refrigerant pipes, the more expensive the initial and operating costs. For most VRF units, the maximum allowable vertical distance between an outdoor unit and its farthest indoor unit is approximately 164 ft ( m); the maximum permissible vertical distance between two individual indoor units is approximately 49 ft ( m); and the maximum refrigerant piping lengths allowable between outdoor and farthest indoor units is up to 541 ft. ( m) (see Figure 2 and Table 2). Figure 2: Maximum Allowable Distances and Piping Lengths

Table 2: Maximum Allowable Distances and Piping Length Ranges

Maintenance Considerations Ductless VRF indoor units have some considerations in reference to maintenance: Draining condensate water from the indoor and outdoor units Changing air filters Repairs Cleaning Ease of maintenance depends on the relative position of the indoor and outdoor units and the room to ensure access for changing filters, repairing, and cleaning. The installer must make sure there is enough slope to drain condensate water generated by both the indoor and outdoor units. Depending on the location where the indoor unit is installed, it may be necessary to install a pump so that water drains properly. Sustainability VRF systems feature higher efficiencies in comparison to conventional heat pump units. Less power is consumed by heat-recovery VRF systems at part load, which is due to the variable speed driven compressors and fans at outdoor sections. The designer should consider other factors to increase the system efficiency and sustainability. Again, sizing should be carefully evaluated. Environmentally friendly refrigerants such as R-410A should be specified. Relying on the heat pump cycle for heating, in lieu of electric resistance heat, should be considered, depending on outdoor air conditions and building heating loads. This is because significant heating capacities are available at low ambient temperatures (e.g., the heating capacity available at 5F ( 15C) can be up to 70% of the heating capacity available at 60F (16C), depending on the particular design of the VRF system).

TYPES OF VRF SYSTEMS


Both heat-pump and heat-recovery VRF systems are available in air-to-air and water-source (water-to-refrigerant) configurations (see Table 1). Air-cooled condensing units contain a propeller fan to transfer heat from the refrigerant to the air; water-cooled condensing units, 10

which are usually installed indoors, uses a closed or open water loop to transfer heat from the refrigerant. Closed Loop Configurations Water-loop heat pump application: Water-to-air heat pump using liquid circulating in a common piping loop functioning as a heat source/heat sink. NOTE: The temperature of the liquid loop is usually mechanically controlled within a temperature range of 59F [15C] to 104F [40C].

Ground-loop heat pump application: Brine-to-air heat pump using a brine solution circulating through a subsurface piping loop functioning as a heat source/heat sink. NOTES 1. The heat exchange loop may be placed in horizontal trenches or vertical bores, or be submerged in a body of surface water. ANSI/ARI/ASHRAE ISO Standard 132561:1998 2. The temperature of the brine is related to the climatic conditions and may vary from 23 to 104F [5 to 40C]. Water-to-air heat pump and/or brine-to-air heat pump: Heat pump which consists of one or more factory-made assemblies which normally include an indoor conditioning coil with air-moving means, compressor(s), and refrigerant-to-water or refrigerant-to-brine heat exchanger(s), including means to provide both cooling and heating, cooling-only, or heating-only functions. NOTES 1. When such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separated assemblies should be designed to be used together. 2. Such equipment may also provide functions of sanitary water heating, air cleaning, dehumidifying, and humidifying. Open Loop Configuration Groundwater heat pump: Water-to-air heat pump using water pumped from a well, lake, or stream functioning as a heat source/heat sink. 11

NOTE: The temperature of the water is related to the climatic conditions and may vary from 41 to 77F (5 to 25C) for deep wells.

Table 1. Classification of VRF Multi-Split Systems System Identification Attribute Refrigerant Circuits Compressors Indoor Units Outdoo r Unit(s) Qty. Operation Qty. Steps of Control Mode of Operation Heat Exchanger
Classific ation

VRF Heat-pump Multi-split 1 Shared to all indoor units 1 or More Variable Speed or alternative method resulting in 3 or more steps of capacity Greater than one indoor unit Individual Zones/Temp 1 or multiple-manifolded outdoor units with a specific model number. 3 or More A/C, H/P One or more circuits of shared refrigerant flow MSV-A-CB MSV-W-CB HMSV-A-CB HMSV-W-CB

VRF Heat-recovery Multi-split 1 Shared to all indoor units 1 or More Variable Speed or alternative method resulting in 3 or more steps of capacity Individual Zones/Temp 1 or More 3 or More A/C, H/P, H/R One or more circuits of shared refrigerant flow

Air-Conditioner (air-to-air) Air-Conditioner (water-to-air) Heat Pump (air-toair) Heat Pump (waterto-air)

HMSR-A-CB HMSR-W-CB

NOTES: 1 A suffix of -O following any of the above classifications indicates equipment not intended for use with field-installed duct systems (6.1.5.1.2). 2 A suffix of -A indicates air-cooled condenser and -W indicates water-cooled condenser. 3 For the purposes of the tested combination definition, when two or more outdoor units are connected, they will be considered as one outdoor unit. Heat Rejection. VRF condensers may be air-cooled or water-cooled; the letters A or W follow the Air-Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) designation. Heat Source/Sink. Unitary heat pump outdoor coils are designated as air-source or water-source by an A or W, following AHRI practice. The same coils that act as a heat sink in the cooling mode act as the heat source in the heating mode. Unit Exterior. The unit exterior should be decorative for in-space application, functional for equipment room and ducts, and weatherproofed for outdoors.

EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM STANDARDS


AHRI Certification Programs AHRI is developing a certification program for VRF multi-split air-conditioning and heat-pump equipment up to 300,000 Btu/h that will be based on AHRI Draft Standard 1230 and ASHRAE Standard 37. The certification program includes all VRF multi-split air-conditioning, air- and

12

water-source heat-pump equipment rated up to 300,000 Btu/h (88,000 W) at AHRI Standard Rating Conditions. The following Certification Program ratings are verified by test: VRF Multi-Split Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment a. For VRF Multi-Split Air-Conditioners < 65,000 Btu/h (19,000 W) 1. ARI Standard Rating Cooling Capacity, Btu/h (W) 2. Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio, SEER, Btu/(W h) b. For VRF Multi-Split Air-Conditioners 65,000 Btu/h (19,000 W) 1. ARI Standard Rating Cooling Capacity, Btu/h (W) 2. Energy Efficiency Ratio, EER, Btu/(W h) 3. Integrated Part-Load Value, IPLV/IEER c. For all VRF Multi-Split Heat Pumps < 65,000 Btu/h (19,000 W) 1. ARI Standard Rating Cooling Capacity, Btu/h (W) 2. Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio, SEER 3. High Temperature Heating Standard Rating Capacity, Btu/h (W) 4. Region IV Heating Seasonal Performance Factor, HSPF, Minimum Design Heating Requirement, Btu/(W h) d. For VRF Multi-Split Heat Pumps 65,000 Btu/h (19,000 W) 1. ARI Standard Rating Cooling Capacity, Btu/h (W) 2. Energy Efficiency Ratio, EER, Btu/(W h) 3. Integrated Part-Load Value, IPLV/IEER 4. High Temperature Heating Standard Rating Capacity, Btu/h (W) 5. High Temperature Coefficient of Performance, COP 6. Low Temperature Heating Standard Rating Capacity, Btu/h (W) 7. Low Temperature Coefficient of Performance, COP e. For VRF Multi-Split Heat Recovery Heat Pumps 1. Ratings Appropriate in (c) (d) above 2. Simultaneous Cooling and Heating Efficiency (SCHE) (50% heating/50% cooling) f. For VRF Multi-Split Heat Pumps Systems that Use a Water Source for Heat Rejection 1. ARI Standard Rating Cooling Capacity, Btu/h (W) 2. Energy Efficiency Ratio, EER, Btu/(W h) 3. Integrated Part-Load Value, IPLV/IEER 4. Heating Standard Rating Capacity, Btu/h (W) 5. Heating Coefficient of Performance, COP 6. Simultaneous Cooling and Heating Efficiency (SCHE) (50% heating/50% cooling) (Heat Recovery models only)
Energy Efficiency RatingsDefinitions Coefficient of performance (COP). A ratio of the heating capacity in watts [W] to the power input values in watts [W] at any given set of rating conditions expressed in watts/watts [W/W]. For heating COP, supplementary resistance heat shall be excluded.

13

Energy efficiency ratio (EER). A ratio of the Cooling Capacity in Btu/h to the power input values in watts at any given set of rating conditions expressed in Btu/Wh. Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF). The total heating output of a heat pump, including supplementary electric heat necessary to achieve building heating requirements during its normal annual usage period for heating divided by the total electric power during the same period, as determined in Appendix C expressed in Btu/[W h]. Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio (IEER). A single number that is a cooling part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated per the method described in paragraph 6.5. Integrated Part-Load Value (IPLV). A single number that is a cooling part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated per the method described in Appendix H. Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER). The total cooling of a systems covered by this standard with a capacity <65,000 Btu/h [19,000 W]during its normal usage period for cooling (not to exceed 12 months) divided by the total electric energy input during the same period as determined in Appendix C, expressed in Btu/[W h]. Simultaneous cooling and heating efficiency (SCHE means the ratio of the total capacity of the system (heating and cooling capacity) to the effective power when operating in the heat recovery mode. (Where SCHE is stated without an indication of units, it shall be understood that it is expressed in Btu/[W h].) Tested Combination. The term tested combination means a sample basic model comprised of units that are production units, or are representative of production units, of the basic model being tested. The tested combination shall have the following features: The basic model of a variable refrigerant flow system (VRF system) used as a tested combination shall consist of an outdoor unit (an outdoor unit can include multiple outdoor units that have been manifolded into a single refrigeration system, with a specific model number) that is matched with between 2 and 5 indoor units (for systems with nominal cooling capacities greater than 150,000 Btu/h (43,846 W), the number of indoor units may be as high as 8 to be able to test non-ducted indoor unit combinations). The indoor units shall: Represent the highest sales model family as determined by type of indoor unit e.g. ceiling cassette, wall-mounted, ceiling concealed, etc. If 5 are insufficient to reach capacity another model family can be used for testing. Together, have a nominal cooling capacity between 95% and 105% of the nominal cooling capacity of the outdoor unit. Not, individually, have a nominal cooling capacity greater than 50% of the nominal cooling capacity of the outdoor unit, unless the nominal cooling capacity of the outdoor unit is 24,000 Btu/h (7,016 W) or less. Have a fan speed that is consistent with the manufacturer's specifications. All have the same external static pressure.

Ventilation Standards One of the most challenging aspects of designing VRF systems is the need to provide a separate outside air supply to each unit to comply with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (ANSI approved), and building codes. Most manufacturers offer an outside air kit, for connecting to outside air ductwork. A separate outside air fan and control system is generally required for larger buildings. In humid climates, providing preconditioned outside air to each indoor unit ensures good indoor air quality. Item 5.9 from ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 specifically discusses particulate matter removal and how VRF indoor units can or cannot uphold the requirements. Item 5.9 Particulate Matter Removal: Particulate matter filters or air cleaners having a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of not less than 6 when rated in accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE 52.2-1999, shall be provided upstream of all cooling coils or others devices with wetted surfaces trough which the air is supplied to an occupied space. 14

o The standard filter with 50% efficiency gravimetric test which is MERV 1 or 2 not acceptable; o They may use an option with 65% efficiency dust spot test which is MERV 11 available for ducted units Approved OK o There is another option with 85% efficiency dust spot test which is MERV 13 available for dusted units Approved OK o Those filters have a higher cost and reduce the static external pressure available and can only be used in ducted units and select ductless units. o Higher efficiency filters are available for: Ceiling Mounted Cassette Type double flow Ceiling Mounted Cassette Type multi-flow Ceiling Mounted Built-in Type Ceiling Mounted Duct Type Slim Ceiling Mounted Duct Type, can be installed with field supplied return air grill + filter Console Ceiling Suspended Type o Higher filter arent available for: Ceiling Mounted Cassette Corner Type Console Ceiling Suspended Type Wall Mounted Type Floor Standing Type/Concealed Floor Standing Type Ceiling Suspended Cassette Type Refrigerant Management Standards HVAC systems must comply with ASHRAE Standard 15-2007Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems (ANSI approved). Refrigerant leak detector to activate alarms and mechanical ventilation system o Difficult to provide, because you dont know where the leaks may occur o If machine room is for an air cooled VRF systems, it is external OK o If machine room is for an water cooled VRF systems, it is internal and needs the leak detector and ventilation OK o Refrigerant lines between the floors are external, usually in the corner of the building OK o Refrigerant lines inside the roof and the ceiling may need a refrigerant leak detector OK o Mechanical ventilation system shall be provided by the installation, could be provided OK o All the items above are possible, but they mean more cost Machinery room shall be vented to the outdoors, utilizing mechanical ventilation. o Machine room are for air cooled VRF systems external OK o Machine room for water cooled VRF systems needs the leak detector and ventilation OK o The air supply and exhaust ducts for the machinery room shall serve no other area OK o All the items above are possible, but they means more cost

15

Refrigerant Quantity Limits. The quantity of refrigerant in each independent circuit of high probability systems shall not exceed the amounts shown in Table 1, except as provided in 7.2.1 and 7.2.2, based on volumes determined in accordance with 7.3. For refrigerant blends not listed in Table 1, the amount of each component shall be limited in the same manner and the total of all components in each circuit shall not exceed the quantity that would equal 69,100 ppm by volume upon release to the volume determined by 7.3. o It is possible to accomplish seems to be OK Declaration. A dated declaration of test shall be provided for all systems containing 55 lb (25 kg) or more of refrigerant. The declaration shall give the name of the refrigerant and the field test pressure applied to the high-side and the low-side of the system. The test declaration shall be signed by the installer and, if an inspector is present at the tests, the inspector shall also sign the declaration. When requested, copies of this declaration shall be furnished to the authority having jurisdiction. o It is possible to accomplish - OK

Since introduction, interest has been generated in regards to designing R410A VRF systems to meet ASHRAE Standard 15 (Safety Standards for Refrigerant Systems) requirements. Specific designs must focus on the refrigerant flow attributes of these systems, and ASHRAE 15 instructs designers in many aspects of refrigerant safety. ASHRAE Standard 15 ASHRAE 15 is a National Voluntary Consensus Standard; but, equipment listed by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) and identified as being in compliance with Standard 15 meets the applicable provisions of the Standard (ASHRAE Standard 15-2007, Section 13). Also, regulatory language was incorporated in the 2001 revision and, by adoption, can be made part of local code requirements. This is specific to each jurisdiction, so it is important for the designer to be familiar with local codes and regulations. Applying ASHRAE Standards 15 and 34 to R410A R410A is the refrigerant used in newer and more energy-efficient systems. Though ASHRAE 15 was last revised in 2007, it does not directly reference R-410A refrigerant except by footnote a under Table 1 Refrigerant and Amounts that states: aThe refrigerant safety groups in Table 1 are not part of ASHRAE Standard 15. The classifications shown are from ASHRAE Standard 34, which governs in the event of a difference. Therefore, system designers must refer to Standard 34 when applying Standard 15 safety principles to R410A refrigerant. The overall purpose of ASHRAE Standard 34 is to establish a simple means of referring to common refrigerants It also establishes a uniform system for assigning reference numbers and safety classifications to refrigerants. The standard identifies requirements to apply for designations and safety classifications for refrigerants, including blends, in addenda or revisions to this standard. (Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants ASHRAE Standard 34-2007, Section 1). A main point of discussion under ASHRAE Standard 34 is Refrigerant Concentration Limit (RCL) (ASHRAE Standard 34-2007, Section 7), which is defined as the refrigerant concentration limit, in air, determined in accordance with this standard and intended to reduce the risks of acute toxicity asphyxiation and flammability hazards in normally occupied, enclosed spaces

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RCL can be expressed in: ppm v/v g/m3 lb./Mcf (or lb./1,000 ft3) Limits have been developed as indicated (ASHRAE Standard 34, Section 7.4.1): Mass per Unit Volume. The following equation shall be used to convert the RCL from a volumetric ratio, ppm by volume, to mass per unit volume, g/m3 (lb./Mcf): RCLM = RCL a M where RCLM = The RCL expressed as g/m3 (lb./Mcf) RCL = the RCL expressed as ppm v/v a = 4.096 10-5 for g/m3 (1.160 x 10-3 for lb./Mcf) M = The molecular mass of the refrigerant in g/mol (lb./mol) RCL values are the lowest of the following three factors: Acute Toxicity Exposure Limit (ATEL): The refrigerant concentration limit determined in accordance with this standard (34-2007) and intended to reduce the risks of acute toxicity hazards in normally occupied, enclosed spaces (ASHRAE Standard 34-2007, Section 7.1.1). ATEL includes consideration of mortality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic or central nervous system effects and other escape impairing effects and permanent injury. Oxygen Deprivation Limit (ODL): The concentration of a refrigerant or other gas that results in insufficient oxygen for normal breathing (ASHRAE Standard 34-2007, Section 7.1.2). Flammable Concentration Limit (FCL): The refrigerant concentration limit, in air, determined in accordance with this standard and intended to reduce the risk of fire or explosion in normally occupied spaces which is 25% of the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) (LFL is the minimum concentration of refrigerant that is capable of propagating a flame) (ASHRAE Standard 34-2007, Section 7.1.3). 1 2 RCL for R-410A is based on the ATEL (Acute Toxicity Exposure Limit) because it is lower than the ODL (Oxygen Deprivation Limit). Toxicologists considered the elderly and children when determining the RCL values for refrigerants. (No discussion on this in Standard. The toxicology subcommittee of SSPC 34 includes toxicologists from Honeywell, DuPont, and Arkema, PhD Consulting and representatives from Trane and IIAR.) 3 ASHRAE Standard 34-2007 Table 10 Data & Safety: Classifications for Refrigerant Blends
Refrigerant Safety Data from Table 1 of ASHRAE Standard 34-2007 Refrigerant Safety Group RCL lb./Mcf Highly Toxic or Toxic Under Code Classification

R-22 (CHCIF2) R-134A (CH2FCF3) R-407C (Blend) R-410A (blend)

A1 A1 A1 A1

13 13 17 25

Neither Neither Neither Neither

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R410A Qty per Occupied Space = RCL =130,000 ppm v/v or = 390 g/m3 = 25 lb./MCF. Designing VRF Systems with ASHRAE 15 and 34 Occupied Spaces Standard 15 guides designers on how to apply a refrigeration system in a safe manner, and details information on the type and amount of refrigerant allowed in an occupied space, defined as that portion of the premises accessible to or occupied by people, excluding machinery rooms (ASHRAE Standard 15-2004, Section 3). Standard 15 also lists occupancy classifications (Section 4) with recommendations of allowable conditions for each class: 1 Institutional Occupancy 2 Public Assembly 3 Residential Occupancy 4 Commercial Occupancy 5 Large Mercantile Occupancy 6 Industrial Occupancy 7 Mixed Occupancy Standard 15 (Section 5) also defines Refrigerating System Classifications with guidance for applications for: Direct Systems, which are systems having evaporator, condenser, or refrigerant lines in direct contact with the material (air) to be cooled or heated Indirect Open Spray Systems Double Indirect Open Spray Systems Indirect Closed Systems Indirect Vented Closed Systems In reviewing specific applications, the designer must look at the space any HVAC system serves, as well as the refrigerant line paths. If system components are located in normally occupied spaces, then they must be evaluated for safety and suitability. Corridors and lobbies especially points of egress - should be evaluated as well since their volume is, by definition, part of the connected spaces volume and the restrictions in the Standard limit refrigeration concentrations in these areas to specified amounts. In most cases such system components including refrigerant piping do not pose a safety or suitability issue. ASHRAE 15 requires factory testing on all refrigerant containing components; as a result, the likelihood of subsequent failure is remote. Field fabricated connections also require inspection and evaluation. VRF systems require evacuation of the complete system and all piping, including field fabricated connections, and vacuum must be held with no leaks as a part of the commissioning process for every system installed. Refrigerant Leaks in Occupied Spaces Leaks are not defined in Standard 15, but it generally addresses a catastrophic event where full circuit refrigerant volume is to be considered as available for discharge into the occupied space. Standard 15 also does not address any time period over which a leak might occur. Even in the unlikely event of a line rupture, the amount of refrigerant in a circuit would require a significant period to escape from the system. The design professional should keep in mind that ASHRAE 15 was primarily developed and written for the catastrophic release of the entire contents of a pressure vessel thru a safety valve of large diameter in a short time. 18

There is a clearly defined relationship between the amount of refrigerant in a system and the volume of the occupied space into which the refrigerant could flow. According to Standard 15, the volume used to determine the refrigerant quantity limits for refrigerants in 7.2 shall be based on the volume of space to which the refrigerant disperses in the event of a refrigerant leak (ASHRAE Standard 15-2007, Section 7). Occupied space is not necessarily a single room or area. If a group of rooms or spaces (offices, corridors, other spaces off the corridor, etc.) are connected by ductwork or other means, then all of their connected volumes are counted in calculating the affected volume. These connected spaces could also include louvers or permanent openings to adjacent spaces or to the outside, as in a ventilation source or exhaust, and even undercuts on connecting doors, provided there is forced movement of air (Note that R410A is heavier than air and would spread along floor surfaces as a free gas). Standard 15 specifically lists ventilation as a remedy in establishing occupied space, but does not quantify the amount or type of ventilation required only, the smallest volume in which the leaked refrigerant disperses... (ASHRAE Standard 15-2007, Section 7.3.2).

Fig. 4

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Table 11 VRF System Volume Example (Using a CITY MULTI System)


Room Name Lobby/Waiting Room Conference Room Office #1 Office #2 Open Work Room Break Room Men's Bathroom Women's Bathroom Electrical Room Janitor Closet TENANT UPFIT SPACES Room Area (sq Ceiling Height (ft) ft) 450 10 235 115 70 944 127 42 42 39 36 12 10 10 12 10 9 9 14 14 Room Volume (cu ft) 4500 2820 1150 700 11328 1270 378 378 546 504

To further illustrate the design options, a system with a P72 outdoor unit is shown in Table 11. The space is a single bay tenant upfit within a strip mall located in a mild climate. The space is 30 feet by 70 feet with 14 feet from the floor to the underside of the roof deck. The interior walls shown extend 18 inches above the dropped ceiling. The 72,000 Btu/h capacity unit contains 23 lbs 3 oz of R410A refrigerant. ASHRAE Standard 34 lists the refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) as 25 lb./Mcf for R410A. As shown in Table 11, the minimum room volume needed to handle the full refrigerant charge of the system can be easily calculated. RCL (R410A) = 25 lb./Mcf Refrigerant Charge (Rc) of a P72 = 23 lbs 3 oz = 23.1875 lbs MRV = Minimum Room Volume (cubic feet) MRV = Rc/RCL MRV = (23.1875 lbs)/(25 lbs/1000 cu ft) MRV = 927.5 cu ft Table 12 To summarize the above equation, the smallest space which any of the indoor units could be located in would have to be capable of dispersing the refrigerant charge into 927.5 cu ft. As per Table 11, the only spaces of concern would be -Mens Bathroom -Womens Bathroom -Electrical Room -Janitor Closet -Office 2 There are several options available to deal with the smaller spaces. In cases such as the bathrooms, the code required ventilation will likely be all that is required to maintain conditions in the space. Should extra cooling be required, a ducted unit located in the workroom corridor would solve the problem. The electrical room/janitor closet area provides another opportunity for the architect to help the mechanical design team. An opening located low along the common wall between the two spaces would increase the available volume from 504 cu ft minimum to over 1000 cu ft. Should the electrical closet require a rated enclosure as required by NFPA-70 a fire 20

damper could be installed. Office 2 was provided with a ducted unit located in the corridor to meet the requirements of the Standard. Another option for office 2 would be to omit the ceiling entirely or install it at a level which provides the needed volume. It shall be noted that ASHRAE 15 Section 7.3.2 clearly states the space above a suspended ceiling shall not be included in calculating the refrigerant quantity limit in the system As illustrated by the example, the only requirement to meet the standard was an understanding of the language and not major accommodations or changes. With the application of sound engineering practice, any design professional can easily integrate VRF technology into his or her design. Conclusion Engineers and designers have great flexibility in applying VRF systems to ensure the design is ASHRAE 15 compliant. Examining the project spaces and determining the occupied and connected spaces needs to be a primary consideration, and care must be taken in the location and layout of refrigerant lines and indoor units. Green Buildings The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) is the nations foremost coalition of leaders from across the building industry working to promote buildings that are environmentally responsible, profitable, and healthy places to live and work. The core purpose of USGBC is: To transform the way buildings are designed, built, and operated enabling an environmentally and socially responsible, healthy, and prosperous built environment that improves the quality of life in communities. In order to further that purpose, USGBC developed the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System. The LEED Green Building Rating System is a voluntary, consensus-based national standard for developing high-performance, sustainable buildings. VRF systems can be used to help buildings to achieve LEED certification in many ways; the credits discussed in the paragraphs below are based off of the LEED New Construction (NC) v2.2 rating system. Energy and Atmosphere Prerequisite 1: Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems Required A VRF controls system assists building commissioning by allowing easy testing, setting, and adjusting of the entire HVAC system. Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance Required All buildings must be designed at a minimum to meet both the mandatory and prescriptive or performance requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2004. VRF equipment has many energy saving features, further described under EAc1, which helps with meeting this prerequisite. Prerequisite 3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management Required Newer VRF systems use R410A, which is a HFC based refrigerant, CFC free and has no ozone depletion potential. Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance 1-10 points (2 Points Required) Some VRF systems, in addition to the variable refrigerant flow through the indoor units, use an inverter drive on the compressor and the outdoor fan motor, feature simultaneous heating and cooling operation, and include an integrated control system allowing for scheduling of equipment in each room to maximize energy performance. VRF systems can be coupled with an energy recovery ventilator (ERV) to further reduce energy usage. Building energy savings can be demonstrated by performing a building energy model using the EnergyPro software available from EnergySoft, LLC. and comparing the building design with a baseline building as defined by 21

ASHRAE 90.1 2004. Energy Pro has been approved by the USGBC as acceptable for EAc1 calculations. Credit 5: Measurement and Verification (1 point) Some VRF system manufacturers offer software to provide for the ongoing accountability and optimization of building energy consumption over time, monitoring and logging energy consumption, heat-recovery cycles, static pressure and ventilation air volumes, and other building specific systems and equipment. Energy usage data obtained from such software can be compared with a building energy model prepared in Energy Pro in order to verify the energy savings shown by the model. Indoor Environmental Quality Prerequisite 1: Minimum IAQ Performance Required VRF systems can often meet minimum outside air requirements through the ventilation connections of the indoor units. In applications where more outside air is required and the indoor units capacity is exceeded, an ERV can bring in outside air by using the exhaust air from the building and transferring energy and moisture to or from the outside air before delivering it to occupied zones. Credit 1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring (1 point) The ERV can be fully integrated within a VRF controls systems, which allows the unit to be programmed based on occupancy. An ERV can also be integrated with a C02 sensor to energize the unit and or vary the airflow based on C02 levels within the space. Credit 2: Increased Ventilation (1 point) An ERV can be used to exchange a high percentage of air, which when used with adequate air distribution from ducted units, can increase the ventilation rates above the requirements of ASHRAE 62.1-2004. Credit 3.2: Construction IAQ Management Plan: Before Occupancy (1 point) An ERV can be used to flush the building prior to occupancy. Credit 5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control (1 point) Many VRF system indoor units can be installed with a filter. A design professional should be consulted to ensure that adequate static pressure is available to provide desired airflow performance. Credit 6.2: Controllability of Systems: Thermal Comfort (1 point) VRF systems can be controlled by the occupant via the wall-mounted remote controller that can be provided in every room, or centrally via web-based control. The occupant has the ability to control airflow direction, fan speed and temperature set points. Credit 7.1: Thermal Comfort: (1 point) When VRF systems are properly designed into a building, temperature and humidity control can be provided in accordance with the ASHRAE 55-2004 guidelines. Credit 7.2: Thermal Comfort: Verification (1 point) The trending software that many VRF system manufacturers can install provide verification of the space temperature, set temperature and mode of operation. The data obtained can be used in congruence with the thermal comfort surveys, required by this credit, to develop a plan to correct zones that present thermal comfort issues. Note: The LEED rating system is a measure of whole building sustainability and to effectively pursue a LEED certification for any building, the entire team (owner, architect, engineer, contractor, etc.) must work together to maximize potential. No single equipment selection can assure any level of certification.

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COMPONENTS AND SYSTEM LAYOUT


Software for Designing Systems
Most VRF manufacturers provide software that makes designing for VRF systems quick and easy. In some systems, the designer just needs to drag and drop components to complete the design. The program has built in safeguards against exceeding limitations and shows if there is an error. Assuring line lengths, maximum connected capacities, component selection, control scheme, etc. are within the system requirements.

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Indoor Unit Types Condensing units (or outdoor unit) of an air conditioning system contains the compressor, circuit board, and heat exchanger coil; pumps refrigerant to the evaporator coil (or indoor unit). These indoor units are available in multiple configurations such as wall-mounted, ceilingmounted cassette suspended, and concealed ducted types. Multiple types of indoor units can be combined with a single outdoor unit.

Controls Each individual indoor unit can be controlled by a programmable thermostat or a multiple indoor units serving the same zone can be controlled by the same thermostat. Most VRF manufacturers offer a centralized control option, which enables the user to monitor and control the entire system from a single location or via the Internet. System Controls An integral network operations and communications system with sensors to monitor and forecast the status of items such as temperature, pressure, oil, refrigerant levels and fan speed. A micro-processor, algorithm-based control scheme to: (1) communicate with an optimally managed variable capacity compressor, fan speed of indoor units, fan speed of the outdoor unit, solenoids, various accessories; (2) manage metering devices; and (3) concurrently operate various parts of the system. These controls optimize system efficiency and refrigerant flow through an engineered distributed refrigerant system to conduct zoning operations, matching capacity to the load in each of the zones.

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Refrigerant Circuit and Components VRF systems use a sophisticated refrigerant circuit that monitors mass flow, oil flow, and balance to ensure optimum performance. This is accomplished in unison with variable-speed compressors and condenser fan motors. Both of these components adjust their frequency in reaction to changing mass flow conditions and refrigerant operating pressures and temperatures. A dedicated microprocessor continuously monitors and controls these key components to ensure proper refrigerant is delivered to each indoor unit in cooling or heating.

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VRF heat-pump systems include either a two-pipe (liquid and suction gas) or three-pipe (liquid, suction gas, and discharge gas) configuration. Heat-recovery systems use similar pipe configurations, but add a gas flow device that determines the proper routing of refrigerant gas to a particular indoor unit. Typical System Layout Figure 1 illustrates a standard VRF configuration, while Figure 2 shows a heat recovery unit providing simultaneous heating and cooling.

Fig. 1: Typical VRF Configuration in an Office Building.

Fig. 2 Typical VRF Water Source Heat Pump Application

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Fig. 3: Heat Recovery VRF System. Designing Refrigeration LinesA New Approach. Calculating the refrigerant lines for VRF systems introduces new issues in reference to the liquid and suction lines: Diameter Its always the same; it doesnt matter the distance Liquid line Pressure drop isnt important, the expansion valve will handle it Suction line Have the same diameter to ensure oil return during the active oil return cycle and inform the cooling capacity reduction. Liquid Line The liquid line should be selected for the minimum refrigerant charge with a smaller diameter (less refrigerant charge), and minimum pressure drop, larger diameter (bigger refrigerant charge). The option was to choose the smaller diameter for less refrigerant charge and as a penalty the higher pressure drop in the liquid line. Manage the higher pressure drop plus vertical line risers in the refrigerant lines following these suggestions: Mechanical liquid sub-cooling to avoid flash gas, with less refrigerant in circulation and pumped by the compressor; o Increase the sub-cooling by increasing the condensing pressure: Refrigerant flash gas reduction is OK Higher condensing pressure means increase in the power consumption for the same capacity not acceptable o Heat exchange between the liquid line and the suction line: Refrigerant flash gas is OK Using almost all the exchange in the internal unit for evaporation is OK No increase in cooling capacity or in power consumption acceptable o Liquid evaporation from the liquid line to cool down the liquid line: Refrigerant flash gas is OK

27

Cooling capacity is almost the same by increasing the refrigerant specific enthalpy difference but reducing the mass flow acceptable Expansion valve operates together with the liquid line pressure drop to keep the condensing pressure in reasonable level. Flash gas refrigerant gas is acceptable, but the design of the liquid line is more difficult (refinet); o The total pressure drop between the high pressure and low pressure is part pressure drop and part expansion valve; o It keeps the condensing pressure always in its minimum value - OK o Refrigerant flash gas is OK; o It is necessary to use electronic expansion valve acceptable but with higher cost; o The design of the liquid line needs closer attention to keep the same ration of vapor mass and total mass needs attention; o Best control to be used o

Liquid Line Pressure Drop and Expansion Valve

Pressure MPa

Total pressure drop Liquid line pressure drop Condenser

Compressor

Evaporator

Enthalpy kJ/kg Refrigeration effect


Note: No problems Usually maximum capacity loss 2% Total pressure drop is the sum of liquid line and expansion valve Enthalpy is the same, it doesnt matter the pressure drop Its necessary an electronic expansion valve
Expansion valve pressure drop

Fig. 3 Refrigerant P&h diagram 28

The refrigerant lines in current VRF systems can have up to 50 m rise and 190 m equivalent length considering that the equipment is operating with full capacity and we have the following data: Table 4 Differential Pressure for Vertical Rise
Outside air Saturated dry bulb pressure C kPA 34.1 3000 36.9 3200 39.6 3400 Bubble temp. C 48.99 51.81 54.49 Dew temp. C 49.1 51.91 54.59 Liquid line Differential Pressure in kPa temp. Density Vertical Rise C kg/m3 10 m 20 m 30 m 40 m 50 m 38.99 914.5 90 179 269 358 448 41.81 892.6 87 175 262 350 437 44.49 870.0 85 171 256 341 426

Note: The difference between the saturated temperature and the dry bulb outside air temperature is 15.0C. 50 m Vertical Rise: o Pressure differential 448 kPa for dry bulb outside air 34.1C; o Liquid line sub-cooling 10C; o Equivalent saturated temperature difference 7.8 C o Liquid sub-cooling due to the 50 m vertical rise 2.2 C
ASHRAE Table 0.,02C/m kW 47.3 47.3 47.3 47.3 47.3

Table 5 Equivalent Temperature Difference Due to the Pressure Loss Equivalent Length
Cooling capacity kW 70.32 87.90 105.48 123.06 140.64 Liquid line Dia. inches 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 Equivalent length liquid line 60 100 140 2.45 4.08 5.72 3.66 6.10 8.54 5.08 8.47 11.86 6.71 11.18 15.65 8.53 14.22 19.91

Ton 20 25 30 35 40

mm 19,1 19,1 19,1 19,1 19,1

20 0.82 1.22 1.69 2.24 2.84

180 7.35 10.98 15.25 20.13 25.59

Note: Calculated according to the ASHRAE table 8 ASHRAE 2006 Refrigeration Handbook chapter 2 System Practices for Halocarbon Refrigerants. Equivalent length 180 m plus 50 m vertical rise for 40 tons and 19.1 mm tube diameter: Pressure drop o Vertical rise: 448 kPa or 7.8C o Equivalent length 180 m: 1525 kPa or 25.6C o Total pressure drop: 1973 kPa or 33.4 C o Minimum sub-cooling to assure only liquid 5C o Natural sub-cooling 10C o Mechanical sub-cooling necessary 28.4C o Total pressure differential 2005 kPa o Pressure differential available for the expansion valve 32 kPa for condensing pressure 3000 kPa and evaporating pressure 950 kPa Mechanical sub-cooling should be at least 28.4C and natural sub-cooling 10C, with a final sub-cooling 5C 29

If flash refrigerant gas is used, there may be natural sub-cooling 10C and the refrigerant will have 25% mass of refrigerant vapor Mass flow will be the same, because enthalpy is the same. Its important to remember that these numbers are for full cooling capacity, at partial load this wont be an issue. Most of the time, the system is operating at partial cooling capacity. The following tables show the pressure drop. Table 6 Pressure Drop for a Vertical Rise Liquid Line Refrigerant HFC 410A
DB Out- Saturated Bubble Dew side Air Pressure Temp. Temp C kPA C C 28.0 2600 42.9 43 31.1 2800 46.02 46.14 34.1 3000 48.99 49.1 36.9 3200 51.81 51.91 39.6 3400 54.49 54.59 42.2 3600 57.05 57.15 44.6 3800 59.5 59.59 46.9 4000 61.85 61.93 49.2 4200 64.1 64.17 Liquid Line Liquid Vertical liquid line rise pressure increase for Temp. Saturated Density HFC 410A C kPa kg/m3 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 34.9 2100 957 94 188 281 375 469 563 657 750 38.0 2300 935.8 92 183 275 367 459 550 642 734 41.0 2500 914.5 90 179 269 358 448 538 627 717 43.8 2700 892.6 87 175 262 350 437 525 612 700 46.5 2800 870.0 85 171 256 341 426 512 597 682 49.1 3000 846.3 83 166 249 332 415 498 581 663 51.5 3200 821.0 80 161 241 322 402 483 563 644 53.9 3400 793.5 78 156 233 311 389 467 544 622 56.1 3500 762.6 75 149 224 299 374 448 523 598

Note: A - Liquid sub-cooling 10C or 650 kPa, minimum sub-cooling 5C or 325 kPa B Blue columns liquid sub-cooling is OK C Yellow columns liquid sub-cooling near zero D Gray columns no more liquid sub-cooling, flash gas E The maximum vertical rise liquid line without mechanical sub-cooling is 40 m F It doesnt consider the pressure drop of the equivalent length

At least 10C sub-cooling is necessary to ensure only liquid in all branches for vertical rise. Table 7 Pressure Drop in C for the Equivalent Length of Liquid Line at Same Level
Cooling Capacity Diameter kW Tr pol Units 70 20 3/4 C 87 25 3/4 C 105 30 3/4 C 123 35 3/4 C 140 40 3/4 C 140 40 3/4 kPa 20 0.82 1.22 1.69 2.24 2.84 169 40 1.63 2.44 3.39 4.47 5.69 339 Equivalent length liquid line in meters 60 80 100 120 140 2.45 3.27 4.08 4.90 5.72 3.66 4.88 6.10 7.32 8.54 5.08 6.78 8.47 10.17 11.86 6.71 8.95 11.18 13.42 15.65 8.53 11.38 14.22 17.06 19.91 508 678 847 1017 1187 160 6.53 9.76 13.56 17.89 22.75 1356

Note: A - Liquid sub-cooling 10C B Blue columns liquid sub-cooling is OK C Yellow columns liquid sub-cooling near zero D Gray columns indicate the lack of liquid sub-cooling, flash gas E Liquid line diameter (19.05 mm) F The maximum equivalent length for the liquid line without mechanical sub-cooling for 100% cooling capacity is 40 m G The maximum equivalent length for the liquid line without mechanical sub-cooling for 50% cooling capacity is 140 m

30

As indicated, there is a possibility of using flash gas or increasing the mechanical cooling to ensure unit performance. Pressure drop in the liquid line doesnt reduce the cooling capacity or increase the power consumption. If the expansion valve is properly sized, the cooling capacity is reduced only 2% to 3% due to design of the liquid line. Suction Line Suction line is different. The pressure drop in the suction could be responsible for up to 20% reduction of cooling capacity. VRF system manufacturers decided to maintain the COP as high as possible by keeping the suction pressure near the compressor constant. To keep the performance and compensate for the pressure drop, it is usually necessary to reduce the pressure at the compressors suction. This will keep the evaporator cooling capacity, but reduces the compressor cooling capacity and with the same power consumption, will lower the COP. VRF system manufacturers decided to maintain the compressor suction saturated temperature always near 5.5C. (42F) It doesnt matter how the evaporators are operatingthe saturated temperature at the evaporators will be always the compressor suction saturated temperature plus the pressure drop. For the compressor, maintaining the temperature near 5.5C (42F) is perfectthe COP is almost constant. But for the evaporator that means higher saturated temperature, which results in: Small sensible cooling capacity variation 10% so dry bulb will be OK 100% latent cooling capacity variation problems with humidity Large variation in total cooling capacity due to the latent cooling capacity variation problems with humidity Evaporators arent operational for evaporating temperature above 10C Table 8 Coil Cooling Capacity Different Evaporating Temperature
Coil Cooling Condition 1 2 3 4 Performance Saturated C 4 6 8 10 Sensible kW 15.4 14 12.8 12.7 Percentage % 110% 100% 91% 91% Cooling Capacity Latent Percentage kW % 6.8 139% 4.9 100% 3 61% 0 0% Total kW 22.2 18.9 15.8 12.7 Percentage % 117% 100% 84% 67%

Coil Specifications: Application Cooling Tube Diameter Copper Fin Material Aluminum 0.006 thick Fin length 30 Fin Height 20 Rows 4, 12 FPI 8 circuits Air Flow 3400 m3/h or 2000 CFM EAT-DB 26.7C and EAT-WB 19.4C Refrigerant HCFC-22 Suction Temperature: 4C, 6C, 8C, and 10C 31

Table 9 Suction Line Pressure Drop in C HFC-410A


kW Refrigerant Charge Cooling Capacity 70.32 87.90 105.48 123.06 140.64 Diameter pol mm kg Tr 20 25 30 35 40 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 42 42 42 42 42 42 20 1.01 40 Suction Line - Equivalent length 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

2.02 3.04 4.05 5.06 6.07 7.08 8.10 9.11 Pressure Drop in C saturated temperature equivalent 0.28 0.55 0.83 1.10 1.38 1.66 1.93 2.21 2.48 0.41 0.82 1.24 1.65 2.06 2.47 2.89 3.30 3.71 0.57 1.14 1.72 2.29 2.86 3.43 4.01 4.58 5.15 0.76 1.51 2.27 3.02 3.78 4.53 5.29 6.04 6.80 0.96 1.92 2.88 3.84 4.80 5.76 6.72 7.68 8.65

Note: A Pressure drop suction line in equivalent temperature C B Blue columns pressure drop is up to 2C, good performance OK C Yellow columns pressure drop is from 2C up to 3C, acceptable D Pink columns pressure drop from 3C up to 5C not acceptable latent cooling is zero E Red columns pressure drop above 5C equipment wont cool, totally wrong E Suction line diameter 1-5/8 (42 mm) F The maximum equivalent length 180 m, cooling capacity shouldnt be greater than 75% of the nominal cooling capacity G For full cooling capacity maximum equivalent length should be not greater than 100 m H DOAS Dedicated outside air is mandatory for VRF with pressure drop higher than 3C If the hypothesis is that the compressor cooling capacity is controlled by the suction pressure at the compressor, for lines greater than 100 m, the unit will never be at full capacity and probably the highest cooling capacity will be 75% of the nominal. Active Oil Return Active oil return is well known. The equipment opens all the expansion valves, the compressors operate at the manufacturers predefined speed, and the refrigerants high velocity through the suction line will return the oil. Ducts No Longer Necessary In small jobs or jobs with small rooms, its easy to use a ductless system. In large systems usually with chilled water (high temperature differential; variable flow) and the air side (variable flow with VAV; diffusers for variable air flow), the cost of the air side is so high that is an issue for a complete system: Equipment: 18% Chiller Plant +1% Splits +9% F&C = 28%; Air Distribution: 5% VAV +6% Sound attenuation +24% Ducts = 35%; Electrical Installation = 10%; Hydraulic Installation = 10%; Controls: = 9% Exhaust and Ventilation = 3% Fire protection system = 3% Engineering = 1% 32

Air distribution system that includes ducts, VAV box, controls air side, grilles, diffusers and labor represents 35% of the total system price, which is why using ductless VRF systems is advantageous. VRF system equipment will cost more than air distribution system equipment, but when the total cost is compared, it could be less expensive. Another advantage for ductless systems is the reduced electrical power consumption. VRF will push harder for ductless system.

SYSTEM OPERATION
Explanation of P-H Diagram (Refrigerant Characteristics Table) The following P-H (pressure, enthalpy) diagram shows characteristics of various refrigerants with pressure on the vertical axis and enthalpy on the horizontal axis.

The change of state from gas to liquid is called condensing and that from liquid to gas is called evaporating. The boundary state of each change is called saturation, and the temperature generating saturation is called the saturation temperature. Saturation temperature depends on the kind of refrigerant and pressure. The characteristics of saturation temperature are shown on P-H diagrams of various refrigerants, and are called the saturation curve. The characteristics of temperature gradients for pressure and enthalpy are shown on P-H diagrams, called isothermal lines. By knowing the zone divided with saturation curve in which the intersection point of pressure and isothermal line is included, the information on the state of refrigerant can be provided. The intersection above can be obtained by measuring pressure and temperature of refrigerant at a certain point. For single refrigerants such as R22 and R134A, the isothermal line has no gradient in the saturated area, that is, the saturation temperature under certain pressure is the same at both the liquid side and the gas side. For mixed or blended refrigerants such as R407C and R410A, in which multiple refrigerants with different boiling points are mixed, their isothermal lines have gradients in the saturated area, so the saturation temperatures under certain pressure are different at the liquid side and the gas side. They are called zeotropic refrigerants, with the exception that R410A is called an quasi azeotropic refrigerant.

States of refrigerants are classified in the following three categories: Superheated vapor: state that refrigerant exists as gas Saturated vapor: state that is a mixture of liquid and gas (this is also called wet vapor) Subcooled liquid: state that refrigerant exists as liquid. 33

Concept of Basic Refrigeration Cycle The following P-H diagram shows characteristics of various refrigerants with pressure on the vertical axis and enthalpy on the horizontal axis. Theoretical refrigeration cycle neglecting pressure loss is shown.

The difference between temperature and pressure equivalent saturation temperature is called the Superheated Degree. The difference between discharge pipe temperature and condensing temperature is called the Discharging Superheated Degree (DSH). The difference between suction pipe temperature and evaporating temperature is called Suction Superheated Degree (SH). Generally, superheated degree means suction-superheated degree. The difference between temperature and pressure equivalent saturation temperature in subcooled liquid is called Subcooled Degree (SC).

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In order to prevent wet operation (*), the superheated degree is calculated at the evaporator outlet, and the refrigerant flow rate into the evaporator is regulated with the expansion valve, so that the superheated vapor only is returned to the compressor. * Wet operation is a state of operation where wet vapor not completely vaporized in the evaporator is sucked by the compressor, causing liquid return or liquid hammering. Points of Refrigerant Control of VRF System Cooling Operation Influenced by the number of operating (thermostat-on) units, capacity, airflow rate, returnair temperature, and humidity of indoor units: Load on total system changes. Loads on every indoor unit are different.

Compressor Capacity Control In order to maintain the cooling capacity corresponding to the capacity of evaporator and load fluctuation, based on the pressure detected by low pressure sensor of the outdoor unit (Pe), the compressor capacity is controlled so as to put the low pressure equivalent saturation temperatures (evaporation temperature = Te) close to target value. Superheated Degree Control of Indoor Electronic Expansion Valve To maintain the superheated degree in the evaporator and to distribute proper refrigerant flow rate regardless of different loads on every indoor unit, based on the temperature detected by thermistors on the liquid pipes and gas pipes, the indoor electronic expansion valve is regulated so as to put superheated degree at the evaporator outlet close to target value. * Superheated degree SH = (indoor gas pipe temperature - indoor liquid pipe temperature) *1. When sizing indoor units, caution should be taken to ensure that the unit is not oversized for the calculated load; otherwise, large temperature swings, poor comfort levels, and overall system inefficiencies may occur. Heating Operation Influenced by change the number of operating (thermostat-on) units, capacity, airflow rate, and return-air temperature of indoor units: 35

Load on total system changes. Loads on every indoor unit are different.

Compressor Capacity Control To maintain the heating capacity against condenser capacity and load fluctuation based on the pressure detected by high-pressure sensor control (Pc), compressor capacity is controlled so as to put the high pressure equivalent saturation temperature (condensing temperature = Tc) close to target value. Superheated Degree Control of Indoor Electronic Expansion Valve To maintain the superheated degree in the evaporator, based on the pressure detected and calculated low pressure sensor equivalent saturation temperature (Te) & the temperature detected by the suction pipe thermistor, the outdoor unit electronic expansion valve is controlled to maintain the superheat value of the evaporator outlet close to the target value. * Superheated degree SH = (outdoor suction pipe temperature - outdoor evaporating temperature) Subcooled Degree Control of Indoor Electronic Expansion Valve To distribute proper refrigerant flow rate regardless of different loads on every indoor unit, based on the pressure detected, and calculated high pressure equivalent saturation temperature of the outdoor unit (Tc) and the temperature detected on the thermistor of indoor liquid pipe, the indoor electronic expansion valve is controlled so as to put subcooled degree at condenser outlet close to target value. * Subcooled degree SC = (outdoor condensing temperature - indoor liquid pipe temperature) *1. When sizing indoor units, caution should be taken to ensure that the unit is not oversized for the calculated load; otherwise the phenomenon of the EEV not fully closing can cause the zone to heat up even during thermostat-OFF, causing user discomfort and an ineffective system. Compressor Capacity Control 36

Using the compressor capacity controller of the VRF system, the pressure detected (Pe or Pc) by the pressure sensor installed in the outdoor unit is converted into the equivalent saturation temperature, and the evaporating temperature (Te) while cooling, or the condensing temperature (Tc) while heating, are controlled with PI control so as to put them close to the target value. This maintains stable capacity regardless of incessantly varying loads. Refer to the following target value table. All target temperatures represent mean saturation temperatures on the gas side

The pressure loss in piping increases depending on connected pipe length and operation capacity of the compressor. In order to compensate the reduction of capacity caused by the pressure loss in piping the following correction is made:

The target value can be adjusted with a field setting. Long connection piping at the installation site may increase pressure loss in piping and an inverse installation (outdoor unit placed lower than indoor unit) may increase liquid

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pipe inside resistance. In this event, a lower setting of target evaporation temperature by using field setting helps to give stable operation. For short connection piping, a higher setting enables stable operation. In addition, samplings of evaporating temperature and condensing temperature are made so that the pressure detected by pressure sensors of high/low pressure are read every 20 seconds and calculated. With each reading, the compressor capacity (INV frequency or STD ON/OFF) is controlled to eliminate deviation from target value.

Control of Electronic Expansion Valves Electronic Expansion Valve of Outdoor Unit: In Cooling Operation In cooling operation, the outdoor electronic expansion valve is basically in the fully open position. Note: The valve can be fully closed when a bridge circuit is included. In Heating Operation = Superheated Degree Control Superheated degree [SH] is calculated from the low-pressure equivalent saturation temperature (Te) converted from the pressure detected by the low pressure sensor of the outdoor unit (Pe) and temperature detected by the suction pipe thermistor (Te). The electronic expansion valve opening degree is regulated so that the superheated degree [SH] becomes close to target superheated degree [SHS]. When SH > SHS, adjust to make opening degree of the electronic expansion valve larger than the present one. When SH< SHS, adjust to make opening degree of the electronic expansion valve smaller than the present one. SH : Superheated degree (Ts Te) SHS : Target superheated degree (Normally 9 F / 5C) REFERENCE: Control range of outdoor electronic expansion valve: R410A unit ... 0 to 1400 pulses Electronic Expansion Valve of Indoor Unit In Cooling Operation = Superheated Degree Control Superheated degree [SH] is calculated from temperature detected by the gas pipe thermistor of indoor unit (Tg) and the temperature detected by the liquid pipe thermistor (Tl). The electronic expansion valve opening degree is controlled so that the superheated degree [SH] is close to the targeted superheated degree [SHS]. The compensation is made based on the temperature difference between set-point temperature and the return-air thermistor temperature (T). When SH > SHS, adjust to make opening degree of the electronic expansion valve larger than the present one. When SH< SHS, adjust to make opening degree of the electronic expansion valve smaller than the present one. o SH : Superheated degree (Tg Tl) o SHS : Target superheated degree

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Normally 9 F (5C), but when the temperature difference (T) decreases, SHS increases. Even when SH is large, the opening degree of the electronic expansion valve becomes small. o (T): Remote controller set-point temperature return-air thermistor detection value In Heating Operation = Subcooled Degree Control Subcooled degree [SC] is calculated from the high pressure equivalent saturation temperature (Tc) converted from the pressure detected by high pressure sensor of the outdoor unit and the temperature detected by the liquid pipe thermistor of the indoor unit (Tl). Electronic expansion valve opening degree is regulated so that the subcooled degree [SC] is close to target subcooled degree [SCS]. The compensation is made based on the temperature difference between set-point temperature and the return-air thermistor temperature (T). When SC > SCS, adjust to make opening degree of the electronic expansion valve larger than the present one. When SC < SCS, adjust to make opening degree of the electronic expansion valve smaller than the present one. o SC : Subcooled degree (Tc - Tl) o SCS : Target Subcooled degree o Normally 9 F (5C), but when the temperature difference (T) decreases, SCS increases. Even when SC is large, the opening degree of the electronic expansion valve becomes small. o (T): Remote controller set-point temperature - return-air thermistor detection. Heating Operation Using VRF heat pump units for heating and cooling can increase building energy efficiency, especially when the heating obtained from the heat pump mode replaces an electric resistance heating coil. Most VRF units provide higher heating capacities than conventional DX heat pumps at low ambient temperatures. The designer must evaluate the heat output for the units at the outdoor design temperature. Manufacturers indicate the heating capacities at catalog minimum outside temperature, after which point, a low ambient kit is sometimes offered as an option. When the outdoor temperature drops below the temperature indicated in the catalog, the heating output from the heat pump cycle decreases. Supplemental heating should be considered when the heating capacity of the VRF units is below the heating capacity required by the application. Sequence of operation and commissioning must specify and prevent premature activation of supplemental heating. Simultaneous Heating and Cooling Operation In heat-recovery VRF systems, although several indoor sections are connected to one outdoor section, some indoor sections can provide heating, while others provide cooling. The prices for those units and their installation are higher than that of cooling- or heating-only units. More economical design can sometimes be achieved by combining zones with similar heating or cooling requirements together. When zones with different cooling/heating requirements are connected to the same outdoor section, consider units that are capable of providing simultaneous heating and cooling. Examples of zones that may require simultaneous heating and cooling when 39

combined are interior and exterior zones; exterior zones with different exposures; and zones requiring comfort cooling with rooms requiring close environmental control. Units capable of providing simultaneous heating and cooling are not available in smaller sizes (e.g., capacities below 6 tons [21 kW]).

Heating and Defrost Operation In heating mode, VRF systems typically must defrost like any mechanical heat pump, using reverse cycle valves to temporarily operate the outdoor coil in cooling mode. Oil return and balance with the refrigerant circuit is managed by the microprocessor to ensure that any oil entrained in the low side of the system is brought back to the high side by increasing the refrigerant velocity using a high-frequency operation performed automatically based on hours of operation. The DX fan coils are constant air volume, but use variable refrigerant flow through an electronic expansion valve. The electronic expansion valve reacts to several temperature-sensing devices such as return air, inlet and outlet refrigerant temperatures, or suction pressure. The electronic expansion valve modulates to maintain the desired set point. APPLICATIONSBUILDING TYPES (NEW CONSTRUCTION AND RETROFIT) Offices Schools and universities Limited care facilities; nursing homes Multi-tenant dwellings; apartments Hotel and motel Churches Residential Hospitals

REFERENCES
Refrigerants (from ASHRAE Standard 34) R-22 Single Compound - HCFC Methane-based, Contains Chlorine - Safety Group A1 (S34-Table 1) R-32 Single Compound HFC No Chlorine Safety Group A2 (S34-Table 1) R-125 Single Compound HFC No Chlorine Safety Group A1 (S34-Table 1) 40

R-134A Single Compound - HFC Ethane-based, No Chlorine - Safety Group A1 (S34-Table 1) R-407C Zeotropic Blend (23.0% R-32, 25.0% R-125, 52.0% R-134A) HFC No chlorine (S34-Table 2) R-410A Zeotropic Blend (50% R-32, 50% R-125) HFC No chlorine (S34-Table 2) Safety Group Classifications (from ASHRAE Standard 34) Classification consists of two alphanumeric characters. The capital letter indicates toxicity and the numeral indicates flammability (S34-6.1.1). Class A signifies refrigerants for which toxicity has not been identified at concentrations less than 400 ppm (S34-6.1.2). Class 1 indicates refrigerants that do not show flame propagation, Class 2 indicates refrigerants that have a low flammability limit (S34-6.1.3) Some Related Standards: UBC - Chapter 11 and ISO 5149 Code Documents: OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 and EPA 40 CFR 68

1-Green Buildings show higher rents, occupancy Building Operating Management July 2008. http://www.facilitiesnet.com/bom/article.asp?id=9225

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