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Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Department Of EEE

EC 202 - Digital Circuits Laboratory Lab Report

Experiment No 5: Sequence Generator Date: 28 - 09 - 2011 Group No: 15 Name Kumar Sambhav Bipul Vaibhav Samrat Roy Lab Day: Wednesday Roll No. 10010822 10010808 10010834

OBJECTIVE
Sequence generator: Design a sequential circuit using flip flop ICs to simulate traffic signal at an intersection such that the light for the big road stays green for 3 seconds followed by light for the small road stays green for 2 seconds. Each transition from green to red goes through a 1 second of yellow. Transitions from red to green do not go through yellow (as is the case in actual signals). Use a function generator to generate a clock signal of 1 Hz.

DESIGN APPROACH:
We have to design a sequential circuit using flip flop .this can be done by assigning states to each event .Since big road light stays green for 3 second while small road stays red ,so we can assign BG1 BG2 and BG3 to these three event ,after big road light turns yellow , so we assign BY to this state, after that small road light switch to green for 2 second so we assign SG1 and SG2 to these state . After that small road light switch to yellow, so we assign SY to this state. And after that Big road light turns Green and small road light turns red and this process repeats itself. So we assign binary values 000 , 001 , 010 , 011 , 100 , 101 , 110 to BG1 , BG2 , BG3 , BY , SG1 , SG2 , SY states respectively. And we take 111 as Dont Care state. Since we have no inputs , so we can make a mod-7 synchronous counter . And we make combinatorial circuit for all of 6 lights taking outputs of counter as inputs of combinatorial circuit.

STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM

000 BG1

001 BG2

010 BG3

011 BY

SY

SG2

SG1

110

101

100

STATE TABLE

Present State

Next state

Flip Flop

Output

Qn2 Qn1 Qn1 Qn+12 Qn+11 Qn+10 D2 D1 D0 BG BR BY SG SR SY 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

K MAP FOR D2
Q2Q1 Q0
0 1 00 01 11 10 1

0 0

0 1

0 X

D2 = Q1Q0 + Q2Q1 K MAP FOR D1


Q2Q1 Q0
0 1 00 01 1 11 10

0 1

0 X

0 1

D1 = Q2Q1Q0 + Q1Q0 K MAP FOR D0


Q2Q1 Q0
0 1 00 1 01 11 10 1

1 0

0 X

D2 = Q2Q0 + Q1Q0

K MAP FOR BIG GREEN


Q2Q1 Q0 0 1 1 00

01 1 0

11 0 x

10 0 0

BG=Q2Q0+Q2Q1

K MAP FOR BIG RED


Q2Q1 Q0 0 1 00 0 0 01 0 11 1 x 10 1 1

BR = Q2 K MAP FOR BIG YELLOW


Q2Q1 Q0 0 1

00 0 0

01 0

11 0 x

10 0 0

BY = Q1Q0

K MAP FOR SMALL GREEN


Q2Q1 Q0 0 1 00 0 0 01 0 0 11 0 x 10

1 1

SG = Q2Q1

K MAP FOR SMALL RED


Q2Q1 Q0 0 1 1 1 00 01 1 1 11 0 x 10 0 0

SR = Q2

K MAP FOR SMALL YELLOW


Q2Q1 Q0 0 1 00 0 0 01 0 0 11 1 0 10 0 0

SY = Q2Q2Q3

FINAL CIRCUIT / DESIGN / CODE:

BG
D2
SET

CLR

BY

D1

SET

BR

CLR

SG

D0

SET

SY

CLR

SR
33 MHz

EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS USED:


Components Quantity 3 1 1 2 6

ICs- 7408 7410 7432 7479


Resistances(470 ), LEDs Breadboard, Connecting Wires,

PROCEDURE:
a) First of all we got our pre lab hypothetical designs of circuit approved by T.A. b) After taking all equipment we require, tested all the ICs for proper functionality at the IC Tester. c) Then we started making connections in the breadboard. d) We connected 14th pin and 7th pin of all ICs to Vcc and Ground Respectively. e) Firstly we make a mod-7 synchronous counter and check it whether it is working or not. f) Now we started making all connection for output result i.e. for Big Green ,Big Yellow, Big Red ; Small Green , Small Yellow , Small Red respectively. g) Verifying all connections we connect the power supply to the VCC. h) Having the truth table in hand, we check out whether the pre-lab conclusions hold or not. i) In case of any discrepancy, we start reviewing in the order of circuit, design and then any assumption mistakes.

PRECAUTIONS:
a) Do not apply more than specified voltage to the IC ,otherwise our IC will get damaged. b) Power on the supply after checking the connections and only when the readings are to be taken. c) Clock frequency should be 1 Hz as given in question. d) Be sure all ICs are connected to Vcc and Ground . e) All connections should be tight and clean. Loose connections may disturb the experiment. f) Take suitable value of resistor for connecting the LEDs. g) If the circuit does not work, check each component separately. Test your ICs and multimeters if you feel our observations do not match with your hypothesis.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS:


Big and Small road lights switch in the sequence as we expected.

CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION:


Result: Our experiment was successful. Challenges: Since our circuit is large we have to take care of every wires we connected. Alternate designs: We can use mod-7 ripple counter instead of mod-7 synchronous counter for changing states.