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NURSING RESEARCH What is Research?

A systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relationships among natural phenomena (Kerlinger, 1973) Nursing Research? The systematic , objective process of analyzing phenomena of importance to nursing (Nieswiadomy) In the strictest sense, it is concerned with nursing practice (Notter) Specific aims of research are to: (DEEP) D - escribe a phenomenon which relates to nursing profession (WHAT) E - xplore a phenomenon by observing and recording events (HOW) E - xplain and clarifies a prevailing situation (WHY) P - redict and control possible psychological and physiological reactions to nursing interventions Sources of Nursing Knowledge 1. Scientific method the most reliable sources 2. Tradition involves handing down of knowledge from one generation to another and leads to actions that occur because weve always done it that way 3. Authority experts in a given field often provide knowledge for other people 4. Trial and Error if one approach did not work, another one was used Research may be Basic or Applied BASIC APPLIED = laboratory research = clinical research = pure research = directed toward = research to gain generating knowledge knowledge for knowledge that can be used in sake the near future = generating new knowledge/ = conducted to seek new theories solutions to = test, refine, expand practical problems existing theories Major rationale for conducting research = to build a body of nursing knowledge for the improvement of patient outcomes How is this accomplished? = by using results of research in the provision of nursing care =Nursing care based on: scientific data, not on: = a hunch = gut feeling = the way I was taught As a profession: Nursing: accountable for providing: = safe = cost-effective = efficient care So: What model can a nurse use in their practice? = EBP that incorporates research findings

= EBP incorporates research as a professional care models Steps in the Research Process I. THE CONCEPTUAL PHASE 1.1 Formulating and Delimiting the Problem 1.2 Reviewing the Literature 1.3 Developing a Theoretical Framework II. THE DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE 2.1 Selecting an Appropriate Research Design 2.2 Specifying the Population 2.3 Specifying the Methods 2.4 Designing the Plan for Selecting the Sample 2.5 Finalizing and Reviewing All Aspects of Research Plan 2.6 Conducting a Pilot Study and Making Revisions III. THE EMPIRICAL PHASE 3.1 Collecting the Research Data 3.2 Preparing the Data for Analysis IV. THE ANALYTIC PHASE 4.1 Analyzing Through Appropriate Quantitative or Qualitative Methods, the Research Data 4.2 Interpreting the Results of the Analysis THE DISSEMINATION PHASE 5.1 Communicating the Findings Through Written or Oral Presentations 5.2 Undertaking Steps to Utilize the Findings or to Promote Their Utilization THE CONCEPTUAL PHASE I.1.1 Formulating and Delimiting the Problem (Research Question) Research begins with a problem that needs an answer -a question that captures the imagination = most crucial part of research: most difficult, takes the most amount of time Research question = a formal statement of the goal of a study = states clearly what a study will investigate or attempt to prove Problem Statement Criteria: 1. Written in interrogative sentence form 2. Includes the population 3. Includes the variables 4. Empirically testable VARIABLES = the observable phenomena that can be studied = a variable varies = it can be observed to change = it can take on different attributes = Example: Gender is a variable = can take on two different attributes: male and female CLASSES OF VARIABLES: 1. INDEPENDENT (or experimental) = two types: = active the values of the variable is manipulated to study its effect on another variable I. V.

e.g. The effect of anxiety level on responsiveness to reduction medication = attribute the variable is not altered during the study e.g. The effect of age on weight = age cannot be changed but we can study people of different ages and weight/s = stands alone, cause comes first DEPENDENT (Criterion Measure) = the variable affected by the independent variable (Effect); comes later or last e.g. The effect of anxiety level on responsiveness to pain reduction medication e.g. If I praise you, you will probably feel good but if I am critical of you, you will probably feel angry Independent Variable? = my response to you Dependent Variable? = your response to me 3. CONTROL VARIABLE = a variable that effects the dependent variable = control variable by holding it constant e.g. keep the humidity the same and vary temperature to study comfort levels 2.

directional hypothesis = predicts the path or direction the relationship will take e.g. The presence of a parent in the room reduces the anxiety level in children ages 3-5 years who undergo initiation of I.V. Therapy The presence of a parent in the room increases the anxiety. Hypothesis: What is the distribution of hypertensive patients by income level = always phrased in the form of a question regarding some aspect of the research question 2. DIRECTIONAL = always phrased as a statement = always expresses the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable e.g. A client who is at the acceptance stage will exhibit anxiety, as measured by GSR (galvanic skin response) recordings, when discussing their pending death than clients in the other stages I.V. = stage of client (attribute) D.V. = anxiety level e.g. Client anxiety levels, as measured by GSR recording will be lower at the end of any stage (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) than at the beginning I.V. = client at beginning, middle, or end of stage (attribute) D.V. = anxiety level e.g. A planned program of counseling interventions will enable clients to achieve low anxiety levels more rapidly than clients who receive normal nursing and medical care I.V. = presence or absence of counseling (active) D.V. = time taken to reach low anxiety level e.g. Clients who achieve and maintain low levels of anxiety when discussing their pending death will be more responsive to pain medication I.V. = anxiety level (Attribute) D.V. = effectiveness of pain medication 3. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (Alternative) = difference or correlation exists between the variables under study May be: = directional e.g. The effect of music therapy increases as age of clients increases = as the grade levels increase, the student performance decreases = non-directional e.g. Acupressure promotes urination among postpartum patients e.g. The anxiety level of the family members of a dying patient is affected by socio-economic status NULL HYPOTHESIS (Statistical Hypothesis) = no difference or no correlation exists between two variables under study I.1.2 REVIEWING THE LITERATURE = the foundation of the research proposal 4.

EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES (INTERVIEWING) = a variable that may influence the relationship between independent and dependent variables = not controlled or manipulated e.g. Barometic pressure may effect pain threshold in some clients 5. CONFOUNDING VARIABLE = extraneous variables which influence the study in a negative manner HYPOTHESIS = a statement that expresses the probable relationship between variables = allows theoretical propositions to be tested in the real world TYPES: 1. DESCRIPTIVE = asks a specific question regarding the phenomenon under study e.g. What are the social characteristics of patients who have high blood pressure? Research Question: Does the presence of a parent in a room affect the anxiety level in children age 3-5 years undergoing initiation of I.V. Therapy? Hypothesis: = presents the researchers opinion in the form of a prediction about the outcomes of the study = puts the question into a form that can be tested Each hypothesis should contain: = population of interest = the independent variable/s = the dependent variable/s = the comparison of interest which lead to outcome of the study May be:

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PURPOSES: a) b) c) d) e) To determine what is already known about the topic that you wish to study and identifies gaps (what is unknown) Serves as the basis for the research topic To narrow the problem to be studied To formulate theoretical or conceptual framework To help in the planning of study methodology

explanatory, or predictive. In applied science they are perspective. 5. They are derived from unsystematic empirical observations and intuition. 6. They are developed through the process of induction. 7. They must be evaluated on logical grounds and cannot be empirically tested. 5. They are constructed from available theories and findings of empirical research. 6. They are developed through the processes of induction and deduction. 7. They permit empirical tests.

SOURCES: PRIMARY SOURCES = a description of a research study that is written by the original investigator or researchers = found in journal articles SECONDARY SOURCES = summary or description of a research study written by someone other than the study investigator I.1.3 DEVELOPING A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK DEFINITION = is derived from one or more theories or paradigms through the process of: = INDUCTION = DEDUCTION = postulates relationships among concepts and permits empirical testing

II.

THE DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE

DESIGN = how to study the remaining phases of the research process = laying out into a working plan the research question, the topic, the operational definition and the statement of purpose (a blueprint for action) = consideration in selecting a research design RESEARCH METHODS QUANTITATIVE Point of view of the researcher and the researched QUALITATIVE

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL MODELS Conceptual Models or Paradigms Theoretical Models or Frameworks

Etic-analyzed without Emic-analyzed with considering their role consider-ation of as a unit within a their role as a unit system within the system seeks to minimize the differences among subjects embraces the different perspectives of each participant

1. They are pretheoretic bases 1. They propose frameworks from which substantive theories derived from theories. may be derived. 2. They are highly abstract. 3. Concepts are related and multidimensional. 4. They provide a perspective for a science. 2. They are less abstract than conceptual models. 3. Concepts are narrowly bounded, specific, and explicitly interrelated. 4. They postulate relationships. They are Designs Approach to the participant Process of Inquiry Sample

Deductive larger sample sizes required experimental non-experimental quasi-experimental

Inductive individuals; a small sample size is typical case studies ethnography grounded theory phenomenology

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS = often identified with the traditional scientific methods = data are gathered objectively and in an organized manner = findings can be generalized to other situations/populations = center on the:

- why (purpose) - where (setting) - who (subjects) - what (type of data to be collected) - when (time the data is to be collected) - how (design) I. DESCRIPTIVE DESIGNS = examine the characteristics of just one sample population = may be used for theory development, practice problem rationale for current practice or clinical decision-making EXAMPLES: 1. Comparative design = no manipulation or control of the independent variable = dependent variable is the only variable measured in two or more groups = can be retrospective in nature 2. Correlational design = ex post facto (from after the fact) - retrospective = examines the relationships between two or more variables = prospective correlational design considered stronger than retrospective designs = may also be predictive 3. Methodological studies = development, testing and evaluation of research instruments and methods 4. Historical studies = identification, location, evaluation and synthesis of data from the past = data should be subjected to: a) External criticism concerned with the authenticity or genuineness of the data b) Internal criticism examine the accuracy of the data II. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS = look for cause and effect (outcome) = result in inferences drawn from the data that explain the relationships between two variables True experiment is characterized by: 1) MANIPULATION = the experimenter does something to at least some of the subjects in the study = that something is the experimental treatment or intervention 2) CONTROL = the experimenter introduces one or more controls over the experimental situation = Control is acquired by: - manipulating - randomization - careful preparation of the experimental protocols - use of a comparison or control group = main interventions are controlled as well as other situations

= e.g. giving posttest to experimental and control groups; classroom situation controlled 3) RANDOMIZATION = involves the assignment of subjects to groups on a random basis = every subject has an equal chance of being assigned to any group Main difference between experimental and other designs: = the intervention will make the change ISSUES RELATED: a) not all variables can be manipulated e.g. Reducing wound infection through patient teaching on wound care. What is the I.V.? patient teaching on wound care D.V.? wound infection Question? Does every patient has a wound? b) Issue of Ethics Question? Can you inflict a wound in every patient for you to have a large random sample? c) Issue of feasibility = may be too expensive = requires cooperation from individuals from multiple key areas = requires too much time = not enough subjects d) Issue of Hawthorne Effect = Hawthorne Effect is a result of the subject (s) knowing that they are part of the study. Thus, the subject change their behavior A. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS Pretest- posttest design: O1 x O2 = subjects are assigned to a control (comparative group) that does not receive the treatment (intervention) OR to an experimental group that receives the treatment SO: In our example: patients would be assigned: = to a control group that receives no specific wound care instruction/s OR = to the group that receives patient education regarding wound care Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) = may involved two, three or four groups a. Pretest/Posttest R O1 X1 O2 R O1 X2 O2 b. Two-Group Posttest only R X1 O1 R X2 O2 c. Three-Group R R R O1 X1 X2 O1 O1

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d. Four-Group

R O1 X1 O2 R X1 O2 R O1 X2 O2 R X2 O2 B. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS Purpose = to examine causality = not as strong as the experimental but stronger than descriptive Features of the Quasi-experiment: a) experimental manipulation of the independent variable b) no random assignments to groups c) no control group (s) = more practical when true experimental design is not possible TYPES: 1) posttest only with nonequivalent group 2) one group pre-test posttest 3) untreated control group with pre-test-posttest 4) Nonequivalent control group 5) time series = NON-EQUIVALENT CONTROL GROUP DESIGN - compares two groups that are not randomized - sometimes called comparison group O1 X O2 O1 O2 = the initial baseline measurement (O1) is used to determine if the subjects assigned to groups are similar = a treatment/intervention (X) is applied = a second measurement (O2) is conducted to see if the outcome is a result of the treatment/intervention TWO KEY ELEMENTS in evaluating quantitative research designs INTERNAL VALIDITY = refers to the extent to which the results of the study present an accurate picture of the real world = Was it the independent variable that made a difference in the outcome = or were there other factors at work? THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY 1) Selection bias threat = occurs when study results are attributed to subject differences before the treatment = bias resulting from pre-existing differences between groups 2) History = occurs when some event besides the experimental treatment occurs during the course of a study = the event influences the dependent variable 3) Maturation = becomes a threat when changes that occur within the subjects during an experimental study influence the study results 4) Testing = possible in studies where pretest is given = testing refers to the effects of taking a pretest or knowing the results of the pretest on the posttest scores

5) Instrumentation Change = when mechanical instruments or judges are used in the pretest and posttest phases of a study 6) Mortality = occurs when the subject drop out rate is different between the experimental and control group EXTERNAL VALIDITY = refers to issues with generalizability of the findings from the research to beyond the sample and situation that were studied = To whom and under what circumstances could the findings of this study be applied? How well does this group reflect the population as a whole? THREATS TO EXTERNAL VALIDITY HAWTHORNE EFFECT = subjects may behave in a particular manner because they are aware of their participation in the study NOVELTY EFFECTS = results may reflect behavior or reactions while the treatment is new; once the treatment is more familiar, the same results may fail to appear INTERACTION OF HISTORY AND TREATMENT EFFECT = results may reflect the impact of the treatment and some other events external to the study EXPERIMENTER EFFECT = performance of subjects may be affected by characteristics of the researchers such as gender, age, facial expressions, clothing MEASUREMENT EFFECT = results may not apply to another group of people who are not also exposed to the same data collection procedures QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS = has overall goal of describing complex human experiences 1. CASE STUDIES = an in-depth examination of individuals or groups of people e.g. A case study of a person recently diagnosed with terminal cancer (end-of-life issues) = the researcher typically seeks to understand what is common about a case as well as what is unique about a case = features of the case study: - the nature of the case - the historic background of the case - the physical setting - other contexts, including economic, political, legal and aesthetic - other cases through which this case is recognized = data collected and examined may be quantitative and qualitative = examples of data: temperatures, pain ratings (quantitative)

- persons experience of pain and discomfort (qualitative) feeling of powerlessness = data analysis: Content Analysis 2. ETHNOGRAPHY = involves collection and analysis of data about groups = ethnographer seeks to understand the culture of the group = or to gain understanding of the values, norms, and rules that characterize the group = data collection: documentary analysis = Primary Source of interview: key informants or people most knowledgeable about the culture = data analysis requires bracketing = bracketing is the process by which the researcher identifies his or her own biases and beliefs and sets them aside GROUNDED THEORY = grounded methodology for developing new theory that is grounded in data systematically analyzed = data drawn from interviews and observation = uses purposeful sampling (the deliberate choosing of subjects who are most able to shed light on the phenomenon of interest) = uses also theoretical sampling (the process of choosing new research sites or cases to compare with one that has already been studied) = data collection to saturation (occurs when there is repetition or redundancy in the themes or patterns in the data) PHENOMENOLOGY = study of phenomenon from a human perspective = seeks to develop an understanding of lived experience = central to understanding the phenomenon is the firsthand report or description of ones experience = meaning one creates in the world is rooted on the experiences of the person = data collection: unstructured interviews and inductive analysis MEASUREMENT AND DATA COLLECTION MEASUREMENT = process of assigning numbers to variables = quantification of information LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT (Measurement scales) 1. NOMINAL = events or objects are named or categorized = categories must be distinct from each other (mutually exclusive categories) = include all of the possible ways of categorizing the data (exhaustive categories) EXAMPLES: sex, religion, marital status, = the number of males and females can be counted and reported as percentage or frequencies = the lowest level or weakest of the measurement levels 2. ORDINAL 4. 3.

= data that can be rank-ordered or placed into categories = numbers indicate the order rather than the exact quantity of the variables EXAMPLE: Level of Anxiety: Mild, Moderate, Severe = can be interpreted as severe anxiety higher than mild anxiety; or mild anxiety = numbers have no quantitative meanings = frequency distributions and percentages are used 3. INTERVAL = consists of real numbers = data can be placed in: - categories - ranking - distance between the ranks can be specified EXAMPLE: temperature readings: = 99.0 0F one category = 98.6 0F 2nd category = 98.2 0F 3rd category = there is 0.4 0F difference between the 1st and 2nd and between the second and the third 4. RATIO = data that can be categorized and ranked = the distance between ranks can be specified = a true or natural zero point can be identified = zero point means there is a total absence of the quantity being measured EXAMPLE: Amount of your money in your bank account STATISTICS = Usually used for summarizing data 1. Nominal variables: proportion, percentage, ratio, rate 2. Frequency table 3. Measures of central tendency: mean or average, median, mode 4. Measures of dispersion: range, variance, standard deviation 5. Measures of location: percentile, median (50th percentile) INFERENTIAL STATISTICS = Process of generalizing or drawing conclusions about the target population on the basis of results obtained from a sample Types of STATISTICAL INFERENCE 1. Estimation- process by which a statistic computed from a sample is used to approximate the corresponding parameter a. Point Estimate single numerical value used to approximate the population parameter b. Interval Estimate consists of 2 numbers, a lower limit and an upper limit, which serves as bounding values within which parameter is expected to lie with a certain degree of confidence

2.

Hypothesis Testing comprises a set of procedure to validate or refute a statement about the population; a hypothesis is either rejected or not based on the probability of occurrence of the sample results if the null hypothesis were true

For analysis of multiple variables: = require large sample size POPULATION AND SAMPLE Population - a complete set of persons or objects that posses some common characteristic that is of interest to the researcher. Target Population - also called the universe is composed of the entire group of people or objects. e.g. target population might be all people who are institutionalized at present for psychiatric problems. Accessible Population or Study Population - an available group of the population from which the researcher gets sample SAMPLES subset of the population selected to represent the population = method of selection and the sample size determine how representative a sample is of the population Element - single member of a population Elements or members of a population are selected from a sampling frame - which is a listing of all the elements of a population e.g. membership lists; hospital patient census sheets; vital statistics listings Types of Sampling Methods: 1. Probability 2. Nonprobability Probability Sampling involves the use of a random selection process to select a sample from members or elements of a population. Goal - to examine representative elements of populations. Random Sampling - a very systematic, scientific process; the investigator can specify the chance of any one element of the population being selected for the sample; Each population element has a known chance or probability of being selected for the sample; selections are independent of each other; investigators bias does not enter into the selection of the sample. Probability Sampling - allows the researcher to estimate the chances that any given population element will be included in the sample. = with this, inferential statistics can be used with greater confidence. Types of Random Sampling Procedures 1. Simple Random Sampling - a type of probability sampling that ensures that each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being chosen. Steps in Random Sampling: 1. To identify the accessible population and enumerate or list all of the elements of the population. This listing is called the sampling frame. 2. Select method to be used e.g. a) putting pieces of papers in a bowl or a hat select samples by reaching in and drawing out as many slips of paper as the desired size of the sample b) use of random numbers

Stratified Random Sampling Steps: a) the population is divided into subgroups or strata according to some variable or variables of importance to the research study. b) after the population is divided into two or more strata, a simple random sample is taken from each of the subgroup. e.g. subject characteristics such as age, sex and educational background are examples of variables that might be used as criteria for dividing population into subgroups. decide how large a sample to obtain from each of these strata. Approaches 1) Proportional Stratified Sampling e.g. 10% of all categories 2) Disproportional Stratified Sampling e.g. 25 subjects regardless of the number in each group 3. Cluster Random Sampling - used in a large-scale studies where the population is geographically spread out. = large groups or clusters become the sampling units e.g. Suppose you want to interview hospital administrators in the Philippines First cluster to be sampled draw a simple random sample or stratified random sample of regions in the Philippines next provinces from these regions = hospitals from these provinces = Finally, administrators from the sampled hospitals = during each phase of the sampling, either simple, stratified or systematic random sampling can be used 4. Systematic Random Sampling = involves selecting every Kth element of the population, such as every fifth, every eighth or 21st element Steps: 1) Obtain a list of the total population (N) 2) Determine the sample size (n) N/n e.g. K = 500/50 = 10 3) Every 10th element of the population list will be selected for the sample 3) Every 10th element of the population list will be selected for the sample = the most controversial type of random sampling procedure = may be classified as either a probability or nonprobability sampling method Two criteria to be considered as probability sampling method: 1) Sampling frame must be in random order. 2) Random starting point must be chosen. = best way to obtain this is through the use of random numbers e.g. Population size is 500 and a sample size of 50 is desired, a number between 1 & 500 is selected as starting point. c)

Suppose the first number randomly selected is 289. The sampling interval width (K=10) is added to this no. 289 + 10 and so on and so on. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING = sample elements are chosen from the population by nonrandom methods = more likely to produce a biased sample; certain elements of the population may have no chance at all of being included in the sample = most nursing research studies involve this type of sampling procedure CONVENIENCE SAMPLING - also referred to as accidental or incidental = involves choosing readily available people or objects for a study = elements may or may not be typical of the population = most unreliable method of sampling = chosen because of the savings in time and money = used in nursing because of the availability of patient group at treatment centers Method: 1) Snowball Sampling or Network Sampling - these terms are used to describe a method of sampling that involves the assistance of study subjects to help obtain other potential subjects 2) Quota Sampling similar to stratified random sampling in that the first step involves dividing the population into homogenous strata and selecting sample elements from each of these strata. Difference: Quota sampling obtains members through convenience sample The term quota arises from the researchers establishment of a desired quota or proportion for some population variable of interest. Purposive Sampling = involves handpicking of subjects = also called judgmental sampling = subjects are chosen that the researcher believes are typical or representative of the accessible population or someone who is believed to be an expert may be asked to select the subjects = based on the assumption that the researcher or the chosen expert has enough knowledge about the population of interest to select specific subjects for the study Sample Size Generally speaking, large samples are more representative of the population of interest than are small samples. Factors to be considered (as there are no fast rules) 1. homogeneity of the population 2. degree of precision desired by the researcher 3. type of sampling procedure to be used Sample size should not be smaller than 10 and preferably 20 or 30 for each group or subdivision of the data. A sample size of 30 insures the benefits of the Central limit theorem the phenomenon in which sample values 3.

tend to be normally distributed around the population value. Most nursing research studies are limited to small, convenience sample. Generalizations, therefore, are usually difficult to make with any degree of confidence. The use of small sample sizes dictates the need for studies to be replicated. Large sample sizes may be needed in the following instances: 1) Many uncontrolled variables are present. e.g. You think age may influence study results, but you are not able to control for this variable. 1) Small differences are expected in members of the population on the variable of interest. Small but important difference between members of the population may not be uncovered when small samples are used. 3) The population must be divided into subgroups. Sample sizes must be increased to assure inclusion of members of each of the subgroups. 4) Drop-out rate among subjects is expected to be high. = especially likely to occur in longitudinal studies 5) Statistical tests are used which require minimum sample size. = certain statistical tests require minimum numbers of responses in each cell of the data SAMPLING ERROR AND SAMPLING BIAS Sampling Error - the difference between data obtained from a random sample and the data that would be obtained if an entire population was measured. = not under control of the researcher but is caused by the chance variations that may occur when a sample is chosen to represent a population e.g. Average PR of a group of cardiac patients 66 80 59 70 71 71 63 70 74 55 70 65 67 92 83 67 79 66 80 72 u = 71 (Population Mean) Random sample # 1 66 59 70 55 66 Random sample # 2 80 92 83 79 80 Random sample # 3 71 71 70 64 67 x Sample x = 63 x = 83 x = 71 Mean

1.

= 23

Sampling Bias - is that bias that occurs when samples are not carefully selected. e.g. If names are written on slip of paper and placed in a hat, each piece of paper would have to be the same size and thickness or bias could occur. All of the nonprobability sampling methods are subject to sampling bias. Random sampling procedures are subject to bias if some elements of the selected sample decide not to participate in a research study.

Nursing research studies involve voluntary subjects. Selected sample - composed of people chosen from the population. Accepting sample - people who were chosen from the population and who agree to participate. Data-producing sample - subjects who are chosen, agree to participate, and complete the data collection instrument or who remain in the study until completion, as in experimental research studies. Randomization Procedures in research Random sampling - involves the selection of a sample from the population Random assignment - involves the assigning of subjects from a sample into groups, such as an experimental and a control group; a condition of a true experimental study. Randomization process for experimental studies Random selection of sample from the population Random assignment of subject to groups Random assignment of experimental Rx to groups ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND TERMS Principle of Respect for Human Dignity = right to self-determination = right to full disclosure Principle of Beneficence Above all do no harm = freedom from harm = freedom from exploitation Principle of Justice = right to fair treatment = right to privacy In the Philippines, we have been lax with regard to research ethics in many quantitative studies. = Experiments in school have been done on pupils without getting the consent of parents. = We farm out questionnaires which seek information that violate the privacy of students and their families. = We have not been particularly vigilant about some graduate students appropriating ideas culled from books or even theses and not properly acknowledging the source of ideas.

research aims, methods to be used and intended outcomes.

Anonymity and Confidentiality Anonymity means that the researchers will not and cannot identify the respondent (as in unsigned questionnaires with no identifying labels/codes).

= Research instruments are sometimes used without explicit permission from the authors, which is an open violation of copyright laws. Confidentiality means that the researcher can match names with responses but ensures that no one else will have access to the identity of the respondent. No harm to participants Social research should never in any instance cause harm, whether physical or emotional. To the participants involved. Ethical issues at Different Stages of the Research Process = Research problem statement Identify a problem that will benefit individuals being studied. = Statement of purpose Deception occurs when participants understand one purpose for a study but a researcher has a different purpose = Cover letters for research survey Sponsorship if any should be mentioned. In Data Collection = Research participants should not be put at risk. The researcher should develop an informed consent form for the participants to sign before they engage in research. = Permission of individuals in authority to provide access to study participants at research sites should be secured. = In experimental studies, the investigators need to collect data so that all participants and not only an experimental group benefit from the treatment. = Research should protect the privacy of the participants and to convey this protection to all individuals involved in the study. In Data Analyses = Dissociate names from responses during the coding and recording processes. Aliases or pseudonyms should be used for qualitative research = Data, once analyzed, need to be kept to a reasonable period of time (e.g. 5-10 years) = Steps should be taken to guard against sharing the data with individuals not involved in the project.

Voluntary Consent A good researcher should inform participants that the research is voluntary and they can withdraw at any time. Informed Consent Encouraging individuals to participate in research requires that clear and accurate information about the research is delivered to them. Information given should cover all aspects of research in question such as