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Hydroelectric dam in cross section Berkas:Stwlan.dam.750pix.

jpg The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales.The power station at the lower reservoir has four water turbines which can generate 360 megawatts of electricity within 60 seconds of the need arising. The water of the upper reservoir (Llyn Stylan) can just be glimpsed on the right.

Hidroelektrisitas
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Langsung ke: navigasi, cari Hidroelektrisitas adalah satu bentuk tenaga hidro digunakan untuk memproduksi listrik. Kebanyakan tenaga hidroelektrik berasal dari energi potensial dari air yang dibendung dan menggerakkan turbin air dan generator. Bentuk yang kurang umum adalah memanfaatkan energi kinetik seperti tenaga ombak. Hidroelektrisitas adalah sumber energi terbaharui. Di banyak bagian Kanada (provinsi British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, dan Newfoundland and Labrador) hidroelektrisitas digunakan secara luas. Pusat tenaga yang dijalani oleh provinsi-provinsi ini disebut BC Hydro, [[[Manitoba Hydro]], Hydro One (dulunya "Ontario Hydro"), Hydro-Qubec, dan Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro. Hydro-Qubec merupakan perusahaan penghasil listrik hydro terbesar dunia, dengan total listrik terpasang sebesar 31.512 MW (2005).

[sunting] Pentingnya

Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator. Tenaga listrik hydro, menggunakan kinetik, atau energi gerakan sungai, sekarang menyediakan 20% listrik dunia. Norwegia menghasilkan hampir seluruh listriknya dari hydro, sedangkan Iceland memproduksi 83% dari kebutuhannya (2004), Austria memproduksi 67% dari seluruh listrik yang dihasilkan di negara tersebut. Kanada merupakan penghasil tenaga hidro terbesar dunia dan memproduksi lebih dari 70% listriknya dari sumber hidroelektrik.

[sunting] Lihat pula

Wikimedia Commons memiliki galeri mengenai: Hidroelektrisitas


Hydropower List of energy topics Wave power Tidal power List of reservoirs and dams Tennessee Valley Authority Small hydro Pumped-storage hydroelectricity Environmental concerns with electricity generation William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong an early private hydroelectric station

[sunting] Pranala luar

Hydroelectric power

World Commission on Dams report on environmental and social effects of large dams, including discussion of greenhouse gas emissions Hydroelectricity - Water potential powered systems, focusing on nonimpactive small hydro. (FreeEnergyNews.com) River Energy - river turbine systems, not dam. (FreeEnergyNews.com)

Templat:Sustainability and energy development group Diperoleh dari "http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hidroelektrisitas" Kategori: Energi terbaharui | Konversi energi | Penyimpanan energi | Energi alternatif

11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 Tenaga hidro atau Microhidro adalah energi melalui aliran air baik biasanya di sungai yang dapat dipakai untuk membangkitkan listrik dalam daya tertentu. Secara teknis, alat pembangkit dipasang pada aliran sungai, kemudian energi yang dihasilkan disimpan/dialirkan melalui Pembangkit Listrik. Langsung ke: navigasi, cari

Gravitasi bumi, salah satu gaya yang menimbulkan energi potensial. Energi potensial adalah energi yang ditimbulkan oleh posisi relatif atau konfigurasi objek pada suatu sistem fisik. Bentuk energi ini memiliki potensi untuk mengubah keadaan objek-objek lain di sekitarnya, contohnya, konfigurasi atau gerakannya. Contoh sederhana energi ini adalah jika seseorang membawa suatu batu ke atas bukit dan meletakkannya di sana, batu tersebut akan mendapat energi potensial gravitasi. Jika kita meregangkan suatu karet gelang, kita dapat mengatakan bahwa karet gelang tersebu mendapatkan energi potensial elastik. Berbagai jenis energi dapat dikelompokkan sebagai energi potensial. Setiap bentuk energi ini dihubungkan dengan suatu jenis gaya tertentu yang bekerja terhadap sifat fisik tertentu materi (seperti massa, muatan, elastisitas, suhu, dll). Energi potensial gravitasi dihubungkan dengan gaya gravitasi yang bekerja terhadap massa benda; energi potensial elastik terhadap gaya elastik (gaya elektromagnetik) yang bekerja terhadap elastisitas objek yang berubah bentuk; energi potensial elektrikal dengan gaya coulomb; gaya nuklir kuat atau lemah yang bekerja terhadap muatan elektrik pada objek; energi potensial kimia, dengan potensial kimia pada suatu konfigurasi

atomik atau molekular tertentu yang bekerja terhadap struktur atomik atau molekular zat kimia yang membentuk objek; energi potensial termal dengan gaya elektromagnetik yang berhubungan dengan suhu objek.

Turbin air adalah sebuah mesin berputar yang mengambil energi dari gerakan air. Turbin air dikembangkan pada awalh abad ke-19 dan digunakan secara luas untuk tenaga industri sebelum adanya jaringan listrik. Sekarang mereka digunakan untuk pembangkit tenaga listrik. Mereka mengambil sumber energi yang bersih dan terbaharui.

Pandangan dalam Turbin Kaplan dan generator listrik. Generator listrik adalah sebuah alat yang memproduksi energi listrik dari sumber energi mekanikal, biasanya dengan menggunakan induksi elektromagnetik. Proses ini dikenal sebagai pembangkit listrik. Walau generator dan motor punya banyak kesamaan, tapi motor adalah alat yang mengubah energi listrik menjadi energi mekanik. Generator mendorong muatan listrik untuk bergerak melalui sebuah sirkuit listrik eksternal, tapi generator tidak menciptakan listrik yang sudah ada di dalam kabel lilitannya. Hal ini bisa dianalogikan dengan sebuah pompa air, yang menciptakan aliran air tapi tidak menciptakan air di dalamnya. Sumber enegi mekanik bisa berupa resiprokat maupun turbin mesin uap, air yang jatuh melakui sebuah turbin maupun kincir air, mesin pembakaran dalam, turbin angin, engkol tangan, energi surya atau matahari, udara yang dimampatkan, atau apapun sumber energi mekanik yang lain. Langsung ke: navigasi, cari "Generator" beralih ke sini. Untuk penggunaan lain, lihat generator (disambiguasi)

Energi terbaharui mendapatkan energi dari aliran energi yang berasal dari "proses alam yang berkelanjutan", seperti sinar matahari, angin, air yang mengalir proses biologi, dan geothermal.

Hydroelectricity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search Hydroelectricity is electricity that is made by the movement of water. It is usually made with dams that block a river or collect water that is pumped there. When the water is "let go" the huge pressure behind the dam forces the water down shafts that lead to a turbine, this causes the turbine to turn, and electricity is produced.

[change] Advantages of hydroelectricity


The way the electricity is produced does not harm the environment as much as fossil fuels like oil or coal. Hydroelectricity is safe and produces no waste. Hydroelectricity can be made very quickly. This makes it useful for times when demand is high. Water that has been stored in a dam can be "let go" when needed, so the energy needed can be made quickly. hydroelectricity will not run out as long as there is a good water supply. Once the dam is built the electricity is free, no waste or pollution produced and electricity can be generated constantly.

[change] Disadvantages of hydroelectricity


The building of large dams to hold the water can damage the environment. In 1983 Australian government stopped the Tasmanian state government from building a dam on the Gordon River in Tasmania after a huge public protest.[1] The dam would have flooded the beautiful Franklin River. The Three Gorges Dam in China will be the world's largest hydroelectricity project. The dam has flooded a huge area, meaning that 1.2 million people have had to be moved. Scientists are concerned about many problems with the dam, such as pollution, silt, and the danger of the dam wall breaking.[2]

[change] References

Electricity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Electricity is sent on wires.

Electricity is made in power stations

Lightning is the most visible way we see electricity in nature

A drawing of an electric circuit. The current (I) flows from + round the circuit back to Electricity is a type of energy found in nature. We see it in nature when we see a lightning flash or when we stroke an animal and feel sparks. Scientists have also found we can make electricity if we pass a magnet close to a metal wire or if we put the right chemicals in a jar with two different kinds of metal rod. Scientists have observed that electricity seems to flow like water from one place to another, either as a spark or as a current in a metal. They now know that all matter has electric charge but this is mostly canceled out by the presence of matter with an opposite charge. We only see an effect when there is too much or too little electric charge in one place so that it is not canceled out. Since the nineteenth century electricity has been made into a useful thing that affects every part of our lives. Until then it was just a curiosity or a force of nature seen in a thunderstorm. To be useful electricity has to be made from other sources of energy such as by burning coal or oil or from wind or flowing water in a power station. Electricity arrives at our homes through wires from the places where it is made. It is used by Electric Lamps for producing light, Electric Heaters to produce heat etc. It is also used by many devices like washing machines, Electric Cookers, etc for doing work. In factories, electricity is used for running machines and computers. The people who deal with electricity and electrical devices in our homes and factories are called "Electricians".

Contents
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1 Electricity in physics 2 Electric current o 2.1 Some terms related to electricity 3 Methods of generating o 3.1 Geothermal power stations
o

3.2 Renewable sources of electricity

[change] Electricity in physics


Electricity works because electric charges push and pull on each other. There are two types of electric charge, positive charge and negative charge. Two positive charges repel each other. This means that if you put two positive charges close together and let them go, they would fly apart. Two negative charges also repel. But a negative charge and a positive charge attract each other. This means that if you put a positive charge and a negative charge close together, they would smack together. A short way to remember this is the phrase opposites attract, likes repel. Electric charges can push or pull on each other even though they are not touching. This is possible because each charge makes an electric field around itself. An electric field is an area that surrounds a charge. At each point near a charge, the electric field points in a certain direction. If a positive charge is put at that point, it will be pushed in that direction. If a negative charge is put at that point, it will be pushed in the exact opposite direction. All the matter in the world is made of tiny positive and negative charges. The positive charges are called protons, and the negative charges are called electrons. Protons are much bigger and heavier than electrons, but they both have the same amount of electric charge, except that protons are positive and electrons are negative. Because "opposites attract," protons and electrons stick together. A few protons and electrons can form bigger particles called atoms and molecules. Atoms and molecules are still very tiny. It is impossible to see them without a very powerful microscope. Any big object, like your body, has more atoms and molecules in it than anyone could count. Because negative electrons and positive protons stick together to make big objects, all big objects that we can see and feel are electrically neutral. Electrically is a word meaning "describing electricity" and neutral is a word meaning, "balanced." That is why we do not feel objects pushing and pulling on us from a distance, like they would if everything was electrically charged. All big objects are electrically neutral because there is exactly the same amount of positive and negative charge in the world. We could say that the world is exactly balanced, or neutral. This seems very surprising and lucky. Scientists still do not know why this is so, even though they have been studying electricity for a long time.

[change] Electric current


In some materials, electrons are stuck tightly in place, while in other materials, electrons can move all around the material. Protons never move around a solid object because they are so heavy, at least compared to the electrons. A material that lets electrons move around is called a conductor. A material that keeps each electron tighly in place is called an insulator. Examples of conductors are copper, aluminum, silver, and gold. Examples of insulators are rubber, plastic, and wood. Copper is used very often as a conductor because it is a very good conductor and there is so much of it in the world. But sometimes other materials are used. Inside a conductor, electrons bounce around, but they do not keep going in one direction for long. But if an electric field is set up inside the conductor, the electrons will all start to move in the direction opposite to the direction the field is pointing (because electrons are negatively charged). A battery can make an electric field inside a conductor. If both ends of a piece of wire are connected to the two ends of a battery (called the electrodes) the loop that was made is called a circuit. Electrons will flow around and around the circuit as long as the battery is making an electric field inside the wire. This flow of electrons around the circuit is called electric current. A conducting wire used to carry electric current is often wrapped in an insulator like rubber. This is because wires that carry current are very dangerous. If a person or an animal touched a bare wire carrying current, they could get hurt or even die depending on how strong the current was. You should be careful around electrical sockets and bare wires that might be carrying current. It is possible to connect an electrical device to a circuit so that electrical current will flow through a device. This current will make the device do something that we want it to do. Electrical devices can be very simple. For example, in a light bulb, current flows through a special wire called a filament, which makes it glow. Electrical devices can also be very complicated. Electricity can be used to drive a motor inside a tool like a drill or a pencil sharpener. Electricity is also used to power modern electronic devices, including telephones, computers, and televisions.

Dam
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search A dam is a large wall or barrier that obstructs or stop the flow of water, forming a reservoir or a lake. Most dams have a section called a spillway or weir over which, or through which, water flows, either sometimes or always. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water. The tallest dam in the world is the 300 meter high Nurek Dam in Tajikistan.

[change] History

Some of the first dams were built in Mesopotamia up to 7,000 years ago. Modern dams are built with arched walls of steel rod-reinforced concrete. The arched wall is a very strong shape which helps the wall to withstand the huge weight of the water.

[change] Reasons for building dams


There are a number of reasons that people build dams. Some countries build dams to control the flow of water in the downstream river systems, and prevent flooding. Other countries build dams to generate electricity using hydroelectric turbine generators. Other countries use dams to store water for use in irrigation (for farming).

A dam in Turkey

The Three Gorges Dam in China

The Aswan High dam of Lake Nasser in Egypt

River
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The River Thames in England. People have lived along the banks of this river for thousands of years. A river is a stream of water that flows through a "channel" (or passage) in the surface of the ground. There are also underground rivers. The passage where the river flows is called the riverbed and the earth on each side is called a riverbank. A river begins on high ground or in hills or mountains and flows down from the high ground to the lower ground, because of gravity. A river begins as a small stream and gets bigger, the further that it flows.

The water in a river is called "fresh water". It comes from rain or snow and it can usually be drunk safely, unless it has been polluted. The water in a sea cannot be drunk safely because it is "salt water". Both people and animals often live near rivers, because they need water to survive.

Contents
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1 About rivers
o

1.1 The beginning of a river

Turbine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A steam turbine with the case opened. A turbine is an engine that turns fluid into energy. Simple turbines have a shaft with a blade on it. Moving fluids, such as water or air, push the blades so that they turn around with the shaft. The turning movement can be used to make energy. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels. Turbine blades can also be turned to move a fluid. This is how simple propeller airplanes work. A casing can be placed around the turbine to control the movement of the fluid.

[change] Other websites

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Turbine

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