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Mikey Kawata AP Biology Per 5 9/16/11 Study Guide 2: Chemicals of Life and Carbon Compounds Pgs 22-24 Chemical

Elements 1. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions. A compound is a substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio. 2. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen make up 96% of living matter. The other elements that compose .25% of the human body and they are sulfur, potassium, phosphorus and calcium. 3. Trace elements are those required by an organism in only small qualities. Iodine deficiency in a diet causes the thyroid gland to grow abnormal size. Pg 24-34 Atoms and Molecules 1. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element. Atoms are made up of subatomic particles, called neutrons, protons, and electrons. Neutrons and protons are packed together tightly to form a dense core, or atomic nucleus, at the center of the atom. The electrons move really really fast around the nucleus. 2. Isotopes are atoms of the same element which have different amount of neutrons. Some of the unstable isotopes can be radioactive. Carbon with eight neutrons for example is a radioactive substance. We can use this carbon to find how old certain artifacts are by looking at the concentration of carbon in the artifacts. Using radioactivity you can trace the elements in an old objects. 3. Electrons are part of the atom that participates in chemical reactions. The first shell can only have two electrons, the second can occupy up to eight electrons. 4. Valence electrons are the outermost electrons in an atom. a) Hydrogen has one valence electron. b) Helium has two valence electrons. c) Carbon has four valence electrons. d) Oxygen has six valence electrons. 5. Hydrogen needs one valence electron to fill up their valence shell. Helium does not need extra electrons to fill their valence shells. Carbon needs four electrons to fill their valence shells. Oxygen needs two electrons to fill their valence shell. 6. Chemical bonds are an interaction between atoms that results in atoms staying close together held by and attraction.

7. Structural formula is a diagram that shows chemical bonding between elements. Molecular formula is a way to write a molecule. Examples of Molecular Formula is O2 and Co2. Examples of structural formula is

8. A covalent bond is when two atoms share a pair of electrons. Electronegativity is an attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond. Electronegativity of a substance causes covalent bonding. The stronger the electronegativity of a substance is, the more strongly the atoms pulls shared electrons. 9. Ionic Bond is another chemical bond made between ions, a charged atom. Ionic bond transfers electrons to make their valence electron shell full. Examples of compounds held together by ionic bond are sodium chloride and copper fluoride. 10. Ionic and covalent bonds are between different elements. Ionic bonds and covalent bonds are between elements to maintain stability. The way of doing that is having the full amount of valence electrons in the valence electron cloud. Maintaining stability between molecules is not needed. 11. Among various kinds of weak bonds Hydrogen bond is the most important. Hydrogen bond occurs when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom. In living cells, the electronegative partners involved are usually oxygen or nitrogen atoms. In water polar covalent bonds of water result in the oxygen atom having a slight negative charge and the hydrogen atoms having a slight positive charge. 12. When bonds are pulled or pulled apart a chemical reaction takes place. Reactants are the starting material before the conversion or chemical reaction, while products are resulting material. 13. Figure 2.18s chemical reaction is visible when the oxygen bubbles are escaping from the leaves as a byproduct of photosynthesis. All biotic factors have to rely on photosynthesis because it is a foundation of almost all ecosystems. Self Quiz Questions 1. B. Many element combined makes a compound, while many tissues combined makes an organ. (b) 2. A. Trace element is those that are essential but needed in small amounts. (a) 3. B. Isotopes are different because they have different amount of neutrons. (b) 5. C. Sulfur can only make two bonds just like oxygen. One sulfur atom with two single bonds with hydrogen fits this description perfectly. (c)

6. B. It shows that Hydrogen has 1 bond, Carbon 4 and Oxygen 2. (b) Pg.49-51 Carbons Importance 1. Carbon only has four valence electrons. Having four valence electrons in a shell that holds eight, carbon has little tendency to gain or lose electrons and form ionic bonds; it would have to donate or accept four electrons instead. Carbon usually completes its valence shell by sharing electrons with other atoms in four covalent bonds. This versatility can make large complex molecules possible. 2. Hydrocarbons are organictriirtriiuuririirititiy molecules consisting only on carbon and hydrogen. Atoms of hydrogen are attached to carbon skeleton wherever the electrons are available for covalent bonds.

Pg 53-55 1. Functional groups are components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions. 2. a) hydroxyl group

b) amino group

c) carboxyl group

d) phosphate group

Self Quiz Question 1. B. Organic compound is usually thought of as carbon compound, because carbon is the element that is in almost all organic substances. (b) 3. D. Two carbons and four hydrogen atoms is the only way a double bond will exist in the list. (d) 4. D. Fossil fuel once living things turned into energy sources have carbon in them because they were once organic creature. This is why it has hydrocarbons. (d) 7. B. In sulfhydryl group there needs to be sulfur in the molecule, but if sulfur isnt present then the whole sulfhydryl group isnt present. (b)