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7KH )DVW )RXULHU 7UDQVIRUP ))7

&R G LQ J W K H G LV F U H W H )R X U LH U W U D Q V IR U P LV Q R W S D U W LF X OD U O\ G Lr F X OW  D OO R Q H
K D V WR G R LV W R IR U P W K H P D W U L[ )1  F R Q MX J D W H LW D Q G G LYLG H E \ 1 LQ R U G H U
WR R E W D LQ W K H P D W U L[ )1b X V H G W R IR U P ) = IR U D J LYH Q LQ S X W YH F W R U =
$ OW H U Q D W LYH O\ ZH F D Q V LP S O\ IR U P  IR U N        1 b  
b
 1; b
 1; }NM
) = N ZbNM ]M HbL 1 ]M
1 M  1 M 

ZLW K R X W H YH U V W R U LQ J W K H P D W U L[ ( LW K H U ZD \ IR U P LQ J W K H S U R G X F W )1b = R U


F D UU \LQ J R X W W K H V X P P D W LR Q V MX V W LQ G LF D W H G  U H TX LU H V D W R W D O R I 1  q R D W LQ J
S R LQ W P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V  )R U OD U J H YD OX H V R I 1  H J  1         R U     D U H
VWD Q G D U G LQ D S S OLF D W LR Q V  W K LV F D Q E H D YH U \ OD U J H Q X P E H U R I P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V
LQ G H H G  LW LV R YH U R Q H P LOOLR Q IR U 1      R YH U   P LOOLR Q IR U 1     

7K H &RROH\  7XNH\ DOJRULWKP X V X D OO\ F D OOH G W K H )D V W )R X U LH U 7U D Q V IR U P 


R U MX V W ))7 H Q D E OH V R Q H W R V X E V W D Q W LD OO\ U H G X F H W K H Q X P E H U R I P X OW LS OLF D 
W LR Q V U H TX LU H G  S U R YLG H G 1 LV D S R ZH U R I   LH  1  Q IR U V R P H S R V LW LYH
LQ W H J H U Q ,W U H V X OW V LQ D K X J H LQ F U H D V H LQ F R P S X W D W LR Q D O H r F LH Q F \ IR U OD U J H Q
D Q G LV U H V S R Q V LE OH IR U P D NLQ J W K H ))7 W K H ZLG H O\ X V H G D Q D O\W LF D O W R R O W K D W
LW LV LQ F X U U H Q W V F LH Q F H D Q G W H F K Q R OR J \

$ V V X P LQ J 1  Q ZH K D YH X V LQ J W K H V X E V F U LS W R Q ) K H U H W R LQ G LF D W H
W K H G LP H Q V LR Q R I W K H W U D Q V IR U P X Q G H U G LV F X V V LR Q U D W K H U W K D Q W K H IR U P R I W K H
W U D Q V IR U P D V LQ R X U VHFWLRQ RQ FRQYROXWLRQ HTXDWLRQV
t u  b
 1; }NM
)1 = )1 = N HbL 1 ]M
N 1 1 M 
31 b }NM 3
1 b }NM
 M  HbL 1 ]M  M  HbL 1 ]M

1 M HYHQ 1 M RGG


b 1 b 1
 ; bL }NC  ; bL }NC
H 1 ]C  H 1 ]C
1 C  1 C 
b 1 b 1 „ 
 ; bL 1}NC  bL }N ; bL 1}NC  
H ]C  H 1 H ]C )1  = 
1 C  1 C   1  N
„ 
 }N   t u  }N t u
 HbL 1  )1  =  )1  =   HbL 1 )1  =  
 1  N  N  N

+ H U H =  LV W K H YH F W R U R I G LP H Q V LR Q 1 F R Q V LV W LQ J R I W K H H YH Q LQ G H [H G F R P 
S R Q H Q W V R I = D Q G =  LV W K H YH F W R U R I W K H V D P H G LP H Q V LR Q F R Q V LV W LQ J R I W K H
R G G LQ G H [H G F R P S R Q H Q W V R I =

= ] ] c c c ]1 b 7  =  ] ] c c c ]1 b 7 

7K LV S U R F H V V F D Q E H U H S H D W H G IR U H D F K R I W K H )R X U LH U W U D Q V IR U P V R I G LP H Q 
V LR Q 1  V K R ZQ  7K X V ZH K D YH
„  1
 b }NC
  ;
)1  =  HbL 1  ]
C
1  N 1  C 
3 1 b }NC 3 1 b }NC
 C  HbL 1  ]
C   C  HbL 1  ]C
1  C  U 1  C  U
   
1 b
; }NU
1
 b
 %   bL }N %  ; }NU
# HbL 1  ] &
U $  H 1  # HbL 1  ] &
U$
 1  U   1  U 
„  „ 
   }N 
)1  =   HbL 1  )1  = 
 1  N  1  N
D Q G D OV R
b
;
1
 t u  }NC
)1  =  HbL 1  ]C
1  N 1  C 


 3C b
1
bL }NC 3 1 b
HbL
}NC
 H 1  ]C   C 
1  ]
C
1  C  U 1  C  U
1
 b }NU  b
1
 ;  L 1}N ; bL 1}NU
HbL 1  ] U  1  H
b H  ]U
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„  „ 
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 1  N  1  N
3 X W W LQ J D OO R I W K LV W R J H W K H U ZH Q R Z K D YH
v w „  „ 
    }N 
)1 = )1  =   HbL 1  )1  = 
1 N  1  N  1  N
„„  „  
 }N  }N 
 HbL 1 )1  =   HbL 1  )1  =  
 1  N 1  N
+ H U H W K H V X S H U V F U LS W V LQ G LF D W H W K H OR ZH V W R UG H U G LJ LW V LQ W K H E LQ D U \ H [S D Q V LR Q
R I W K H LQ G LF H V M R I W K H ]M LQ F OX G H G LQ W K H 1  G LP H Q V LR Q D O V X E YH F W R U R I = W R
ZK LF K 1  )1  LV D S S OLH G  7K X V =  LQ F OX G H V ]M V X F K W K D W M LV G LYLV LE OH E \  
]  LQ F OX G H V ]M V X F K W K D W ZK H Q M LV G LYLG H G E \ WK H UH P D LQ G H U LV   D Q G V R
R Q 

1 R Z OH W X V D Q D O\] H W K H Q X P E H U R I P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V LQ YR OYH G  ,Q W K H p U V W


VWH S 
}N
)1 = N )1  =  N  HbL 1  )1  =  N 
}N
D WR WD O R I 1 P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V ZLW K W K H ID F W R U HbL 1  D U H U H TX LU H G  ,W V K R X OG
E H Q R WH G  K R ZH YH U  W K D W R Q W K H U LJ K W K D Q G V LG H W K H VXEVFULSW N V K R X OG E H
F R P S X W H G ? P R G X OR  1   W K D W LV  LI N y 1  W K H Q ZH V K R X OG V X E W U D F W 1 
WR R E WD LQ D Q LQ W H J H U LQ W K H UD Q J H  W R 1  b   7K H OD W W H U LV MX V W D Q
R E V H U YD W LR Q  LW G R H V Q R W D oH F W WK H Q X P E H U R I P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V 

$ W W K H V H F R Q G V W D J H ZH K D YH W K H H TX D W LR Q V P D U NH G e D E R YH  + H U H ZH
K D YH  1 P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V  H YH Q W K R X J K LW V H H P V D W p U V W J OD Q F H W K D W ZH V K R X OG


}N
K D YH  1  7K H U H D V R Q LV W K D W W K H Q X P E H U V HbL 1  U H S H D W W K H P V H OYH V ZK H Q
N H [F H H G V 1  b   W K H U H D U H U H D OO\ R Q O\ 1  R I W K H V H Q X P E H U V E H F D X V H LI
N 1   NA W K H Q
}N }NA }NA
HbL 1  HbL } HbL 1  HbL 1  

,I ZH U H S H D W W K H D E R YH S U R F H V V  H [S U H V V LQ J W K H F R P S R Q H Q W )1 = N R I
W K H R U LJ LQ D O W U D Q V IR U P LQ W H U P V R I F R P S R Q H Q W V R I V X F F H V V LYH O\ OR ZH U R U G H U
W U D Q V IR U P V  LH  )1 P = N  ZH p Q G W K D W W K H Q X P E H U R I P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V
U H TX LU H G LV P1  )LQ D OO\ ZK H Q ZH U H D F K P Q W K H W U D Q V IR U P LV H [S U H V V H G
LQ W H U P V R I W K H F R P S R Q H Q W V R I W K H R U LJ LQ D O YH F W R U = ZLW K Q1 OR J  1 1
P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V LQ YR OYH G D OW R J H W K H U  )R U OD U J H YD OX H V R I 1 W K LV F D Q E H D K X J H
U H G X F W LR Q LQ W K H Q X P E H U R I U H TX LU H G P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V D V F R P S D U H G ZLW K W K H
1  U H TX LU H G IR U ? E U X W H IR U F H  F R P S X W D W LR Q R I W K H R U LJ LQ D O S U R G X F W )1 = 
)R U H [D P S OH  LI ZH W D NH Q   1        W K H E U X W H IR U F H D S S U R D F K
U H TX LU H V             P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V ZK H U H D V  W D NLQ J D G YD Q W D J H R I W K H
S UR F H VV G H VF U LE H G D E R YH  W K H Q X P E H U U H TX LU H G LV   d           P R UH
WK D Q D K X Q G U H G IR OG U H G X F W LR Q 

)LQ D OO\ ZH V K R X OG Q R W H )1 =  D V W K X V F R Q V W U X F W H G  F D Q E H P X OW LS OLH G E \


 1 D W W K H H Q G R I W K H S U R F H V V W R R E W D LQ )1 =  R U  V LQ F H 1  Q R Q H F D Q
G LYLG H E \  D W H D F K V W D J H R I W K H U H G X F W LR Q S U R F H V V 

&R G LQ J W K H G LV F U H W H )R X U LH U W U D Q V IR U P LQ W K H ))7 P R G H U H TX LU H V F D U H IX O
D W W H Q W LR Q W R LQ G H [LQ J  D YR LG D Q F H R I U H G X Q G D Q W P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q  H W F  : H K D YH
Q R W S U R YLG H G H Q R X J K G H W D LO LQ W K H D E R YH H [S R V LW LR Q W R LQ G LF D W H H [D F W O\ K R Z
W K LV ZR X OG E H G R Q H LQ S U D F W LF H  1 H YH U W K H OH V V LW LV LP S R U W D Q W W R NQ R Z D E R X W
W K H &R R OH \7X NH \ ))7 D OJ R U LW K P E H F D X V H W K H U H G X F W LR Q LQ W K H Q X P E H U R I
U H TX LU H G P X OW LS OLF D W LR Q V ZK LF K LW S H U P LW V  W K H P D W K H P D W LF D O H V V H Q F H R I W K H
))7 LV D W W K H F R U H R I W K H YH U \ OD U J H Q X P E H U R I V X F F H V V IX O D S S OLF D W LR Q V R I W K H


G LV F U H W H )R X U LH U W U D Q V IR U P LQ P D Q \ G LYH U V H D U H D V R I V F LH Q F H D Q G W H F K Q R OR J \