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TABEL PROTEKSI

TABEL PROTEKSI PADA SALURAN TRANSMISI Macam Proteksi Over current Protection Klas waktu dan Arus Directional atau tidak directional Uraian Merupakan pengaman utama untuk saluran untuk distribusi saluran dan back-up dimana utama,

pengaman utamanya adalah jarak atau tipe lain yang cepat Waktunya minimum rele inverse definite dipilih untuk sistem waktu yang sempit Rele Instantaneous untuk arus

Proteksi gangguan ke tanah

Pengaman untuk

gangguan

ke

tanah

terpisah yang ditambahkan hanya kebutuhan pengaman gangguan phasa ke tanah Pengaman Jarak Lebih cepat dari pengaman over current. Kombinasinya tergantung pada panjang saluran yang on Pilot wiredifferential protection Untuk saluran transmisi yang

panjang (minimal 10 km) Carrier Current Protection Untuk saluran transmisi yang

panjang dan sering terbukanya CB TABEL PROTEKSI PADA GENERATOR No Macam Proteksi Kurang Diatas Diatas Diatas
1

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TABEL PROTEKSI

. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Differential Restriced earth fault Stator turn to turn fault Time Over Current Temperature (thermo-detector) Negative sequence Current Loss of Load Loss of input-antiMotoring Loss of field Loss of synchronism Over speed Over voltage Rotor earth fault Back-up overcurrent Bearing temperature Bearing insulation

dari 1 MW

1 MW

1 MW * *

1 MW * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * *

* *

* * * * Hanya untuk hydrogenerator Hanya untuk hydrogenerator * * * * * * * *

TABEL BEBARAPA KONDISI TIDAK NORMAL DAN SISTEM PENGAMANNYA


No. Kondisi tak normal Pengaruh Pengaman

1.

Panas Kelebihan beban beban naik terus

Kumparan stator dan isolasi rusak karena terlalu

Thermocouples atau resistance thermometer


2

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TABEL PROTEKSI

sistem pendingin rusak

panas

imbedded in stator slots and cooling system. Stator overload protection with overcurrent relay Negative sequence protection untuk mesin yang besar. Overload protection untuk mesin yang kecil Blased differential protection, sensitive earth fault protection, inter turn fault protection

2.

Gangguan diluar generator

Beban tidak seimbang, tekanan pada kumparan dan poros, panas berlebihan yang memperpanjang hubung singkat. pada Kumparan terbakar, pengelasan pada inti laminasi, mati

3.

Gangguan stator: antar phasa

phasa ke tanah inter turn

No.

Kondisi tak normal

Pengaruh

Pengaman

4.

Rotor gangguan ke tanah

Satu gangguan tidak berbahaya, kedua gangguan menyebabkan ketidakseimbanga n tekanan magnet

Rotor earth-fault Protection

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TABEL PROTEKSI

yang menyebabkan kerusakan shaft 5. Kehilangan medan magnet trip dan bearing. Generator jalan sebagai generator mendapat eksitasi arus dari bus-bar. Kecepatan 6. Generator berubah jadi motor. Saat inpit dari prime mover berhenti, generator mangambil daya dari bus-bar dan berubah menjadi motor sinkron pada 7. keadaan yang sama Over voltage bertambah Pengaruhnya tergantung pada prime mover yang on dan jumlah daya yang diambil dari bus-bar saat berubah jadi motor Isolasi terbakar Ligthning arrester tersambung pada terminal generator. Reverse power protection by directional power relays detect the reversal of power Loss of field atau field failure protection

CB medan magnet induksi yang

Table Types of protection for Generators and their setting


Generator Rating 1 Below 1000 KVA Type of Drive 2 Steam Turbine Type of protection used 3 1. Time graded earth fault relay 2. Time graded over Suggested fault current setting 4 20 percent full load current 125 percent full load current 10 to 20 percent of its Protection for exciter circuit and neutral 5 1. Neutral isolating switch 2. Field switch in the exciter field circuit 4

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TABEL PROTEKSI current relay 3. Reverse power relay (only for back pressure turbines) Steam Engine or Diesel Engine 1. Time graded earth fault relay 2. Time graded over current relay 3. Reverse power 1. 1000 KVA to 5000 KVA Steam Turbine Balanced earth fault relay or Differential protection (Merz-Price) 2. Reverse power (only back pressure turbine) 1. Balanced earth fault relay or Differential protection (Merz-Price) 2. over voltage protection normal power rating

20 percent full load current 125 percent full load current 10 to 20 percent of its normal power rating 10 to 25 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent full load current

1. Neutral isolating switch 2. Field switch in the exciter field circuit

1. Neutral isolating switch or Automatic neutral breaker

1000 KVA to 5000 KVA

Water Turbine

10 to 25 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent full load current 10 percent of normal voltage

1.For unattended elations, protection against field failure Setting 20 to 30 percent of the normal excitation. 2.Neutral isolating switch or automatic neutral breaker

Generator Rating 1

Type of Drive 2

Type of protection used 3

Suggested fault current setting 4

Protection for exciter circuit and neutral 5 5

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TABEL PROTEKSI 1. Differential protections (Merz-Price) or Time graded earth fault relay 2. Phase unbalance 3. Reverse power (only back pressure turbine) 1. Differential protections or Time graded earth fault relay 2.Over voltage Water Turbine 10 to 25 percent full load current 20 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent negative phase sequence only 10 to 25 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent full load current 20 percent full load current 10 percent of normal voltage 1. Field earth fault for protecting 96% of the field winding (only for generator above 20.000 KVA) 2.Automatic field suppression switch 3.Automatic neutral breaker. 1.For unattended station protection against field failure, Sotting 20 to 30 percent normal excitation 2.Filed earth fault for protecting 96% of the field winding. 3. Automatic field suppression switch 3.Automatic neutral breaker.

Above 5000 KVA

Steam Turbine

Table Power Transformer Protection

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TABEL PROTEKSI Abnormal Condition Protection Remarks

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TABEL PROTEKSI Incipient faults below oil level resulting in decomposition of oil, faults between phases and between phase and ground 1. Buchholz relay trips the Large internal faults phase to phase, phase to ground, below oil level circuit breaker 2. Merz Price percentage differential protection 3. High speed high set overcurrent relay 1. Merz Price percentage Earth faults differential protection 2. Earth fault relay Buchholz relay too slow and less sensitive Merz Price percentage differential protection used for transformers of and above 5 MVA For transformer of and above 5 MVA a. Instantaneous Restricted E.F. Relay b. Time lag E.F Relay 1. Graded time lag over Through faults current relay 2. H.V Fuses Protection of distribution transformer Small distribution transformer up to 500 KVA 1. Thermal overload relay Overloads 2. Temperature relays sound alarm Generally temperature indicators are provided on the transformers. Temp. increase is indicated on control board also. Fans started at certain temp. Buchholz relay sounds alarm (Gas actuated relay) Buchholz relay used for transformer of rating 500 KVA and above

Abnormal Condition High Voltage Surges due lightning, switching

Protection 1. Horn gaps 2. Lightning arresters

Remarks Not favoured for important transformer In addition to L.A.s for incoming lines

Small distribution transformer Teknik Elektro ITS

Only fuses for earth fault protections and phase fault 8

TABEL PROTEKSI protection. Overload protection generally not provided For more important transformers of about 500 KVA Over current relays Transformers in important locations ratings 500 KVA and above Instantaneous earth fault relays Restricted earth fault protection Over urrent protection Buchholz relay

Table Protection of Large Generator Transformer Unit


Protection of Generator Transformer together Generator-transformer overall differential protection*

Generator protection

Generator differential protection* Stator earth fault protection*

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Negative phase sequence protection againstunbalanced loading*** Inter-turn fault protection Reverse power protection Field failure protection** Rotor earth fault protection Temperature sensors in slots*** Overcurrent relays in stator and rolar circuits Lightning arrester for generator overvolatage protection Protection of unit auxiliary transformer Differential protection* Restricted earth fault protection* Buchholz relay Overcurrent protection Winding and oil temperature sensors Protection of main transformer HV overcurrent protection* HV Restricted earth fault protection* Buchholz relay Winding and oil temperature sensors Lightning arresters on HV side

Protection of Generator Transformer together

Generator-transformer overall differential protection*

Preventive measures sound alarm on control panel

Continous monitoring of outlet temperature of gaseous or liquid coolants Flow monitors Low noiler pressure alarm/trip Lubrication oil failure

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Emergency trip * ** *** Low vacuum Trip generator c.b., close throttle valves, open field c.b.,open auxiliary c.b Close emergency throttle valves main c.b. opened only after operation of interlocking reverse power relay Trip main circuit breaker only

Protection Chart for Induction Motors


Abnormal condition Alternate forms of protections from which choice is made Remarks

Overload

Overload release Thermal overload relays Inverse overcurrent relays

- overload protection givem for


almost all motors

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Miniature circuit breaker with built in trip

Phase fault and earth faults

HRC fuses High set instantaneous overcurrent relays Differential protection

Differential protection
becomes economical for motors above about 1200 HP. Below this high set instantaneous protection is preferred

Undervoltage

undervoltage release

undervoltage release incorporated every starter

undervoltage relays

undervoltage relays used in certain applications

Unbalanced Voltage Reverse phase sequence

Negative phase sequence relay

only in special applications

Phase reversal relays

Generally at support point Prevents reverse of running

Abnormal condition

Alternate forms of protections from which choice is made

Remarks

Single Phasing

Usual thermal overload relays Special single phase preventer

Recently developed static single phasing devices becoming popular

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Stalling

thermal relays Instantaneous O.C Relays Instantaneous overcurrent relays - only for motors

Rotor Faults

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