Anda di halaman 1dari 113

OrthoBASE

O N - L I N E M A N U A L
Copyright  1982 - 1999 by ERDAS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America.

ERDAS Proprietary - Delivered under license agreement.


Copying and disclosure prohibited without express written permission from ERDAS, Inc.

ERDAS, Inc.
2801 Buford Highway, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia 30329-2137 USA
Phone: 404/248-9000
Fax: 404/248-9400
User Support: 404/248-9777

Warning
All information in this document, as well as the software to which it pertains, is proprietary material of ERDAS, Inc., and is
subject to an ERDAS license and non-disclosure agreement. Neither the software nor the documentation may be reproduced in
any manner without the prior written permission of ERDAS, Inc.

Specifications are subject to change without notice.

Trademarks
ERDAS is a trade name of ERDAS, Inc. ERDAS and ERDAS IMAGINE are registered trademarks of ERDAS, Inc. Model
Maker, CellArray, ERDAS Field Guide, and ERDAS Tour Guides are trademarks of ERDAS, Inc. Other brands and product
names are trademarks of their respective owners.
OrthoBASE On-Line Manual

OrthoBASE Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Model Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Pushbroom Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Block Property Setup (Camera) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Import Exterior Orientation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Block Property Setup (Sensor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

OrthoBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Add Image Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Frame Editor (Camera) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Frame Editor (Sensor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Attach Image Options (Camera) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Attach Image Options (Sensor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Camera Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Sensor Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Exterior Orientation Parameters Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Point Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Viewer Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Tools Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Left Viewer Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Right Viewer Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

iii
OrthoBASE On-Line Manual

Reference Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Point Measurement Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Compute Pyramid Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Set Auto Tie Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

GCP Reference Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Reference Import Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Vertical Reference Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Viewing Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Block Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Aerial Triangulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Triangulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

OrthoBASE Graphic Status Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Triangulation Summary (Camera) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Triangulation Summary (Sensor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Triangulation Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
1. Triangulation Report Unit Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2. Image Coordinates and result of Interior Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3. Triangulation Results using the Bundle Block Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Iterative Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Automated Error Checking Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Exterior Orientation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

iv
OrthoBASE On-Line Manual

Interior Orientation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74


Interior Orientation and Self-Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Control Point Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Check Point Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Control Point, Check Point, and Tie Point Coordinates and Accuracy Estimates . . . . . . . 76
Image Coordinate Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
1. Triangulation Report Unit Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
2. Automated Error Checking Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
3. Iterative Triangulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Triangulation using a free-weighted adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4. Exterior Orientation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
The results are displayed for each image as follows: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
5. Ground Point Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6. Image Coordinate Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Point Data Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Ortho Resampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Correcting DEM Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Background values included in statistics calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Zero values excluded from statistics calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Selecting the correct Resampling Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Bilinear Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Nearest Neighbor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Guidelines for DEM Selection for Ortho Resampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Ortho Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Confirm File Replace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Recalculate Output Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

OrthoBASE Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Quick View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Set Zoom Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

v
OrthoBASE On-Line Manual

Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Set Resampling Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Background Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Link Box Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Rotate Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Band Combinations (gray) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Band Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

vi
OrthoBASE Startup

OrthoBASE Startup
This dialog allows you to open a previously existing block file (*.blk), or create a new one. It opens
when you click the OrthoBASE icon on the IMAGINE icon panel.

Welcome to OrthoBASE. From this dialog


you may begin a new OrthoBASE project,
or you may resume working on a previously
created one.

What would you like to do?

Create a New OrthoBASE project Click this radio button if you want to create a new
block file. After you click OK, a File Selector dialog opens to your default directory. After a
file name is specified, the Model Setup dialog is opened.

Open an Existing OrthoBASE project Click this radio button if you want to open an
existing block file. A File Selector dialog opens to your default directory. After an existing block
file (.blk) is selected, the OrthoBASE dialog is opened.

OK Click to close this dialog and open a block file.

Cancel Click to cancel this process without starting OrthoBASE.

Help Click to open this On-Line Help document.


➲ For more information on the principles of OrthoBASE operation, see the IMAGINE
OrthoBASE User’s Guide. For a tutorial on OrthoBASE, refer to the IMAGINE OrthoBASE
Tour Guide.

1
Model Setup

Model Setup
This dialog allows you to select the model to use with your block file images. The model defines
the geometric properties associated with the sensor or camera used to capture images used in
your block. This dialog opens when you enter the name of a block file and click OK in the File
Selector dialog.

The geometric properties define the internal and external characteristics associated with a
sensor model. Internal characteristics include parameters which define the internal geometry of
the camera or satellite as existed when the imagery was captured. The external parameters
define the position and orientation of the camera or sensor as existed when the imagery was
captured. Each camera and satellite sensor type has different internal and external properties
associated with it. OrthoBASE estimates both the internal and external characteristics
associated with a sensor model.
Perspective center is the optical center of a camera lens. All light rays passing through a lens
pass through the perspective center. The positional elements of exterior orientation define the
position of the perspective center relative to the ground coordinate system. Frame camera's
have one perspective center. Pushbroom satellite sensors have multiple perspective centers.

Select Geometric Model: Enter the model to use with your block project. The type of
data you plan to use dictates which model you select from the following options.

☞ Only one model can be chosen per block file. This means it is not possible to use multiple
sensor types within a block project, i.e. all images in the block must be able to use the same
geometric model.

Cameras
Camera data have one perspective center. The properties associated with these models can
include, but are not limited to, focal length, principal point, calibrated fiducial mark positions, and
radial lens distortion. The following geometric models are supported:

Frame Camera

This type of camera is commonly associated with aerial cameras having an approximate
focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). The photographic format size from these cameras is 9
by 9 inches. Frame cameras have fiducial marks positioned within the camera body. The
fiducial marks are exposed onto the film emulsion when the photography is captured. The
fiducial marks are subsequently measured to determine the interior orientation of the
camera. Frame cameras are considered metric cameras since they have been calibrated
in a laboratory.

Digital Camera

2
Model Setup

This type of camera can be used for aerial and ground based (terrestrial) mapping
applications. The focal length for a digital camera may range in size from 10 mm to 50 mm
or greater. Rather than use film to record an image, digital cameras make use of a Charge
Coupled Device (CCD). A CCD contains a array of pixels which record the intensity
associated with a ground feature or object. The x and y pixel size of the CCD array must
be defined. Digital cameras do not have fiducial marks and for that reason they do not
need to be measured. Digital cameras are considered to be non-metric cameras.

Video Camera (Videography)

This type of camera can be used for aerial and ground based (terrestrial) mapping
applications. The focal length for a video camera may range in size from 10 mm to 50 mm
or greater. A video camera can use either film or a CCD to record an image. If a film video
camera is used, the film scanning resolution must be used for interior orientation. If a CCD
type is used, the x and y pixel size of the CCD array must be defined. Video cameras do
not have fiducial marks and for that reason they do not need to be measured. Video
cameras are considered to be non-metric cameras.

Non-Metric Camera (35mm amateur cameras)

This type of camera can be used for aerial and ground based (terrestrial) mapping
applications. This type of camera may include amateur 35 mm cameras and medium to
large format cameras (i.e. 75 mm focal length). The focal length for a non-metric camera
may range in size from 10 mm to 152 mm or greater. A non-metric camera is a camera
which has not been calibrated in a laboratory to define its internal geometry. The primary
camera parameters which have not been calibrated include focal length, principal point,
lens distortion and fiducial marks. The minimum interior orientation input requirements
include an approximate focal length and the scanning resolution used to digitize the film.

Pushbroom Sensors
Pushbroom data is collected along a scan line, with each scan line having it’s own perspective
center. The following geometric models are supported:

Generic Pushbroom

This type of satellite pushbroom sensor can be used for satellites other than SPOT and IRS-1C
which scan along a line to collect data. Sensor model parameters associated with the internal
geometry of the sensor must be provided.

SPOT Pushbroom

The SPOT pushbroom sensor supports SPOT Panchromatic and SPOT XS Multispectral
imagery. Sensor model properties associated with the satellite are automatically derived from the
header file of the imagery and subsequently used in OrthoBASE. The IMAGINE Import tool can
be used to import the SPOT imagery.

3
Model Setup

IRS-1C Pushbroom

The IRS-1C sensor model supports imagery collected from the IRS-1C pushbroom sensor
model. Sensor model properties associated with the satellite are automatically derived from the
header file of the imagery and subsequently used in OrthoBASE. The IMAGINE Import tool can
be used to import the IRS-1C imagery.

OK Click this button to use the model you have selected. The Block Property Setup
(Camera) dialog or the Block Property Setup (Sensor)opens.

Cancel Click this button to close this dialog without selecting a geometric model.

Help Click this button to open this On-line Help document.

4
Block Property Setup (Camera)

Block Property Setup (Camera)


This dialog allows you to define the properties to be associated with your new block project. After
completing each section, click Next to move to the next section.

At any point before closing this dialog, you can return to a former section to change your
selections by clicking the Previous button. Changes made after closing the dialog must be made
in a new block project.

This portion of the dialog opens when you select Frame Camera, Digital Camera, Video
Camera, or Non-Metric Camera from the Select Geometric Model section of the Model Setup
dialog. This help file explains your options for block properties for your selection.

Set Reference System: This section of the dialog allows you to set the projection
reference information for your block project.

☞ The Projection cannot be changed after the OK button is clicked.


Projection: Displays the projection to apply to the block images.

i If no Unknown/Cartesian is selected, a right-handed X, Y, Z Cartesian coordinate system will


be used by the software. This option is most useful when using very small blocks or close-
range images in your block project.

Spheroid: Displays the spheroid to apply to the block images.

Zone Number: Displays the zone number to associate with the block images.

Datum: Displays the datum to associate with the block images.

Set Projection... Click this button to set any of the above projection information. The
IMAGINE Projection Chooser dialog opens. Any new data selected displays in this Set
Reference System section of the Block Property Setup dialog.

Reference Units: This section allows you to select the units to use when measuring
points in the block project.

☞ The Reference Units cannot be changed after the OK button is clicked.


Horizontal: Select the units to use for horizontal measurements in your block. Your
options are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet,
Centimeters, or Inches. If using Geographic Lat/Lon, your options are Degrees or
Radians.

Vertical: Select the units to use for vertical measurements in your block. Your options
are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet, Centimeters, or
Inches.

5
Block Property Setup (Camera)

Angle: Select the units to use for angle measurement in your images. Your options are
Degrees, Radians, or Gons.

Set Frame Specific Information: This section allows you to set the parameters
associated with your specific camera.

Rotation System: Click this popup list to select the type of rotation angle appropriate
for the data to be used in the block. Different countries sometimes use different rotation
systems.

(kappa) κ Y

ϕ (phi)

O X

(omega) ω

Omega, Phi and Kappa define the orientation of the sensor as existed when the
photograph or imagery was captured. The three rotation angles define the relationship
between axis of the ground system and image coordinate system. The rotation angles are
used to form a 3 by 3 rotation matrix which is used within the aerial triangulation functional
model (i.e. block bundle adjustment).

i The primary axis is the axis about which the first rotation occurs. Rotation follows the right-
hand rule which says that when the thumb of the right hand points in the positive direction of
an axis, the curled fingers point in the direction of positive rotation for that axis.

Omega, Phi, Kappa This is the most commonly used convention, recommended by
ISPRS. Omega is a positive rotation around the X-axis; Phi is a positive rotation
around the Y-axis; Kappa is positive rotation around the Z-axis. In this system, X is the
primary axis.

Phi(+), Omega, Kappa In this system, which is most commonly used in Germany,
Y is the primary axis. Phi is a positive rotation around the Y-axis; Omega is a positive
rotation around the X-axis; Kappa is a positive rotation around the Z-axis.

Phi(-), Omega, Kappa In this system, which is most commonly used in China, Y is
the primary axis. Phi is a negative rotation around the Y-axis; Omega is positive
rotation around the X-axis; Kappa is a positive rotation around the Z-axis.

6
Block Property Setup (Camera)

Photo Direction: Click this popup list to select the direction appropriate for the data to
be used in the block project.

Z-axis for normal images Select this option if using aerial photography for your
block project. Aerial photographs have the optical axis of the camera directed toward
the Z-axis of the ground coordinate system.

Y-axis for close-range images Select this option when using ground-based
photography. Terrestrial or ground-based photographs have the optical axis of the
camera directed toward the Y-axis of the ground coordinate system.

Define Average Fly Height (meters): Click this check box to define the average height
above ground at which the images were captured. The number field is enabled. Enter a
height in the number field, or use the increment nudgers to the right of the field to adjust
the value. This distance is not required for triangulation.

i The average fly height is used in an initial approximation of exterior orientation for the gener-
ation of automatic tie points.

Import Exterior Orientation Parameters... Click this button to import existing exterior
orientation data provided by photogrammetric systems, such as analytical stereoplotters,
digital photogrammetric workstations, or post-processed airborne GPS data recorded at
the time of image capture. The Import Exterior Orientation Parameters dialog opens.

Exterior orientation defines the position and orientation of the sensor as existed when the
photograph or image were captured.

OrthoBASE can import an ASCII *.dat file. If this option is used, the number of rows
referencing the corresponding number of images will be automatically created within
OrthoBASE. The image file name will automatically be set along with the associated
Image ID and exterior orientation information. In order for the import to work effectively, 8
columns (Image ID, Image Name, X, Y, Z, Omega, Phi, and Kappa) must be contained
within the input ASCII file.

OK Click this button to close the dialog after having entered all the information required for
your block project. This button is only enabled when the last section is completed.

☞ Once OK has been selected, all of the block parameters are accepted (Sensor Model,
Projection, Spheroid, Datum, Rotation System and Average Flying Height) and they cannot
be modified within OrthoBASE. It is advantageous to ensure that all of the appropriate
parameters have been properly defined before clicking OK.

Previous Click this button to move to a prior step of the Block Property Setup dialog. You
can make changes to information already provided or simply review the inputs you entered.

7
Block Property Setup (Camera)

Next Click this button to move to the next step of the Block Property Setup dialog. This
option allows for moving between sections of the dialog.

Cancel Click this button to cancel the inputs you have made to the Block Property Setup
dialog. None of the selections you have made will be saved.

Help Click this button to open this On-line Help document.

8
Import Exterior Orientation Parameters

Import Exterior Orientation Parameters


This dialog allows you to specify the map projection system and units of the ASCII file containing
your exterior orientation information. This dialog opens when you click the Import Exterior
Orientation Parameters... button on the Block Property Setup (Camera) dialog, then select
an ASCII file.

i OrthoBASE automatically transforms the coordinates of the exterior orientation parameters if


the projection specified differs from the block projection.

Map Projection and Units:


Projection: Displays the projection used for the ASCII file.

Spheroid: Displays the spheroid used for the ASCII file.

Zone Number: Displays the zone number to associate with the ASCII file.

Datum: Displays the datum to associate with the ASCII file.

Set... Click this button to change any of the above projection information. The IMAGINE
Projection Chooser dialog opens.

Horizontal Units: Select the units to use for horizontal measurements in your block. Your
options are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet,
Centimeters, Inches.

If you select Geographic Lat/Lon, your options are Degrees or Radians.


Vertical Units: Select the units to use for vertical measurements in your block. Your
options are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet,
Centimeters, or Inches.

Angle Units: Select the units to use for angle measurements in your block. Your options
are Degrees, Radians, or Gons.

OK Click to use the options you selected and close this dialog.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without making any selections.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

9
Block Property Setup (Sensor)

Block Property Setup (Sensor)


This dialog allows you to define the properties to be associated with your new block project. After
completing each section, click Next to move to the next section.

At any point before closing this dialog, you can return to a former section to change your
selections by clicking the Previous button. Changes made after closing the dialog must be made
in a new block project.

This portion of the dialog opens when you select Generic Pushbroom, SPOT Pushbroom, or
IRS-1C Pushbroom from the Select Geometric Model section. This help file explains your
options for block properties for your selection.

Set Reference System: This section of the dialog allows you to set the projection
reference information for your block project.

☞ The Projection cannot be changed after the OK button is clicked.


Projection: Displays the projection to apply to the block images.

i If no projection information is selected, a right-handed X, Y, Z Cartesian coordinate system


will be used by the software. This option is most useful when using close-range images in
your block project.

Spheroid: Displays the spheroid to apply to the block images.

Zone Number: Displays the zone number to associate with the block images.

Datum: Displays the datum to associate with the block images.

Set Projection... Click this button to set any of the above projection information. The
IMAGINE Projection Chooser dialog opens. Any new data selected displays in this Set
Reference System section of the Block Property Setup dialog.

Reference Units: This section allows you to select the units to use when measuring
points in the block project.

☞ The Reference Units cannot be changed after the OK button is clicked.


Horizontal: Select the units to use for horizontal measurement in your images. Your
options are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet,
Centimeters, or Inches.

Vertical: Select the units to use for vertical measurement in your images. Your options
are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet, Centimeters, or
Inches.

10
Block Property Setup (Sensor)

OK Click this button to close this dialog after having entered all the information required for
your block project. This button is only enabled when the last section is complete.

Previous Click this button to move to a prior step of the Block Property Setup dialog. You
can make changes to information already provided or simply review the inputs you entered.

Next Click this button to move to the next step of the Block Property Setup dialog. This
option allows for moving between sections of the dialog.

Cancel Click this button to cancel the inputs you have made to the Block Property Setup
dialog. None of the selections you have made will be saved.

Help Click this button to open this On-line Help document.

11
OrthoBASE

OrthoBASE
This is the main dialog of the OrthoBASE program. All the main functions of the photogrammetric
workflow are controlled through this dialog. You reach this dialog by clicking OK in the Block
Property Setup (Camera) or Block Property Setup (Sensor) dialog.

File
Save Select this option to save the steps performed on the block file.

Save As... Select this option to save the information in this block file to a new file. The
Save As dialog opens.

Close Select this option to close the this dialog and exit OrthoBASE.

Edit
Add Frame... Select this option to add an image to the block file. Use the Add Options
tab on the File Selector to add multiple image files.

i When working with multi-strip blocks, the first two images added should be from the same
strip. This requires you to add the first two images one at a time. Thereafter, multiple images
may be added using the Add Selected File Plus: option. This allows memory usage for tri-
angulation computation to be automatically optimized.

Frame Editor... Select this option to view and edit the properties associated with image
file added to the block project file. This includes sensor model information defining the
internal and external properties associated with the camera or satellite.
The Frame Editor (Camera) or Frame Editor (Sensor) dialog opens, depending upon
the type of imagery used for your block project.

Compute Pyramid Layers... Select this option to generate OrthoBASE pyramid layers
for the image or images in the block project file. The Compute Pyramid Layers dialog
opens.

i IMAGINE-generated pyramid layers cannot be used for performing automatic tie point collec-
tion. OrthoBASE pyramid layers use a binomial interpolation algorithm, while IMAGINE pyr-
amid layers use nearest neighbor, bilinear interpolation, or cubic convolution.

Delete Selected Image(s) Select this option to remove an image or images from the
block project file. The file(s) you wish to remove must be highlighted in the CellArray to
use this option.

Point Measurement... Select this option to measure control, check, or tie points in your
block images. The Point Measurement dialog opens.

12
OrthoBASE

Block Properties... Select this option to review or edit the basic project properties
associated with your block images. The Block Properties dialog opens.

Auto. Tie Point Generation Properties... Select this option to set the parameters for
OrthoBASE to use when automatically collecting tie points from your block of images. The
Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties dialog opens.

Triangulation Properties... Select this option to set the parameters for OrthoBASE to
use when performing triangulation on your block file. The Aerial Triangulation dialog
opens when using camera images; the Triangulation dialog opens when using
pushbroom images for your block project.

i When using imagery captured by a non-metric camera, (i.e. digital, 35mm, video, large format
cameras, etc.) the self-calibrating bundle adjustment capabilities contained within the aerial
triangulation process are used to recover the internal geometry of the camera or sensor.

Process
Automatic Tie Point Generation Select this option to generate tie points for your block
project file.

Triangulate Select this option to perform triangulation on your block project file. When
triangulation is complete, the Triangulation Summary dialog opens.

Report... Select this option to view an ASCII report of the triangulation results. If the
OrthoBASE session is current, the Triangulation Report document opens in the
IMAGINE Editor. Since this report is a temporary file, it may not be available between
sessions unless renamed. To regenerate and display the report, select the Triangulate
option and then click the Report button in the Triangulation Summary dialog.

Graphic Status... Select this option to view a graphical representation of your block
project, including the triangulation error. The OrthoBASE Graphic Status Display dialog
opens.

Ortho Rectification

Resampling... Select this option to orthorectify the images in the block file. The
Ortho Resampling dialog opens.

Calibration... Select this option to ortho-calibrate the images in the block file. The
Ortho Calibration dialog opens.

Help
Help for OrthoBASE... Select this option to view this On-line Help document.

13
OrthoBASE

Tool Palette The tools here are provided to linearize the photogrammetric workflow
associated with triangulation and orthorectification.

Click to add an image to the block file. Use the Add Options tab on the File Selector
to add multiple files at one time.

Click to view and edit the properties associated with image file added to the block
project file. The Frame Editor (Camera) or Frame Editor (Sensor) dialog opens, depending
upon the type of imagery used for your block project.

Click to measure control, check, or tie points in your block images. The Point
Measurement dialog opens.

Click to generate tie points for your block project file. You can set the parameters for
automatic tie point collection in the The Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties dialog.

Click to perform triangulation on your block project file. You can set the parameters for
triangulation when using camera images with the Aerial Triangulation dialog; when using
pushbroom images for your block project, use the Triangulation dialog.

Click to set the resampling parameters for orthorectification of your block imagery.

OrthoBASE CellArray
Image ID This field gives each image in the block project a numeric identifier. You can
change this number at any time.
Description This editable field allows you to enter descriptive text for each image in the
block.

> A > in this field indicates the selected image in the CellArray. Click in this field to
change the selected image.

Image Name This editable field displays the entire path and name of each image used
in the block project. Changing this entry deletes the original image, and requires adding a
new image to the block project with an accurate path and image name.

14
OrthoBASE

Active This field displays which images will or will not be used when generating tie
points, performing triangulation, or orthorectification. An X indicates the image will be
used. Click in the field to change the image’s status.

Pyr. This field indicates whether OrthoBASE pyramid layers have been generated. Red
indicates the image needs pyramid layers computed; green indicates OrthoBASE pyramid
layers already exist for the image. These colors can be changed in the OrthoBASE
preferences.

i An image that has IMAGINE pyramid layers generated does not have the pyramid layers nec-
essary for OrthoBASE to perform automatic tie collection. OrthoBASE pyramid layers use a
binomial interpolation algorithm, while IMAGINE pyramid layers use nearest neighbor, bilin-
ear interpolation, or cubic convolution.

Int. This field indicates whether the interior orientation is measured for the image. Red
indicates the image needs interior orientation measurement; green indicates the interior
orientation is already recorded for the image. These colors can be changed in the
OrthoBASE preferences.

Ext. This field indicates whether exterior orientation parameters are associated with the
image. Red indicates the image needs parameters imported or generated by
triangulation; green indicates exterior orientation parameters exist for the image. These
colors can be changed in the OrthoBASE preferences.

Ortho. This field indicates whether the image has been orthorectified. Red indicates the
image needs orthorectification; green indicates orthorectification has already been
performed. These colors can be changed in the OrthoBASE preferences.

Online This field indicates whether the directory path name of the image is correct. Red
indicates the image is off-line, i.e. the actual location of the image does not match the path
displayed in the Image Name column; green indicates the image is in the displayed
location. These colors can be changed in the OrthoBASE preferences.

15
Add Image Options

Add Image Options


This tab allows you to specify which images you want to add to your block file. You can reach
this tab by clicking the Add Options tab of the File Selector dialog.

The FIle Selector dialog is opened by selecting Edit | Add Frame... from the OrthoBASE menu
bar or by clicking the icon in the OrthoBASE tool palette.

Add Options
Selected File: The full path of the selected file is displayed here.

Add Selected File Only Select this option to add the image selected in the filename
part of the File tab. Only this one file is added to your block project file.

Add Selected File Plus: Select this option to add more than the selected image to
your block project file. Clicking this radio button enables the Files Matching text field.

Files Matching: Enter a wildcard expression for the files you want to add to your
block file in addition to the image selected in the filename part of the File tab. When
the OK button is clicked, all files matching the wildcard expression are loaded into
the OrthoBASE CellArray.

Help Click to open this On-Line Help document.

16
Frame Editor (Camera)

Frame Editor (Camera)


This dialog allows you to set the interior orientation and exterior orientation properties of the
camera used to capture the data used in your block file. This dialog opens when you select Edit
| Frame Editor... from the OrthoBASE menu bar, or selecting the icon from the OrthoBASE
tool bar.

Sensor This tab displays basic information about the selected file in the OrthoBASE
dialog.

Image File Name: This field displays the name of the selected file.

Attach Click this button to attach a file that is not in the directory specified in the
OrthoBASE CellArray. A File Selector dialog opens. Use the Attach Options tab to
attach multiple files to the block project.

View Image Click this button to view the selected image file. A Viewer opens displaying
the file.

Block Model Type: This field displays the type of sensor used to capture the image file.

Sensor Name: This popup list displays the type of camera used to capture the image
file. Only defined cameras display in this popup list.

Edit... Click this button to change the parameters of the camera displayed in the popup
list. The Camera Information dialog opens with the current settings for the selected
camera displayed in the fields.

New... Click this button to define a new camera to add to the popup list. The Camera
Information dialog opens with no settings.

Interior Orientation (Frame Camera) This tab allows you to set the interior
orientation information for the Frame Camera used to capture the imagery. If you are using
another type of camera model (Digital, Video, or Non-Metric), refer to Interior Orientation
(Other Camera).

This is the process of defining the internal geometry of the camera. Fiducial marks are
measured on the image and subsequently compared to the calibrated positions of the camera
to derive a solution. Once the fiducial marks have been measured, a 2D affine transformation
is used to determine the origin of the photo coordinate system. The origin of the photo or
image space coordinate system defines the location on the image where the optical axis
intersects with the image plane. Once the photo coordinate system has been defined each
subsequent image measurement is referenced to it.

17
Frame Editor (Camera)

Fiducial Orientation: Click the icon that represents the orientation of the fiducials in your
camera image. The four options represent the different types of image fiducial coordinate
systems supported by OrthoBASE.

☞ The correct fiducial orientation must be selected to obtain an aerial triangulation solution.

3 2 1 3 4 1 2 4

1 4 4 2 2 3 3 1
Note: The black bar represents the image data strip. The numbered corners represent fiducials.

Viewer Fiducial Locator: Use these tools to identify and locate the calibrated fiducials
on the image.

Click this icon to open a View Group displaying your image. Clicking this icon
again will close the View Group. A view group consists of an OverView, a Main View,
and a Detail View. Each View provides rapid access to useful display control functions
through a Quick View Menu.

Click this icon to select a measured fiducial or to move the link cursor in a view.

Click this icon to place a measured fiducial mark on the image file displayed in
a view. Measured fiducials are necessary for accurately identifying the location of
calibrated (camera) fiducials in the image file.

☞ In order to delete a fiducial mark measurement, select the appropriate row(s) within the cell
array,right mouse click in the Point # column, and select the Delete Selection option. This
will only delete the fiducial mark measurement (Image X and Y) while maintaining the original
calibrated fiducial mark positions (FIlm X and Y).

18
Frame Editor (Camera)

Click to lock another tool in this section so it remains active. Click the
icon again to unlock the tool.

i After two fiducials have been measured, the software is able to drive to the next fiducial loca-
tion. It is then useful to lock the icon to facilitate the process of measuring the fiducials.

Click this icon to automatically move your Viewer screen to the next fiducial mark
in the image.

Use this meter to adjust the brightness of the image in the Viewer. This does not
affect the image file.

Use this meter to adjust the contrast of the image in the Viewer. This does not affect
the image file.
Apply Click this button to apply any contrast or brightness adjustments to the Viewer
displaying the image file.

Reset Click this button to reset the contrast and brightness adjustments to their original
contrast and brightness.

Solve Click this button to derive an interior orientation solution. The RMSE (Root Mean
Square Error) is displayed above in both microns and pixels. This section remains
unsolved until you click this button or measure all fiducial marks.

CellArray The following columns are present in this CellArray.

> A greater-than symbol (>) in this field indicates the point being measured.

Color This field allows you to change the color of the measured fiducial mark.

Image x This field displays the X coordinate in pixels of the measured fiducial mark on
the image.

Image y This field displays the Y coordinate in pixels of the measured fiducial mark on
the image.

Film X This field displays the X coordinate of the calibrated fiducial mark.

Film Y This field displays the Y coordinate of the calibrated fiducial mark.

19
Frame Editor (Camera)

Residual X This field displays the difference between the X coordinates of the calibrated
fiducial mark position and the measured fiducial mark position on the image. The
calculated position is derived from the interior orientation solution.

Residual Y This field displays the difference between the Y coordinates of the calibrated
fiducial mark position and the measured fiducial mark position on the image. The
calculated position is derived from the interior orientation solution.

Interior Orientation (Other Camera) This tab allows you to set the interior orientation
information for your Digital, Video, or Non-Metric Camera image. If you are using the Frame
Camera model, refer to Interior Orientation (Frame Camera) above.

The pixel size refers to the resolution of the sensor in the digital or video camera or to the
scanning device used to convert a non-metric camera photo into digital form. This information
is part of the technical specification of the camera or the scanner.
Pixel size in x direction (microns): Enter the pixel size for the x direction.

Pixel size in y direction (microns): Enter the pixel size for the y direction.

Exterior Orientation This tab allows you to specify the exterior orientation parameters
for your camera as existed at the time of image capture. There are six parameters, with
information regarding the status and standard deviation of each parameter.

Perspective Center (meters) This set of parameters define the position of the
perspective center at the time of image capture. They may be provided with the data set
or they may be determined by OrthoBASE.

Value Enter the coordinates of the perspective center; Xo, Yo, and Zo. These
coordinates define the positional elements associated with exterior orientation.

Std. Enter the approximate standard deviation for the coordinates entered for Xo, Yo,
and Zo. These values describe the accuracy and precision of the perspective center
coordinates. The more reliable your coordinate information is, the lower the standard
deviation should be.

Status Click this popup list to indicate how the triangulation process should apply the
exterior orientation parameters listed above.

The status specification indicates whether or not the exterior orientation parameters will
be estimated, fixed or simply used as initial values in determining their new values during
the triangulation procedure.

Fixed This status indicates the exterior orientation value will not be modified during
triangulation. No standard deviation is required for this coordinate.

20
Frame Editor (Camera)

Initial This status indicates the exterior orientation value is an approximation to the
actual value, and will be modified during triangulation. The entered standard deviation
is applied during triangulation, and the coordinate for the parameter changes after
triangulation.

Unknown This status assumes you have no information about the camera’s exterior
orientation parameters. During the triangulation procedure, OrthoBASE will compute
and provide initial approximations if they have not been entered.

Rotation Angles(degrees) This set of parameters define the rotation in degrees of the
camera at the time of image capture.

Value Enter the rotation angles for Omega, Phi, and Kappa. These values define the
rotational elements associated with exterior orientation.

Std. Enter the approximate standard deviation for the rotation angles entered for
Omega, Phi, and Kappa. These values describe the accuracy of the rotation angles. The
more reliable your rotation information is, the lower the standard deviation should be.

Status Click this popup list to indicate how the triangulation process should apply the
exterior orientation parameters listed above.

The status specification indicates whether or not the exterior orientation parameters will
be estimated, fixed or simply used as initial values in determining their new values during
the triangulation procedure.

Fixed This status indicates the exterior orientation value will not be modified during
triangulation. No standard deviation is required for this rotation angle.

Initial This status indicates the exterior orientation value is an approximation to the
actual value, and will be modified during triangulation. The entered standard deviation
is applied during triangulation, and the rotation angle for the position changes after
triangulation.

Unknown This status assumes you have no information about the camera’s exterior
orientation parameters. All parameters are determined during triangulation.

Set Status: Click this checkbox to set the status for all the exterior orientation
parameters associated with this image. From the popup list, select Initial, Fixed, or
Unknown.

Edit All Images... Click this button to edit the exterior orientation information. The
Exterior Orientation Parameters Editor dialog opens.

OK Click this button to accept all the values entered in this dialog and close the Frame
Editor.

21
Frame Editor (Camera)

Previous Click this button to view the parameters of the previous image listed in the block
file.

Next Click this button to accept the values entered for this image and view the parameters
of the next image listed in the block file.

☞ When the Next button is selected, the camera or sensor information associated with an image
is accepted. For example, the selected camera is the one that is listed within the Sensor
Name pull down list when Next is clicked.

Cancel Click this button to cancel any values entered in this dialog and close the Frame
Editor.

Help Click to open this On-Line Help document.

22
Frame Editor (Sensor)

Frame Editor (Sensor)


This dialog allows you to set the properties of the sensor used to capture the data used in your
block file. This dialog opens when you select Edit | Frame Editor... from the OrthoBASE menu
bar, or selecting the icon from the OrthoBASE tool bar.

Sensor This tab displays basic information for the selected file in the OrthoBASE dialog.
Image File Name: This field displays the name of the selected file.

Attach Click this button to attach a file that is not in the directory specified in the
OrthoBASE CellArray. A File Selector dialog opens. Use the Attach Options tab to
attach multiple files to the block project.

Block Model Type: This field displays the type of sensor used to capture the image file.

Sensor Name: This popup list displays the type of sensor used to capture the image file.
Only defined sensors display in this popup list.

Edit... Click this button to change the parameters of the sensor displayed in the popup
list. The Sensor Information dialog opens with the current settings for the selected
sensor displayed in the fields.

New... Click this button to define a new sensor to add to the popup list. The Sensor
Information dialog opens with no settings.

View Image Click this button to view the selected image file. A Viewer opens displaying
the selected image.

Frame Attributes This tab allows you to set specific frame information for the selected
image in the OrthoBASE dialog. These attributes are determined from the ephemeris
information recorded at the time of image capture and stored in the data file header.

Side Incidence (degrees): Enter the side incidence angle for the image in this number
field. You can enter a value, or use the increment nudgers to the right of the field. The side
incidence angle is the angle between the vertical position of the satellite and the side
viewing direction of the satellite when the sensor is scanning along the side. Incidence
angle is used for SPOT and IRS-1C satellites. For SPOT imagery, the angle ranges
between +27 to -27 degrees. The scanning direction is perpendicular to the direction of
flight.

23
Frame Editor (Sensor)

Track Incidence (degrees): Enter the track incidence angle for the image in this number
field. You can enter a value, or use the increment nudgers to the right of the field. The track
incidence angle is the angle between the vertical position of the satellite and the forward
or backward viewing direction of the satellite when the sensor is scanning along the
direction of flight. Track incidence angle is used for the German MOMS satellite imagery.
The scanning direction is parallel to the direction of flight. For SPOT data the track
incidence angle is usually 0.

Ground Resolution (meters): Enter the ground resolution of the image in this number
field. You can enter a value, or use the increment nudgers to the right of the field.

Sensor Line Along Axis: Select whether the sensor line is along the x or y axis by
clicking the correct radio button for your image. The sensor line defines the direction of the
scan line which is used by the satellite to record the data. SPOT and IRS-1c use the x-
direction as the scan line.

i Most pushbroom sensors use the X axis.

OK Click this button to accept all the values entered in this dialog and close the Frame
Editor.

Previous Click this button to view the parameters of the previous image listed in the block
file.

Next Click this button to accept all the values entered in this dialog and view the parameters
of the next image listed in the block file.

☞ When the Next button is selected, the camera or sensor information associated with an image
is accepted. For example, the selected camera is the one that is listed within the Sensor
Name pull down list when Next is clicked.

Cancel Click this button to cancel any values entered in this dialog and close the Frame
Editor.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

24
Attach Image Options (Camera)

Attach Image Options (Camera)


This tab allows you to reattach one or more images to your block file. Unattached files are
indicated by a red block in the Online column of the OrthoBASE CellArray. An image becomes
unattached when it is deleted or moved to a directory different than the one indicated in the
Image Name column of the OrthoBASE dialog.

To attach a single file, simply locate the file with the File Selector, select it, and click OK.
Reattaching multiple files is made easier with wild card functionality on the Attach Options tab.

☞ The selected file should match the file displayed in the Image File Name: field in the Frame
Editor.

You reach this dialog when you click the Attach button on the Frame Editor (Camera) dialog
and then click the Attach Options tab. The Attach button is enabled only for unattached files.

Attach Options
Selected File: The full path of the selected file is displayed here.

Attach selected file only Select this option to attach the image selected in the filename
part of the File tab. Only this one file is reattached to your block project.

Attach selected file plus root names found from the following: Select this option to
reattach more than the selected image to your block project file. Clicking this radio button
enables the Files Matching text field.

Files Matching: Enter a wildcard expression for the files you want to reattach to
your block file. This will be used to narrow the search.

For example: The wildcard expression ‘col9*.img’ can be used to re-attach all .img
files with root names beginning with ‘col9’.

☞ When you click OK, the image selected in the filename part of the File tab replaces the file
named in the Image File Name: field in the Frame Editor (the selected file in the OrthoBASE
dialog). All other images matching the wildcard expression and the rootnames found in the
block file are loaded into the OrthoBASE CellArray.

i If you have accidentally replaced the wrong image, there may still be an image shown as
unattached (not Online). Attempting to attach this image may result in an error message indi-
cating that files must be unique. If this happens, Cancel and Close the blockfile without saving
and start over.

Help Click to open this On-Line Help document.

25
Attach Image Options (Sensor)

Attach Image Options (Sensor)


This tab allows you to reattach one or more images to your block file. Unattached files are
indicated by a red block in the Online column of the OrthoBASE CellArray. An image becomes
unattached when it is deleted or moved to a directory different than the one indicated in the
Image Name column of the OrthoBASE dialog.

To attach a single file, simply locate the file with the File Selector, select it, and click OK.
Reattaching multiple files is made easier with wild card functionality on the Attach Options tab.

☞ The selected file should match the file displayed in the Image File Name: field in the Frame
Editor.

You reach this dialog when you click the Attach button on the Frame Editor (Sensor) dialog and
then click the Attach Options tab. The Attach button is enabled only for unattached files.

Attach Options
Selected File: The full path of the selected file is displayed here.

Attach selected file only Select this option to attach the image selected in the filename
part of the File tab. Only this one file is reattached to your block project.

Attach selected file plus root names found from the following: Select this option to
reattach more than the selected image to your block project file. Clicking this radio button
enables the Files Matching text field.

Files Matching: Enter a wildcard expression for the files you want to reattach to
your block file. This will be used to narrow the search.

For example: The wildcard expression ‘col9*.img’ can be used to re-attach all .img
files with root names beginning with ‘col9’.

☞ When you click OK, the image selected in the filename part of the File tab replaces the file
named in the Image File Name: field in the Frame Editor (the selected file in the OrthoBASE
dialog). All other images matching the wildcard expression and the rootnames found in the
block file are loaded into the OrthoBASE CellArray.

i If you have accidentally replaced the wrong image, there may still be an image shown as
unattached (not Online). Attempting to attach this image may result in an error message indi-
cating that files must be unique. If this happens, Cancel and Close the blockfile without saving
and start over.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

26
Camera Information

Camera Information
This dialog allows you to define the internal geometry of the frame camera used to capture the
imagery. Defining the internal geometry of a camera is a component of the interior orientation
procedure. You reach this dialog by clicking the New... or Edit... buttons on the Frame Editor
(Camera) dialog.

General This tab allows you to define the basic attributes of your camera.
If the precise values for the focal length and principal point are unknown, OrthoBASE can
estimate the values. These interior orientation parameters can be estimated using the Self
Calibrating Bundle Adjustment capabilities of the Aerial Triangulation procedure.

i The principal point defines the position where the optical axis of the camera intersects the
photographic or image plane.

Camera Name: Enter the name of the camera being defined.

Description: Enter optional details about the camera that you want recorded.

Focal Length (mm): Enter the focal length of the camera. This value is usually provided
with your calibration report.

Principal Point xo (mm): Enter the principal point offset in the X-direction. This value
is normally provided in the calibration report which comes with the data.

Principal Point yo (mm): Enter the principal point offset in the Y-direction. This value
is normally provided in the calibration report which comes with the data.

Fiducials This tab allows you to provide information about the fiducial marks for your
Frame camera.

i For other camera models such as Digital, Video, and Non-Metric, this information is not
needed. You will see, instead, the message “No fiducial information required.” in this tab.

Number of Fiducials: Enter the number of fiducials used by the camera in this number
field. The value can be adjusted by using the increment nudgers to the right of the field.

CellArray The number of rows in this CellArray depends upon the value in the Number
of Fiducials number field.

Film X (mm) This field displays the calibrated X coordinates of the fiducial mark
positions for this camera. This value is normally provided in the calibration report which
comes with the data.

27
Camera Information

Film Y (mm) This field displays the calibrated Y coordinates of the fiducial mark
positions for this camera. This value is normally provided in the calibration report which
comes with the data.

Radial Lens Distortion This tab allows you to provide information about image
distortion for your Frame camera. This information is then used to calculate the radial lens
distortion.

Distortion Measured With: Select how the radial lens distortion of your camera is
measured. Your options are Radial Distance in Millimeters, or Field Angle in Decimal
Degrees. This information is normally provided in the calibration report which comes with
the data.

Add Point Click to enter the radial distortion values in the CellArray.
Delete Point Click to remove a selected row of the CellArray.

Calculate Coeffs Click to determine the three Konrady coefficients (K0, K1, and K2)
that define radial lens distortion. Results are displayed in the CellArray.

Distortion Coefficients: These number fields display the computed Konrady


coefficients. If these values have already been computed and provided, you can enter the
values in the corresponding number fields for K0, K1, and K2.

Once determined, the Konrady coefficients are used to correct for radial lens distortion
across the entire image.

OK Click to save these parameters and return to the Frame Editor (Camera) dialog.

Save Click to save these parameters in a *.cam ASCII file.

Load Click to open an existing *.cam ASCII file. All the fields on all the tabs of this dialog
are populated.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without setting any camera parameters.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

28
Sensor Information

Sensor Information
This dialog allows you to define all the parameters associated with a specific sensor model. You
reach this dialog by clicking the New... or Edit... buttons on the Frame Editor (Sensor) dialog.

General This tab allows you to define the basic attributes of your sensor. These fields are
automatically populated with information derived from the ephemeris data contained within
the SPOT or IRS-1C image file header.

i If the Generic Pushbroom model is being used, these values must be entered manually. They
can be obtained from the header file associated with the image file.

Sensor Name: Enter the name of the sensor being defined.

Description: Enter optional details about the sensor that you want recorded.

Focal Length (mm): Enter the focal length of your sensor.

Principal Point xo (mm): Enter the principal point offset in the X-direction.

Principal Point yo (mm): Enter the principal point offset in the Y-direction.

Pixel Size (mm): Enter the pixel size used for your image files.

Sensor Columns: Number of sensor columns in pixels.

Model Parameters This tab allows you to define attributes associated with the positional
and rotational elements of the sensor (interior or exterior).

Polynomial Orders of Sensor Model: Enter the polynomial order parameters for the
sensor model used to capture the images used in your block file.

A polynomial model is used to model the perspective center and rotation angles
associated with a satellite sensor. Since a satellite pushbroom sensor has a perspective
center for each scan line, the position and orientation of the sensor is different for each
scan line. Thus a polynomial model is used to define the position and orientation of the
sensor as existed at the time of capture. After triangulation has been performed,
polynomial coefficients are calculated. The number of coefficients calculated is
determined by the polynomial order specified. If the polynomial order is defined as being
2 for each exterior orientation parameter, the number of computed coefficients is 6 for
each exterior orientation parameter.

i The larger the polynomial order specified, the greater the number of GCPs required to solve
the triangulation solution. It is recommended that a minimum of 6 evenly distributed GCPs be
used. If a polynomial order of 3 is specified and a minimal number of GCPs is provided, result-
ing orthorectified images will appear warped along the edges of image format.

29
Sensor Information

X: Enter the polynomial order for the X perspective center. The default is 2.

Y: Enter the polynomial order for the Y perspective center. The default is 2.

Z: Enter the polynomial order for the Z perspective center. The default is 2.

Omega: Enter the polynomial order for Omega rotation angle. The default is 0.

Phi: Enter the polynomial order for Phi rotation angle. The default is 0.

Kappa: Enter the polynomial order for Kappa rotation angle. The default is 0.

OK Click to save these parameters and return to the Frame Editor (Sensor) dialog.

Save Click to save these parameters in a *.sen ASCII file.

Load Click to open an existing *.sen ASCII file with these parameters. All the fields on all
the tabs of this dialog are populated.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without setting any sensor parameters.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

30
Exterior Orientation Parameters Editor

Exterior Orientation Parameters Editor


This CellArray dialog allows you to edit the exterior orientation information for each image
associated with a single block file. Using the CellArray, exterior orientation parameters can be
imported, exported, formatted and saved into a report file.

You reach this dialog by clicking the Edit All Images button on the Frame Editor (Camera)
dialog.

Horizontal Units: Displays the units used for the X and Y perspective center
coordinates.

Vertical Units: Displays the units used for the Z perspective center coordinate.

Angle Units: Displays the units used for Omega, Phi, and Kappa rotation angles.
Image Name This field displays the name of the image file. This field is not editable.

Image ID This field displays a numeric identifier for the image file. This field is not
editable.

Xo This field displays the X coordinate of the perspective center.

Yo This field displays the Y coordinate of the perspective center.

Zo This field displays the Z coordinate of the perspective center.

Omega This field displays the estimated rotation angle for Omega.

Phi This field displays the estimated rotation angle for Phi.

Kappa This field displays the estimated rotation angle for Kappa.

The standard deviation value to be used is largely dependent on the precision of the exterior
orientation parameters (X, Y, Z, omega, phi and kappa). This is a function of the reference source
of origin of this information.

If the values were obtained from Airborne GPS and INS (Inertial Navigation System) and these
values are accurate to 0.5 meters in X and Y, 1.0 meters in Z and 0.01 degrees in omega, phi
and kappa, then these would be considered the standard deviations to be used.

If the X, Y and Z values of exterior orientation were interpolated from a planimetric or topographic
map and the precision of these estimates was approximately 50 meters in X, Y and Z, then these
would be considered the standard deviations to be used.

31
Exterior Orientation Parameters Editor

During the aerial triangulation procedure the standard deviation values control the extent of
change in the exterior orientation values. Thus, if a standard deviation value of 10 meters were
applied to the X coordinate of exterior orientation, that initial value could not change more than
+- 25 meters.

Standard deviation values are used to minimize and distribute error throughout all of the data
observations thereby optimizing the results of aerial triangulation.

Std. Xo This field displays the standard deviation for the X coordinate of the perspective
center. The more reliable your coordinate information is, the lower the standard deviation
should be.

Std. Yo This field displays the standard deviation for the Y coordinate of the perspective
center. The more reliable your coordinate information is, the lower the standard deviation
should be.

Std. Zo This field displays the standard deviation for the Z coordinate of the perspective
center. The more reliable your coordinate information is, the lower the standard deviation
should be.

Std. Om. This field displays the standard deviation for the Omega rotation angles. The
more reliable your rotation information is, the lower the standard deviation should be.

Std. Ph. This field displays the standard deviation for the Phi rotation angles. The more
reliable your rotation information is, the lower the standard deviation should be.

Std. Ka. This field displays the standard deviation for the Kappa rotation angles. The
more reliable your rotation information is, the lower the standard deviation should be.

The status specification indicates whether or not the exterior orientation parameters are
estimated, fixed or simply used as initial values in determining their new values during the
triangulation procedure.

If the status is set to Fixed, the values are not estimated during triangulation. Instead, they are
used to determine the X, Y and Z ground coordinates of tie points. In this case, a standard
deviation is not required.

If the status is set to Initial, the values of exterior orientation are used as initial approximations
during the first iteration of the aerial triangulation procedure and subsequently refined during the
remaining iterations. Once the first iteration of processing is completed, a new set of values is
computed for exterior orientation. This process continues until a solution has been obtained. The
degree of change between the first iteration of processing and the nth iteration of processing is
defined by the standard deviation for that value.

If the status is set to Unknown, the values for exterior orientation are determined without the use
of initial approximations. Instead, OrthoBASE determines the initial approximation to be used for
the first iteration of processing. In this case a standard deviation is not required.

32
Exterior Orientation Parameters Editor

Sta. Xo This field displays how the triangulation process should apply the entered
exterior orientation parameters for Xo.

Sta. Yo This field displays how the triangulation process should apply the entered
exterior orientation parameters for Yo.

Sta. Zo This field displays how the triangulation process should apply the entered
exterior orientation parameters for Zo.

Sta. Om. This field displays how the triangulation process should apply the entered
exterior orientation parameters for Omega.

Sta. Ph. This field displays how the triangulation process should apply the entered
exterior orientation parameters for Phi.

Sta. Ka. This field displays how the triangulation process should apply the entered
exterior orientation parameters for Kappa.

OK Click this button to close this dialog using the parameters you entered.

Cancel Click this button to close this dialog without using the parameters you entered.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

33
Point Measurement

Point Measurement
This dialog provides all the tools needed to create, measure, edit, and calculate ground control
points, check points, and tie points for your block images. It consists of two groups of viewers, a
group of tools, and a point measurement group.

You can reach this dialog when you select Edit | Point Measurement... from the OrthoBASE
menu bar or by clicking the icon on the OrthoBASE tool bar.

Left View Group Right View Group Tools Group

OverView Detail Detail OverView Common


View View Tools

Left View
Tools

Main View Main View Right View


Tools

Reference
Sources

Reference (Ground) Coordinates File (Image) Coordinates

Point Measurement Group

Viewer Groups
Each of the viewer groups contains three windows on a single image. The OverView window
provides a view of the entire image. A link cursor in the OverView window links to the Main
window where the portion within the link box is enlarged. Similarly, a link cursor in the Main
window is linked to the Detail window where the image is further magnified.

34
Point Measurement

grab here to
Link Cursor reposition
link box

crosshair

middle-hold
grab a corner and drag to
to resize rotate

The link box in each link cursor may be resized to change the viewing area and magnification.
To reposition the link cursor, drag the crosshair or the interior of the link box. To resize the inquire
cursor, drag a corner of the link box. To rotate the linked view, middle-hold inside the link box
and drag the mouse. When the mouse button is released, the view linked to the rotated link box
will rotate accordingly.

i You can always return the views to their default state by clicking the icon in the Tools
Group.

Each View provides rapid access to useful display control functions through a Quick View Menu.
This functionality includes zooming, data scaling, band selection, and contrast adjustment.
Right-click in a view to popup a menu.

Tools Group

Click to graphically select and/or move a point in one of the Views.

i If a point is accidentally selected outside the link box in an OverView, it will be moved. Use
the tool to undo the mistake.

Click to measure image coordinate positions for ground control, tie, or check points in
your image. You can place points in either the Main View or Detail View. Information about
the point displays in the Point Measurement CellArray below the Viewers. If you click in the
OverView window with this tool, the Main View and Detail View are panned to this location.
No point is placed when using the OverView.

35
Point Measurement

Click to lock another tool in the tool palette so it remains active. Click the icon
again to unlock the tool.

Click to return all six Viewers to their original viewing positions.

Click to undo edits made during point measurement. You can undo multiple edits. This
also applies to point measurements and edits to the reference and image coordinates in the
CellArrays.

Click to perform triangulation for your block project file.

Click to view and set the parameters for OrthoBASE to use when performing
triangulation on your block file. The Aerial Triangulation dialog opens when using camera
images (frame, digital, video, or non-metric); the Triangulation dialog opens when using
pushbroom images for your block project.

Click to view an ASCII report of the triangulation results. The Triangulation Report
opens within the IMAGINE text Editor. The report can be saved to a file.

Click to automatically generate tie points for your block project file. A job progress meter
is displayed in the status bar.

Click to set the parameters for OrthoBASE to use when automatically collecting tie
points from your block images. The Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties dialog
opens.

Click to automatically move the viewing area of your image based upon the
positions of existing points. Click again to unlock this tool. Locked tools are displayed with an
X in the box.

Selecting this icon sets the automatic x, y drive mode. If at least 3 GCPs have been measured
on the overlap areas of 2 images, and the image position of a GCP has been measured on
the left image, then OrthoBASE will automatically position the viewing windows over the
corresponding image position on the right image.

36
Point Measurement

Click to update the Z values for selected ground control points based on your vertical
reference source. Only those points selected in the Point Measurement CellArray will update.

Click to automatically update the Z values for ground control points. These values
are based on your vertical reference source. Click again to unlock this tool. Locked tools are
displayed with an X in the box.

Selecting this icon sets the automatic Z update mode. If the X and Y reference coordinates
of a GCP are available, the corresponding Z coordinate is automatically set by using the
vertical reference source specified. This can include a DEM or a constant elevation value. If
a DEM is used as the vertical reference source, the reference X and Y coordinates of the GCP
are automatically linked to the corresponding X and Y coordinates in the DEM to derive the
Z value.

Click to select points in the Reference CellArray which are common to block images
displayed in both left and right viewers. Selected points are also highlighted in the CellArray.
This can be used to verify Auto Tie points.

Click to select the source of the X and Y coordinates for the ground control or check
points. The GCP Reference Source dialog opens.

Click to select the source of the Z coordinates for the ground control and check points.
The Vertical Reference Source dialog opens.

Click to review or edit the basic viewing properties associated with your block images.
The Viewing Properties dialog opens.

Click to view a graphical representation of your block project, including the image
footprints, GCP positions, and triangulation error. The OrthoBASE Graphic Status Display
dialog is opened.

Add Click this button to add a point to the Point Measurement CellArray.

Delete Click this button to delete a selected point or points from the Point Measurement
CellArray.

37
Point Measurement

Close Click this button to close the tool palette, the Point Measurement CellArray, and all
Viewers. You are returned to the OrthoBASE main dialog.

Save Click this button to save any edits made to your block images or points.

Help Click to open this On-Line Help document.


Left Viewer Tools

Use Viewer As Reference Click this checkbox to use the file selected in the GCP
Reference Source dialog as the reference source for measuring ground control points. The
reference source image may only be displayed in the Left Viewer Group.

Left View: Click this popup list to select the image to display in Left Viewer Group.

Apply Image Shift Click this checkbox to automatically display in the second group of
Viewers the next image in the block file whenever you change the image displayed in the
current group.

Use this meter to adjust the brightness of the image in the Left Viewer Group.

Use this meter to adjust the contrast of the image in the Left Viewer Group.

Apply Click this button to apply any brightness or contrast adjustments to the Left Viewer
Group.

Reset Click this button to reset the brightness or contrast adjustment of the Left Viewer
Group to their original brightness and contrast.

Right Viewer Tools

Right View: Click this popup list to select the image to display in the Right Viewer Group.

Apply Image Shift Click this checkbox to automatically display in the first group of
Viewers the previous image in the block file whenever you change the image displayed in the
current group.

Use this meter to adjust the brightness of the image in the Right Viewer Group.

38
Point Measurement

Use this meter to adjust the contrast of the image in the Right Viewer Group.

Apply Click this button to apply any brightness or contrast adjustments to the Right Viewer
Group.

Reset Click this button to reset the brightness or contrast adjustment of the Right Viewer
Group to their original brightness and contrast.

Reference Sources

Horizontal: The name of the horizontal reference source is displayed here. The horizontal
reference source may be a file, a digitizing tablet or the keyboard (none).

Vertical: The name of the vertical reference source is displayed here. The vertical
reference source may be a DEM, a constant value, or none.

Point Measurement Group


This portion of the dialog consists of two editable CellArrays that allow you to view and edit the
ground control, check, and tie points associated with your block images.

Reference Coordinate CellArray This CellArray displays information about each


ground control point, check point, and tie point.

Point ID This editable field gives each point a numeric identifier. You can change this
number at any time.

> A > in this field indicates the selected point in the row. Edits are only applicable to the
selected point. Click in this field to change the selected point.

Description This editable field allows for further description or identification of a point.
This field is not required to complete point measurement.

Type This field displays the type of point displayed in the row. To set or change the type,
click in this field and select one of the options from the popup list.

☞ If the row you click in is selected (highlighted), then the type is set for all selected rows.
The Type options are:

Full These are control or check points with X, Y, and Z coordinates.

Horizontal These are control or check points with X and Y coordinates. The Z
coordinate is unknown, and can be estimated or ignored during triangulation.

39
Point Measurement

Vertical These are control or check points with Z coordinates. The X and Y
coordinates are unknown, and can be estimated or ignored during triangulation.

i If the Photo Direction is Y-axis for close-range images, then the Vertical type represents
the Y coordinate and the Horizontal type represents the X and Z coordinates.

None These are the tie points with X, Y, and Z coordinates that are estimated during
triangulation.

Usage This field displays how the point is used in triangulation and orthorectification. To
set or change the usage, click in this field and select one of the options from the popup list.

☞ If the row you click in is selected (highlighted), then the usage is set for all selected rows. Note
that this field is not always editable.
Your options are:

Control These points are used as control points during triangulation.

Check These points are used to independently verify the quality of a triangulation.

Tie These points indicate the position of ground point appearing in the overlapping
areas of two or more images. The X, Y, Z coordinates are determined by triangulation.
These image points can be collected manually, or automatically by selecting Process
| Autotie from the OrthoBASE menu bar.

Active This field displays whether the point is used in triangulation. An X indicates the
point is used; by default, all points are active. Click in the cell to change the point’s status.

X Reference This editable field displays the X coordinate of the point. You can manually
enter the coordinate, if desired. When using Vertical control or tie points, this field remains
empty until after accepting your triangulation results.

Y Reference This editable field displays the Y coordinate of the point. You can manually
enter the coordinate, if desired. When using Vertical control or tie points, this field remains
empty until after accepting your triangulation results.

Z Reference This editable field displays the Z coordinate of the point. You can manually
enter the coordinate, if desired. When using Horizontal control or tie points, this field
remains empty until after accepting your triangulation results.

i The following fields are optional. Use the Viewing Properties dialog to set which of these
you want to use.

Color This field allows you to determine the color to use for each individual point if the
Viewer is used as the reference source. To change the color of a point, click inside the cell
and select a color from the menu.

40
Point Measurement

i The standard deviation of a control point depends on the origin and source of the control
point. For example, if the GCP was collected from ground GPS surveying and the X, Y and
Z coordinates are accurate to 0.20 meters, then the standard deviation for the GCP can be
set to 0.20 meters. It is advantageous to set the standard deviation of a GCP if the quality of
the GCP is poor.

X Std. This editable field displays the standard deviation value of the X coordinate for
each point.

Y Std. This editable field displays the standard deviation value of the Y coordinate for
each point.

Z Std. This editable field displays the standard deviation value of the Z coordinate for
each point.

i A relatively large residual indicates poor GCP quality. GCPs with large residuals should be
examined to ensure correct image positions and X, Y and Z coordinate values. If all of the
GCP residuals are large, then a systematic error has been introduced. This can be attributed
to factors such as badly measured fiducial marks, incorrect fiducial orientation specification,
focal length, etc.

X Residual This field displays the difference between the original X coordinate of a Full
or Horizontal control or check point and the X coordinate estimated for the point during
triangulation. This field is not editable.

Y Residual This field displays the difference between the original Y coordinate of a Full
or Horizontal control or check point and the Y coordinate estimated for the point during
triangulation.This field is not editable.

Z Residual This field displays the difference between the original Z coordinate of a Full
or Vertical control or check point and the Z coordinate estimated for the point during
triangulation. This field is not editable.

File Coordinate CellArray This CellArray displays the image coordinates of the
control, check or tie points. The image coordinates are in pixel units.

Image Name This field displays the name of the image file where a point was measured.
A single reference point can exist on multiple image files.

Active An X in this field indicates the point is used for triangulation. Click in the field to
change the point’s status.
X File This editable field displays the X pixel coordinate of the point on the photograph
or image. The origin of the X coordinate is the upper left corner of the image.

41
Point Measurement

Y File This editable field displays the Y pixel coordinate of the point on the photograph
or image. The origin of the Y coordinate is the upper left corner of the image.

Color This field allows you to determine the color to use for each individual point on the
Viewer. To change the color of a point, click inside the cell and select a color from the
menu.

i A relatively large residual indicates poor image position quality. Image coordinates with large
residuals should be examined to ensure correct image positions. If all of the image coordinate
residuals are large, a systematic error has been introduced into the solution. This can be
attributed to factors such as badly measured fiducial marks, incorrect fiducial orientation
specification, focal length, large radial lens distortion, film deformation, etc. Large image
coordinate residuals are also attributed to large errors in GCP coordinates.

X Residual This field displays the difference between the original X image coordinate
of the point and the coordinate computed during triangulation. Before triangulation, this
field is empty. This field is not editable.

Y Residual This field displays the difference between the original Y image coordinate
of the point and the coordinate computed during triangulation. Before triangulation, this
field is empty. This field is not editable.

42
Compute Pyramid Layers

Compute Pyramid Layers


This dialog allows you to create pyramid layers for your images. An .rrd file is created for each
image for which you generate pyramid layers. This dialog opens when you select Edit |
Compute Pyramid Layers... from the OrthoBASE menu bar.

Generate Pyramid Layers For: Select the images for which you want to create a
pyramid layer file (*.rrd).

One Image Selected Click this check box to create pyramid layers for a single selected
image. You can select the image in the OrthoBASE CellArray.

All Selected Images Click this check box to create pyramid layers for multiple images
selected in the OrthoBASE CellArray.

All Images Without Pyramids Click to create a pyramid layer file for any images in the
OrthoBASE CellArray that do not have pyramid layers. No files need to be selected for this
option.

OK Click to create pyramid layers and close the Compute Pyramid Layers dialog.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without generating any pyramid layers.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

43
Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties

Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties


This dialog allows you to set the parameters for OrthoBASE to use when automatically
generating tie points. You reach this dialog by selecting Edit | Autotie Properties... from the
OrthoBASE menu bar or click the icon in the Tools Group of the Point Measurement
dialog.

i To use the automatic tie point generation process, the minimum input requirements include
one of the following:

♦ Adequate tie points or GCPs


♦ Initial approximation for exterior orientation
♦ SPOT or IRS-1C header information

Images Used: Select which images to use for automatic tie point generation.
All available Click this radio button to use all Online images in your block file. Look in
the Online column of the OrthoBASE CellArray to see which images are Online.

Active only Click this radio button to use only active images in your block file.

Initial Type: OrthoBASE requires topological information which defines the image order
within the block. The factors described below may be used to define image topology. Select
the type of input for OrthoBASE to use when generating tie points.

Exterior/Header/GCP Click this radio button if you have initial exterior orientation
information (minimum of X, Y, Z and Kappa), SPOT or IRS-1C header information, or at
least two ground control points in overlap areas of each image.

Tie Points Click this radio button if you have at least two measured tie points in the
overlapping areas of each adjacent pair of images in each strip and at least two measured
tie points in the overlapping areas of one adjacent pair of images in each adjacent strip.

Strip 1

Strip 2

44
Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties

Image Layer Used for Computation: Enter the layer to use for automatic tie point
generation when using color or multi-spectral images in your block file. If a value is entered
that is greater than the total number of layers in the file, the software automatically selects the
highest numbered layer.

Strategy Parameters: This section displays the current parameters used for automatic
tie point generation for your block.

i The strategy parameters can be used to optimize the operation of the automatic tie point col-
lection. The strategy parameters govern the operation of the algorithm.

Search Size: Displays the window size in pixels for searching for corresponding points.

Correlation Size: Displays the window size in pixels for cross correlation.
Least Square Size: Displays the window size in pixels for least square matching.

Feature Pt Dense: Displays the feature point density percentage based on internal
default.

Coefficient Limit: Displays the limit for the cross-correlation coefficient.

Initial Accuracy: Displays the relative accuracy of your initial values used by the
automatic tie point generation process.

Reset Strategy Parameters... Click this button to change the strategy parameters
displayed in this dialog. The Set Auto Tie Strategy dialog opens.

Intended Number of Points Per Image: Enter the intended number of tie points
generated for each image. The minimum is 9 and the maximum is 500. The default is 25.

Keep All Points Click this check box to use all tie points generated by OrthoBASE
regardless of accuracy or distribution. If this checkbox is active, the number of collected tie
points will be greater than the intended number of points per image

OK Click to accept all the parameters set for automatic tie point generation and close this
dialog.

Run Click to use the parameters you have set and start automatic tie point generation. This
is equivalent to clicking the icon on the Point Measurement dialog tool palette. A job
progress meter is displayed in the status bar of the Point Measurement dialog.

45
Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties

Warnings, if any, are accumulated in a single text dialog and displayed at the end of the
automatic tie point generation process. There are two conditions that result in a warning; 1)
insufficient common points between two overlapping images, 2) gross errors in the common
points between two overlapping images.

Cancel Click to cancel your inputs for automatic tie point generation.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

46
Set Auto Tie Strategy

Set Auto Tie Strategy


This dialog allows you to set the parameters used for collecting tie points during the Auto Tie
process. You reach this dialog by clicking the Reset Strategy Parameters... button on the
Automatic Tie Point Generation Properties dialog.

Search Size: Enter the window size in pixels to use for searching for corresponding points.
The software will search for the corresponding point within a square window defined by this
parameter. The default value is 21 (a 21x21 pixel window). For flat areas, this value could be
smaller, for steeper areas, it could be larger. A larger value could cause more computation
time and more wrong points, but a smaller value could result in fewer matched points.

Correlation Size: Enter the window size in pixels for cross correlation. The default
window size is 7x7. A larger window size could cause a smaller correlation coefficient due to
the geometric difference within the two correlation windows and, therefore, fewer matched
points. A smaller window size could result in a larger correlation coefficient due to insufficient
contents and, therefore, more bad points.

Least Square Size: Enter the window size in pixels for least square matching. A larger
window size could reduce the number of badly matched points, and could also reduce the
number of good points. A smaller window size could increase the number of both bad and
good points. The default window size is 21x21. It can be increased in flatter areas and
decreased in steeper areas. Setting the window too small could result in insufficient contents
in the window for the least square computation.

Feature Pt Density: Enter the feature point density percentage based on internal
default. For more feature points, (e.g. in poor contrast area) increase the value above 100%
in order to get enough matched points. For fewer feature points, (e.g. in the area with crowded
details) decrease the value below 100% in order to accelerate the computation.

Coefficient Limit: Enter the limit for the cross-correlation coefficient. The allowed value
is from 0.6 to 0.99, default value is 0.85. A larger limit results in fewer points accepted and
less error. A smaller limit results in more correlated points but also possibly more errors.

Initial Accuracy: Enter the relative accuracy of your initial values used by the automatic
tie point generation process. Generally, a large value entered here increases the initial search
area for possible corresponding points at the initial estimation phase.

This value can be seen as the relative accuracy of the source you have chosen for your initial
values, such as exterior orientation parameters, header information, or the relative elevation
difference (i.e. the average elevation difference divided by the flight height).

47
Set Auto Tie Strategy

The default value is 10%. It is recommended that the initial exterior orientation parameters
have an accuracy of 25% or better, if you use initial exterior orientation as the initial
information for the automatic tie point collection.

OK Click to close this dialog using the values entered for each parameter.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without using the values entered for each parameter.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

48
GCP Reference Source

GCP Reference Source


This dialog allows you to select the source of your X and Y coordinates for control and check
points. This dialog opens when you click the icon on the Point Measurement tools dialog.

If the horizontal reference source selected is an image, vector layer, or annotation layer, the
horizontal reference source name will be displayed in the Reference Sources portion of the
Point Measurement tool.

Image Layer Click this radio button to use an image layer as the source of X and Y
coordinates. This may include an existing orthorectified image, scanned topographic or
planimetric map, rectified image, etc.

Vector Layer Click this radio button to use a vector layer as the source of X and Y
coordinates. The vector layer must be an ESRI ArcCoverage.

Annotation Layer Click this radio button to use an annotation layer as the source of X
and Y coordinates. The annotation layer must be an IMAGINE annotation layer with the .ovr
extension.

GCP File (.gcc) Click this radio button to use a pre-existing ground control point
coordinate file of X and Y coordinates. The .gcc file is produced by the IMAGINE Geometric
Correction Tools. This file contains the X and Y reference coordinates along with the GCP
ID.

ASCII File (2D) Click this radio button to use an ASCII file with 2-dimensional point
coordinates as the source of X and Y coordinates. The Reference Import Parameters dialog
opens. The ASCII file must have the .txt extension.

ASCII File (3D) Click this radio button to use an ASCII file with 3-dimensional point
coordinates as the source of X and Y coordinates. The Reference Import Parameters dialog
opens. The ASCII file must have the .txt extension.

Digitizing Tablet (Current) Click this radio button to use the currently configured
digitizing tablet as the source of X and Y coordinates. The Map Setup dialog opens.

Digitizing Tablet (New) Click this radio button to configure a new digitizing tablet to use
as the source of X and Y coordinates. The Tablet Setup dialog opens.

49
GCP Reference Source

i You can input Z values with your digitizer keypad. When the digitizing tool is started, it is in
X,Y mode. In this mode, press any numeric key to digitize the X,Y position. Press any alpha
key to switch to Z input mode. The key you choose becomes the switch to return to X,Y mode.
In Z mode, use the numeric keys to enter the Z value. Any alpha key other than the Z mode
switch may be used to input a decimal. Press the switch key to accept the Z value and return
to X,Y mode.

Keyboard Only Click this radio button to enter the X and Y coordinates manually.

OK Click to use the selected reference source and close this dialog.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without selecting a reference source.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

50
Reference Import Parameters

Reference Import Parameters


This dialog allows you to specify the map projection system and units of the ASCII file containing
the reference import information. This dialog opens after you select an input file using the ASCII
File (2D) or the ASCII File (3D) option on the GCP Reference Source dialog.

OrthoBASE transforms the map projection and units information. If the map projection and units
of the XYZ coordinates in the ASCII file differ from the map projection and units of the block
project, OrthoBASE will automatically transform the X, Y, and Z values to conform with the block
project.

Map Projection and Units:


Projection: Displays the projection used for the ASCII file.

Spheroid: Displays the spheroid used for the ASCII file.

Zone Number: Displays the zone number associated with the ASCII file.

Datum: Displays the datum associated with the ASCII file.

Set... Click this button to change any of the above projection information. The IMAGINE
Projection Chooser dialog opens.

Horizontal Units: Select the units to use for horizontal measurements in your block. Your
options are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet,
Centimeters, Inches.

If you select Geographic Lat/Lon, your options are Degrees or Radians.


Vertical Units: Select the units to use for vertical measurements in your block. Your
options are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet,
Centimeters, or Inches.

Angle Units: Select the units to use for angle measurements in your block. Your options
are Degrees, Radians, or Gons.

OK Click to use the options you selected and close this dialog.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without making any selections.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

51
Vertical Reference Source

Vertical Reference Source


This dialog allows you to set the source for collecting the Z coordinates of the GCP points used
in the block file. This dialog opens when you click the tool in the Point Measurement dialog.

None Click this radio button to use no reference source for the Z coordinates of the points
in your block. In this case, you are required to manually input the Z coordinates.

DEM Click this radio button to enter the name of a DEM as the source of the Z coordinates
of the control and check points in the block file. Click the icon to open the File Selector
dialog. The DEM must be an IMAGINE .img file.

USGS DEMs can be imported into IMAGINE and saved as .img files. An ASCII file of XYZ
coordinates can be imported and interpolated into a surface using the 3D Surface tool or it
can be converted into an IMAGINE file using the Table to Pixel utility. A constant elevation
value can be used for relatively flat areas having minimal relief.

Constant Click this radio button to enter a constant value for the Z coordinates of the
control and check points in the block file. This elevation value can be changed in the number
field or by using the increment nudgers to the right of the field.

Z Units: Click this popup list to select the units to use for your Z coordinates. Your options
are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet, Centimeters, or
Inches.

OK Click this button to close this dialog with the reference source selected.

Cancel Click this button to close this dialog without setting a reference source.
Help Click this button to open this On-line Help document.

52
Viewing Properties

Viewing Properties
This dialog allows you to specify which point properties display in the Reference Coordinate
CellArray, and the Viewers. You reach this dialog by clicking the icon on the Point
Measurement dialog.

Point Table Info: This section allows you to select the options to display for the measured
ground control, check and tie points in the Reference Coordinate CellArray.

Simple Click this radio button to display only basic information about the listed points.
No color, standard deviation, or residual information is displayed.

Advanced Click this radio button to display more information about the listed points. Click
the check boxes below to display the additional properties.

Color Click this checkbox to view a column displaying the color of the measured
points.

i The color of GCPs, check points, and tie points can be changed only within the File Coordi-
nate CellArray of the Point Measurement dialog. If the GCPs and check points have been
collected from a reference source image, their colors can be changed only within the Refer-
ence Coordinate CellArray.

Std. Click this check box to view columns with the standard deviations for the GCPs
and check points.

Residual Click this check box to view columns with the residuals of the GCPs, check
points, and image coordinates.

Point View Info: This section allows you to select the options to display for the ground
control, check, and tie points in the Viewer groups.

All Click this radio button to display all the points in the Viewers.

Selected Only Click this radio button to display in the Viewers only points selected in the
Reference Coordinate CellArray.

OK Click to close this dialog, using the parameters you set.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without applying the parameters you set.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

53
Block Properties

Block Properties
This dialog allows you to set the standard deviation to use for your GCP points and review other
properties of your block images. This dialog opens when you select Edit | Block Properties...
from the OrthoBASE menu bar.

Sensor Type: Displays the sensor type used to collect your image data.

Projection: Displays the projection used by the block.

Horizontal Units: Displays the horizontal units used by the block.

Vertical Units: Displays the vertical units used by the block.

Angle Units: Displays the angle units used by the block.


Default GCP Standard Deviations (Meters): This section allows you to enter
the standard deviations for your GCP points. The standard deviation can be changed in
the number field or by using the increment nudgers to the right of the field. The default is
10 Meters.

X: Enter the value you want to use for the standard deviation of the X-coordinate of your
GCP points.

Y: Enter the value you want to use for the standard deviation of the Y-coordinate of your
GCP points.

Z: Enter the value you want to use for the standard deviation of the Z-coordinate of your
GCP points.

i If you wish to assign a unique standard deviation to each GCP, use the Reference Coordi-
nate CellArray in the Point Measurement dialog.

OK Click to use these properties for your block file and close the Block Properties dialog.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without changing any of these properties for use with your
block file.

Help Click to open this On-line Help dialog.

54
Aerial Triangulation

Aerial Triangulation
This dialog allows you to set the parameters for aerial triangulation and run the process. You
reach this dialog by selecting Edit | Triangulation Properties... from the OrthoBASE menu bar
or selecting the icon on the Point Measurement dialog.

Aerial triangulation is used for estimating the exterior orientation parameters associated with
each image in the block and for determining the X, Y and Z coordinates of the tie points. A block
bundle adjustment is being used to perform aerial triangulation. Additionally, the interior
orientation parameters associated with a camera (or cameras) can be recovered using an
extension to the block bundle adjustment referred to as the self-calibrating bundle adjustment.

Statistical weights can be assigned to the input observations including image coordinates,
GCPs, exterior orientation and interior orientation. The use of statistical weights assists in
minimizing and distributing data error throughout the block of imagery thereby ensuring highly
accurate results.

General This tab allows you to set basic parameters for aerial triangulation.
Maximum Iterations: Enter the maximum number of iterations to be used for processing
the aerial triangulation. The default is 10. You can enter a new value in the number field,
or adjust the number with the increment nudgers to the right of the field.

i If a solution is determined before the maximum number of iterations has been reached, the
aerial triangulation will stop. If the maximum number of iterations is reached and a solution
has not converged, the problem may be due to large errors associated with input data used
for the aerial triangulation. Re-evaluate all of your input data.

Convergence Value (meters): Enter the limit, in meters, for ground coordinate
correction in each iteration. As long as correction values are higher than this setting, the
aerial triangulation iterations continue. The default is 0.001 meters. Small scale images
may require a larger value (e.g. 0.1 meters).

☞ When the Convergence Value is not met but the Maximum Iterations is met, OrthoBASE
checks the change of standard deviation. If the change in the last two iterations is less than
2%, the triangulation is considered convergent. If this criteria isn’t met, the triangulation is not
considered convergent and you must locate and correct errors and run triangulation again.

Compute Accuracy for Unknowns Click this checkbox to calculate the accuracy for
the unknown parameters, (such as exterior orientation, ground coordinates, etc.)
estimated by aerial triangulation. This information is displayed in the Triangulation
Summary (Camera) dialog.

i Using this option with large blocks, i.e. more than 100 images, could cause a significant
increase in processing time.

55
Aerial Triangulation

Image Coordinate Units for Report Click this popup list to select the units to use in the
triangulation report. Your options are Pixels, Millimeters, or Microns.

Point This tab allows you to set the standard deviations associated with the image and
ground coordinates.

Image Point Standard Deviations (pixels): Enter the standard deviation for the x and
y image coordinates. The default for both is 0.33 pixels.

During the iterative aerial triangulation process, the image coordinate positions are
allowed to fluctuate within the limits of the specified standard deviation values. The
standard deviation values reflect the precision of the image coordinates. Larger values
indicate poor image measurements and vice-versa.

Ground Point Type and Standard Deviations (meters): This section allows you to
define the type of GCP weighting technique and the corresponding GCP statistical
weights.

Type: Click this popup list to select the type of standard deviation to use with the GCPs
for aerial triangulation. Your options are listed below.

Fixed values Select this option if the ground control points are considered fixed.
When this option is selected, no standard deviation is necessary. Selecting this option
enables Blunder Checking. The number fields below are not enabled.
Same weighted values Select this option to apply the same standard deviation
value to all X, Y, and Z coordinates. Their number fields are enabled.

Different weighted values Select this option to apply different standard deviation
values to the X, Y, and Z coordinates. These values must be applied in the Point
Measurement; the X, Y, and Z number fields are not enabled.
If statistical weights have been applied, the GCP positions are allowed to fluctuate
within the limits of their specified standard deviation values during the iterative aerial
triangulation process. The standard deviation values reflect the precision of the GCPs.
Larger values indicate poor image measurements and vice-versa.

Interior This tab allows you to set the standard deviations for the interior orientation
parameters in millimeters.

If standard deviation values are specified for interior orientation, the self-calibrating bundle
adjustment is used to determine the values for focal length and principal point. This is referred
to as estimating camera calibration. If a self-calibration is performed it is advantageous to
have a greater number of GCPs. The optimum is 6 GCPs for the overlap areas of two images.

56
Aerial Triangulation

Type: Click this popup list to select the type of standard deviation to use with your interior
orientation properties for aerial triangulation. Your options are listed below.

Fixed for all images Select this option if the focal length and principal point values
can be fixed for triangulation. If this option is chosen, no standard deviation is
necessary, the number fields below are not enabled, and self-calibration will not occur.

i This option applies to most images captured using a metric camera.

Same weighted corrections for all Select this option if the interior orientation
parameters (focal length and principal points Xo and Yo) are the same for each image,
and you wish to assign a statistical weight to them. The Standard Deviations (mm)
number fields are enabled.

Different weighted corrections Select this option if the interior orientation


parameters are different for each image, and you wish to assign a unique statistical
weight to each set of interior orientation parameters. The Standard Deviations (mm)
number fields are enabled.

Same unweighted corrections for all Select this option if the interior orientation
parameters are the same for each image, and you wish to treat them as unweighted
observations. The Standard Deviations (mm) number fields are not enabled.
Different unweighted corrections Select this option if the interior orientation
parameters are different for each image, and you wish to treat them as unweighted
observations. The Standard Deviations (mm) number fields are not enabled.
Standard Deviations (mm): Enter the standard deviations for these interior orientation
parameters: Focal Length, Principal Point Xo, and Principal Point Yo.

These fields are only enabled when you have selected Same weighted corrections for
all or Different weighted corrections from the Type: popup list.

Exterior This tab allows you to set the standard deviations for the exterior orientation
parameters in meters and degrees.

The standard deviation values for exterior orientation define the precision of the exterior
orientation parameters. If standard deviation values are provided, the exterior orientation
parameters are adjusted to determine new values. During the iterative aerial triangulation
process the exterior orientation parameters are allowed to fluctuate within the limits of the
standard deviation values specified. When the aerial triangulation procedure has been
completed, new values are determined.

Type: Click this popup list to select the method by which the standard deviation are
applied to the exterior orientation properties for aerial triangulation. Your options are listed
below.

57
Aerial Triangulation

No weight Select this option if you want to treat the exterior orientation parameters
as unknows. The Standard Deviations number fields are not enabled. OrthoBASE
estimates the exterior orientation parameters.

Same weighted values Select this option to assign the same statistical weights to
the exterior orientation parameters of each image. The Standard Deviations number
fields are enabled.

Different weighted values Select this option to assign different weights to the
exterior orientation parameters of different images. These values are entered in the
Exterior Information tab of the Frame Editor (Camera) dialog; the Standard
Deviations number fields are not enabled.
Standard Deviations: Enter the standard deviations for these exterior orientation
parameters: X, Y, Z (in meters), and Omega, Phi, and Kappa (in degrees).

These fields are enabled only when you have Same weighted values selected in the
Type: popup list.

Advanced Options This tab allows you to define additional parameters for performing
aerial triangulation.

Additional Parameter Model: Click this popup list to select the additional parameter
model to be used in aerial triangulation for the compensation of systematic image errors.
Your options are listed below.

No additional parameters Select this option if you do not want to use an additional
parameter model. This option is the default.

Bauer’s simple model(3) This model has three additional parameters that come
from the research of Dr. Bauer. Two parameters are for affine deformation and one
parameter is for symmetric lens distortion.

Jacobsen’s simple model(4) This model has four additional parameters which are
simplified from the research results of Dr. Jacobsen. It can compensate for most first
and second order distortions including affine and lens distortion.

Ebner’s orthogonal model(12) This model has twelve additional parameters that
come from the suggestion of Dr. Ebner. These parameters can compensate for most
kinds of systematic errors but also require more observations and a stable block
configuration.

Brown’s physical model(14) This model has fourteen additional parameters that
are simplified from the suggestion of Dr. Brown. These parameters can compensate
for most linear and non-linear film and lens distortions but also require more GCPs and
tie points in good distribution.

58
Aerial Triangulation

Use Additional Parameters As Weighted Variables Click this checkbox to use the
selected additional parameters of the selected model as pseudo-weighted observations
during triangulation. A small statistical weight is assigned to each additional parameter
automatically.

Blunder Checking Model: Click this popup list to choose an automatic gross error
detection method for identifying and removing errors in the image points and ground
control points. Blunder Checking is enabled for fixed value type of GCPs only. Your
options are listed below.

A blunder is considered a gross error resulting from incorrect data entry or incorrect
measurement of ground points on the imagery. If an erroneous point is detected by
Blunder Checking, OrthoBASE will automatically omit it from calculations.

Time-saving robust checking Select this option to use a robust iterative weight
function for gross error detection without computation of individual redundancy for
each observation. This option does not cause a significant increase in triangulation
processing time.

Advanced robust checking Select this option to use a robust iterative weight
function based on the redundancy of each observation. It is theoretically more perfect,
but using this option with large blocks, i.e. more than 100 images, could cause a
significant increase in processing time.

No automatic blunder checking Select this option to do no blunder checking.

Use Image Observations of Check Points in Triangulation Click this check box to
use the image coordinates of the check points in triangulation. Using this option could
improve the precision of the solution since redundancy in data is increased.

Consider Earth Curvature in Calculation: Click this check box to use the topocentric
coordinate system for aerial triangulation to eliminate Earth curvature errors. Blocks
covering large areas of the Earth and small scale photography are most benefited by this
option.

Define Topocenter (Degrees): Click this check box to define the topocentric coordinate
system for aerial triangulation. Enter the latitude and longitude of the topographic center
in the number fields below.

Longitude: Longitude of topocenter.

Latitude: Latitude of topocenter.

OK Click to accept these parameter settings and close the Aerial Triangulation dialog.

Run Click to begin the triangulation process with current settings without closing this dialog.

59
Aerial Triangulation

Update Click to update the block file with the values calculated during the most recent
aerial triangulation. This will update the exterior orientation parameters (if set to Unknown or
Initial), tie point coordinates, and interior orientation parameters (if they were estimated).

Accept Click to accept the triangulation results for your block file. If the exterior orientation
results have been accepted, you can proceed with orthorectification.

Report... Click to view a detailed report of the triangulation results. The triangulation report
is displayed in the IMAGINE Editor. An explanation of the report is given in the Triangulation
Report document.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without setting the parameters or starting triangulation.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

60
Triangulation

Triangulation
This dialog allows you to set the parameters for triangulation. You reach this dialog by selecting
Edit | Triangulation Properties... from the OrthoBASE menu bar or selecting the icon on
the Point Measurement tools dialog.

General This tab allows you to set basic parameters for triangulation.
Maximum Iterations: Enter the maximum number of iterations to be used for processing
triangulation. The default is 5. You can enter a new value in the number field, or adjust the
number with the increment nudgers to the right of the field.

Iterations With Relaxation: Enter the maximum number of iterations with relaxation.
Free weights are applied to all unknown variables of your triangulation. This option is
useful with triangulations that are difficult to converge. The default is 0.

The Iterations with relaxation option allows for the use of a free-weighted iterative
adjustment for determining the position and orientation associated with a satellite sensor.
If a value of 3 is defined, OrthoBASE will use a weight constrained adjustment for 2
iterations of processing and then use a free-weighted adjustment for the remaining
iterations of processing. A weight constrained adjustment assigns a statistical weight to
the GCPs measured on a block of images. A free weighted adjustment does not assign
statistical weights to the GCPs during the iterative triangulation process. If a value of 0 is
specified a free-weighted adjustment will not be used. If a value of 5 is assigned, a free
weight adjustment will be used for each iteration of processing. It is advantageous to use
a free-weighted adjustment in scenarios where the satellite sensor has complicated
geometry. This is common for imagery collected with scan lines having large degrees of
variation with respect to orientation angles and geometric instability.

Convergence Value: Enter the convergence value. As long as the difference of total
RMS errors between two consecutive iterations is higher than this setting, the
triangulation processing continues until you reach the maximum number of iterations. The
default is 0.00010. Units are selected from the Image Coordinate Units for Report
popup list.

Compute Accuracy for Unknowns Click this checkbox to calculate the accuracy of the
values derived for unknown parameters during triangulation. This information displays in
the Triangulation Summary (Sensor) dialog.

The unknown parameters include sensor position and orientation, and XYZ tie point
coordinates.

Image Coordinate Units for Report: Click this popup list to select the units to
use in the triangulation report. Your options are Pixels, Millimeters, or Microns.

61
Triangulation

Point This tab allows you to set the standard deviations for the ground coordinates in
meters.

Ground Point Type and Standard Deviations (meters): This section allows you to set
the type of ground control points used with your images, and the standard deviations of
the X, Y, and Z coordinates.

Type: Click this popup list to select the type of corrections to use with your points for
triangulation. Your options are listed below.

Fixed values Select this option if the ground control points are fixed in the X, Y, and
Z directions. Because the values are set, no standard deviation estimate can be
applied to the coordinates, and their number fields below are not enabled.
Same weighted values Select this option to apply the same weights to all X, Y, and
Z coordinates. Their number fields are enabled.

Different weighted values Select this option to apply different weights to the X, Y,
and Z coordinates. These values must be applied in the Point Measurement; the X,
Y, and Z number fields below are not enabled.

Advanced Options This tab allows you to set more parameters for triangulation. None
of these options are required for triangulation.

Simple Gross Error Check Using: Click this check box to set the times of unit weight.
Any point whose error is more than the times of unit weight is excluded from triangulation.

Times of Unit Weight Enter the times of unit weight in the number field.For example,
if a value of 3 is used, any image coordinate residual larger than 3 times the standard
error will be excluded from the triangulation solution. A larger value will exclude a
greater number of points.
Use Image Observations of Check Points in Triangulation Click this check box to
use the image’s check point coordinates during triangulation. Using this option can
increase the precision of the solution.

Consider Earth Curvature in Calculation: Click this check box to account for the curve
of the Earth during triangulation. Small scale photography and satellite imagery are most
benefited by this option.

i Small scale photography is in the range of 1:40,000 to 1:100,000 and greater. Photos at these
scales typically cover a portion of the earth’s surface large enough to be affected by curva-
ture.

62
Triangulation

Define Topocenter (Degrees): Click this check box to define the topocentric coordinate
system for aerial triangulation. Enter the latitude and longitude of the topographic center
in the number fields below.

Longitude: Longitude of topocenter.

Latitude: Latitude of topocenter.

OK Click to accept these parameter settings and close the Triangulation dialog.

Run Click to begin the triangulation process without closing this dialog.

Accept Click to accept the triangulation results for your block file.

Report... Click to view a report of the triangulation results. The triangulation report is
displayed in the IMAGINE Editor and contains the following information. An explanation of
the report is given in the Triangulation Report document.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without setting the parameters or starting triangulation.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

63
OrthoBASE Graphic Status Display

OrthoBASE Graphic Status Display


This dialog allows you to view the photogrammetric network of information on an image or
multiple images of your block file as a graphical representation. This dialog opens when you
select Process | Graphic Status... from the OrthoBASE menu bar or by clicking the icon
in the Point Measurement of the Point Measurement dialog.

Click this icon to select points in the graphic display field. When a point is selected, a
Point Data window displays information about the selected point. To view information about
another point, click the Dismiss button in the Point Data window.

Click this icon to zoom in the image(s) in the graphic display field.

Click this icon to zoom out the image(s) in the graphic display field.

Click this icon to roam the image(s) in the graphic display field.

Click this icon to save the information in the graphic display field.

Click this icon to print the graphic display field.

Click this icon to reset the graphic display field to the original zoom.

Display Mode This section allows you to decide on the type of display.
Map Space Click this radio button to display information about the triangulated images.
The outline of all images and all of their points display in map coordinates. Ground
coordinate residuals are graphically displayed.

Image Space Click this radio button to display only the points of one image at a time.
The popup list is enabled. Click the popup list to select the image. Image coordinate
residuals are graphically displayed.

Image Extents Click this checkbox to display the edges of the images in the graphic
display field.

64
OrthoBASE Graphic Status Display

Image IDs Click this checkbox to display the image IDs in the graphic display field.

Control Points Click the checkbox to display control points in the graphic display field.
Control points display as triangles .

Tie Points Click the checkbox to display tie points in the graphic display field. Tie points
display as squares .

Check Points Click the checkbox to display check points in the graphic display field.
Check points display as circles .

Point IDs Click this checkbox to display the point IDs with the points in the graphic display
field.

Residuals Click this checkbox to display the residual for each point. Residual vectors
represent the combined errors of X and Y directions.

i Large residuals are an indication of a point error. You should examine these points to ensure
precise measurement and validity.

Residual Scaling % Click this popup list to select the scaling size for your residual in
the graphic display field. Increasing the size makes them easier to identify since the important
aspect is their scale to one another. Your options are 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000.

Update Click this button to update the graphic display field to the original position and
zoom.

Dismiss Click this button to close the OrthoBASE Graphic Status Display dialog.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

65
Triangulation Summary (Camera)

Triangulation Summary (Camera)


This dialog displays the results of your aerial triangulation. This dialog is opened by selecting
Process | Triangulate from the OrthoBASE menu bar. If triangulation has already been
performed, only this summary is prepared. Otherwise, triangulation will be performed first.

Triangulation Iteration Convergence: Displays the yes/no status of the


triangulation.

Total Image Unit-Weight RMSE: Displays the total root mean square error for the
triangulation. This standard deviation of unit weight is a global precision indicator describing
the quality of the entire solution.

Control Point RMSE: This section lists the root mean square errors for the control points
used for triangulation. The number of observations for each field is shown in parentheses.

Ground X: Displays the root mean square error for all of the X ground coordinates in
the block.

Ground Y: Displays the root mean square error for all of the Y ground coordinates in the
block.

Ground Z: Displays the root mean square error for all of the Z ground coordinates in the
block.

Image x: Displays the root mean square error for all of the x image coordinates in the
block.

Image y: Displays the root mean square error for all of the y image coordinates in the
block.

Check Point RMSE: This section lists the root mean square errors for the check points
used for triangulation. The number of observations for each field is shown in parentheses.

Ground X: Displays the root mean square error for all of the X ground coordinates in
the block.

Ground Y: Displays the root mean square error for all of the Y ground coordinates in the
block.
Ground Z: Displays the root mean square error for all of the Z ground coordinates in the
block.

Image x: Displays the root mean square error for all of the x image coordinates in the
block.

66
Triangulation Summary (Camera)

Image y: Displays the root mean square error for all of the y image coordinates in the
block.

Close Click to close this dialog.

Update Click to update the initial values with the values calculated by triangulation.

Accept Click to accept these triangulation results.

Report Click to view a report of the triangulation results. The triangulation report is
displayed in the IMAGINE Editor. An explanation of the report is given in the Triangulation
Report document.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

67
Triangulation Summary (Sensor)

Triangulation Summary (Sensor)


This dialog displays the results of your triangulation. You reach this dialog by selecting Process
| Report... from the OrthoBASE menu bar.

Triangulation Iteration Convergence: Displays the yes/no status of the


triangulation.

Total Image Unit-Weight RMSE: Displays the total root mean square error for the
triangulation. This standard deviation of unit weight is a global precision indicator describing
the quality of the entire solution.

Control Point RMSE: This section lists the root mean square errors for the control points
used for triangulation. The number of observations for each field is shown in parentheses.

Ground X: Displays the root mean square error for all of the X ground coordinates in
the block.

Ground Y: Displays the root mean square error for all of the Y ground coordinates in the
block.

Ground Z: Displays the root mean square error for all of the Z ground coordinates in the
block.

Image x: Displays the root mean square error for all of the x image coordinates in the
block.

Image y: Displays the root mean square error for all of the y image coordinates in the
block.

Check Point RMSE: This section lists the root mean square errors for the check points
used for triangulation. The number of observations for each field is shown in parentheses.
Ground X: Displays the root mean square error for all of the X ground coordinates in
the block.

Ground Y: Displays the root mean square error for all of the Y ground coordinates in the
block.

Ground Z: Displays the root mean square error for all of the Z ground coordinates in the
block.

Image x: Displays the root mean square error for all of the x image coordinates in the
block.

68
Triangulation Summary (Sensor)

Image y: Displays the root mean square error for all of the y image coordinates in the
block.

Close Click to close this dialog.

Accept Click to accept these triangulation results.

Report... Click to view a report of the triangulation results. The triangulation report is
displayed in the IMAGINE Editor and contains the following information. An explanation of
the report is given in the Triangulation Report document.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

69
Triangulation Reports

Triangulation Reports
This document describes the data presented in a triangulation report. The triangulation report is
displayed in the following situations...

♦ when you click the Report... button in the Aerial Triangulation dialog
♦ when you click the Report button in the Triangulation Summary dialog
♦ when you select Process | Report... from the OrthoBASE menu bar
There are two types of triangulation report depending upon the source of data. Camera-based
Triangulation Report and Sensor-based Triangulation Report.

Depending upon the options selected, some of the elements described here may not appear in
your report.

Camera-based Triangulation Report


1. Triangulation Report Unit Definition

The units for the image coordinates, exterior orientation rotation angles and ground control
points are defined. The positional elements of exterior orientation use the same units as the
ground control points. Image coordinate residuals are displayed in the units similar to input image
coordinates.

The Triangulation Report With OrthoBASE


The output image x, y units: pixels
The output angle unit: degrees
The output ground X, Y, Z units: meters

2. Image Coordinates and result of Interior Orientation

The image coordinates representing the image positions of GCPs, check points and tie points
are displayed for each image in the block. The Image ID as specified in the main OrthoBASE
dialog are used to represent the individual images

The Input Image Coordinates


image ID = 90
Point ID x y
1002 952.625 819.625
1003 1857.875 639.125
1005 1769.450 1508.430
1006 1787.875 2079.625
2001 915.020 2095.710
2003 846.530 208.330
...
..

70
Triangulation Reports

Six affine transformation parameters are displayed for each image. These coefficients are
derived using a 2D affine transformation during interior orientation. The six coefficients represent
the relationship between the file or pixel coordinate system of the image and the film or image
space coordinate system. The file coordinate system has its origin in the upper left corner of the
image (i.e. 0, 0). The origin of the image space coordinate system for each image is the principal
point. Using the 2D affine transformation the principal point position is determined
mathematically by intersecting opposite fiducial mark positions.

The six transformation coefficients were calculated once interior orientation has been performed.
The six transformation parameters define the scale and rotation differences between two
coordinate systems.

Once the image position of a ground point has been measured automatically or manually, the six
coefficients are used to transform the pixel coordinates of the ground point to image (or film)
coordinates.

Affine coefficients from file (pixels) to film (millimeters)


A0 A1 A2 B0 B1 B2
-114.3590 0.100015 -0.001114 116.5502 -0.001117 -0.100023

Thus the image coordinates and the six affine transformation coefficients are displayed for each
image in the block.
image ID = 91
Point ID x y
1002 165.875 846.625
1003 1064.875 646.375
1005 1007.250 1518.170
1006 1023.625 2091.390
2001 160.900 2127.840
2002 2032.030 2186.530
1004 1839.520 1457.430
2003 49.303 237.343
...
..
.
Affine coefficients from file (pixels) to film (millimeters)
A0 A1 A2 B0 B1 B2
-114.1478 0.100028 -0.001025 116.2826 -0.001008 -0.100025
image ID = 92
Point ID x y
2002 1227.375 2199.125
1006 215.125 2083.790
1005 224.670 1510.670
1004 1050.600 1465.230
1003 286.875 639.125
2007 109.434 352.269
...

71
Triangulation Reports

..
.
Affine coefficients from file (pixels) to film (millimeters)
A0 A1 A2 B0 B1 B2
-116.6171 0.100021 0.001458 113.7281 0.001475 -0.100014

3. Triangulation Results using the Bundle Block Adjustment

Aerial Triangulation is performed using a Bundle Block Adjustment. This approach utilizes an
iterative least squares solution. The unknown parameters are either estimated or adjusted. This
estimated or adjusted parameters include:

♦ The exterior orientation parameters (X, Y, Z, omega, phi, kappa) for each camera exposure
station;

♦ The X, Y and Z coordinates of the tie points;


♦ Interior Orientation parameters (focal length, principal point xo and yo)
♦ Additional Parameters (AP)
The corresponding accuracy estimates for each set of estimated or adjusted parameters is also
provided if the ‘Compute Accuracy For Unknowns” radio button within the Aerial Triangulation is
selected.

Input parameters are adjusted (rather than estimated) if initial approximations have been
provided and statistically weighted. For example, if initial approximations for exterior orientation
were input and statistically weighted, a new set of adjusted values would be computed after
aerial triangulation has been performed.

Input parameters are estimated if they are unknown prior to executing the aerial triangulation.
For example, tie point coordinates are commonly unknown prior to aerial triangulation. Their X,
Y and Z coordinates are estimated using the bundle block adjustment.

Iterative Results

A global indicator of quality is computed for each iteration of processing. This is referred to as
the standard error (also known as the standard deviation of image unit weight). This value is
computed based on residuals computed for the estimated and adjusted observations for that
particular iteration of processing. This includes residuals for image coordinates, GCPs, exterior
orientation. interior orientation, and additional parameters.

The units for the standard error is defined within the General Tab of the Aerial Triangulation
dialog.

72
Triangulation Reports

After each iteration of processing, OrthoBASE estimates the exterior orientation parameters of
each camera/sensor station and X, Y and Z tie point coordinates. The newly estimated exterior
orientation parameters are then used along with the GCP and tie point coordinates to compute
new x and y image coordinate values. The ‘newly’ computed image coordinate values are then
subtracted from the original image coordinate values. The differences are referred to as the x
and y image coordinate residuals.

If the exterior orientation parameters are incorrect then the newly computed image coordinate
values is also incorrect. Incorrect estimates for exterior orientation may be attributed to
erroneous GCPs, data entry blunders, mis-measured image positions of GCPs or tie points. Any
error in the photogrammetric network of observations is reflected in the image coordinate
residuals.

The computed standard error for each iteration accumulates the effect of each image coordinate
residual to provide a global indicator of quality. The lower the standard error the better the
solution.

i The number of iterations using the least squares adjustment continues until the corrections
to the ground points (i.e. GCPs, tie points and check points) are less than the user specified
convergence value (i.e. 0.001 default). After each iteration of processing a new set of X, Y
and Z coordinates are computed for the GCPs, tie points and check points. The new set of
coordinates is subtracted from the previous set of coordinates (i.e. previous iteration). The
differences between the coordinates are also referred to as corrections to the unknowns. If
the differences are greater than the convergence value, the iterations continue.

Automated Error Checking Results

OrthoBASE provides two blunder checking models which automatically identifys and removes
erroneous image measurements from the block. The blunder checking models can be specified
by selecting the appropriate model within the blunder checking model pull down list contained in
the Advanced options tab of the Aerial Triangulation dialog.

The results of the blunder checking model are displayed as follows:

The residuals of blunder points


Point Image Vx Vy
1005 90 0.4224 -0.5949 x wrong y wrong
1005 91 0.7458 -0.6913 x wrong y wrong
1005 92 0.9588 -0.6326 x wrong y wrong
Point 1005 will excluded in the further adjustment !

The x and y image coordinate residuals of the blunder points are displayed. OrthoBASE notifys
the user if a point is excluded from the aerial triangulation solution.

THE OUTPUT OF SELF-CALIBRATING BUNDLE BLOCK ADJUSTMENT

the no. of iteration =1 the standard error = 0.1438

73
Triangulation Reports

the maximal correction of the object points = 40.30844

the no. of iteration =2 the standard error = 0.1447


the maximal correction of the object points = 0.74843

the no. of iteration =3 the standard error = 0.1447


the maximal correction of the object points = 0.00089

Exterior Orientation Parameters

The six exterior orientation parameters for each camera station are listed.

The exterior orientation parameters


image ID Xs Ys Zs OMEGA PHI KAPPA
90 666724.3686 115906.5230 8790.3882 0.1140 0.0272 90.3910
91 666726.8962 119351.8150 8790.0182 0.2470 0.1874 89.0475
92 666786.3168 122846.5488 8787.5680 0.0923 0.1232 88.6543

A corresponding accuracy estimate is provided for each exterior orientation parameter. The
accuracy estimates are computed from the covariance matrix of the final solution. The accuracy
estimates reflect the internal accuracy of each parameter.

The accuracy of the exterior orientation parameters


image ID mXs mYs mZs mOMEGA mPHI mKAPPA
90 2.7512 3.4383 1.8624 0.0266 0.0207 0.0112
91 2.7014 3.1999 1.5232 0.0252 0.0209 0.0109
92 2.7940 3.3340 2.4975 0.0263 0.0204 0.0115

Interior Orientation Parameters

The interior orientation parameters associated with each camera station in the block are listed.
Since a self-calibrating bundle adjustment has not been performed, the interior orientation
parameters for each camera remain the same.

The interior orientation parameters of photos


image ID f(mm) xo(mm) yo(mm)
90 153.1240 -0.0020 0.0020
91 153.1240 -0.0020 0.0020
92 153.1240 -0.0020 0.0020

Interior Orientation and Self-Calibration

If a self-calibrating bundle adjustment had been performed the focal length and principal point
values would be estimated. The output would appear as follows.

The interior orientation parameters of photos


image ID f(mm) xo(mm) yo(mm)
90 153.1220 -0.0097 -0.0039
91 153.1220 -0.0097 -0.0039
92 153.1220 -0.0097 -0.0039

74
Triangulation Reports

The accuracy of the interior orientation parameters


image ID mf(mm) mxo(mm) myo(mm)
all 0.0586 0.0664 0.0650

In this case, it was assumed that the interior orientation parameters were common for each
image in the block. For this reason, the interior orientation values are common for each image.
Additionally one set of accuracy estimates was computed. The mf, mxo, and myo values
represent the accuracy for the calibration parameters.

If each camera station had a unique set of interior orientation parameters estimated, the output
would appear as follows:

The interior orientation parameters of photos


image ID f(mm) xo(mm) yo(mm)
90 153.1164 -0.0190 -0.0156
91 153.1230 -0.0135 0.0003
92 153.1288 -0.0018 0.0038

The accuracy of the interior orientation parameters


image ID mf(mm) mxo(mm) myo(mm)
90 0.0946 0.1020 0.0953
91 0.0936 0.0995 0.0954
92 0.0985 0.1031 0.0985

In this scenario, accuracy estimates were computed for each camera station.

Control Point Residuals

Once the bundle block adjustment is complete, a new values for the control point coordinates are
computed. The new control point coordinates are computed based on the estimated exterior
orientation parameters and measured image coordinate values.

The control point residuals reflect the difference between the original control point coordinates
and newly estimated control point coordinates. Relatively large residual values are indicative of
error in the photogrammetric network of observations. Large error can be attributed mis-
measured control points, data entry error, and poor quality of control points. For example, the Z
coordinate for control point 1004 is relatively larger than the remaining residuals, thus inferring a
possible error.

The residuals of the control points


Point ID rX rY rZ
1002 1.4390 5.6596 6.9511
1003 -3.0263 -0.5553 -2.2517
1004 3.0679 2.0052 -11.1615
1005 2.9266 -4.0629 -2.3434
1006 -2.0842 2.5022 2.6007

aX aY aZ

75
Triangulation Reports

0.4646 1.1098 -1.2410


mX mY mZ
2.5904 3.4388 6.1680

The aX, aY, and aZ values reflect the average residual values for the X, Y, and Z control point
coordinates, respectively. The mX, mY, and mZ values reflect the root mean square errors
(standard deviation) of all X, Y, and Z, respectively.

Check Point Residuals

Check points are used to independently verify the quality of the bundle block adjustment. Once
the exterior orientation parameters have been solved, the image coordinate values of the check
points are used to compute the X, Y, and Z coordinates. The computed coordinates are
subtracted from the original input coordinates to compute the check point residuals. Check points
serve as the best source for determining the accuracy of the bundle block adjustment.

The residuals of the check points


Point ID rX rY rZ
2001 -4.0786 0.0865 -1.9679
2002 1.6091 -3.0149 3.5757

aX aY aZ
-1.2348 -1.4642 0.8039
mX mY mZ
3.1003 2.1328 2.8860

The aX, aY, and aZ values reflect the average residual values for the X, Y, and Z check point
coordinates, respectively. The mX, mY, and mZ values reflect the root mean square errors
(standard deviation) of all X, Y, and Z, respectively.

Control Point, Check Point, and Tie Point Coordinates and Accuracy Estimates

Once the bundle block adjustment is complete, new ground control point, check point and tie
point coordinates are computed based on the estimated or adjusted exterior orientation
parameters. The computation of X, Y, and Z coordinates for tie points are referred to as ground
point determination. If the tie points are acceptable they can be converted to control points within
the point measurement tool. This process is referred to as control point extension.

i The original GCP and check point values as displayed within the point measurement tool is
not changed. If the Update or Accept buttons have been selected the tie point coordinates
are populated within the point measurement tool.

The coordinates of object points


Point ID X Y Z Overlap
1002 665230.0078 115015.7356 1947.0091 2
1003 664452.5217 119050.0976 1990.0849 3
1004 668152.5139 122406.1013 1971.3625 2
1005 668340.3906 118681.5541 1885.8520 3

76
Triangulation Reports

1006 670840.0509 118698.6034 2014.9514 3


2001 670966.3714 114815.3165 1889.9201 2
2002 671410.3391 123163.5051 1987.3377 2
2003 662482.9556 114550.1580 1927.2971 2
2004 662662.3529 116234.8134 2064.6330 2
...
..
.
2041 671068.5733 123961.8788 1971.4592 2
The total object points = 46

The Overlap column specifies the number of images on which the point has been measured. This
is also referred to as redundancy.

The accuracy of each control point, check point, and tie point is computed. The accuracy
estimates are computed based on the respective diagonal elements of the covariance matrix for
the final solution.

The accuracy of object points


Point ID mX mY mZ mP Overlap
1002 1.0294 1.0488 1.2382 1.9217 2
1003 0.8887 0.8731 1.1739 1.7117 3
1004 0.9693 0.9593 1.2219 1.8311 2
1005 0.7181 0.7063 0.9397 1.3775 3
1006 0.9534 0.9119 1.1841 1.7727 3
2001 1.8123 1.5641 3.1611 3.9653 2
2002 1.9436 1.5091 2.8482 3.7639 2
2003 1.9684 1.7646 3.0069 4.0037 2
2004 1.7427 1.3758 2.6308 3.4426 2
...
..
.
2041 1.9419 1.6884 3.0368 3.9804 2

amX amY amZ


1.2681 1.1773 2.1932

The mX, mY, and mZ values represent the geometric mean residual for the X, Y, and Z
coordinates of GCPs, check points, and tie points. The mP values represent the mean square
error for a particular point by considering the mean error for each coordinate of a given point.

The amX, amY, and amZ values represent the average mean square error for the X, Y, and Z
coordinates of the control, check, and tie points.

The Overlap column specifies the number of images on which the point has been measured. This
is also referred to as redundancy.

77
Triangulation Reports

Image Coordinate Residuals

Once the bundle block adjustment is complete, image coordinate residuals are computed. The
residuals are computed based on the estimated or adjusted exterior orientation parameters,
GCP, check point, and tie point coordinates, and their respective image measurements. During
the iterative least square adjustment, the results from the previous iteration are compared to
results of the most recent iteration. During this comparison, image coordinate residuals reflecting
the extent of change between the original image coordinates and the new values are computed.
The values of the new image coordinates are dependent on the estimated or adjusted
parameters of the bundle block adjustment. Therefore, errors in the estimated or adjusted
parameters are reflected in the image coordinate residuals.

OrthoBASE computes the image coordinate residuals for each image measurement in the block.

The residuals of image points

Point Image Vx Vy
1002 90 -0.176 -0.040
1002 91 -0.001 -0.016

Point Image Vx Vy
1003 90 0.053 -0.001
1003 91 0.017 0.149
1003 92 0.045 0.050

Point Image Vx Vy
1004 91 0.103 -0.094
1004 92 -0.182 -0.010

Point Image Vx Vy
1005 90 0.164 -0.021
1005 91 0.102 -0.078
1005 92 -0.031 -0.023

Point Image Vx Vy
1006 90 -0.133 0.044
1006 91 -0.035 -0.104
1006 92 0.074 0.138

Point Image Vx Vy
2001 90 -0.000 -0.016
2001 91 0.000 0.016

Point Image Vx Vy
2002 91 0.000 0.017
2002 92 0.000 -0.017

Point Image Vx Vy
2003 90 -0.000 -0.094

78
Triangulation Reports

2003 91 0.002 0.095

Point Image Vx Vy
2004 90 0.000 0.074
2004 91 -0.002 -0.074

Sensor-based Triangulation Report


1. Triangulation Report Unit Definition

The units for the image coordinates, exterior orientation rotation angles and ground control
points are defined. The positional elements of exterior orientation use the same units as the
ground control points. Image coordinate residuals are displayed in the same units as the input
image coordinates.

The Triangulation Report With OrthoBASE

The output image x, y units: pixels


The output angle unit: degrees
The output ground X, Y, Z units: meters

2. Automated Error Checking Model

OrthoBASE provides a error checking model that automatically identifys and removes erroneous
image measurements from the block. The error checking model is specified by selecting the
Simple Gross Error Check options within the Advanced options tab of the Triangulation dialog.
Once the radio button has been selected the times of unit multiplier can be specified. This value
is multiplied by each image coordinate residual value. If a image coordinate residual value is
larger than the multiplier value the ground point is excluded from the triangulation.

The results of the gross error checking model are displayed as follows:

Points excluded with gross errors:


image pid image_x image_y residual_x residual_y
1 4 869.5420 2487.9960 -1.8265 0.2271
1 8 2890.8800 1258.8520 1.1212 0.4837
1 9 1978.1380 2919.0040 2.1869 0.1647

The x and y image coordinate residuals of the erroneous points are displayed. OrthoBASE
notifys the user if a point is excluded from the triangulation solution. The pid designation defines
the point id of a ground point.

79
Triangulation Reports

3. Iterative Triangulation Results

The results for each iteration of processing are provided once the triangulation has been
performed. A global indicator of quality is computed for each iteration of processing. This is
referred to as the standard error (also known as the standard deviation of image unit weight).
This value is computed based on the image coordinate residuals for that particular iteration of
processing. This value is referred to as the Total RMSE within the triangulation report.

The units for the standard error is defined within the General tab of the Aerial Triangulation
dialog.

After each iteration of processing, OrthoBASE estimates the position and orientation parameters
of the satellite sensor and X, Y, and Z tie point coordinates. The newly estimated parameters are
used along with the GCP and tie point coordinates to compute new x and y image coordinate
values. The newly computed image coordinate values are then subtracted from the original
image coordinate values. The differences are referred to as the x and y image coordinate
residuals.

If the position and orientation information associated with a satellite is incorrect then the newly
computed image coordinate values are also incorrect. Incorrect estimates for the unknown
parameters may be attributed to erroneous GCPs, data entry blunders, mis-measured image
positions of GCPs or tie points. Any error in the input observations is reflected in the image
coordinate residuals.

The computed standard error for each iteration accumulates the effect of each image coordinate
residual to provide a global indicator of quality. The lower the standard error the better the
solution.

OrthoBASE performs the first portion of the triangulation using the weighted iterative approach.
In this scenario, the statistical weights associated with the GCPs are used. The solution
continues until the corrections to the unknown parameters are less than the specified
convergence value. The convergence value is specified within the General tab of the
triangulation dialog. The results of the normal weighted iterative solution appear as follows:

Normal weighted iterative adjustment:


No. Total_RMSE Max_Residual at image pid
1 0.973941 4.1854 2 21
2 0.951367 4.0954 2 21
3 0.929783 4.0077 2 21
4 0.909040 3.9213 2 21
5 0.889105 3.8372 2 21

80
Triangulation Reports

In this scenario, the statistical weight assigned to the ground control points have been used in
the triangulation. The statistical weights for the ground control points can be specified within the
Point tab of the triangulation dialog. The standard error associated with each iteration is
provided. The units of the standard error is the same as the image coordinate units. Additionally,
the maximum image coordinate residual associated with a point is provided for each iteration of
processing. Information pertaining to the point id and the image it is located on is also provided.

It is highly recommended that the number of Maximum Normal Iterations be set to 5. Fewer
iterations may produce inadequate results.

Triangulation using a free-weighted adjustment

Once the weight-restrained iterative triangulation has been performed OrthoBASE also has the
ability to process the triangulation using a free-weighted adjustment. In this case, each iteration
of processing does not use the statistical weights associated with the GCPs. This is referred to
as iterations with relaxation.

If the ‘iterations with relaxation’ option is set to a value greater than zero a free weighted least
squares adjustment is used. The iterative solution continues until the correction to the unknown
parameters is less than the convergence value. For example, if correction to the sensor position
and orientation is greater than the user-specified convergence value, the iteration continues. The
unknown parameters include sensor position and orientation.

This approach is advantageous in cases where GCPs are of poor quality and the triangulation
solution cannot converge using the specified number of iterations. The results appear as follows:

Iterative adjustment with weight relaxation:


No. Total_RMSE Max_Residual at image pid
4 0.200501 0.7890 1 11

The results for the free-weighted triangulation are displayed after the results of the normal
weighted triangulation.

4. Exterior Orientation Results

Once the triangulation solution has converged, the resulting coefficients associated with the
exterior orientation parameters are displayed along with their corresponding precision estimates.

The results are displayed for each image as follows:

Image parameter value and precision:


image id 1:
x: 7.85788145e+005 1.01160973e+000 -9.41131523e-006
1.23371172e+003 5.48444936e-001 2.94370828e-006

y: 3.69353383e+006 2.21320881e+000 5.47762346e-006


1.13621691e+003 5.85348349e-001 3.22204830e-006

81
Triangulation Reports

z: 8.18549949e+005 -2.73735010e-001 -6.57266270e-005


7.94892316e+002 3.56703998e-001 9.53403929e-006

omega: 7.04151443e-002 9.23492069e-006


1.39654734e-003 7.20947218e-007

phi: 2.94805754e-001 -1.31834309e-006


1.64134729e-003 7.29915374e-007

kappa: -1.60676667e-001 1.39612089e-007


8.63131836e-005 3.89509598e-008

In the above example, the polynomial order specified for X, Y, and Z was 2. Three coefficients
were computed including a0, a1 and a2. Associated just below each coefficient value is the
associated quality. For the same example, the polynomial order specified for omega, phi, and
kappa is 1. Thus two coefficients were computed including a0 and a1. The polynomial
coefficients can be used to compute the exterior orientation parameters associated with each
scan line.

5. Ground Point Results

Once the triangulation solution has converged, ground point values for GCPs, tie points, and
check points are computed along with their corresponding accuracy. The results appear as
follows:

Ground point value and precision in parenthesis:


point id 1: 566190.7372 ( 0.2989) 3773588.3997 ( 0.2982) 996.6927 ( 0.3002)
point id 2: 555691.3534 ( 0.2977) 3728387.0138 ( 0.2972) 228.0382 ( 0.3000)
point id 3: 501918.8209 ( 0.3004) 3732593.1751 ( 0.3000) 483.9667 ( 0.3007)
...
..
.

The precision of each ground point is displayed in brackets. The ground point information is
displayed as Point ID, Image Number, X (accuracy), Y (accuracy), Z (accuracy).

82
Triangulation Reports

6. Image Coordinate Information

Once the triangulation is complete, image coordinate residuals are computed. The residuals are
computed based on the estimated exterior orientation parameters, GCP, check point, and tie
point coordinates, and their respective image measurements. During the iterative least square
adjustment, the results from the previous iteration are compared to results of the most recent
iteration. During this comparison, image coordinate residuals reflecting the extent of change
between the original image coordinates and the new values are computed. The values of the new
image coordinates are dependent on the estimated or adjusted parameters of the triangulation.
Therefore, errors in the estimated parameters are reflected in the image coordinate residuals.

OrthoBASE computes the image coordinate residuals for each image measurement in the block.
The results appear as follows.

Image points and their residuals:


image pid image_x image_y residual_x residual_y
1 1 5239.4680 337.3840 -0.2213 0.0647
1 2 5191.5900 4969.5460 -0.7131 0.2838
1 3 230.9250 5378.8230 0.0798 0.2689
2 1 2857.2700 753.8520 -0.0267 0.0850
2 2 3003.7820 5387.8920 0.4579 0.3762
2 6 2736.1250 3070.2270 0.2412 0.7679

The information for each image coordinate is displayed as Image Number, Point ID, Image X
coordinate, Image y coordinate, x image residual, and y image residual. Relatively large
residuals indicate erroneous points which can be attributed to image mis-measurement, data
entry, and/or incorrect input data.

83
Point Data Description

Point Data Description

This report is displayed when you use the tool from the OrthoBASE Graphic Status
Display dialog. If either a control point, check point or tie point is selected, the following
information about the selected point is provided within the Point Data display.

ID: 1004
Type: control
Description: N/A

The following information displays the coordinates of the control point, check point or tie point
along with their corresponding residuals. If the point was de-activated prior to performing aerial
triangulation, the Active setting would be set to No. A control point, tie point or check point can
be de-activated within the point measurement tool.

Ground Data:
X: 668150.610000
Y: 122404.680000
Z: 1972.056000
Residual X: 1.903861
Residual Y: 1.421276
Residual Z: -0.693468
Active: yes

The following information displays the image coordinates of the control point, check point or tie
point along with their corresponding residuals. If the image measurements of the point have been
de-activated prior to performing aerial triangulation, the Active setting would be No. The image
coordinates of a control point, tie point or check point can be de-activated within the point
measurement tool.

Image #091
X: 1839.520000
Y: 1457.430000
Residual X: 0.102750
Residual Y: -0.093886
Active: yes

Image #092
X: 1050.600000
Y: 1465.230000
Residual X: -0.181507
Residual Y: -0.010129
Active: yes

84
Ortho Resampling

Ortho Resampling
This dialog allows you to set the parameters for orthorectification of your block imagery. You
reach this dialog by selecting Process | Orthorectification | Resampling... from the
OrthoBASE menu bar, or by clicking the icon on the OrthoBASE tool bar.

Single Output Click this radio button to create an orthorectified image of the selected
image file in the OrthoBASE CellArray. An output name appears in the filename part.

Multiple Output Click this radio button to orthorectify all qualified image files in the
OrthoBASE CellArray in a single process. An “ortho” prefix is added to each image file name
to indicate it is the resampled file. You can change the name in the filename part.

Output File Name/Prefix: This filename part displays the default name of a single
orthorectified image when Single Output is selected, or the default prefix of all the
orthorectified images when Multiple Output is selected. This field is editable.

DEM File Click this radio button to use a DEM file for the elevation for your block. The
filename part is enabled. The DEM file must be a .img file. See Correcting DEM Problems
below.

Constant Value Click this radio button to use a constant value for the elevation for your
block. This is useful in areas of minimal relief variation (<20 meters). The number field is
enabled. Use the increment nudgers to the right of the field to adjust the value.

Elevation Units: Click this popup list to select the units used for the selected elevation
data. Your options are Meters, Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet,
Centimeters, or Inches.

Resample Method: Click this popup list to define the technique used to interpolate the
original image pixels to their new orthorectified positions. Your options are Nearest
Neighbor, Bilinear Interpolation, or Cubic Convolution.

Projection: Displays the map projection of the orthorectified image or images to be


orthorectified.

Units: Displays the units used of the orthorectified image or images to be orthorectified.

Number rows: Displays the number of rows of the single output file.

Number columns: Displays the number of columns in the single output file.

85
Ortho Resampling

Output Corners: This section displays the corner coordinates of the single output file.
These number fields are editable.

ULX: This number field displays the default upper-left X coordinate of the output file. You
can modify this coordinate.

ULY: This number field displays the default upper-left Y coordinate of the output file. You
can modify this coordinate.

LRX: This number field displays the default lower-right X coordinate of the output file.
You can modify this coordinate.

LRY: This number field displays the default lower-right Y coordinate of the output file. You
can modify this coordinate.

Recalculate Output Defaults... Click this button to reset the defaults for the output
corners. The Recalculate Output Defaults dialog opens.

Output Cell Sizes: This section allows you to define the X and Y ground resolution of
the output orthorectified image.

X: This number field displays the default output size for the X ground resolution. You can
modify this value.

Y: This number field displays the default output size for the Y ground resolution. You can
modify this value.

Active Area Used: Set the percentage of the image(s) to orthorectify. For standard aerial
photographs the ideal value is 80 percent. This number field is editable.

Ignore Zero in Stats. Click this checkbox to omit any zero pixel values from the
calculation when computing the statistics for the orthorectified image(s).

DEM Overlap Threshold: Set DEM overlap percentage threshold for output. Any image
that has less than the threshold percentage of overlap with the DEM will not be orthorectified.
Images with greater than the threshold percentage of overlap with the DEM will result in
orthorectified output for the intersection (overlap) only.

For example: If the threshold value is 10% and the percentage of the overlap is 45% then the
resulting ortho image will be the intersecting 45% of the original scene. If the percentage of
the overlap is 5% then orthorectification is not performed.

OK Click to start resampling with the inputs you entered.

86
Ortho Resampling

Batch Click to use these parameters for resampling at a later time. Batch operations are
not available under Windows 95 or Windows 98.

Cancel Click to close this dialog without using any of the inputs you entered. The images
are not resampled.

Help Click to open this On-Line Help document.

87
Ortho Resampling

Correcting DEM Problems


There are two cases in which the way statistics are calculated for a DEM can cause bad results
in orthorectification. One case is when background values are included in statistics calculation
when they should be ignored. The other case is when valid zero values are not included in
statistics calculation when they should be.

Another potential problem area with DEMs used in orthorectification is the selected Resampling
Method.

Background values included in statistics calculation

DEMs that contain background areas may give bad results when used in orthorectification if the
background value is included in statistics calculation. This kind of file may look something like
the following illustration.

background area

DEM

To correct this, go to Tools| Image Information | Edit | Compute Statistics. Select the Ignore
Value: checkbox, enter the background value in the number field, and click OK to recalculate the
statistics.

88
Ortho Resampling

Zero values excluded from statistics calculation

DEMs that have valid zeros that were ignored in statistics calculation will yield areas of no-data
(dropouts) when used in orthorectification (see illustration below). This may occur if the Ignore
Zeros preference is set in the Raster Import (General) category.

area of zero elevation


that was ignored in
statistics calculation

To correct this, go to Tools| Image Information | Edit | Compute Statistics. Ensure the Ignore
Value: checkbox is not selected then click OK to recalculate the statistics.

Selecting the correct Resampling Method


The DEM Resampling Method is an IMAGINE preference. It is set using the Preference Editor
as explained in OrthoBASE Preferences. Optimal use of the two options is explained here.

Bilinear Interpolation

Use Bilinear interpolation when:

♦ the DEM cell size is much greater than the image cell size (e.g. 30 meter DEM with 1 meter
air photo)

♦ the DEM covers the entire output area of the orthorectified image
Nearest Neighbor

Use Nearest Neighbor when:

♦ the DEM covers less than the output area of the orthorectified image
♦ the DEM cell size is approximately the same as the image cell size (e.g. 30 meter DEM with
10 meter Spot)

89
Ortho Resampling

Guidelines for DEM Selection for Ortho Resampling


The DEM should be large enough that the entire area to be orthorectified is covered by the
extents of the DEM (excluding background). This eliminates possible conflicts between zero
background value and zero data value.

If the DEM is too small to completely cover the orthorectification area and has zero background
values and zero data values, neither of the methods above is completely satisfactory. One way
to approach the problem would be to locate and change zero data values to a very small number
(0.001 for Float or Double type data or 1 for 8-bit or16-bit data) and then recompute statistics
ignoring zeros. This will eliminate the effects of the background while having minimal effect on
sea-level elevations.

90
Ortho Calibration

Ortho Calibration
This dialog allows you to set the elevation for your calibrated block images. This dialog opens
when you select Process | Ortho Rectification | Calibration... from the OrthoBASE menu bar.

Ortho-Calibration automatically creates an orthorectified mathematical model that associates the


original image with the earth's surface. This process does not create a new image. Within an
orthocalibrated image, each pixel has orthorectified X and Y coordinates. This approach is ideal
for retaining the original image while preserving disk space. If the DEM provided is of poor
quality, using Ortho-Calibration is a preferred solution since ground features are not distorted as
a result of using the poor DEM.

Input Elevation Data:


DEM File Click this radio button to enter the name of a DEM as the source of the
elevation for the images being calibrated. Click the icon to open the File Selector
dialog.

Constant Value Click this radio button to enter a constant value for the elevation for the
images being calibrated. This is useful in areas of minimal relief variation (<20 meters).
This elevation value can be changed in the number field or by using the increment nudgers
to the right of the field.

Elevation Units: Select the units by the chosen elevation data. Your options are Meters,
Feet, US Survey Feet, Indian Feet, International Feet, Centimeters, or Inches.

Output Map Information:


Projection: Displays the map projection of the calibrated image or images.

Units: Displays the units used by the calibrated image or images.

DEM Overlap Threshold: Enter the percentage of DEM overlap when calibrating the
images. Any image that has less than the threshold percentage of overlap with the DEM will
not be orthocalibrated. Images with greater than the threshold percentage of overlap with the
DEM will result in orthocalibrated output for the intersection (overlap) only.

For example: If the threshold value is 10% and the percentage of the overlap is 45% then the
resulting ortho image will be the intersecting 45% of the original scene. If the percentage of
the overlap is 5% then orthocalibration is not performed.

OK Click to use these values for calibrating your selected image.

OK to All Click to use these values for calibrating all qualified images in the block file.

91
Ortho Calibration

Cancel Click to close this dialog without performing calibration.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

92
Confirm File Replace

Confirm File Replace


This dialog ensures that you want to replace existing block images with new, ortho-resampled
files.

Would you like to replace the existing one?

Yes Click to confirm the replacement of a single existing file with the resampled file.

Yes to all Click to confirm the replacement of all existing files in the block with the
resampled files.

Skip Click to skip a single existing file without replacing it with a new, resampled file.

Skip all Click to skip all existing images in the block without replacing them with new,
resampled files.

Cancel Click to cancel file replacement and close this dialog.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

93
Recalculate Output Defaults

Recalculate Output Defaults


This dialog allows you to set the skip factors for calculating the default output range for your block
images. The skip factor specifies the number of pixels to skip between points along the edge of
the input image. These points are then used to calculate the size of the output image rectangle
needed to accommodate the orthorectified image.

You can reach this dialog by clicking the Recalculate Output Defaults... button on the Ortho
Resampling dialog.

i The default skip factor is half of the edge length (in pixels), i.e. three points along each edge.
If your output image is clipped, decrease the skip factor for the affected edge. This generates
more points along that edge resulting in a better calculation.

Skip Factors When the dialog opens, the skip factors necessary to generate 3 points
along each edge are already set.

X: The default X-axis skip factor is displayed. Decrease the skip factor to increase the
number of points along the X axis.

Y: The default Y-axis skip factor is displayed. Decrease the skip factor to increase the
number of points along the Y axis.

OK Click to use these skip factors for your block images. The Recalculate Output Defaults
dialog closes.

Cancel Click to close this dialog resetting the defaults for your block images.

Help Click to open this On-line Help document.

94
OrthoBASE Preferences

OrthoBASE Preferences
The Preference Editor enables you to specify system defaults and set many parameters that
affect the operation of OrthoBASE. Most of these preferences can be overwritten in the actual
dialogs that perform the operation. These are simply the default settings that display when the
process is initiated.

This document describes the preferences added to the Preference Editor dialog when
OrthoBASE is installed. To access them, select OrthoBASE from the Category: popup list.
They are listed here in the order in which they display in the Preference Editor.

Graphic Status Background Color - displays the background color for the graphic
display field.

The default is white.

Graphic Status Footprint Color - displays the footprint color for the graphic display
dialog.

The default is dark gray.

Graphic Status Point Color - displays the point color used by the graphic display
dialog.

The default is red.

Graphic Status Residual Color - displays the point residual color used by the
graphic display dialog.

The default is cyan.

Selector Icon - displays the icon used to indicate where to place a point.

The default is gcp_select.icon.

Selector Color - displays the color of the points selected in the Viewers.

The default is green.

Status On Color - displays the color used to indicate a positive status in the
OrthoBASE and Point Measurement CellArrays.

The default is green.

Status Off Color - displays the color used to indicate a negative status in the
OrthoBASE and Point Measurement CellArrays.

The default is red.

95
OrthoBASE Preferences

Resampling Method for DEM - allows you to select either Nearest Neighbor or
Bilinear as the method for resampling the DEM.

The default is Bilinear.

☞ When you change any settings in a particular category, you must select File | Save To
V8Preference from the Preference Editor menu bar to set those parameters before moving
on to the next category.

96
Quick View Menu

Quick View Menu


The Quick View menu appears whenever you right-click in the display area of a Viewer window.
OrthoBASE provides three different views for each image; OverView, Main View, and Detail
View. Each of these viewers has its own popup menu.

Main View The following popup menu options are available when you right -click in a Main
View.

Fit Image To Window Set the zoom ratio so that the displayed data fit as closely as
possible into the current View. The aspect ratio of the data is maintained, so that the
longest dimension of the data is fitted to the corresponding View window dimension.

Zoom In By 2 Quickly magnify the displayed data. The current zoom ratio is multiplied
by 2.

Zoom Out By 2 Quickly reduce the displayed data. The current zoom ratio is divided by
2.

Default Zoom In the Viewer, reset the zoom ratio to 1. Any annotation data are reset to
register with the raster layers. If annotation is displayed with no raster layers, then the
zoom ratio is reset to its original value when the data were displayed.

Zoom In By X ... This option allows you to specify the zoom ratio. The Set Zoom Ratio
dialog is opened.

Zoom Out By X ... This option allows you to specify the zoom ratio. The Reduction
dialog is opened.

Set Resampling Method ... This option allows you to select the resampling method.
The Set Resampling Method dialog opens.

Background Color ... This option enables you to change the background color of a
View. The Background Color dialog is opened.

Link Box Color ... This option enables you to change the color of the link cursor in a
View. The Link Box Color dialog is opened.

Rotate ... This option enables you to change the rotation angle of the image in a View.
The Rotate Image dialog is opened.

Band Combinations ... This option allows you to adjust the display by selecting data
bands. The Band Combinations dialog opens if the image is color. The Band
Combinations (gray) dialog opens if the image is monochrome or grayscale.

97
Quick View Menu

Data Scaling ... Use this option to rescale (stretch) the data. The Set Data Scaling
dialog is opened if the image is color. The Set Data Scaling (Gray) dialog is opened if the
image is grayscale.

General Contrast ... Use this option to make permanent changes to the The Contrast
Adjustment dialog opens.

Scroll Bars This check box turns the Viewer scroll bars on or off. Turning the scroll bars
on decreases your display area.

Detail View The following popup menu options are available when you right -click in a
Detail View.

Zoom In By 2 Quickly magnify the displayed data. The current zoom ratio is multiplied
by 2.

Zoom Out By 2 Quickly reduce the displayed data. The current zoom ratio is divided by
2.

Default Zoom In the Viewer, reset the zoom ratio to 1. Any annotation data are reset to
register with the raster layers. If annotation is displayed with no raster layers, then the
zoom ratio is reset to its original value when the data were displayed.

Zoom In By X ... This option allows you to specify the zoom ratio. The Set Zoom Ratio
dialog is opened.

Zoom Out By X ... This option allows you to specify the zoom ratio. The Reduction
dialog is opened.

Set Resampling Method ... This option allows you to select the resampling method.
The Set Resampling Method dialog opens.

Background Color ... This option enables you to change the background color of a
View. The Background Color dialog is opened.

Rotate ... This option enables you to change the rotation angle of the image in a View.
The Rotate Image dialog is opened.

Band Combinations ... This option allows you to adjust the display by selecting data
bands. The Band Combinations dialog opens if the image is color. The Band
Combinations (gray) dialog opens if the image is monochrome or grayscale.

Data Scaling ... Use this option to rescale (stretch) the data. The Set Data Scaling
dialog is opened if the image is color. The Set Data Scaling (Gray) dialog is opened if the
image is grayscale.

98
Quick View Menu

General Contrast ... Use this option to make permanent changes to the The Contrast
Adjustment dialog opens.

OverView The following popup menu options are available when you right -click in an
OverView.

Fit Image To Window Set the zoom ratio so that the displayed data fit as closely as
possible into the current View. The aspect ratio of the data is maintained, so that the
longest dimension of the data is fitted to the corresponding View window dimension.

Background Color ... This option enables you to change the background color of a
View. The Background Color dialog is opened.

Link Box Color ... This option enables you to change the color of the link cursor in a
View. The Link Box Color dialog is opened.

Rotate ... This option enables you to change the rotation angle of the image in a View.
The Rotate Image dialog is opened.

Band Combinations ... This option allows you to adjust the display by selecting data
bands. The Band Combinations dialog opens if the image is color. The Band
Combinations (gray) dialog opens if the image is monochrome or grayscale.

Data Scaling ... Use this option to rescale (stretch) the data. The Set Data Scaling
dialog is opened if the image is color. The Set Data Scaling (Gray) dialog is opened if the
image is grayscale.

General Contrast ... Use this option to make permanent changes to the The Contrast
Adjustment dialog opens.

➲ For information on using the ERDAS IMAGINE graphical interface, see the on-line IMAGINE
Interface manual.

99
Set Zoom Ratio

Set Zoom Ratio


Use this dialog to zoom in a viewer with a magnification other than 2.0. To zoom in or out by 2.0,
use the Zoom In By 2 or Zoom Out By 2 options on the Quick View Menu. To zoom out by a
factor other than 2.0, use the Zoom Out By X... option and set the reduction factor in the
Reduction dialog.

This dialog is opened when you select the Zoom In By X... option from the Quick View menu.

Zoom Ratio: Enter the magnification factor to use for zoom in.

OK Click this button to zoom in the current viewer with the specified magnification.

Cancel Click this button to cancel the zoom operation and close the dialog.

Help Click this button to display this help file.

100
Reduction

Reduction
Use this dialog to zoom out a viewer with a reduction other than 2.0. To zoom in or out by 2.0,
use the Zoom In By 2 or Zoom Out By 2 options on the Quick View Menu. To zoom in by a
factor other than 2.0, use the Zoom In By X... option and set the magnification factor in the Set
Zoom Ratio dialog.

This dialog is opened when you select the Zoom Out By X... option from the Quick View menu.

Reduction: Enter the reduction factor to use for zoom out.

OK Click this button to zoom out the current viewer with the specified reduction.

Cancel Click this button to cancel the zoom operation and close the dialog.

Help Click this button to display this help file.

101
Set Resampling Method

Set Resampling Method


This dialog enables you to select options for image resampling. This dialog is opened when you
select Set Resampling Method... from an OrthoBASE Quick View Menu.

Resampling Method: Select resampling method from the following:


Nearest Neighbor Select resampling method using the value of the closest pixel to
assign to the output pixel value.

Bilinear Interpolation Select resampling method using the data file values of four pixels
in a 2 x 2 window to calculate an output value with a bilinear function.

Cubic Convolution Select resampling method using the data file values of sixteen pixels
in a 4 x 4 window to calculate an output value with a cubic function.

OK Click to apply the options you have selected.

Cancel Click to cancel the options you have selected and close this dialog.

Help Click to view this On-Line Help file.


➲ See “Resampling Methods” in the Rectification chapter of the ERDAS Field Guide for details.

102
Background Color

Background Color
This dialog enables you to change the background color of a View. This option is helpful for
displaying annotation and vector layers. For example, you may want to view an annotation layer
in which the elements are black. These elements would not be visible against a black
background unless you changed the styles of the elements. Using this option, you can change
the background to white and these elements will be visible.

This dialog is opened when you select Background Color... from the Quick View menu (right-
hold with your cursor in the Viewer).

Background Color: Click and hold this color patch to select the background color.
Selecting Other will bring up the colorwheel.

OK Click to use the selected color for the View background and close this dialog.
Background of annotation layers displayed after this option is set will show the selected color.

Cancel Click to cancel this process and close this dialog.

Help Click to open this On-Line Help document.


➲ For information on using the ERDAS IMAGINE graphical interface, see the on-line IMAGINE
Interface manual.

103
Link Box Color

Link Box Color


This dialog enables you to change the color of the link cursor. It is opened when you select Link
Box Color... from the Quick View Menu.

Link Box Color: Click and hold this color patch to select a color for the link cursor.
Selecting Other... brings up the colorwheel.

OK Click to use the selected color for the link cursor and close this dialog.

Cancel Click to cancel this process and close this dialog.

Help Click to open this On-Line Help document.


➲ For information on using the ERDAS IMAGINE graphical interface, see the on-line IMAGINE
Interface manual.

104
Rotate Image

Rotate Image
This dialog lets you rotate the data in the Viewer. It is opened when you select Rotate... from
the Quick View Menu.

Rotation Angle (deg.): Enter the number of degrees to rotate the image. The default
positive rotation direction is controlled by the Positive Rotation Direction preference in the
User Interface and Session category of the Preference Editor dialog. However, you can
change the positive direction of rotation using the Positive Direction controls described
below.

i Rotation always occurs around the center pixel of the image.

Positive Direction: Select which direction a positive (over zero) rotation angle will rotate
the image.

Counterclockwise If this radio button is on, then a positive rotation angle will rotate the
image counterclockwise, and a negative angle will rotate it clockwise.

Clockwise If this radio button is on, then a positive rotation angle will rotate the image
clockwise, and a negative angle will rotate it counterclockwise.

Apply Click to apply the specified rotation to the image in the Viewer and keep this dialog.

Close Click to cancel this process and close this dialog.

Help Click to open this On-Line Help document.


➲ For information on using the ERDAS IMAGINE graphical interface, see the on-line IMAGINE
Interface manual.

105
Band Combinations (gray)

Band Combinations (gray)


This dialog enables you to easily change the displayed band of a multi-band image without
reloading the file.

This dialog is opened when you select Band Combinations... from an OrthoBASE Quick View
Menu and the image is grayscale.

Number of Layers : The total number of layers (data file bands) in the image is displayed
here.

Display Layer: If the image displayed in the Viewer is a multi-band image, you can select
another layer (band) in the file to display. The default is the currently displayed layer.

Layer: Enter the layer to display.

Apply Click to apply the selected band combination to the image.

Close Click to close the Band Combination tool.

Help Click to view this help file.

106
Band Combinations

Band Combinations
This dialog enables you to select the layers (bands) that are displayed in Red, Green, and Blue
on the monitor. It also allows you to turn off selected bands.

This dialog is opened when you select Band Combinations... from an OrthoBASE Quick View
Menu and the image is multi-band.

Red : Click to activate the Red color display. Select the layer from current file that you wish
to display, either by clicking on the popup list or using the nudgers to select a layer number.

Green : Click to activate the Green color display. Select the layer from current file that you
wish to display, either by clicking on the popup list or using the nudgers to select a layer
number.

Blue : Click to activate the Blue color display. Select the layer from current file that you
wish to display, either by clicking on the popup list or using the nudgers to select a layer
number.

Apply Click to apply the selected band combination to the image.

Close Click to close the Band Combination tool.

Help Click to view this help file.

107