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Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Polticas Carrera: Martillero Pblico, Corredor y Administrador de Consorcios Universitario Material especfico didctico y bibliogrfico Ingls I


English I Text 1 Sales Techniques:

A Sell benefits, not features When you are selling, the customer doesnt want to know about the features of a product. They want to know how it is going to benefit them. Is it going to make it more attractive? Or save time? Or help them to work more efficiently? B Differentiate your product You must come up with at least three ways in which your product is different from the competition. These are called USPs Unique Selling Points. For example, your product could be faster, cheaper, and smaller than the competition. C Meet your customer face-to-face You need to meet your customers, especially if you are new. It is not worth spending a fortune on newspaper advertising or direct mailing for first-time entrepreneurs. D Let the customer tell you what they want You need to understand your customer before you can sell him or her something. Dont start selling something until your customers have talked about themselves. E Learn to listen Sales people who do most of the talking usually lose the sale!. Listen carefully and dont jump to conlusions. Take notes and concentrate on what your customer is saying. Finds out what your customer really wants by asking a lot of questions. F Sell to people who buy

If you are trying to sell a product, dont try and sell it to someone who has never bought it before. Sell your product to someone who already has one. Show your clients how yours is superior to the competition. G Turn your customer into salespeople If your customers are happy, they are going to tell other people. Nearly 85% of sales are the result of word of mouth. So think about howyou can create satisfied customers. They will do your advertising for you! Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 1 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 29

Text 2 Trade Fairs and Exhibitions:

Trade fairs are an effective way for businesses to make face-to-face contacts with potential suppliers and customers. They provide a chance to demonstrate and launch products, test new markets, and find out what customers want. You can also find out about new competition, and get new ideas. There are trade fairs for every business sector to make sure you attend the right one. You should make a profile of the customers you want to attract and the products and services they want to know about, so match. You should look at a trade fairs statistics. How many people attend? How big is the exhibition space? Who are the major exhibitors? Planning is the secret of success. You should book well in advance to get a good position for your stand. Then prepare materials and stand furniture, and book accommodation and transport. There is a lot to do at a trade fair so make sure enough staff attend. Your staff should be well prepared and ask appropriate questions so they can identify potential clients. Its used Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 1 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 41

Text 3 The persuaders:

We all know that buying a product wont really get us that great job or give us a perfect life. But we are still influenced by advertising. Advertisers use a variety of techniques to persuade us to buy things. One simple way to advertise is repetition. The name of a product or a slogan is repeated so we end up remembering it. The aim is to get the message into our brains many radio adverts use this technique. Adverts use both long phrases and long explanations. In both cases language is extremely important. Hype or exaggeration is very common. Vague terms are used, such as the greatest or the most advanced, in order to impress us and stop us asking too many questions. Advertisers play on the universal feelings of fear and anxiety to manipulate our feelings. They suggest that we may not make friends, do enough for our families, or be attractive enough unless we use their products. Think of how many phone adverts link their use to having more friends or a better social life. Scientific endorsement is common, particularly for cosmetics, medicine, or toothpaste. A scientist tells us about a product and uses difficult words to impress us. A related strategy is the use of celebrities we feel reassured, or aspire to be like them. Emotional appeal is fundamental in advertising. Maternal feelings, family life, sex, femininity, and manliness all appeal to us subconsciously. For example they show a woman hugging her children, or a macho man using a razor blade. Nostalgic images are also important, such as a happy Mediterranean family eating a meal outside. It may be a sentimental version of family life, but it appeals to us. Think of summer and you probably think of ice cream and the beach we often associate ideas together in our minds. Advertisers also want to create associations. For example, technology is often presented in a modern minimalist living space to suggest a rich lifestyle. And although todays driving means traffic jams and parking problems, car adverts link their car to the concept of freedom on deserted roads!

Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 1 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 48 Texto 4 How to Market Its not enough for a business to make a great product they have to find customers and then sell it.!- thats where marketing comes in. marketing is essential because it helps companies decide on their goals and strategies. Marketing is all about identifying and meeting customer needs. The marketing mix the four Ps Marketing concerns every aspect of a business and can be divided into four areas the four Ps (Product, Price, Promotion and Place). Every business achieves a different balance between them to make a marketing mix. Product A high quality product that is right for the market is the key to marketing success. If it is a mobile phone, it needs to look and feel right, be fashionable and easy to use, and offer the right services. It must reflect the end-users needs and wants and offer something different from its competitors. Price Price is an important factor. A quality or luxury product can have a higher price. Organic food can be priced high because it offers customers guarantees of safety and taste. But if you are entering a new market you may set a low price to compete better. Low price may also be used by supermarkets for economy brands, and shopping sites such an Amazon promote with aggressive pricing strategies. Promotion This includes advertising, publicity and selling. Personal selling by sales representatives is an effective way to sell products such as cars. Advertising is essential and is used by most companies. It may be on the Internet, TV, radio, on posters on in newspapers and magazines and on mobile phones. Some companies target specific customer groups and send direct mail ads. Place

Its not good having a perfect product if you cant get it to your customer. A business has to distribute its products effectively. They can be distributed directly to your customer, via a shop, or indirectly through a wholesaler. Wholesalers act as a link between a company and retailers. Direct selling is becoming increasingly important on the Internet. Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 2 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 19 Texto 5 SWOT Analysis Companies have to know what is happening both in their own business and in the rest of the world. To measure their performance and plan future strategies, they often use a technique called a SWOT analysis. SWOT stands for: S ---- Strengths (e.g. how well they respond to customer complaints) W----Weaknesses (e.g. high prices) O----Opportunities (e.g. a growing demand for their products) T ----Threats (e.g. increased competition from from new producers) Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 2 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 90 Texto 6 Tips 4 Better Discussions Tip 1 Clear expression Express your thoughts and feelings clearly. If you give too much extra information, it will be difficult to understand. Be aware of your tone of voice, eye contact, body language and choice of words Tip 2 Paying attention Pay full attention to what people are saying they will feel that you understand them. Focus not only on the words, but also the tone of voice and body language. Say things like Im interested in what youre saying, can you explain more? Tip 3 Listening to the message

What someone says and what we hear can be very different. Restate what you think you have understood. You are saying that my project was careslessly written. Have I understood you correctly?. This allows the person to correct or confirm your interpretation. Tip 4 Dealing with personal reactions Sometimes people react defensively to what you say. Dont take this reaction or anger personally. Listen, and remember that their reaction is unlikely to be personal. They may not understood your message. Tips 5 Taking your time You may feel defensive about what someone says to you. Dont jump in!. allow the person to express their concerns. Try not to react with responses such as Im doing my best or So you dont like my work?. Instead take your time before you answer. You will communicate less emotionally and more effectively. Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 2 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 81 Texto 7 What is an auction? "Sale" There's something about that word that gets people's attention. You can almost see the raised eyebrows and the dollar signs in their eyes. It means they have an opportunity to buy quality products at fair and reasonable prices. It makes them anxious and excited. What about when you hear the word "auction" what do you think of? Does it conjure up the same images for you? Do you think "opportunity?" Do you think "rare and unusual items?" Well, we are here to tell you that an auction is all of the above and more. In fact, an auction is not only the best and most exciting kind of "sale" it is also the most advantageous type of sale for both buyers and sellers. And through the years, it has become the sale of "choice" by many, many people throughout the country. Auction Myths Auctions are a CHOICE for today's buyers and sellers. They are not a "last option." Many people think that auctions are only held when someone has

died or has had their property, such as their home or car, repossessed. The reasons for auctions are as varied as the materials and possessions sold there. Another myth is that you have to be an "experienced" auction goer to buy and sell. Everyone is welcome and the staff are great about helping first timers to understand how auctions work, how to make a bid, etc. Understanding the chant is what some people find the most intimidating. Here's a tip: listen carefully to the caller for a while and get used to his chant method. Auction Method of Marketing We refer to our method of selling as "The Auction Method of Marketing". This means much more than just making a sale. It means orchestrating a business transaction and entering into a commitment to meet the needs of both our client and our buyers. We take responsibility for the entire auction. We dedicate many long hours to prepare for and orchestrate the sale so that when that auction gavel falls, the outcome is positive for both the buyer and seller. Some of our responsibilities include:

Rendering appraisals on merchandise. We get to know your property. We use our expertise to look at all the items up for bid and assess their value. Advertising the sale. It is part of our responsibility to ensure that people know about the auction, so we work hard to reach as many of them as possible through ads in the newspaper, fliers and posters and web site postings. Repairing and cleaning up items for display. We want your goods to look the best they can so we spend time fixing them, polishing them up and displaying them so they will be appealing to bidders. Keeping a financial record of items sold. We keep a log of items sold and their sale prices. Cleaning up the site after the sale. When the sale is over, we help tidy up the auction location, picking up bidder numbers, debris and other items. We want to leave it as we found it before the sale.

Background on Auction Industry

The term "auction" is derived from the Latin word "auctus," which means "increasing or gradual increase." Today the word as we have come to know it means a public sale of property to the highest bidder. Rome is said to have been the first country to license auctioneers. American auctions date back to the Pilgrims' arrival on America's Eastern Shores in the 1600s. George Washington liked to attend auctions and is said to have selected all of the furnishings for Mt. Vernon through auctions.

The Auctioneer Auctioneering is a solid and reputable career. Auctioneers are educated marketing professionals versed in their field. They are detail-oriented, technology savvy and leaders in their community. They just keep getting better at their trade and that's a plus for consumers. Many auctioneers attend auction school to learn their trade, then become licensed in their profession. Continuing education classes are another part of the auction business. Auctioneers attend classes to keep up on current trends and to learn new methods such as video auctioneering and live internet auctioneering. Some auctioneers take classes to earn specialized designations in fields such as real estate, personal property, agri-business, legal and more.. Texto extrado y adaptado de National Auctioneers Association (ltima consulta 1/04/10) Texto 8 "Marketing" -- A Commonly Misunderstood Term Basically, you might look at marketing as the wide range of activities involved in making sure that you're continuing to meet the needs of your customers and are getting appropriate value in return. (In the following, consider "product" to be either a tangible product or a service)


Inbound Marketing Includes Market Research to Find Out:

1. What specific groups of potential customers/clients (markets) might

3. 4.

5. 6.


have which specific needs How those needs might be met for each group (or target market), which suggests how a product might be designed to meet the need How each of the target markets might choose to access the product, etc. (its "packaging") How much the customers/clients might be willing to pay and how (pricing analysis) Who the competitors are (competitor analysis) How to design and describe the product such that customers/clients will buy from the organization, rather than from its competitors (its unique value proposition) How the product should be identified -- its personality -- to be most identifiable (its naming and branding)

Outbound Marketing Includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Advertising and promotions (focused on the product) Sales Public and media relations (focused on the entire organization) Customer service Customer satisfaction

Too often, people often end up trying to push products onto people who really don't want the products at all. Texto adaptado de Free Management Library (ltima consulta 1/04/10) Texto 9

What are Civil Rights

"Civil rights" are the rights of individuals to receive equal treatment (and to be free from unfair treatment or "discrimination") in a number of settings -including education, employment, housing, and more -- and based on certain legally-protected characteristics.


Historically, the "Civil Rights Movement" referred to efforts toward achieving true equality for African-Americans in all facets of society, but today the term "civil rights" is also used to describe the advancement of equality for all people regardless of race, sex, age, disability, national origin, religion, or certain other characteristics. Where Do Civil Rights Come From? Most laws guaranteeing and regulating civil rights originate at the federal level, either through federal legislation, or through federal court decisions (such as those handed down by the U.S. Supreme Court). States also pass their own civil rights laws (usually very similar to those at the federal level), and even municipalities like cities and counties can enact ordinances and laws related to civil rights. "Civil Rights" vs. "Civil Liberties" "Civil rights" are different from "civil liberties." Traditionally, the concept of "civil rights" has revolved around the basic right to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics (race, gender, disability, etc.), while "civil liberties" are more broad-based rights and freedoms that are guaranteed at the federal level by the Constitution and other federal law. Civil Rights: Getting a Lawyer's Help If you believe you have suffered a civil rights violation, the best place to start is to speak with an experienced Civil Rights Attorney. Important decisions related to your case can be complicated -- including which laws apply to your situation, and who is responsible for any harm you suffered. A Civil Rights Attorney will evaluate all aspects of your case and explain all options available to you, in order to ensure the best possible outcome for your case. Texto extraido y adaptado de FindLaw (ltima consulta 1/04/10)

Civil Rights and Discrimination Glossary

As with many other legal topics, the realm of civil rights may seem to have its own language at times. Following are some common terms and phrases that often arise in civil rights cases.


ADA: Short for the Americans with Disabilities Act, the ADA protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in many aspects of life, including employment, education, and access to public accommodations. ADEA: Short for the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, the ADEA is a federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of age for workers over the age of forty. Only employers with more than twenty employees are required to comply with the ADEA. AG: Short for "Attorney General," usually referring to the U.S. Attorney General. The AG often becomes involved in civil rights and discrimination claims, as in some situations the U.S. Attorney General's office is entitled to file suit on behalf of a victim of discrimination or harassment. At-will: A term used to describe many employment relationships. In a nutshell, "at-will" means that an employee can be fired for any reason, or for no reason at all. However, even an at-will employee is entitled to the protection of anti-discrimination laws. If an employee is terminated in violation of anti-discrimination laws, he or she may be able to successfully bring an action against the former employer. B.F.O.Q.: Short for the phrase "bona fide occupational qualification," in the employment discrimination context a B.F.O.Q. may absolve an employer from liability for discrimination when there is a legitimate reason to require, for example, that all of the employees working a particular job be of the same sex or age. The successful use of a B.F.O.Q. defense by an employer is rare in discrimination cases. Civil Rights:"Civil rights" are the rights of individuals to be free from unfair or unequal treatment (discrimination) in a number of settings, when that negative treatment is based on the individual's race, gender, religion, national origin, disability, sexual orientation, age, or other protected characteristic. Civil Rights Act of 1964: A federal law that prohibits discrimination in a number of settings: Title I prohibits discrimination in voting; Title II: public accommodations; Title III: Public Facilities; Title IV: Public Education; Title VI: Federally-Assisted Programs; Title VII: Employment. Civil Rights Movement: Historically, the term "Civil Rights Movement" has referred to efforts toward achieving true equality for AfricanAmericans in all facets of society, but today the term "civil rights movement " is also used to describe the advancement of equality for all


people regardless of race, sex, age, disability, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, or other protected characteristic. Complainant: A term used to describe a person bringing a claim for a civil rights violation/discrimination. If the matter proceeds to a court of law, the complainant may begin to be referred to as the plaintiff or the petitioner. Criminal Civil Rights Violation: A criminal civil rights violation requires that the offender use force or the threat of force against the victim. An assault that is committed because of the victim's race or sexual orientation (i.e. a hate crime) is an example of a criminal civil rights violation. Discrimination: Discrimination is unfair or unequal treatment of an individual (or group) based on certain legally-protected characteristics -including age, disability, ethnicity, gender, national origin, race, religion, sexual orientation. Federal and state laws prohibit discrimination against members of these protected groups in a number of settings, including education, employment, government services, housing, lending, public accommodations, transportation, and voting. Domestic Partnerships: Legal recognition of unmarried homosexual couples and heterosexual couples, offered by some state and local governments. Domestic partnerships offer some of the same benefits enjoyed by married persons -- including the right to share health insurance coverage, and rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). EEOC: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is a part of the federal government, responsible for investigating and hearing claims of workplace discrimination or harassment. Usually, an alleged victim of workplace discrimination or harassment is required to file a claim with the EEOC prior to initiating a private lawsuit. Equal Credit Opportunity Act: The Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) guarantees all consumers an equal chance to get credit, regardless of sex, marital status, age, race, or other protected factors. Equal Pay Act: Passed in 1963, the Equal Pay Act is a federal law requiring that employers pay all employees equally for equal work, regardless of whether the employees are male or female. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): The proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the U.S. Constitution was intended to explicitly guarantee equality to all persons, regardless of gender. After passing in Congress in 1972, the amendment did not receive enough votes for ratification by the individual states, and was never signed into law.


Fair Housing: Federal and state "fair housing" laws entitle home buyers, renters, and mortgage borrowers with protections against discrimination based on disability, gender, marital status, race, and sexual orientation (among other things). FMLA: Short for the Family and Medical Leave Act, which applies to employers who have more than fifty employees on their payroll. The FMLA prohibits employers from discriminating against employees who choose to take time off of work to care for certain medical needs of their own, or to care for their family members, including newborn and adopted children. Hate Crimes: A hate crime is an act of violence or threat of violence that is intended to injure and/or intimidate the victim(s) because of their race, ethnicity, national origin, religious, sexual orientation, or disability. Hostile Work Environment: The basis for a sexual harassment claim, a "hostile work environment" is created where the presence of demeaning or sexual photographs, jokes, threats, or overall atmosphere is so pervasive as to create an intimidating and offensive work environment. Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA): A federal law that guarantees the right to a free and appropriate education to disabled students. The IDEA typically requires an individualized education program (IEP) for each disabled child protected under the Act. Public Accommodations: Federal and state laws prohibit discrimination against certain protected groups in businesses and places that are considered "public accommodations." The definition of a "public accommodation" may vary depending upon the law at issue (i.e. federal or state), and the type of discrimination involved (i.e. race discrimination or disability discrimination). Generally speaking, it may help to think of public accommodations as most (but not all) businesses or buildings that are open to (or offer services to) the general public. Quid Pro Quo: A Latin phrase meaning "something for something." Quid pro quo is a type of sexual harassment in which the harasser asks for a sexual favor in return for providing an employment benefit, such as a raise, continued employment, or other favorable treatment. Same-Sex Harassment: The type of sexual harassment that occurs when a male sexually harasses a male, or a female sexually harasses a female.


Same-Sex Marriage: The right of two people of the same sex to legally marry, and to enjoy the legal benefits conferred by marriage. Same-sex marriage has become a topical issue in the arena of civil rights. Title VII: Short for Title VII to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits, among other things, discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, and sex. Title IX: Short for Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Whistleblower: A "whistleblower" is an employee who reports a violation of the law by his or her employer. The violation may be against the reporting employee, as with sexual harassment claims, or may be a general violation such as unlawful pollution practices against environmental law. The federal government and many states have laws protecting whistleblowers from retaliation for filing a claim or reporting a violation. Glosario extraido de FindLaw (ltima consulta 1/04/10)


Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Polticas Carrera: Martillero Pblico, Corredor y Administrador de Consorcios Universitario Material especfico didctico y bibliogrfico Ingls II



Texto 1 A Different Kind of Intelligence Your best friend has said something that upset you, your team mate hasnt done enough work, youd like to ask your boss for a rise. In these situations you have to deal with emotions. We feel emotions every day of our lives. But did you know they can make or break a career? We often think that intelligence guarantees a successful life, but it isnt always enough. In fact, psychologists have found that people with a high IQ (Intelligence Quotient) dont necessarily have better lives than those with an average IQ. People who can manage their emotions have a better chance of success. And this skill isnt linked to how clever you are. In 1995, the psychologist Daniel Goleman wrote a book called Emotional Intelligence. It explained that understanding your emotions and managing your relationships with other people was an essential skill. How well you manage your emotions is called your Emotional Quotient (EQ). Amazingly, people who have high IQs but low EQs often work for people who have lower IQs but higher EQs. So being clever can get you a job, but to succeed you need to understand emotions. What happens if you find out youve got a low EQ?. dont worry you can improve it. People with high emotional intelligence are aware of the link between their feelings and their actions. They understand other peoples feelings, show sensitivity to other peoples needs, and are good communicators. A study of more than 300 top executives in global companies showed that people with a high EQ performed better. Sales staffed with high EQs selected by L Oreal sold much more than their colleagues. And after supervisors in a factory were trained in listening skills, they exceeded productivity goals by $250,000. Nowadays businesses recognize that emotional intelligence is essential to their success. In fact, a $40 billion EQ training industry helps to improve performance, productivity, and customer relations. Many companies now


use EQ tests when they are recruiting new staff. So if you are looking for a job, improve your EQ! Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 1 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 98 Texto 2 Glocalization, thinking globally, acting locally Glocalization (local+ globalization) is a new word. It describes the strategy of being global and being responsive to local conditions at the same time. It occurs for example, when global corporations customize their global products to suit the local culture. While globalization has been criticized for causing problems, glocalization seeks to improve relations between the big international companies and their local customers. The American fast food chain McDonalds is often the target of the antiglobalization movement. However, it is trying to be more sensitive to local needs. The French attacked McDonalds for its Americanization of French culture. So McDonalds got rid of its American mascot, Ronald McDonald, and adopted Asterix, a French cartoon hero, as its local company mascot. It also serves French-style coffee in its restaurants. To avoid offence in Hindu or Muslim countries, McDonalds does not serve beef or pork the Big Mac has become the vegetarian Maharaja Mac. Coca-Cola also creates products suited to local markets by producing local versions of the drink. Even Yahoo, the web portal, uses local teams of people to analyse the content in each of its international sites. If a company wishes to be internationally successful, it has to market its products in different ways for each country. Revlon, the cosmetics company, used Cindy Crawford to advertise its products in Asia, while L Oreal used a local Chinese star Revlon lost sales to its rival. The modern globalised world is often depersonalized, and a business that can communicate better will increase its market share. Large charities, such as Oxfam, also create local solutions for individual countries instead of simply handing out money. So glocalization is not just about big business it is a concept that can help the fight against poverty and inequality around the world. Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 1 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 38


Texto 3 Netiquette Emails are an inevitable part of the business world, and they are part of your business image. Bur can we improve the way we communicate by email?

Remember that emails are not private. Only write what you wouldnt mind other people reading. Avoid replying to an email when you are angry. Sending an angry replay is called flaming Dont expect an instant reply. Emails are not phone calls. Dont forward someones message without permission. It may be confidential. Be polite and warm open and close your email with a greeting and a closing salutation. Keep your message brief its not a novel. Use only a few paragraphs Read your message through for tone of voice and content. Have you said all you need to say? Dont include the whole previous email. Only quote the relevant part of the original message. Limit your use for abbreviations and emoticons not everyone understand them

Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 1 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 74 Texto 4 E-commerce You probably use your internet to send emails, download music and films, or look for information. But did you know the Internet is transforming the business world? Electronic commerce (e commerce) is the buying and selling of products and services on the Internet instead of using shops, phones, faxes and letters. It creates opportunities for companies to sell more and to improve more customer service. It also gives customers a greater choice.


There are three main types of e-commerce. The first is: Business to consumer (B2C) The consumer buys goods or services from a company on the Internet. Many consumers now buy books, music, or tickets on the Internet. The second type of e-commerce is: Consumer to consumer (C2C) People buy and sell directly on sites such as eBay. The third type is: Business to business (B2B) That is commerce between companies. They use the Internet to order goods, get services, and manage their business. It is fast en efficient. In the past the car manufacturers Ford ordered thousands of parts from hundred of different companies. They told the suppliers which parts they wanted and the supplier sent a proposal to supply them. It was a long and expensive process. These days, Ford uses special B2B electronic exchanges to order their parts and then the suppliers put in electronic bids for the job. This process is much quicker and cuts costs. Companies dont need large Purchasing departments and suppliers have to cut their prices to be competitive. So, which parts of the world are most e-active?. Europe is number one, the US comes second, while Hong Kong is the biggest in AsiaPacific, particularly in e-business services. In fact, in 2006, Europes three major markets the UK, Germany, and France- carried out around 25% of their sales online. This figure is increasing from year to year. Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 1 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 12 Texto 5 So you think you know about the Internet Servers and clients The Internet is a worldwide network of hundreds of millions of computers linked together by telephone systems. Two basic types of computer are involved servers and clients. Your home, school, or office computer is a client, while the information you seek is stored on the servers. Getting to a web page Every website in the world is located on a host server. When you type in a website address your home computer is then connected to a gateway


server. This is operated by your Internet Service Provider (ISP). Then your request to view a page is passed on by your ISP to other servers. In seconds it is passed from server to server until it reaches the target host server. Then you can view the web page you requested. Early days The first computer network was developed by the US military during 1950s. it was adapted by scientists in the 1960s so they could share information. This new system was called ARPANET. As more and more universities used ARPANET, it became an information community. The Internet was starting to take shape. Going global Unfortunately, ARPANET was complex and difficult to use. The Internet was revolutionized in 1991 when the World Wide Web was invented by Tim Berners-Lee. Now anyone could access information with a click of the mouse. Mosaic, the first worlds first web browser, was introduced in 1993. it worked for both PCs and Apple Macs. And from then on, the Internet became truly global. Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 1 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 73 Texto 6 Behind big Business Limited companies Most larger firms are limited companies (or corporations in the USA). They are called limited because people can invest in the company without having unlimited responsibility for its debts. If a company goes bankrupt, they would only lose the money they invested in the company. Limited companies are managed by a board of directors, which is responsible for making major business decisions. The capital which is invested in the company is divided into shares of equal value. The value of the shares rises or falls depending on the success of the firm. The profits are distributed to the shareholders. Private limited companies (ltd) These are owned by at least two shareholders, usually the people who set up the business, their business associates, and employees shares are not advertised publicly for sale.


Public limited companies (plc) These have shares which can be bought or sold by the public through firms that deal with the stock market. To become a plc a company must have a minimum of 50,000 invested in shares. However, most plcs are worth much more than this. If a company is large enough it will be listed on the stock exchange. A private shareholder has very little influence, but most shares are owned by big investors such as banks who are involved in how the company is run. They decide who should be on the board, and if the company is doing badly they can force directors to resign. The two most important jobs are the chairperson, who represents the firm to the outside world, and the chief executive officer (CEO), who is responsible for running the company. Multinationals Multinationals are massive groups of companies which operate in many countries. There are over 60,000 in the world and they are responsible for about one third of world production; their turnover can be larger than the income of small countries. They have global access to capital, and can avoid duties by choosing where to manufacture. The parent company keeps control over its global operations through its foreign subsidiaries (firms which produce or market its products). Multinationals are very powerful and can influence economic policies. Texto extraido del libro Oxford English for Careers: Commerce 2 Martin Hobbs and Julia Starr Keddle Oxford University Press, pgina 92 Texto 7 What is management? Management theories Business, and therefore management too, is changing rapidly in a vastmoving global economy, and these changes are not going to slow down in the 21st century. Full time jobs are in decline and lifelong employment is being replaced by short term contracts and series of tasks. There will be increasing demand for managerial skills on a project basis, so most of us will have to become effective managers. It is important, however, to understand the background to this. All human societies depend on business activity to provide the goods they need.


Despite the importance of business, however, it was only in the 20th century that analysts began the systematic study of business and management. One of the earliest thinkers on management was an American engineer called F.W. Taylor. He worked in a large steel factory in America. Taylor believed that the purpose of management was to increase efficiency. The good manager, therefore, had to: * increase productivity * reduce costs * increase revenue Taylor published an important book called Scientific Management in 1911. In this book he argued that the secret of good management was to define the jobs that had to be performed by factory workers. He studied the most efficient factory workers as they carried out various jobs. He observed very carefully the exact physical movements that they made when they were working. Then he trained the other workers in the factory to perform their jobs in the same way. Taylors methods were followed by analysts. Some of these developed scientific procedures for selecting the best workers, and introduced special payment schemes to reward productivity. Taylors scientific management was very popular with factory managers, but sometimes it could lead to problems with factory workers. In Europe, however, a different approach to management was suggested by Henri Fayol. He published an important book in 1916. he suggested that there were five essential managerial functions:

Planning Organizing Commanding Co-ordinating Controlling

Fayols theories of management were so important that most writers on management still accept these definitions of managerial functions. Other approaches to management in the early years of the 2oth century included the first attempts to use the new scientific discipline of


psychology. Hugo Munsterberg, for example, wrote a book called Psychology and Industrial Efficiency that was published in 1912. Munsterberg wanted to find out: How to match mental qualities with specific jobs The psychological conditions for maximizing output How an organization could increase its employees output One very important study was carried out in the USA between 1924 and 1927. this began as a series of experiments at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. The original purpose of the study was to find out how factory lighting systems could affect worker productivity. The study consisted of increasing the lighting systems in some areas of the plant, and decreasing in other areas. George Mayo and his researchers made a very surprising discovery. They found that worker productivity increased in both areas of the plant. At first they did not understand why this happened. After further research, they decided that the presence of the researchers in the plant was responsible for the workers increased productivity. They concluded that the workers felt that they were important because they were being studied by scientists. This made them work harder. The Hawthorne effect. As it became called, encouraged a significant area of management study the social effect of organizations on productivity. Scientific management had assumed that workers could be motivated to work harder by offerin them more money. The Hawthorne studies showed that there were other factors that motivated workers, such as how managers treated them. Before the 1950s most writers on management were managers and businessmen. They wrote about their own experiences. Since then, however, most writers on management have been academics in universities. Studies of management have come from a wide variety of disciplines. Some of the approaches that have been developed are shown below.


Managerial roles approach

Situational approach Systems approach

Empirical and case approach


Interpersonal behaviour approach

Decision theory approach

Group behaviour approach

The empirical and case approach looks at management from the point of view of experience. It tries to understand why some managers fail, and why others succeed. The main disadvantage of this approach is that it does not resultinterpersonal behaviour approach is also known as the human The in the formation of principles of management. relations approach. It focuses on the psychological elements in management. It is concerned with issues like worker motivation job satisfaction. The group behaviour approach is similar to the interpersonal behaviour approach. It focuses on the psychological elements in group behaviour. It is concerned with issues like group decision making and social norms. The decision theory approach focuses on managerial decision making. It studies the variety of ways in which managers take decisions. The systems approach focuses on the relationship between individual businesses and the outside environment.


The situational approach examines the specific situations in which managers act. It argues that there is no best way to do something, because circumstances are always changing. The managerial roles approach studies the actual behaviour of managers, in order what they really do at work. Texto extrado del libro Getting on in Business: Management, Jeremy Fitzgerald. Black Cat; SBS editora, 2001.