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Threads and Fasteners

Engineers need to be continually reminded that nearly all engineering failures result from faulty judgments rather than faulty calculations. Eugene S. Ferguson, Engineering and the Minds Eye.

Image: A collection of threaded fasteners.

Threads and Fasteners


Part 2 -- Threaded Fasteners
Types and Application Heads Drive Types Points Shoulders Bolts and Nuts Cap Screws Machine Screws Set Screws Studs Self Tapping Screws Wood Screws Miscellaneous Screws/Bolts

Threaded Fastener Types

Threaded Fastener Applications

Threaded Fastener Head Styles

Threaded Fastener Drive Types

Threaded Fastener Point Types

Threaded Fastener Shoulder Types

Bolts

Bolt Proportions

Bolt Specification
3/4 - 10 UNC X 4 Hex Hd. Bolt with Hex Nut M8 X 1.25 X 40 Hex Hd Bolt with Hex Nut

Drawing Bolts
Hex Bolts

Drawing Bolts
Square Bolts

Strength of Bolts and Screws


(Inches)
Identifier A Grade SAE Grade 1 ASTM A307 SAE Grade 2 SAE Grade 4 SAE Grade 5, ASTM A449 ASTM A449 SAE Grade 5.2 ASTM A325, Type 1 ASTM A325, Type 2 ASTM A325, Type 3 ASTM A354, Grade BC Size (in.) to 1 to 1 to 7/8 to 1 to 1 to 1 1 1/8 to 1 1 to 3 to 1 to 1 1 1/8 to 1 to 1 1 1/8 to 1 to 1 1 1/8 to 1 to 2 2 to 4 to 1 to 1 to 1 to 1 to 1 Min Strength (103 PSI) Proof Tensile Yield 33 60 36 33 60 36 55 74 57 33 60 36 65 115 100 85 120 92 74 105 81 55 90 58 85 120 92 85 120 92 74 105 81 85 120 92 74 105 81 85 120 92 74 105 81 105 125 109 95 115 99 105 133 115 120 150 130 120 150 130 120 150 130 120 150 130 Material & Treatment 1 3 1 2,a 2,b

C D E F G H I J K L Material Treatment

4,b 2,b 4,b 5,b 5,b

SAE Grade 7 7,b SAE Grade 8 7,b ASTM A354, Grade BD 6,b SAE Grade 8.2 4,b ASTM A490, Type 1 6,b ASTM A490, Type 2 5,b Steel: 1 low or medium; 2 medium carbon; 3 low carbon; 4 low carbon martensite; 5 weathering steel; 6 alloy steel; 7 medium-carbon alloy a cold drawn; b quench and temper

Nut Types

Nuts and Locking Devices

Nut Specifications 3/4 - 10 UNC Hex Nut 1/2 - 13 UNC Hex Castle Nut 5/8 - 11 UNC -2B Square Nut M8 x 1.25 Hex Nut

Cap Screws

Cap Screw Specification


3/8 - 16 UNC - 2A X 2 1/2 Hex Head Cap Screw M20 X 2.5 X 80 Hex Hd Cap Scr 1/2 - 13 UNC - 2A X 3 Hex Socket Hd Cap Scr

Holes for Cap Screws/Machine Screws

Material Aluminum Cast Iron Brass Bronze Steel

Entrance Length for Cap Screws A 2D 1 D 1 D 1 D D

Thread Clearance at bottom of hole B 4/n 4/n 4/n 4/n 4/n

Thread Depth C 2D + 4/n 1 + 4/n 1 + 4/n 1 + 4/n D + 4/n

Unthreaded portion at bottom of hole E 4/n 4/n 4/n 4/n 4/n

Depth of drilled hole F C+E C+E C+E C+E C+E

Machine Screws

Machine Screw Specification


#10(.1900)-32NF-3 X 5/8 Fillister Head Machine Screw #10(.1900) X 5/8 Fill Hd Mach Scr M8 X 1.25 X 30 Slotted Pan Head Machine Screw

Set Screws

Set Screw Specification


3/8 -16 UNC - 2A X 3/4 Square Head Flat Point Set Screw 3/8 - 16 UNC X 3/4 Sq Hd Fl Pt SS 1/4 - 20 UNC-2A X 3/8 Slot Hdls Cone Pt SS M10 X 1.5 X 12 Hex Socket Head Set Screw

Studs

Stud Specifications
1/2 - 13 UNC - 2A X 4 Type 2 Double Ended Stud M24 X 3 X 200 Type 3 Continuous Thread Stud

Self Tapping Screws

Standard Types

Self Drilling/Self Tapping Screw

Self Tapping Screws


Variations

Tapping Screws with Preassembled Washers

Tapping Screws with Preassembled Sealing Washers

Wood Screws

Flat Head

Round Head

Oval Head

Miscellaneous Screws/Bolts

Threaded Assemblies

Hole Specifications

Holes and Cutting Threads

Fastener Specs

Strength of Bolts and Screws


(Inches)
Range of cres t diameters, in. 1/4 - 1 1/2 1/4 - 3/4 3/4-1 1/2 1/4 - 1 1/2 1/4 - 1 1 - 1 1/2 1/4 - 1 1/2 1/4 - 1 1/2 Ultimate tensile s trength, S ut, ksi 60 74 60 115 120 105 133 150 Yield strength, S y, ksi 36 57 36 100 92 81 115 130 Proof s trength, S p , ks i 33 55 33 65 85 74 105 120 SAE grade 1 2 4 5 7 8

Strength of steel bolts for various sizes in inches.

Types of Threaded Fasteners

Three types of threaded fastener. (a) Bolt and nut; (c) Cap screw; (c) stud.