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1. What was happening to Byzantium and Western Europe around 1200?

A: Byzantium was declining and showed military weakness, while Western Europe showed renewed vitality and military strength. 2. Byzantium lost a large part of their empire and people to whom? A: To the Islam. 3. What was the plague of Justinian? A: The bubonic plague, named after the emperor who ruled from 527 to 565. 4. After the seventh century, what happened to women? A: Women were increasingly confined to their homes, wearing veils and socializing with males only from the family; from 1028 to1056, women ruled the Byzantine Empire with their husbands. 5. Byzantiums inherited the style of their economy from what older empire? A: Late Roman Empire to set prices, organizes grain shipments, and monopolizes trade in luxury goods; other cities suffered and Constantinople slowly deteriorated. 6. List 2 cultural achievements of the Byzantines. A: The construction of Constantinoples Hagia Sophia (Sacred Wisdom), and the perfection of a writing system (Cyrillic); Brothers Cyril and Methodius preached to the Slavs of Moravia, and is used by Slavic Christians adhering to Orthodox rite. 7. In Western Europe, what supplanted the edicts of the Roman emperors? A: Family-based religion of Germanic peoples. 8. Who finally stopped the Umayyad caliphs from invading into Europe in 732? A: Charlemagnes grandfather, Charles Martel. 9. Who were the sea raiders from Scandinavia? A: The Vikings. 10. What was the term used to describe the long-standing traditions of landholding and obligation during the Middle Ages? A: Feudalism. 11. What emerged as the central figure in medieval warfare? A: The knight. 12. How did a knight get the necessary financial revenue?

A: Land revenues, which kings began to reward to military services from their own property. 13. What was a disagreement between secular rulers (kings) and popes? A: The rulers thought that they should appoint the bishops in the area that they govern, but the popes disagreed. 14. What were 4 aspects of the Rule of Benedict? A: It governed the monks behavior, envisions a balanced life of devotion, obligations of celibacy and poverty, and obedience to the abbot. 15. List 3 responsibilities and/or achievement of monasteries. A: They preserved literacy and learning, serviced the need of travelers, organized agricultural production on their lands, and took in abandoned infants. 16. Which form of Christianity did Vladimir choose? A: Orthodox Christianity for unclear reasons. 17. What was political power derived from in Kievan Russia? A: Trade rather than landholding. 18. What played a significant role in the doubling of the western European population? Give specific examples. A: Technology, such as draft harnesses, a new type of plow that cut deeper, iron horseshoes, the horse collar. 19. Where did independent cities first appear? A: Italy and Flanders. 20. What are communes? A: Groups of leading citizens who banded to defend their cities and demand the privilege of self-government. 21. List 4 reasons that contributed to the Crusades. A: The truce of God, which limited fighting between Christian lords on times of truce, such as Lent and Sundays. Nobles were demanding for land and titles to maintain status. Italian merchants wanted to increase trade in the Mediterranean and acquire trading posts in Muslim territory. The church wanted to demonstrate political authority over western Christendom. 22. What was the Council of Clermont?

A: A meeting where a huge crowd of people were gathered, and Pope Urban II told them to go to the Holy Land to fight Muslims. 23. What did the Europeans borrow from the Muslims as a result of interaction from the Crusades? A: The way to manufacture pasta, paper, refined sugar, colored glass, and other items that had been imported. 24. Intellectually, how did the Muslims contribute to European thought? Need 2-3 sentences at least. A: Greek philosophies and scientific thought changed the way Europeans viewed the world. Aristotles works were important to theologians, and Avicennas writings were very important to medicine. 25. Who is Eleanor of Aquitaine and why is she famous? A: Husband of King Louis VII of France, accompanied him on the Second Crusade. Unable to produce male offspring, she was annulled and remarried with Henry of Anjou. Inherited throne of England, Richard Lionheart, Eleanors son, fought Saladin during the Third Crusade, and John rebelled, yet succeeded the throne. 26. What are troubadours and what was the favorite troubadour instrument? A: Poet-singers; the lute, a guitar-like instrument that came from Muslim Spain. Charlemagne: King of the Franks; emperor. Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival. Medieval: Literally middle age, a term that historians of Europe use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its intermediate point between Greco Roman antiquity and the Renaissance. Byzantine Empire: Historians name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, take from Byzantion, an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. Kievan Russia: State established at Kiev in Ukraine ca. 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population. Schism: A formal split within a religious community. Manor: In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lords residence (manor house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land. Serf: In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lords property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some serfs worked as artisans and in factories; serfdom was not abolished there until 1861.

Fief: In medieval Europe, land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service. Vassal: In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord. Papacy: The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head. Holy Roman Empire: Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by and emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. Investiture Controversy: Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands. Monasticism: Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. It was a prominent element of medieval Christianity and Buddhism. Monasteries were the primary centers of learning and literacy in medieval Europe. Horse Collar: Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animals neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles. Crusades: Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europes centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. Pilgrimage: Journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfill bows, or gain absolution for sins. Other religions also have pilgrimage traditions, such as the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca and the pilgrimages made by early Chinese Buddhists to India in search of sacred Buddhist writings.