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NUTRITIONAL GUIDELINES FOR FILIPINOS

developed by: Clinical Nutrition Section Medical Nutrition Division FNRI-DOST

Revised Edition 2000

1. Eat a variety of foods everyday.

2. Breastfeed infants exclusively from birth to 4-6 months, and then, give appropriate foods while continuing breastfeeding.

3. Maintain children's normal growth through proper diet and monitor their growth regularly.

4. Consume fish lean meat, poultry or poultry or dried beans.

5. Eat more vegetables, fruits, and root crops.

6. Eat foods cooked in edible/cooking oil daily.

7. Consume milk, milk products or other calcium-rich foods such as small fish and dark green leafy vegetables everyday.

8. Use iodized salt, but avoid excessive intake of salty foods.

9. Eat clean and safe food.

10. For a healthy lifestyle and good nutrition, exercise regularly, do not smoke, and avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.

7. Consume milk, milk products and other calcium-rich foods such as small fish and dark green leafy vegetables every day. Nutrition surveys indicate a consistent failure of Filipinos to meet dietary recommendations for calcium. An adequate amount of calcium in the diet starting from childhood all through adulthood will help prevent osteoporosis in later life. Milk and milk products provide highly absorbable calcium besides being good sources of protein, vitamin A and other nutrients. Milk and other calcium-rich foods are valuable additions to our rice/plant-based diets, which are not only poor sources of calcium but also contain calcium-inhibiting substances. 8. Use iodized salt, but avoid excessive intake of salty foods.

Goiter and Iodine Deficiency Disorders are rampant in many areas of the Philippines, causing physical and mental retardation in children. The regular use of iodized salt in the table and in cooking in addition to taking iodine-rich foods, will greatly help in eradicating this preventable disease.

On the other hand, excessive intake of salt and salty foods particularly in susceptible individuals increases the risk of hypertension and hence of heart disease. Avoiding too much table salt and overly salty foods may help in the prevention and control of these conditions. 9. Eat clean and safe food. Food and water are essential to life but they may also carry disease-causing organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, or harmful chemical substances. It is important to buy foods that are safe. Purchase food only from reliable sources. In addition, care must be taken when preparing and serving meals to prevent food-borne diseases. Sharing in the efforts to improve environmental hygiene and sanitation in the community will greatly contribute to food safety in the home. 10. for a healthy lifestyle and good nutrition, exercise regularly, do not smoke and avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.

With the changing lifestyle of Filipinos, chronic degenerative diseases are becoming significant public health problems. Healthy diets, regular exercise, abstinence from smoking and moderate alcohol intake are key components of a healthy lifestyle. What are the classification of nutrients & their functions? Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins or amino acids, lipids, and vitamins. Inorganic nutrients include minerals. Water is sometimes included in a listing of nutrients. Proteins have many functions. They serve as enzymatic catalysts, are used as transport molecules (hemoglobin transports oxygen) and storage molecules (iron is stored in the liver as a complex with the protein ferritin); they are used in movement (proteins are the major component of muscles); they are needed for mechanical support (skin and bone contain collagen-a fibrous protein); they mediate cell responses (rhodopsin is a protein in the eye which is used for vision); antibody proteins are needed for immune protection; control of growth and cell differentiation uses proteins (hormones).

Lipids

1. Energy storage source for animals

2. Structural elements (plasma membrane) of cells and organelles

3. Signal transduction molecules

4. Sleep-inducing lipids recently identified

Functions of Vitamins and Minerals VITAMIN A: Promotes skeletal growth, normal tooth structure, healthy mucous membranes, healthy skin, eyes and hair; essential for night vision. NATURAL SOURCES: Fish liver oils, liver, carrots, green and yellow vegetables, dairy products. VITAMIN D: Promotes bone and tooth development and normal growth; aids utilization of phosphorus and calcium; maintains nervous system and heart action; prevents rickets. VITAMIN E: Protects body's store of Vitamin A, tissues and fat from destructive oxidation, and breakdown of red corpuscles; strengthens capillary walls; regulates menstrual rhythm; prevents loss of other vitamins; aids blood flow to heart; lowers blood cholesterol and fatty acids; vital to cell health; regulates protein and calcium metabolism.NA TURA L

SOURCES:

Soybeans, vegetable oils, broccoli, brussels sprouts, leafy greens, enriched flour, whole wheat, wheat germ,

whole grain cereals, eggs. VITAMIN C: Essential for the formation of collagen; needed for absorption of iron, some proteins and folic acid; prevents oxidation of other vitamins; aids in metabolism of amino acids and calcium; stops internal bleeding; strengthens blood vessels maintains hard bones and teeth; promotes stamina; holds body cells together prevents infections, colds, fatigue and stress; reduces allergies; heals wounds and burns. NATURAL SOURCES: Citrus fruits, berries, green and leafy vegetables, tomatoes, cauliflower, potatoes, sweet potatoes. NIACIN: (as Niacinamide): Aids normal functioning of tissues, particularly skin, gastrointestinal tract and nervous system; used with other vitamins in converting carbohydrates to energy.NATURAL SOURCES: Liver, lean meat, whole wheat, brewer's yeast, wheat germ, fish, eggs, roasted peanuts, poultry, sesame seeds, nuts. VITAMIN B-6: (Pyridoxine HCl) Aids metabolism of protein carbohydrates and fats; controls cholesterol level; aids chemical balance between blood and tissue; prevents water retention; builds hemoglobin. NATURAL SOURCES: Brewer's yeast, wheat bran, wheat germ, organ meats, beef, avocados, bananas, milk, eggs. VITAMIN B-1: (Thiamine): Helps convert sugar and starches into energy; promotes digestion, strong heart muscle, child growth; prevents fatigue, fat deposits in arteries. NATURAL SOURCES: Whole wheat, dried yeast, oatmeal, peanuts, pork, bran, enriched rice, sunflower seeds, soybean sprouts. VITAMIN B-2: (Riboflavin): Aids in releasing energy to body cells; enables utilization of fats, proteins and sugars.NA TURA L
SOURCES:

Dairy products, liver, kidney, yeast, leafy greens, fish, eggs.

VITAMIN B-12: Promotes utilization of protein, fats and carbohydrates; essential for formation of red blood cells; builds nucleic acid; prevents pernicious anemia; helps nervous system.NATURAL SOURCES: Liver, beef, pork, eggs, dairy products, shellfish. FOLIC ACID: Essential for function of Vitamins A, D, E, and K, forms red blood cells and nucleic acid; improves circulation; aids digestion of proteins. May help prevent neuro tube defects (pina bifida), and some cancers. Reduces the risk of coronary heart disease.
NATURAL SOURCES:Dark-green

leafy vegetables, carrots, liver, eggs, soybeans, avocados, oranges, beans whole wheat.

CALCIUM: Builds bones and teeth; aids in proper function of muscles, heart, nerves, and iron utilization; helps blood coagulation; regulates the passage of nutrients in and out of cells; relieves pain and cramps; eases insomnia.NA TURA L
SOURCES:

Dairy products, soybeans, sunflower seeds, legumes, sardines.

MAGNESIUM: Reduces blood cholesterol; forms hard tooth enamel and fights tooth decay; aids in converting blood sugar into energy; helps regulate body temperature; aids nerve function and bone growth; helps utilize Vitamins B, C, E; promotes absorption and metabolism of other minerals; activates enzymes for metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids; prevents calcium deposits in the bladder, heart attacks, depression, polio. NATURAL RESOURCES: Nuts, figs, seeds, darkgreen vegetables, wheat bran, avocados, bananas. IRON: Present in all cells; one of the constituents of hemoglobin which carries oxygen to the tissues by blood circulation. NATURAL RESOURCES: Liver, meat, raw clams, oysters, oatmeal, nuts, beans, wheat germ. IODINE: Aids thyroid gland and prevents goiter; helps burn fat; converts carotene into Vitamin A; aids absorption of carbohydrates from small intestine; promotes growth; regulates energy production; maintains hair, nails skin and teeth. NATURAL SOURCES: Kelp, seafood, vegetables. COPPER: Facilitates iron absorption; synthesizes enzymes and skin pigments; promotes protein metabolism; aids Vitamin C oxidation; produces RNA; forms hemoglobin, red blood cells, and hair color. NATURAL SOURCES: Shrimp, beef liver, whole wheat, prunes, nuts, raw oysters. ZINC: Eliminates cholesterol deposits; aids in absorption of B-Vitamins, manufacture of enzymes and insulin, and metabolism of carbohydrates; essential for growth; aids healing essential for proper function of prostate gland; prevents prostate cancer and sterility; keeps hair glossy and smooth. NATURAL RESOURCES: Eggs, cheese, beef, pork, wheat germ, brewer's yeast, pumpkin seeds, popcorn. SODIUM FLUORIDE: Acts systemically to strengthen developing teeth. For the prevention of dental caries by increasing tooth resistance to acid dissolution. Promotes remineralization and inhibits the cariogenic microbial process.

The principal functions of water in the physiological activity of the human body are based chiefly upon its use as a vehicle. It is a carrier or solvent of the nutrients, as well as of the products of catabolism, that is the breaking down of the tissues, and of the excreta. The average content of water for instance in the urine is 94 percent, and in the feces 76 percent. No physiological action could take place in the absence of water