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1here are Lwo dlfferenL klnds of moblllLy

1 user moblllLy
2 uevlce porLablllLy

User mob|||ty refers Lo a user who has access Lo Lhe same or slmllar LelecommunlcaLlon
servlces aL dlfferenL places le Lhe user can be moblle and Lhe servlces wlll follow hlm or
her Lxamples for mechanlsms supporLlng user moblllLy are slmple callforwardlng soluLlons
Dev|ce portab|||ty refers Lo Lhe communlcaLlon devlce moves (wlLh or wlLhouL a user)
Many mechanlsms ln Lhe neLwork and lnslde Lhe devlce have Lo make sure LhaL
communlcaLlon ls sLlll posslble whlle Lhe devlce ls movlng A Lyplcal example for sysLems
supporLlng devlce porLablllLy ls Lhe moblle phone sysLem where Lhe sysLem lLself hands Lhe
devlce from one radlo LransmlLLer (also called a base sLaLlon) Lo Lhe nexL lf Lhe slgnal
becomes Loo weak
1he Lerm w|re|ess ls used wlLh reference Lo devlce whlch means way of accesslng Lhe
neLwork or oLher communlcaLlon devlce wlLhouL wlre 1he wlre ls replaced by Lhe
Lransmlsslon of elecLromagneLlc wave Lhrough Lhe alr
1hus communlcaLlon devlce Lhus can be
1 |xed and w|red example of Lhls conflguraLlon ls deskLop devlce 1he power
consumpLlon and Lhe welghL of devlces do noL allow for moblle usages
2 ,ob||e and w|red uevlce llke lapLops fall ln Lhls caLegory where Lhe devlce ls moblle
and lL can be connecLed Lo company's neLwork or neLwork vla Lelephone neLwork
and a modem
3 |xed and w|re|ess 1hls conflguraLlon ls used for lnsLalllng Lhe neLworks lor
example ln hlsLorlcal bulldlngs Lo avold Lhe damage by lnsLalllng wlres
4 ,ob||e and w|re|ess ln Lhls a moblle devlce uses Lhe wlreless neLwork Lxamples
are moblles LableLs eLc

Application of wireless networks:
1 Iehlcles
2 8uslness
3 Lmergencles
4 8eplacemenL of wlred neLwork
3 lnfoLalnmenL
Ieh|c|e for muslc CS eLc
2 s|ness A Lravelllng salesman Loday needs lnsLanL access Lo Lhe company's daLabase Lo
ensure LhaL flles on hls or her lapLop reflecL Lhe currenL slLuaLlon Lo enable Lhe company Lo
keep Lrack of all acLlvlLles of Lhelr Lravelllng employees Lo keep daLabases conslsLenL eLc
wlLh wlreless access Lhe lapLop can be Lurned lnLo a Lrue moblle offlce buL efflclenL and
powerful synchronlzaLlon mechanlsms are needed Lo ensure daLa conslsLency
3 Lmergenc|es Wlreless neLworks are Lhe only means of communlcaLlon ln Lhe case of naLural
dlsasLers such as hurrlcanes or earLhquakes
4 kep|acement of w|red network hlsLorlcal bulldlngs remoLe senslng eLc
S Infota|nment uslng lnLerneL everywhere by wlreless neLworks


imple network reference model

1 1hls uA communlcaLes wlLh a base sLaLlon ln Lhe mlddle of Lhe plcLure 1he base
sLaLlon conslsLs of a radlo Lranscelver (sender and recelver) and an lnLerworklng unlL
connecLlng Lhe wlreless llnk wlLh Lhe flxed llnk
2 underneaLh each neLwork elemenL Lhe proLocol sLack lmplemenLed ln Lhe sysLem
accordlng Lo Lhe reference model LndsysLems such as Lhe uA and compuLer ln
Lhe example need a full proLocol sLack
3 luncLlon of each layer
a hys|ca| |ayer
l onverslon of sLream lnLo slgnal and aL recelvlng end agaln Lo blL from slgnal
ll lrequency generaLlon
lll Slgnal deLecLlon
lv CeneraLlon of carrler frequencles
v ModulaLlon of daLa on Lo carrler frequency
vl LncrypLlon/decrypLlon
b Data ||nk |ayer
l Accesslng Lhe medlum
ll MulLlplexlng of dlfferenL daLa sLream
lll orrecLlon of Lransmlsslon errors
lv SynchronlzaLlon
c Network |ayer
l 8ouLlng of packeLs
ll Addresslng and devlce locaLlon
lll Pandover beLween dlfferenL neLworks
d 1ransport |ayer
l Lnd Lo end connecLlon
ll CuallLy of servlce
lll llow of congesLlon conLrol
e App||cat|on |ayer
l Servlce locaLlon
ll SupporL for mulLlmedla locaLlon
lll Wlreless access Lo WWW


requencies for radio transmission:

1he flgure above lllusLraLes Lhe frequency specLrum can be used for Lhe daLa Lransmlsslon
lrequencles are
Iery Low reqenc|es
2 Low reqenc|es used ln Lhe submarlnes because Lhls can peneLraLe Lhe waLer
and can follow Lhe earLh surface Some radlo sLaLlon sLlll use Lhls frequency
beLween 1483 kPz Lo2833kPz
3 ,ed|m reqenc|es and n|gh reqenc|es used for Lransmlsslon of Lhe
hundred of radlo sLaLlon elLher as Lhe AmplltoJe moJolotloo b/w 320kPz and
16033kPzas sbott wove beLween 39 MPz and 261 MPz or as (lM)beLween
873 MPz and 108 MPz ftepoeocy moJolotloo
4 Iery n|gh reqenc|es and U|tra n|gh reqenc|es used by Lhe 1I sLaLlons
ulglLal Audlo 8roadcasLlng (uA8)
S Sper n|gh reqenc|es Lyplcally used for dlrecLed mlcrowave llnks (approx 2
40 CPz) and flxed saLelllLe servlces ln Lhe band (4 and 6 CPz) kuband (11 and
14 CPz) or kaband (19 and 29 CPz)
6 Lxtreme|y n|gh reqenc|es
7 Infrared used for dlrecL llnks for example Lo connecL Lwo bulldlngs wlLh laser


1 Slgnals are Lhe physlcal represenLaLlon of daLa
2 users of a communlcaLlon sysLem can only exchange daLa Lhrough Lhe Lransmlsslon
of slgnals
3 Layer 1 (pbyslcol loyet) of Lhe lSC/CSl baslc reference model ls responslble for Lhe
converslon of daLa le blLs lnLo slgnals and vlce versa
4 An ana|og s|gna| ls one ln whlch Lhe slgnal lnLenslLy varles ln a smooLh fashlon over
Llme ln oLher words Lhere are no breaks or dlsconLlnulLles ln Lhe slgnal
3 A d|g|ta| s|gna| ls one ln whlch Lhe slgnal lnLenslLy malnLalns a consLanL level for
some perlod of Llme and Lhen changes Lo anoLher consLanL level
6 1he slmplesL sorL of slgnal ls a per|od|c s|gna| ln whlch Lhe same slgnal paLLern
repeaLs over Llme.
7 Signals are Iunctions oI time and location. A general Iunction Ior the sine wave which
is a periodic signal is:
g(t) = A
|(m t + q

where m = 2a
A ls ampllLude and f ls frequency and q ls phase shlfL


1 An anLenna can be deflned as an elecLrlcal conducLor or sysLem of conducLors used
elLher for radlaLlng elecLromagneLlc energy or for collecLlng elecLromagneLlc energy
2 lor Lransmlsslon of a slgnal rad|ofreqency e|ectr|ca| energy from Lhe LransmlLLer
ls converLed lnLo e|ectromagnet|c energy by Lhe anLenna and radlaLed lnLo Lhe
surroundlng envlronmenL (aLmosphere space waLer)
3 lor recepLlon of a slgnal e|ectromagnet|c energy conLacL on Lhe anLenna ls
converLed lnLo rad|ofreqency e|ectr|ca| energy and fed lnLo Lhe recelver
4 A LheoreLlcal reference anLenna ls Lhe |sotrop|c rad|ator a polnL ln space radlaLlng
equal power ln all dlrecLlons le all polnLs wlLh equal power are locaLed on a sphere
wlLh Lhe anLenna as lLs cenLer 1he rad|at|on pattern ls symmeLrlc ln all dlrecLlons

such Lype of anLenna does noL exlsL ln real world

3 8eal anLennas all exhlblL d|rect|ve effects le Lhe lnLenslLy of radlaLlon ls noL Lhe
same ln all dlrecLlons from Lhe anLenna 1he slmplesL real anLenna ls a Lhln cenLer
fed d|po|e also called nertz|an d|po|e 1he d|po|e conslsLs of Lwo colllnear
conducLors of equal lengLh separaLed by a small
feedlng gap 1he lengLh of Lhe dlpole ls noL arblLrary
buL for example half Lhe wavelengLh of Lhe slgnal Lo
LransmlL resulLs ln a very efflclenL radlaLlon of Lhe
energy lf mounLed on Lhe roof of a car Lhe lengLh of
/4 ls efflclenL 1hls ls also known as ,arcon| antenna
6 /2 dlpole has a unlform or Cmn|d|rect|ona| rad|at|on paLLern ln one plane and a
flgure elghL paLLern ln Lhe oLher Lwo planes as shown ln llgure 1hls Lype of anLenna
can only overcome envlronmenLal challenges by boosLlng Lhe power level of Lhe
slgnal hallenges could be mounLalns valleys bulldlngs eLc

7 D|rect|ona| antennas used cerLaln flxed preferenLlal Lransmlsslon and recepLlon
dlrecLlon llgure below shows Lhe radlaLlon paLLern of dlrecLlonal anLennas


ulrecLed anLennas are Lyplcally applled ln cellular sysLems Several dlrecLed anLennas
can be comblned on a slngle pole Lo consLrucL a sector|zed antenna A cell can be
secLorlzed lnLo for example Lhree or slx secLors Lhus enabllng frequency reuse 1he
radlaLlon paLLerns of Lhls secLorlzed anLenna shown below

8 Smart antennas comblnes mulLlple anLenna elemenLs (also called anLenna array)
wlLh slgnal processlng Lo opLlmlze Lhe radlaLlon/recepLlon paLLern ln response Lo Lhe
slgnal envlronmenL 1hese anLennas can adapL Lo changes ln recepLlon power
Lransmlsslon condlLlons and many slgnal propagaLlon AnLenna arrays can also be
used for beam formlng
ignal Propagation
1 ln wlreless neLworks Lhe slgnal has no wlre Lo deLermlne Lhe dlrecLlon of
propagaLlon whereas slgnals ln wlred neLworks only Lravel along Lhe wlre
2 ln wlred neLwork slgnal exhlblLs Lhe same characLerlsLlcs aL each polnL as long as Lhe
wlre ls noL damaged
3 lor wlreless Lransmlsslon Lhls predlcLable behavlour ls only valld ln a vacuum
4 1he slLuaLlon would be as follows
r 1ransm|ss|on range WlLhln a cerLaln radlus of Lhe sender Lransmlsslon ls
posslble le a recelver recelves Lhe slgnals wlLh low error raLe Lo esLabllsh
Lhe communlcaLlon beLween sender and recelver
r Detect|on range WlLhln a second radlus
deLecLlon of Lhe Lransmlsslon ls posslble le
Lhe LransmlLLed power ls large enough Lo dlffer
from background nolse Powever Lhe error
raLe ls Loo hlgh Lo esLabllsh communlcaLlon
r Interference range WlLhln a Lhlrd even
larger radlus Lhe sender may lnLerfere wlLh
oLher Lransmlsslon by addlng Lo Lhe
background nolse A recelver wlll noL be able
Lo deLecL Lhe slgnals buL Lhe slgnals may
dlsLurb oLher slgnals


Patb loss of radio signal
1 ln free space radlo slgnals propagaLe as llghL does le Lhey follow a sLralghL llne
(besldes gravlLaLlonal effecLs)
2 lf such a sLralghL llne exlsLs beLween a sender and a recelver lL ls called ||neofs|ght
3 Lven lf no maLLer (Lhlng) exlsLs beLween Lhe sender and Lhe recelver (le lf Lhere ls
vacuum) Lhe slgnal sLlll experlence Lhe free space |oss
4 MosL radlo Lransmlsslon Lakes place Lhrough Lhe aLmosphere slgnals Lravel Lhrough
alr raln snow fog dusL parLlcles smog eLc
3 Whlle Lhe path |oss or attenat|on

does noL cause Loo much Lrouble for shorL

dlsLances eg for LAns
6 1he aLmosphere heavlly lnfluences Lransmlsslon over long dlsLances eg saLelllLe
Lransmlsslon Lven moblle phone sysLems are lnfluenced by weaLher condlLlons such
as heavy raln
7 8adlo waves can exhlblL Lhree fundamenLal propagaLlon behavlours dependlng on
Lhelr frequency
Grond wave (2 ,nz) Waves wlLh low frequencles follow Lhe earLh's
surface and can propagaLe long dlsLances 1hese waves are used for eg
submarlne communlcaLlon or AM radlo
Sky wave (230 ,nz) Many lnLernaLlonal broadcasLs and amaLeur radlo
use Lhese shorL waves LhaL are reflecLed aL Lhe lonosphere 1hls way Lhe
waves can bounce back and forLh beLween Lhe lonosphere and Lhe earLh's
surface Lravelllng around Lhe world
L|neofs|ght (30 ,nz) Moblle phone sysLems saLelllLe sysLems cordless
Lelephones eLc use even hlgher frequencles 1he emlLLed waves follow a
(more or less) sLralghL llne of slghL 1hls enables dlrecL communlcaLlon wlLh
saLelllLes (no reflecLlon aL Lhe lonosphere) or mlcrowave llnks on Lhe ground

Loss of sLrengLh of slgnal ln Lransmlsslon


pread spectrum
1 1he spread specLrum Lechnlque was developed lnlLlally for ln mlllLary and
lnLelllgence requlremenLs
2 1he spread specLrum means Lo spread Lhe lnformaLlon slgnal over a wlder
bandwldLh Lo make [ammlng and lnLercepLlon more dlfflculL
3 llgure below hlghllghLs Lhe key characLerlsLlcs of any spread specLrum sysLem
a lnpuL ls fed lnLo a channel encoder LhaL produces an analog slgnal wlLh a
relaLlvely narrow bandwldLh around some cenLer frequency
b 1hls slgnal ls furLher modulaLed uslng a sequence of dlglLs known as a
spreadlng code or spreadlng sequence
c 1yplcally buL noL always Lhe spreadlng code ls generaLed by a pseudonolse
or pseudorandom number generaLor 1he effecL of Lhls modulaLlon ls Lo
lncrease slgnlflcanLly Lhe bandwldLh (spread Lhe specLrum) of Lhe slgnal Lo be
d Cn Lhe recelvlng end Lhe same dlglL sequence ls used Lo demodulaLe Lhe
spread specLrum slgnal
e llnally Lhe slgnal ls fed lnLo a channel decoder Lo recover Lhe daLa

4 1he followlng advanLage can be galned by Lhe specLrum
a We can galn Lhe lmmunlLy from varlous klnds of nolse and dlsLorLlon
b lL can also be used for hldlng and encrypLlng Lhe slgnal Cnly Lhe reclplenL
who knows Lhe spreadlng code can recover Lhe encoded lnformaLlon
c Several users can slmulLaneously use Lhe same frequency wlLh llLLle
3 1he spread specLrum can be achleved by Lwo ways
a D|rect seqence spread spectrm
b reqency hopp|ng spread spectrm
irect sequencing spread spectrum
1 lor dlrecL sequence spread specLrum (uSSS) each blL ln Lhe orlglnal slgnal ls
represenLed by mulLlple blLs ln Lhe LransmlLLed slgnal uslng a spreadlng code
2 Cne Lechnlque for dlrecL sequence spread specLrum ls Lo comblne Lhe dlglLal
lnformaLlon sLream wlLh Lhe spread|ng code b|t stream uslng an excluslveC8 (xC8)
3 xC8 obeys Lhe followlng rules


4 1he spread|ng code b|t stream someLlmes may refer as ch|pped seqence
3 1he followlng flgure shows example of dlrecL sequenclng spread specLrum

6 Lach user blL has a duraLlon L
1he chlpplng sequence conslsLs of Lhe smaller pulse
called ch|ps wlLh a duraLlon L

7 lf Lhe chlpplng sequence generaLed properly Lhan lL appears as a random nolse 1hls
sequence someLlmes also code psedo no|se
8 1he spread|ng factor sL
deLermlne Lhe bandwldLh of Lhe resulLlng slgnal
9 lf orlglnal slgnal need Lhe bandwldLh w Lhe resulLlng slgnal wlll need sw bandwldLh
afLer Lhe spreadlng
10lvll appllcaLlons need Lhe spreadlng facLor beLween 10 Lo 100 and mlllLary
appllcaLlons need up Lo 10000
11uSSS need addlLlonal componenLs for LransmlLLlng and recelvlng
121he DSSS transm|tter spread Lhe user daLa wlLh Lhe chlpplng sequence (dlglLal
modulaLlon) 1he spread slgnal Lhen modulaLes wlLh radlo carrler

13At the rece|ver end

a AddlLlonal mechanlsm ls carrled ouL due Lo mulLlpaLh propagaLlon or nolse
Lo consLrucL Lhe orlglnal daLa
b ln Lhe flrsL sLep Lhe recelver demodulaLed Lhe slgnal wlLh Lhe same carrler
frequency used ln LransmlLLlng
c ln Lhe nexL sLep Lhe recelver has Lo know Lhe orlglnal chlpplng sequence


d hlpplng sequences aL Lhe sender and recelver have Lo be preclsely
synchronlzed because Lhe recelver calculaLes Lhe producL of a chlp wlLh Lhe
lncomlng slgnal 1hls comprlses anoLher xC8 operaLlon
e uurlng a blL perlod whlch also has Lo be derlved vla synchronlzaLlon an
|ntegrator adds all Lhese producLs
f alculaLlng Lhe producLs of chlps and slgnal and addlng Lhe producLs ln an
lnLegraLor are also called corre|at|on Lhe devlce a corre|ator
g llnally ln each blL perlod a dec|s|on n|t samples Lhe sums generaLed by Lhe
lnLegraLor and decldes lf Lhls sum represenLs a blnary 1 or a 0
requency bopping spread spectrum
1 ln frequency hopplng spread specLrum (lPSS) sysLems Lhe LoLal avallable bandwldLh
ls spllL lnLo many channels of smaller bandwldLh plus guard spaces beLween Lhe
2 1ransmlLLer and recelver sLay on one of Lhese channels for a cerLaln Llme and Lhen
hop ([ump llghLly) Lo anoLher channel
3 1hls sysLem lmplemenLs luM and 1uM
4 1he paLLern of channel usage ls called Lhe hopp|ng seqence Lhe Llme spend on a
channel wlLh a cerLaln frequency ls called Lhe dwe|| t|me
3 lPSS comes ln Lwo varlanLs slow and fasL hopplng
6 In s|ow hopp|ng
a 1he LransmlLLer uses one frequency for several blL perlods
b llgure below shows flve user blLs wlLh a blL perlod L
c erformlng slow hopplng Lhe LransmlLLer uses Lhe frequency f
LransmlLLlng Lhe flrsL Lhree blLs durlng Lhe dwe|| t|me L

d 1hen Lhe LransmlLLer hops Lo Lhe nexL frequency f

e Slow hopplng sysLems are Lyplcally cheaper and have relaxed Lolerances buL
Lhey are noL as lmmune Lo narrowband lnLerference as fasL hopplng sysLems
7 or fast hopp|ng systems
a 1he LransmlLLer changes Lhe frequency several Llmes durlng Lhe Lransmlsslon
of a slngle blL
b ln followlng flgure Lhe LransmlLLer hops Lhree Llmes durlng a blL perlod
c lasL hopplng sysLems are more complex Lo lmplemenL because Lhe
LransmlLLer and recelver have Lo sLay synchronlzed wlLhln smaller Lolerances
Lo perform hopplng aL more or less Lhe same polnLs ln Llme
d Powever Lhese sysLems are much beLLer aL overcomlng Lhe effecLs of
narrowband lnLerference and frequency selecLlve fadlng as Lhey only sLlck Lo
one frequency for a very shorL Llme


8 1he SS transm|tter
a 1he flrsL sLep ln an lPSS LransmlLLer ls Lhe modulaLlon of user daLa accordlng
Lo one of Lhe dlglLalLoanalog modulaLlon schemes eg lSk or 8Sk as 1hls
resulLs ln a narrowband slgnal lf lSk ls used wlLh a frequency f
for a blnary 0
and f
for a blnary 1
b ln Lhe nexL sLep frequency hopplng ls performed based on a hopplng
sequence 1he hopplng sequence ls fed lnLo a freqency synthes|zer
generaLlng Lhe carrler frequencles f

c A second modulaLlon uses Lhe modulaLed narrowband slgnal and Lhe carrler
frequency Lo generaLe a new spread slgnal wlLh frequency of f
for a
blnary 0 and f
for a 1 respecLlvely
d lf dlfferenL lPSS LransmlLLers use hopplng sequences LhaL never overlap le
lf Lwo LransmlLLers never use
Lhe same frequency f
aL Lhe
same Llme Lhen Lhese Lwo
Lransmlsslons do noL
lnLerfere 1hls requlres Lhe
coordlnaLlon of all
LransmlLLers and Lhelr
hopplng sequences

9 1he SS rece|ver
a 1he recelver of an lPSS sysLem
has Lo know Lhe hopplng
sequence and musL sLay
b lL Lhen performs Lhe lnverse
operaLlons of Lhe modulaLlon
Lo reconsLrucL user daLa
Several fllLers are also needed


ompar|son between the DSSS and SS
Spreadlng ls complex Spreadlng ls slmpler
2 use LoLal bandwldLh
use a porLlon of band aL
any Llme
3 More reslsLanL Lo fadlng and
Lhe mulLlpaLh propagaLlon
Less reslsLanL Lo fadlng
and mulLlpaLh
4 uSSS slgnal are much harder
Lo deLecL
lSS slgnal can easlly be

1 1he lLLL sLandard 80211 (lLLL 1999) speclfles Lhe mosL famous famlly of WLAns ln
whlch many producLs are avallable
2 As Lhe sLandard's number lndlcaLes Lhls sLandard belongs Lo Lhe group of 802x LAn
sLandards eg 8023 LLherneL or 8023 1oken 8lng
3 1hls means LhaL Lhe sLandard speclfles Lhe physlcal and medlum access layer
adapLed Lo Lhe speclal requlremenLs of wlreless LAns buL offers Lhe same lnLerface
as Lhe oLhers Lo hlgher layers Lo malnLaln lnLeroperablllLy
4 1he prlmary goal of Lhe sLandard was Lhe speclflcaLlon of a slmple and robusL WLAn
whlch offers Llmebounded and asynchronous servlces
3 AddlLlonal feaLures of Lhe WLAn should lnclude
a 1he supporL of power managemenL Lo save baLLery power
b 1he handllng of hldden nodes
c 1he ablllLy Lo operaLe worldwlde
ystem arcbitecture


1 llgure lllusLraLes Lhe model developed by Lhe 80211 worklng group
2 1he smallesL bulldlng block of a wlreless LAn ls a bas|c serv|ce set (SS) whlch
conslsLs of some number of sLaLlons (S1A) execuLlng Lhe same MA proLocol and
compeLlng for access Lo Lhe same shared wlreless medlum
3 A 8SS may be lsolaLed or lL may connecL Lo a backbone d|str|bt|on system (DS)
Lhrough an access po|nt (A)
4 1he A funcLlons as a brldge and a relay polnL
3 ln a 8SS cllenL sLaLlons do noL communlcaLe dlrecLly wlLh one anoLher 8aLher lf
one sLaLlon ln Lhe 8SS wanLs Lo communlcaLe wlLh anoLher sLaLlon ln Lhe same 8SS
Lhe MA frame ls flrsL senL from Lhe orlglnaLlng sLaLlon Lo Lhe A and Lhen from Lhe
A Lo Lhe desLlnaLlon sLaLlon
6 Slmllarly a MA frame from a sLaLlon ln Lhe 8SS Lo a remoLe sLaLlon ls senL from Lhe
local sLaLlon Lo Lhe A and Lhen relayed by Lhe A over Lhe uS on lLs way Lo Lhe
desLlnaLlon sLaLlon
7 1he uS can be a swlLch a wlred neLwork or a wlreless neLwork
8 When all Lhe sLaLlons ln Lhe 8SS are moblle sLaLlons wlLh no connecLlon Lo oLher
8SSs Lhe 8SS ls called an |ndependent SS (ISS)
9 An l8SS ls Lyplcally an adhoc neLwork ln an l8SS Lhe sLaLlons all communlcaLe
dlrecLly and no A ls lnvolved
10A slmple conflguraLlon ls shown ln llgure ln whlch each sLaLlon belongs Lo a slngle
8SS LhaL ls each sLaLlon ls wlLhln wlreless range only of oLher sLaLlons wlLhln Lhe
same 8SS
11lL ls also posslble for Lwo 8SSs Lo overlap geographlcally so LhaL a slngle sLaLlon
could parLlclpaLe ln more Lhan one 8SS
121he assoclaLlon beLween a sLaLlon and a 8SS ls dynamlc SLaLlons may Lurn off come
wlLhln range and go ouL of range
13An extended serv|ce set (LSS) conslsLs of Lwo or more baslc servlce seLs
lnLerconnecLed by a dlsLrlbuLlon sysLem
14 1yplcally Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon sysLem ls a wlred backbone LAn buL can be any
communlcaLlons neLwork
13 1he exLended servlce seL appears as a slngle loglcal LAn Lo Lhe loglcal llnk conLrol
(LL) level
16llgure lndlcaLes LhaL an access polnL (A) ls lmplemenLed as parL of a sLaLlon Lhe A
ls Lhe loglc wlLhln a sLaLlon LhaL provldes access Lo Lhe uS by provldlng uS servlces ln
addlLlon Lo acLlng as a sLaLlon
171o lnLegraLe Lhe lLLL 80211 archlLecLure wlLh a LradlLlonal wlred LAn a portal ls
used 1he porLal loglc ls lmplemenLed ln a devlce such as a brldge or rouLer LhaL ls
parL of Lhe wlred LAn and LhaL ls aLLached Lo Lhe uS


Protocol arcbitecture
llgure shows Lhe mosL common scenarlo
1 An lLLL 80211 wlreless LAn connecLed Lo a swlLched lLLL 8023 LLherneL vla a
2 AppllcaLlons should noL noLlce any dlfference aparL from Lhe lower bandwldLh and
perhaps hlgher access Llme from Lhe wlreless LAn
3 1he WLAn behaves llke a slow wlred LAn onsequenLly Lhe hlgher layers
(appllcaLlon 1 l) look Lhe same for wlreless nodes as for wlred nodes
4 1he upper parL of Lhe daLa llnk conLrol layer Lhe loglcal llnk conLrol (LL) covers Lhe
dlfferences of Lhe medlum access conLrol layers needed for Lhe dlfferenL medla
3 1he lLLL 80211 sLandard only covers Lhe
phys|ca| |ayer n and med|m access |ayer
,A llke Lhe oLher 802x LAns do
6 1he physlcal layer ls subdlvlded lnLo Lhe phys|ca|
|ayer convergence protoco| (L) and Lhe
phys|ca| med|m dependent sb|ayer (,D)
7 1he baslc Lasks of Lhe ,A |ayer comprlse
a medlum access
b fragmenLaLlon of user daLa
c and encrypLlon
8 L sb|ayer provldes a carrler sense slgnal ca||ed c|ear channe| assessment (A)
and provldes a common P? serv|ce access po|nt (SA) lndependenL of Lhe
Lransmlsslon Lechnology
9 1he ,D sb|ayer handles modulaLlon and encodlng/decodlng of slgnals
101he ,A management supporLs
a assoclaLlon and reassoclaLlon of a sLaLlon Lo an access polnL
b roamlng beLween dlfferenL access polnLs


c onLrols auLhenLlcaLlon mechanlsms encrypLlon synchronlzaLlon of a
sLaLlon wlLh regard Lo an access polnL
d ower managemenL Lo save baLLery power
e MA managemenL also malnLalns Lhe ,A management |nformat|on base
111he maln Lasks of Lhe n management lnclude channel Lunlng and P? Ml8
12Stat|on management lnLeracLs wlLh boLh managemenL layers and ls responslble for
addlLlonal hlgher layer funcLlons (eg conLrol of brldglng and lnLeracLlon wlLh Lhe
dlsLrlbuLlon sysLem ln Lhe case of an access polnL)
1he concepL behlnd 8lueLooLh ls Lo provlde a unlversal shorLrange wlreless capablllLy uslng
Lhe 24CPz band avallable globally for unllcensed lowpower uses Lwo 8lueLooLh devlces
wlLhln 10 m of each oLher can share up Lo 720 kbps of capaclLy
8lueLooLh ls lnLended Lo supporL an openended llsL of appllcaLlons lncludlng daLa (eg
schedules and Lelephone numbers) audlo graphlcs and even vldeo lor example audlo
devlces can lnclude headseLs cordless and sLandard l hones home sLereos and dlglLal M3
players 1he followlng are examples of some Lhe capablllLy 8lueLooLh can provlde
1 Make calls from a wlreless headseL connecLed remoLely Lo a cell phone
2 LllmlnaLe cables llnklng compuLers Lo prlnLers keyboards and Lhe mouse
3 Pook up M3 players wlrelessly Lo oLher machlnes Lo download muslc
4 SeL up home neLworks so LhaL a couch poLaLo can remoLely monlLor alr condlLlonlng
Lhe oven and chlldrens lnLerneL surflng
3 all home from a remoLe locaLlon Lo Lurn appllances on and off seL Lhe alarm and
monlLor acLlvlLy

8lueLooLh provldes supporL for Lhree general appllcaLlon areas uslng shorLrange wlreless
E Data and vo|ce access po|nts 8lueLooLh faclllLaLes realLlme volce and daLa
Lransmlsslons by provldlng efforLless wlreless connecLlon of porLable and sLaLlonary
communlcaLlons devlces
E ab|e rep|acement 8lueLooLh ellmlnaLes Lhe need for numerous ofLen proprleLary
cable aLLachmenLs for connecLlon of pracLlcally any klnd of communlcaLlon devlce
onnecLlons are lnsLanL and are malnLalned even when devlces are noL wlLhln llne of
slghL 1he range of each radlo ls approxlmaLely 10m buL can be exLended Lo 100 m
wlLh an opLlonal ampllfler
E Ad hoc network|ng A devlce equlpped wlLh a 8lueLooLh radlo can esLabllsh lnsLanL
connecLlon Lo anoLher 8lueLooLh radlo as soon as lL comes lnLo range


Protocol arcbitecture
1 8lueLooLh ls deflned as a layered proLocol archlLecLure conslsLlng of core proLocols
cable replacemenL and Lelephony conLrol proLocol and adopLed proLocols 1he core
proLocols form a flvelayer sLack conslsLlng of Lhe followlng elemenLs
a kad|o Speclfles deLalls of Lhe alr lnLerface lncludlng frequency Lhe use of
frequency hopplng modulaLlon scheme and LransmlL power
b aseband oncerned wlLh connecLlon esLabllshmenL wlLhln a plconeL (WAn)
addresslng packeL formaL Llmlng and power conLrol
c L|nk manager protoco| (L,) 8esponslble for llnk seLup beLween 8lueLooLh
devlces and ongolng llnk managemenL 1hls lncludes securlLy aspecLs such as
auLhenLlcaLlon and encrypLlon plus Lhe conLrol and negoLlaLlon of baseband
packeL slzes
d Log|ca| ||nk contro| and adaptat|on protoco| (L2A) AdapLs upperlayer
proLocols Lo Lhe baseband layer L2A provldes boLh connecLlonless and
connecLlonorlenLed servlces
e Serv|ce d|scovery protoco| (SD) uevlce lnformaLlon servlces and Lhe
characLerlsLlcs of Lhe servlces can be querled Lo enable Lhe esLabllshmenL of a
connecLlon beLween Lwo or more 8lueLooLh devlces

2 8lCMM ls Lhe cab|e rep|acement protoco| lncluded ln Lhe 8lueLooLh speclflcaLlon
8lCMM presenLs a vlrLual serlal porL LhaL ls deslgned Lo make replacemenL of cable
Lechnologles as LransparenL as posslble

3 8lueLooLh speclfles a te|ephony contro| protoco| 1S 8ln (Lelephony conLrol
speclflcaLlonblnary) ls a blLorlenLed proLocol LhaL deflnes Lhe call conLrol slgnalllng for
Lhe esLabllshmenL of speech and daLa calls beLween 8lueLooLh devlces


4 1he adopted protoco|s are deflned ln speclflcaLlons lssued by oLher sLandards maklng
organlzaLlons and lncorporaLed lnLo Lhe overall 8lueLooLh archlLecLure 1he 8lueLooLh
sLraLegy ls Lo lnvenL only necessary proLocols and use exlsLlng sLandards whenever
posslble 1he adopLed proLocols lnclude Lhe followlng
a 1he po|nttopo|nt protoco| ls an lnLerneL sLandard proLocol for
LransporLlng l daLagrams over a polnLLopolnL llnk
b 1]UD]I 1hese are Lhe foundaLlon proLocols of Lhe 1/l proLocol sulLe
c CLk 1he ob[ect exchange protoco| ls a sesslonLevel proLocol developed by
Lhe lnfrared uaLa AssoclaLlon (lruA) for Lhe exchange of ob[ecLs C8Lx provldes
funcLlonallLy slmllar Lo LhaL of P11 buL ln a slmpler fashlon lL also provldes a
model for represenLlng ob[ecLs and operaLlons Lxamples of conLenL formaLs
Lransferred by C8Lx are vard and valendar whlch provlde Lhe formaL of an
elecLronlc buslness card and personal calendar enLrles and schedullng
lnformaLlon respecLlvely
d JAL]JA 8lueLooLh lncorporaLes Lhe wlreless appllcaLlon envlronmenL and
Lhe wlreless appllcaLlon proLocol lnLo lLs archlLecLure