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Christina A.

DeLeo ePortfolio Rationale Paper for Association for Educational Communications and Technology EdTech 592 Fall 2011 Dr. Young Baek, Boise State University September 5, 2011

Table of Contents Introduction AECT Standards Standard 1: Design 1.1 Instructional Systems Design 1.2 Message Design 1.3 Instructional Strategies 1.4 Learner Characteristics Standard 2: Development 2.1 Print Technologies 2.2 Audiovisual Technologies 2.3 Computer-Based Technologies 2.4 Integrated Technologies Standard 3: Utilization 3.1 Media Utilization 3.2 Diffusion of Innovations 3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization 3.4 Policies and Regulations Standard 4: Management 4.1 Project Management 4.2 Resource Management 4.3 Delivery System Management 4.4 Information Management Standard 5: Evaluation 5.1 Problem Analysis 5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement 5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation 5.4 Long-Range Planning Conclusion References

Introduction: This rationale paper is an illustration of my Master of Educational Technology journey, which combines my culminating activities that represent the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) standards. My professional background has been diverse. I am not a teacher but more of a mentor who gains personal satisfaction from empowering others with the tools that he or she needs to do their job efficiently and effectively. I have worked many positions in the Accounting and Procurement field for a Fortune 500 company throughout the past 16 years. Unfortunately during these hard economic times, I was laid off in the Spring of 2009 due to workforce reduction. Furthermore, being a deaf dislocated worker has made it difficult in re-enter the job market. With the hope of utilizing my background in Business Management, I wanted to focus my efforts on being a community liaison, educator, and advocate for the Disabled minority who are seeking active employment. Additionally, I wanted to continue my learning in the areas of networking and interacting with other educational professionals, utilizing a wide use of multimedia products and software for instructional purposes, and mentoring. This paper will portray several of my projects that I have worked on in completing my Masters of Educational Technology degree at the Boise State University. When utilizing the Association for Educational Communications and Technology standards in my courses, my goal was to collaborate the AECT standards model in the areas of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation. Selected AECT Standards Artifacts: In this paper, I will demonstrate how each artifact has contributed to my understanding of theory, practice, and application of the AECT Standards. Standard 1: Design Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, and instructional strategies, and learner characteristics. 1.1 Instructional Systems Design In EdTech 503, I gained the confidence to develop instructional design projects that would give my learners guidelines that he or she could follow as learner goals, define what the end goal is, and that I could assess my learners to evaluate the needs for learning. This provided me with the opportunity to acquire knowledge in learner characteristics, the culminating activities needed for learning, assessments, and surveys. I chose my artifact on a project I created called Learning ooVoo as Rich Media. This artifact illustrates my competencies to identify instructional design models, explain the reason for choosing the design models, and describe the learner characteristics by utilizing Gagnes Nine Events of Learning which was described in Smith & Ragans Instructional Design book. The information that I have gained from the International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction (IBSTIPI) has provided me with guidelines in constructing my Instructional Systems Design project. This

artifact has given me the confidence to utilize an array of tools such as Microsoft Word, Power Point, Jing Screen Saver, Adobe Dream Weaver, and Adobe PDF. When utilizing these tools, I was able to follow the guidelines that the IBSTIPI has provided when constructing instructional materials and have the confidence in teaching my learners. 1.2 Message Design In EdTech 506, by constructing my Key Steps in Purchasing project, I enjoyed learning about applying the principles of visual literacy into instructional messages. I feel that this was a fun and challenging course because it allowed me to try different software media to apply graphic designs to instructional materials. I could personally relate to this type of course, due to the fact that being deaf, having visuals for learning literacy are a very effective method for learning. I enjoyed designing instructions that were visually appealing and interactive. The theory that I applied to this course was planning and creating symbols that would produce desired cognitive behaviors based on perception as described in Linda Lohrs book, Creating Graphics for Learning and Performance, which utilized the figure and ground contrasts, and CARP (Contrast, Alignment, Repetition, and Proximity). I refined my graphic skills based on my peers and instructors feedback. I used these skills to support the lesson topics for adult learners to allow them to visualize the concept of the lessons and build cognitive behaviors which reinforced the learning principles. Evaluating the design media helped me as a designer to pinpoint the areas that needed improvement which more effectively allowed the learners to process and retain the information (Lohr, 2008). 1.3 Instructional Strategies In EdTech 512, I learned how to develop instructional strategies to select and sequence learning events and activities within the lessons through Moodle. I chose my topic on Fun Facts about Volcanoes for two reasons; one was to teach English as a Second Language ESL for adult learner. The second reason was to apply the theory of the Web-Based Instructional Design (WBID) model in creating my course through Moodle. The learning goals were to implement problem analysis for my students, state what the learning goal were, explain the context analysis for organizational structure, list what competencies are needed for both instructor and learners, and describe the learner location and what technologies were needed. This provided learner analysis that included evaluation and assessment. 1.4 Learner Characteristics In EdTech 502, I enjoyed creating Web Accessibility, not just because it was a personal experience, but I also had a desire to learn and develop accessibility for people with disabilities just like me. People with different types of disabilities require different kinds of media and web access to experience the full advantage of learning and using the internet. I chose this artifact because I wanted to illustrate the need to identify the accessibility to all types of learners, develop instructional designs that would help learners access information, and modify the instructional designs based on the learners responses and behaviors. In this artifact, I utilized typography as an example to portray how a deaf person may not be able to benefit from an audio transcription, but closed captioning and transcription could be considered

accessible to the hearing impaired individual. Designing a web page that is user friendly provides practical and effective tools that can reach both disabled and non-disabled audiences. Standard 2 Development Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and disposition to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies. 2.1 Print Technologies In EdTech 505, I developed a Glossary Term to be accessible on the GoogleApps program. In Boulmetis and Dutwins book, The ABCs of Evaluation, I have learned to apply the evaluation terms in the Glossary Terms to be readily accessible to use for reference when developing my criterion-referenced assignments, both collaboratively and individually. One of my personal favorites was discussing the glossary terms to close colleagues of mine about the qualitative approach uses methods such as observations, polling and surveys to determine the quality of a users experience in certain situations to draw conclusions. The quantitative approach incorporates numbers, hard data and facts to reach conclusions. This has given me the opportunity not only to enhance my understanding of the terminologies, but to educate those around me by discussing their understanding of the terminologies. In EdTech 503, Instructional Design course, I demonstrated how learners could download the PowerPoint Post Card Quiz, with the theory of declarative knowledge as an example. In this example, each slide represents knowledge in a visual demonstration that can be relatable and decomposed to be analyzed and understood. The goal that I had in mind was to demonstrate in the workforce development program that would provide materials that adult learner to visualize concepts when learning a skill set and to have access to print data to develop learning theories. 2.2 Audiovisual Technologies In EdTech 506, Instructional Message Design course, I chose this artifact because I really enjoyed learning about how to bring audio and visual messages to students. I developed my skills by using various software using animated Voki characters, building my HTML webpage, using visually appealing colors, and electronic auditory messages. I applied visual and audio to an animated Voki character to appeal to the learners visual and audio accessibilities. I learned to be creative in designing my Key Steps in Purchasing by showcasing user friendly colors and electronic messages. The goal that I had in mind was to put an emphasis on using software media technologies in learning tools. Delivering electronic messages both auditory and visually increased greater student participation due to modern students being receptive to technological and multimedia based learning. The steps were clearly stated, most learners understood exactly what each step represents, and what to expect in the next purchasing process. The project was engaging, doable, and allowed learners to develop higher ordering thinking when initiating procurement processes. In EdTech 531, Teaching and Learning in Virtual Worlds, I did a Micro Teaching project that was uploaded onto Second Life as a slide share project. This was a collaborative project that I did with my

peers in a virtual tour project. Being hearing impaired, I found the Chat Bar to be extremely helpful in communicating my instruction to my peers in the Greek Mythology courses that I have provided. I also had the opportunity to have a mentor called Gentle Heron from Virtual Ability that caters to Disabled Minorities. This opportunity has enhanced my awareness that there are other ways to communicate with the hearing world via Virtual Role playing activities. 2.3 Computer-Based Technologies The EdTech 522, Online Teaching for Adult Learners has enhanced my understanding as I explored the theory and practice of online teaching and learning with adults. I tested the theory of real life experience when teaching Basic Visual Online Sign Language 1 through Camtasia software. I reviewed the strengths and weaknesses of online teaching tool, based on Chapter 7 - Audio/Video Conferencing and Whiteboard in the book called The Tools for Successful Online Teaching. The article I chose to do my peer review was Carol J. Erting, in the Anthropology & Education Quarterly, located under JSTOR. In Ertings article, she discusses how deafness is a visual experience, as opposed not having the luxury of auditory information for developing concepts. In Lisa Dawleys book - Tools for Successful Online Teaching, on page 145, the main types of video conferences were small groups, compressed videos to cater to large groups, and desktop conferences on personal computers. In order to combine both the Deaf culture and the online tools for education, Deaf learners need to acquire information through their one major sense visually. Many Deaf learners expend a great amount of energy to meet these hearing-world standards, but the strength comes from Dawleys example of video conferencing and whiteboard. Part of those accommodations would be the ability to see facial expressions a form of visual communication and sign language, providing a sense of being connected, and new forms of pedagogy such as cyber-mentoring in the areas of emailing and world wide web browsing, simultaneous conversations that allow text chat as part of the curriculum discussion forum, or virtual role-playing. The tools that are least effective tool if the Deaf learner is expected to conform to the hearing world standard, by which the majority is structured to the requirements of the speaking and hearing population. 2.4 Integrated Technologies In EdTech 502, Virtual Field Trip, I created my project on Virtual Idaho Tour. I incorporated the snapshot of the Google Maps of Idaho, an audio version of the National Fiddlers Contest, embedded YouTube video of Idaho, tabs of the cities within Idaho, and links to the quizzes and answers pages. The goal was to enrich the learners virtual travels online and to gain new knowledge of their online trip. The idea was to help my learners feel as if they were on the tour bus with me and I was their tour guide, providing suggestions on where to go, highlighting attractions or events in that area, and challenge my learners to learn something new about the area. Standard 3 Utilization Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policymaking.

3.1 Media Utilization EdTech 506 was a fun and fulfilling project. The Unit of Instruction project allowed me to develop the application theory of perception, learning, communication, and systems theory to the design and evaluation of instructional media. In this class, I utilized Fireworks to create my imagery and visual perception. For example, my Shape Tools, I used the flowchart to illustrate the flow of procurement as Lohr discussed on page 260 in Creating Graphics for Learning and Performance. This helped provide learners with information to identify with when understanding the process of purchasing and how each function collaborates with purchasing processes. 3.2 Diffusion of Innovations This project was a new course for EdTech 597, Blogging in the Classroom, was a new and innovative class. The theory in practice was to focus on the use of blogs for education, create and maintain blogs for educational use, and utilize helpful functions of the RSS readers and microblogging tools of Google Reader. The theory that I have developed was to build a blogging community that would engage and share ideas, opinions, and practices to apply alternative practices to everyday activities. This course gave me an opportunity to showcase my project on Class Room Activities for blogging activities to demonstrate knowledge in the subject and to allow learners to participate in the blogging activities and forums. 3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization The theory and practices that I have learned in EdTech 504, Theoretical Foundations of Educational Technology, I learned to apply educational technology to the theories of learning. The theory that I applied to this course was that learners can apply personal emotions to the visual tools that were provided, which would allow the information to integrate and be readily retrieved. B.F. Skinner introduced the concept of operant conditioning which was linked to outside stimuli, responses, and feedback. (Lacey, 2006) In my Lesson Plan Activity, it includes teaching Visual Language Arts to 9th graders to 12th graders. This helps the students gain a better understanding of the challenges of meeting other students basic need and style of communication, such as utilizing visual tools to help develop concepts. In the learning environment, students will develop an understanding of multiculturism, its practices of dos and donts, understand how misconceptions develop if the wrong body language or facial expression was used, and recognize the other four senses that a deaf person may be sensitive to; for example sight, smell, taste, and touch. 3.4 Policies and Regulations When entering in an online learning environment, the need for effective communication, clarity, and consistency helps the learner understand how to process the information beforehand and minimize any inconsistencies that would follow. In EdTech 502, my Netiquette project gave me the opportunity to demonstrate the policies in communicating with other learners and faculty, reduce inconsistencies for learning, and help learners understand the expectations of engaging in a learning environment. In EdTech 597, Blogging in the Classroom, a disclosure statement was provided in Wordpress. The goal that I had in mind for this is to provide information available to new employees in the workforce to link

the corporations goal and apply policies and regulations to the new learners day to day business activities. This would increase productivity, all new employees would understand their job roles, and hold one another accountable for each job function. Standard 4: Management Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise instructional technology by applying principles of project, resource, delivery system, and information management. 4.1 Project Management In EdTech 503, Instruction Design, I gained the knowledge and skills to draft a proposal for my Instructional Design Project. My project, Learning ooVoo as a Rich Media, allowed me to demonstrate creating an instructional design project to help learners develop learning contexts of problem solving and develop the basic concept of understanding how the software ooVoo works. I created the FrontEnd Analysis that illustrated what the training needs were, identify the learners characteristics, what tasks entailed, make a needs assessment form, and defined what the goal was for the learner to walk away with new knowledge. 4.2 Resource Management In EdTech 501, Introduction to Educational Technology, I wanted to illustrate my understanding in resource management that involves planning, monitoring, and controlling resource support systems and services. In my survey for Workforce Technology Assessment Survey and Tech Use Plan project, I demonstrated how I would want to navigate the learning process with my learners. Prensky stated students have changed radically. Todays students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach. (Prensky, 2001) In this survey, I wanted to target the adult learners in the workforce development program in a corporate setting. The survey would help me narrow down the resources needed such as number of computers available in the training room, what type of software the learner was familiar with or was proficient at, navigate how to make learning user friendly, and to control the level of information that would be most useful for the learner. This demonstration gave me the confidence to present to shareholders involved, what is necessary to make the learning environment successful and to make adjustments as needed for optimum learning experience. 4.3 Delivery System Management In EdTech 512, Online Course Design, the objective was to emphasis the delivery system management that involved planning, monitoring, and controlling the methods by which distribution of instructional materials are organized. The method of my delivery was presented in Moodle, a course called Fun Facts about Volcanoes! I was able to demonstrate the planning by presenting the course syllabus for learners to be able to download or print, review and monitor weekly deliverables, and control the method of information that I wanted to expose to my learners. The learning task map helped learners get a visual of what topics were going to be discussed; the instructional media of a YouTube video about

what volcanoes do provided the learners audio and visual media literacy, and a quiz link for learners to submit his or her answers. 4.4 Information Management In EdTech 512, Online Course Design, I created the course with the objective to illustrate the Implementation Plan to plan, monitor, and control the instructional design in its development stage. In this course, the Task Objective Assessment Item Blueprint (TOAB) illustrated to the audience the storyboard and flowchart to help facilitate instructional information and the layout of the course. Standard 5: Evaluation Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to evaluate the adequacy of instruction and learning by applying principles of problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning. 5.1 Problem Analysis In EdTech 505, Evaluation for Educational Technologists, I learned to identify key factors in selecting the appropriate technology tools needed when developing an instructional design that would promote a learning environment for learners. In my final evaluation project, I learned to collect information on how to do video chat instructions, organize my data, and review immediate results of my instructions. The activities were documented based on my test subjects to help me gain a better idea of what the outcome was based on my instructions provided. My goal with this project is to gather information from adult learners who are in the workforce development program, to be able to gather information about instructional media and to determine what is working and what is not working for adult learners to process the needed skills in the workforce. 5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement In EdTech 502, Internet for Educators, I created a project with the goal to provide techniques to adult professionals based on criterion-referenced measurement of the pre-specified knowledge or understanding. The artifact that I chose for the criterion-referenced measurement activity was the Procurement Web Quest Activity. This artifact was designed to evaluate ethical purchasing behaviors that could be used by both teacher and student. The rubric under Evaluation, gives the learner the concept of what expectations are in order to pass the learning activity that is listed under the Task assignment. I learned that using this rubric would help me pinpoint the areas of where my Web Quest was not providing everything to my learners as it should. The goal I had in mind for this project was to target specific knowledge and skills that my learners could demonstrate and provide my learners an enriching and prominent learning experience. 5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation In Edtech 503, Instructional Design, the formative evaluation was designed to compel adult applicants to obtain information as an Instructional Designer job posting. The goal that I had in mind was to give the

adult learner the opportunity to judge the worth or abilities of the job description. The job posting would provide details of what is expected for the job; possess the skills and abilities for the job, and to outline the functions of the teacher and the instructional designer collaborating on instructional projects. EdTech 512, Online Course Line, the formative evaluation for Fun Facts about Volcanoes, was design to plan out the course with a formal plan. My objective was to prepare the course and obtain feedback from my fellow peers and instructor to modify my course for its final stage. This helped me to do continuous improvements to the course to ensure that when the online course has been completed in the design phase, my learners would have the opportunity to access the information effortlessly and to learn enthusiastically. While still in the same Edtech 512 course, the summative evaluation was the end product of my completed Moodle tutorial for Fun Facts about Volcanoes! The objective was to obtain feedback from my learners so that I could navigate and track how learners did on their course assignments. Once the feedback has been completed, this would allow me to see how well my learners did in each specific task. It also would allow me to make improvements or to remove a feature that would hinder the learners progress. 5.4 Long Range Planning In EdTech 597, Blogging in the Classroom, I chose to demonstrate my long range planning skills for building a learning community and planning my blog entries. The goal was to prepare like minded adult learners in the professional field of Procurement to anticipate discussions that would be beneficial for the corporate college world. In Kirkups journal, Academic blogging: academic practice and academic identity, education literature including blogging can be useful for evolving educational purposes, but in this case would be for business practices. (Kirkup, 2010) Creating a community of conversations would provide adult learners with information for alternative business practices to apply in the corporate world. Conclusion I chose to enroll in the Master of Educational Technology because I wanted to empower employees with the knowledge and skills needed to do his or her job effectively and efficiently. Also, with the additional bonus due to my hearing impairment, I wanted to specifically design training web sites that were user friendly for the disabled minorities wanting to integrate in the workforce. The Master of Educational Technology program has empowered me to use the skills that I have gained throughout my course programs, share my new-found skills with colleagues, and set a higher degree of standards not only for myself, but with others as well. My artifacts that I have shared on my web page illustrate my competencies, learned theories, and new found skills.

References: Boulmetis, J., & Dutwin, P. (2005). The Abcs of evaluation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass . Dawley, L. (2007). The Tools for successful online teaching. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. Erting , C. (1985). Cultural conflict in a school for deaf children . Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 16(3), Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3216567 Kirkup, G. (2010). Academic blogging: academic practice and academic identity. London Review of Education, 8(1), 75 - 84. DOI: 10.1080/14748460903557803 Lacey, H. (2006). Skinner, B. F. (19041990). In D. M. Borchert (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2nd ed. pp. 61-63). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. Retrieved July 5, 2010 from Gale Virtual Reference Library via Gale: http://go.galegroup.com.libproxy.boisestate.edu/ps/i.do?&id=GALE|CX3446801891&v=2.1&u= bois91825&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w Lohr, L.L. (2008). Creating graphics for learning and performance. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. MCB University Press, 9(5), Smith, P.L. & Ragan, T. J. (2004). Instructional design (3rd ed.). Danvers, MA: John Wiley and Sons.